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Iron and Steelmaking technologies

Iron and Steel Institute of Thailand


June 2008

Introduction
The steel industry is important politically and economically. Most industrial and developing nations want
to have a strong steel industry. Production is at historic highs and growing.
Steel is widely regarded as a high
performance , contemporary
engineering material continuously
being improved to meet new
market demands.
Improved production
technologies and increased
recycling rates are driving
improvement in per ton energy
consumption and air pollution
emissions.
Steel is the material of choice in
a growing number of applications ,
and markets for steel are
expanding.

Production is growing in new and established markets

Thailand use scrap recycling technology to produce steel, not from iron ore
Thailand current steel production technology

Source: http://www.steel.org/learning/flowline/index.htm

Steel users in Thailand pay cost of steel 10-25% higher than China company due to
1,000

965

920

875

900

23%
845

770

800

786
704
700

674
654

18%

708

645

630

675

600

736

664
656

625

719

663

626
569
571

575
553

500
..-07

..-07
..-07
HRC dom estic china
HRC Thailand Im port*

..-07

..-08

..-08
 ..-08

..-08
HRC China export
HRC East Asia Im port cfr

* HRC Thailand import = HRC China export + Freight rate for 3 year handymax charter hire at 29 USD/MT

Source: SBB, and ISIT analysis

transportation cost
Freight cost estimation

2,725 NM
(29.0 USD/tonne) FG

ore

ore

4,454 NM
(31.3 USD/tonne)

4,295 NM
(30.4 USD/tonne)

* Ore is transported by capesize ship


Finished good (FG) is transported by handymax ship
Freight calculation is based on freight for year 2007 (3 year charter hire)
Source: ISIT analysis

HRC production from BF-BOF route generates value added to Thai economy 240
USD/MT, equivalent to 38,432 million THB per year
Mar 08 price
Unit: USD/MT

188.6

Project value added =


38,432 m THB/year
(5 m tonnes production)

Energy

Income for steel-related


industries in Thailand
736

312.2

Raw material

Salary
240.2
5

Interest, Depreciation, Rent


Direct and indirect tax
Profit

235.2

+
China
domestic
price

Raw
material
import

Source: ISIT analysis

Value
added

Profit
gained
from
produce
quality
grade

Total
value
added

Benefit to cost competitiveness =


17,240 m THB/year
(108 USD/tonne saving)

12 million tonnes of BF-BOF production will benefit to overall trade balance more than
300,000 million THB.
Steel demand - supply in 2013 in 3 scenarios
Import value
(Million THB)

Consumption
(Thousand tonnes)
22,000

700,000

(RHS)

20,000

590,688
600,000

18,000
494,786

16,000

400,000

364,522

12,000

12,547
306,863

316,809
15,575

272,040

274,912

300,000

12,000

8,000
6,000

500,000

(RHS)

14,000

10,000

3,574

12,661

13,876

12,590

200,000

12,139

4,000

3,026
100,000

2,000
2,500

2,500

2,500
-

2004

2005

2006

2007E

Domestic supply from domestic scrap

Source: ISIT analysis

2013E

2013E

2013E

Base
case

Worst
case

Best
case

Finished steel import

Domestic supply from imported scrap

Domestic supply from integrated steel project

Steelmaking Basics
Steel is composed of iron and small amounts of other
components :
less than 2 % carbon
small amounts of alloying materials such as Mn , Mo , Cr , or
Ni
Steel products have a range of properties that are largely
determined by :
chemical composition (carbon and other alloys)
controlled heating and cooling of the steel
mechanical working of the steel in the finishing process
The major steelmaking processes include :
Cokemaking
Ironmaking
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Steelmaking
Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steelmaking
Finishing

Basic Flows of Steelmaking

Cokemaking
Coke is used for molten iron production in blast furnaces.
Coke is nearly pure carbon and is produced from coal.
Coke is essential to traditional integrated steel mills.
In the cokemaking process coal is heated
oxygen deficient atmosphere.
Cokemaking drives off hydrocabon gases in
the coal and concentrates the remaining
carbon in the coke.

Cokemaking represents more


than 50 % of an integrated steel
mills total energy use.

Major issues for cokemaking include:


Availability of suitable coking coals
Large capital investment
Air pollution control challenges

Incandescent coke
in the oven

Coke is produced in Coke Oven Batteries. In by


product cokemaking, the off-gases are collected
and processed. In non-recovery cokemaking, the
hydrocabon off-gases are not recovered.

Hot Coke being pushed from a Coke Oven Battery.


The railroad car is full of incandescent coke.

Ironmaking
Ironmaking is the process of converting iron ore (solid,
oxidized iron) into molteniron.
The primary raw materials for ironmaking are:
Iron ore,which contains 50 % to 70 % iron often requires
agglomeration processing before it can be used.
A reducing agent, usually coke, is burned to generate heat and to
draw the oxygen from the iron.
A slagging agents, usually lime, helps to remove sulfur and other
Sinter Plant
impurities.
Iron ore Agglomerating Processes can improve the iron content and/or physical properties of ore
Some examples include:
Sintering: iron ore fines, other iron-bearing wastes and coke dust are blended and combusted.
The heat fuses the fines into coarse lumps that can be charged in a blast furnace.
Pelletizing: iron ore is crushed and impurities removed. The remaining iron-rich
ore is heated with a binding agent to create durable, marble sized pellets.
Briquetting: crushed ore or fines are heated and compressed to produce briquettes.

Ironmaking
Blast Furnace
Traditional integrated steel plants use a large blast furnace to produce molten iron from iron
ore, coke and lime.
The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick,
where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and
preheated air is blown in through the bottom.
Blast furnaces account for more than 90 % of global iron
production.
Major issues for blast furnaces include:
Coke: Blast furnaces require coke, which has significant cost
and environmental issues.
Scale and cost: Blast furnaces are large and operate on a nearly
continuous basis.
Iron that emerges from the blast furnace contains greater than 4
% carbon and other impurities.
The iron is too brittle for most engineering applications and is
refined into steel.

Blast furnace

Blast Furnace
At 500 C
3Fe2O3 +CO -> 2Fe3O4 + CO2
Fe2O3 +CO -> 2FeO + CO2
At 850 C
Fe3O4 +CO -> 3FeO + CO2
At 1000 C
FeO +CO -> Fe + CO2
At 1300 C
CO2 + C -> 2CO
At 1900 C
C+ O2 -> CO2
FeO +C -> Fe + CO
Source: wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm:1104/ courses/blast.html

Operation Condition in Blast Furnace

Source: http://www.jfe-21st-cf.or.jp/

Ironmaking
Direct Reduced Iron (DRI)
Direct reduction produces molten iron using natural gas as a reducing agent
instead of coke.
Advantages of DRI:
Environmental: Can have lower
emission (including CO ) than
integrated plants that use coke ovens
and blast furnaces.
Higher iron content: Produces
about 97% iron compared to 93%
for blast furnace iron. This allows
electric arc furnace (EAF)
steelmakers to use lower quality
scrap as a feedstock.
Fuel choice: Uses natural gas,
which is more available than coking
coal in some regions.
2

MIDREX DRI Process

Disadvantages of DRI
Fuel cost: Can have higher fuel costs (natural gas
versus coke).
Higher oxygen content: Produces iron with more
oxygen than blast furnace iron.
This increases steelmaking energy costs and limits
how much DRI can be charged in an EAF.

BOF Steelmaking: Basic Oxygen Furnace


The BOF is charged
with molten iron and
scrap.
Oxygen is injected
through a water
cooled lance, resulting
in a tremendous release
of heat and vigorous
mixing of the charge.
Heat for the BOF is
generated by the
oxidation of carbon in
the molten iron when
oxygen is injected.
There is no fuel source needed to provide additional thermal
energy.
To maintain the autothermal process, the amount of scrap
that can be charged is limited to about 30%
After BOFs produce molten steel, the steel may undergo
further refining in a secondary refining process or be sent
directly to the continuous caster where it is solidified into
semifinished Shapes: blooms, billets, or slabs

Steel is created when the carbon content of


the the iron charge is reduced from about 4%
to less than about 2 % (usually<1%)
Injected oxygen combines with the carbon in
the iron to produce carbon monoxide (CO),
Which is removed from thefurnace.

Basic refers to the magnesium (MgO)


refractory lining of the furnace.
Production of BOF steel in

BOF steelmaking 2005 (million metric tonnes):


represents about Global Production
738.8
75% of steel
Australia
6.4
production in the
China
304.3
AP6 countries.
India
20
Of all BOF steel
Japan
83.7
produced
South Korea
26.7
globally, AP6
USA
42.7
countries produce
about 65%
AP6 Total
483.9

Basic Oxygen Steelmaking


C(s) + O2(g)-> CO2(g)
CO2(g) + C(s) -> 2CO(g)
2CO(g) + O2(g) -> 2CO2(g)

4P + 5O2 -> P4O10


6CaO + P4O10 -> 2Ca3(PO4)2
Si + O2 -> SiO2
CaO + SiO2 -> CaSiO3

Source: http://www.eng.man.ac.uk/mech/merg/Research/datafusion.org.uk/applications/BOS-Corus.html

BOF Operation

Source: http://www.jfe-21st-cf.or.jp/

EAF Steelmaking: Electric Arc Furnace


EAF steelmaking uses electric arcs to heat a charge that often contains 100% scrap steel. Heat is supplied
from electricity that arcs from graphite electrodes to the metal bath.
EAF steelmaking can use a wide range of scrap types, as well as direct reduced iron (DRI) and molten
iron.
EAF steelmaking represents about 25% of steel
production in the AP6 countries.
AP6 countries produce 46% of all EAF steel
produced globally.
Production of EAF steel in 2005
(million metric tonnes):
Global Production
Australia
China
India
Japan
South Korea
USA
AP6 Total

358.1
1.4
45.1
17.1
28.8
21.1
52.2
165.6

The major advantage of EAF steelmaking is that it does not require molten iron for its operation. By
eliminating The need for coke oven batteries and blast furnaces, EAF technology facilitated the
proliferation of scrap-based steelmaking and minimills.

EAF Steelmaking
Electric Arc Furnace
Although electricity provides most of the
energy for EAF steelmaking, supplemental
heating from oxy-fuel and oxygen injection is
used.
The recycling of scrap saves the consumption
of virgin raw materials and energy.

Current EAF steelmaking research:


The EAF operates as a batch melting
process producing batched of molten
steel known as heats.
Modern operations aim for a tap-to-tap
time of less than 60 minutes.
EAF technology can be used to build
small or very large furnaces.

Reducing electricity requirement per ton


of steel.
Modifying equipment and practices to
minimize consumption of the graphite
electrdes.
Improving quality and range of steel
produced from low- quality scrap.

Secondary Refining for BOF and EAF


After steel is created in a BOF or EAF, it may be refined before being cast into
a solid form. This process is called secondary refining or secondary
metallurgy and is performed in A separate furnace after being poured from
the BOF or EAF.
Steel refining helps steelmakers
achieve demanding steel
specifications.
Refining processes include:
Chemical sampling
Adjustments for carbon, sulfur,
phosphorus and alloys
Vacuum degassing to remove
dissolved gases
Heating/cooling to specific
temperatures
Inert gas injection to stir the
molten steel

Ladle Metallurgy Furnace


Use of secondary refining has increased to meet
precise product specifications.

Finishing
Finishing is the process of transforming molten steel into finished product.
The basic finishing processes include:
Casting
Forming and rolling
Chemical treatment
Finishing processes can important product
characteristics that include:
Final shape
Surface finish
Strength, hardness, and flexibility
Current finishing technology research focuses
on:
Improving product quality
research production costs
Reducing pollution

Finishing - Casting
Casting is the production of solid steel forms from molten steel.
Casting begins when refined steel is poured into a tundish.
Which is small basin at the top of the caster.
An operator controls the flow of molten steel from the
tundish. The falling steel passes through a mould and begins
to take on its final shape.
The strand of steel passes through the primary cooling zone
where it forms a solidifier outer shell sufficiently strong
enough to maintain the strand shape.
The strand continuous to be shaped and cooled as it curves
into horizontal orientation.
After additional cooling, the strand is cut into long sections Continuous Casting
Molten steel is simultaneously cooled and
with a cutting torch or mechanical shears.
formed into long standards of steel.
The resulting steel forms often proceed to rolling or
forming while retaining significant heat, which reduces
downstream reheat costs.
Historically, casting was performed by pouring steel into moulds in a batch process that produced large
steel ingots. After cooling, the ingots were reheated prior to additional processing.
Continuous casting has replaced ingot casting at most steel making facilities because it produces large
quantities of semi-finished steel that is closer to its final shape. Continuous casting achieves dramatic
improvements in throughput while reducing reheating and hot rolling cost

Finishing Forming and Rolling


Forming and rolling semi-finished steel (slap or billets) is the mechanical shaping of steel to
achieve desired shape and mechanical properties.

Operations can include :


Hot rolling steel slabs are heated(>1,000 C)
and passes between multiple sets of rollers. The
high pressure reduces the thickness of the steel
slab while increasing its width and length.
Cold rolling after hot rolling, the steel may be
cold-rolled at ambient temperatures to further
reduce thickness, increase strength (through cold
working), and improve surface finish.
Forming- bars, rods, tubes, beams, and rails are
produced by passing heated steel through
specially - shaped rollers to produce the desired
final shape.
Forging cast steel is compressed with
hammers or die presses to greatly increase its
strength and toughness.

Finishing Chemical and Heat Treatment


Chemical and Heat Treatment of steel is performed to achieve specific physical and visual
specifications.
Operations can include:
Picking- a chemical treatment in which rolled steel is cleaned in an acid
bath to removeimpurities, strains or scales prior to coating.
Coating cold rolled sheet steel is often coated to provide protection
against corrosion and to produce decorative surfaces. Strip coating lines
are generally operated continuously, meaning that in entry section.
Coatings may be applied in a hot bath (often zinc-based), in an
electrogalvanizing bath, or in a bath containing liquid tin.
Quenching the rapid cooling of steel, which is often achieved using
water or other liquids. Quenching can increasing steels hardness and is
often combined with tempering to reduce brittleness.
Heat treatment the controlled heating and
subsequent cooling of steel can impart a range
of qualities upon the steel by altering its
crystalline structure. Heat treatment is often
performed after rolling to reduce the strain
hardening that occur in rolling processes.
Annealing, tempering, and spheroidizing are
three examples of heat treatment which may be
performed in a large batch furnace or in a
continuous furnace under a controlled
Heat Treatment Furnace
atmospheric (i.e., hydrogen)

Vertical Cooling Line

Galvanized (Zinc-coated) steel

Recycling Technology
Steel production uses large quantities of raw materials, energy and water. Steelmaking
processes, especially at integrated facilities, can generate large amounts of dust and gas.
Millions of tones of steel products reach the end of their useful lives each year.
The steel industry is a recognized leader in developing recycling efforts that minimize the
environmental footprint of steel production while reducing costs.
Steel recycling
Steel is the worlds most recycled
material.
In many countries, more than half of
all old cars, cans and appliances
EAF Steelmaking is based primarily
on the use of scrap steel.

Dusts and solids


Coke dust (breeze), iron ore duct and
other
solids are processed and recycled.
Slag from iron and steel making is used
for road construction and aggregate.

Energy
Scrap-based steelmaking
dramatically reduces energy intensity
per tonne of steel.
On-site production of stream and
electricity is achieved using combined
Heat and Power (CHP) technology.

Water and gases


Steelmaker recycle and reuse much of
their water.
Coke oven gas is recovered and refined
for internal use (fuel) and external sales
(tars,oils and ammonia)
Blast furnace gas is recovered and used
to provide heat to the iron making
process.

Common Systems
Steel production equires the heating, shaping and movement of large Quantities of materials.
In addition to the steelmaking processes discussed previously, the steel industry uses many
large and essential common systems.
Boilers
Almost all stream for steelmaking is
produced in boilers.
Stream is used for heating in the
finishing process,
space heating andfor machine drive.
Boiler fuel include by-product gases
(e.g., coke oven gas and blast furnace
gas) as well as conventional fossil fuels.
Motors
Steelmakers use some of the largest
motors in industry.
Electric motors are used in blast furnace
fans, rolling mills and numerous other
operation.
Maintaining motors and minimizing
power consumption is a priority for the
industry

Pump
The large quantities of cooling water
and liquids used in steelmaking require
large pumps.
Pumping systems require large drives
and sophisticated maintenance systems.

Compressed Air
Many control systems and small drives
use compressed air.
Compressed air systems demand
rigorous maintenance to assure effciency
and reliability.

Iron and Steel industry accounts for 6% of energy-related CO2 emissions

Comparison of SO2 Emission between steel industry and the power plants.

Source

SO2 Emission *

Steel Industry
2.56 kg SO2 /tons
(0.6% S Coking coal)
Liquid Steel

Capacity

Total SO2Emission *

5,000,000 tons

12,800 tons SO2

Power Plant
(2.88%S Lignite)

0.0586 kg SO2 /
kWh

3,940,000,000 kWh
/year **

230,884 tons SO2

Power Plant
(0.45%S bituminous)

0.00914 kg SO2 /
kWh

3,940,000,000 kWh
/year **

36,012 tons SO2

* Before the treatment


** Maemoh Power Plant with total capacity 600 MW

Comparison of CO2 Emission between steel industry and the power plants.
Source

CO2 Emission *

Capacity

Total CO2Emission *

Steel Industry

1.833 ton CO2 /tons


Liquid Steel

5,000,000 tons

9,165,000 tons CO2

Power Plant

0.0026 ton CO2 /


kWh

3,940,000,000 kWh
/year **

10,244,000 tons CO2

* Before the treatment


** Maemoh Power Plant with total capacity 600 MW

Comparison of emission per value added between ironmaking and electricity generation

Steel production
(5 m tpy)

Electricity generation
(600 MW)

38,432

4,909

CO2 (ton)

9,165,000

10,244,000

SO2 (ton)

12,800

230,884

CO2/Value added (ton/m THB)

238

2,087

SO2/Value added (ton/m THB)

0.333

47.03

Value added (m THB)

 Emission 


SOX (ppm)

NOX (ppm)

Dust (mg/m3)

-    500 


!

320

350

120

-   300 - 500 


!

450

350

120

-   300 


!

640

350

120

-   1 3 :  FGD

3,800

500

250

-   4 - 11 :  FGD

320

500

250

-   12 - 13 :  FGD

350

350

250

3. 


800

250

250

4.  
 

800

180

240

 Emission  



 ()

200

180

50
(27 57 in EU)


1. " IPP #
SPP

2. 

New environmental-friendly technology related to iron and steel production

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Sintering Plant


Pollution type

Unit

Air Total
suspended
particulate

mg/m

Sulfur
dioxide

ppm

Oxides of
nitrogen

ppm

Dioxins

ng/Nm

Typical value
Thailand Standard
MNRE*
Ministry of Industry
Non
Combustion
Source
Combustion
50 mg/m3 (JFE
Heat source
Steel - Chiba)
Oil or fuel oil
240
80 mg/m3 (JFE
Coal
320
Steel- Keihih,
Biomass
320
120 Fukuyama)
Other fuel
320
Smelt, melt, roll and
300
240
aluminium production
General production
400
320
200 (NSC)
Heat source
Oil or fuel oil
950
Coal
700
800
Biomass
60
Other fuel
60
General production
400
Heat source
160 (NSC) 260
Oil or fuel oil
200
(JFE Steel)
180
Coal
400
Biomass
200
Other fuel
200
0.1/1
General production
30
(New/Existing)
JFE Steel

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Sintering Plant


Pollution type

Reduction Technique

Air Total
suspended 1. Electrostatic precipitator (<40 mg/Nm3) 95-99%
particulate 2. Bag filter (2-25 mg/Nm3)
3. Dry-type off-gas cleaning (5-10 mg/Nm3) up to 99%
4. Fine wet scrubber (40-80 mg/Nm3)
5. Cyclone (Efficiency 60-80%)
6. Regenerative activated carbon (RAC) 2-20 mg/Nm3
3
7. MEROS by Siemens (<10 mg/Nm )
Sulfur
dioxide

Oxides of
nitrogen

Dioxins

1. Wet desulferisation(<200mg/Nm )
2. Bag filter (225-500 mg/Nm3)
3. Dry-type off-gas cleaning (<50-500 mg/Nm3)
4. Suppression of PCDD/Fs
5. Regenerative activated carbon (RAC) 20-30 mg/Nm3, 95-98%
6. MEROS by Siemens (<50 ppm)
1. Regenerative activated carbon (RAC) 120-200 mg/Nm3, 40-65%
3
2. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) (37 mg/Nm )
3. MEROS by Siemens (<50 ppm)
1. Bag filter (<0.1-0.4 ng/Nm3)
2. Suppression of PCDD/Fs (reduce 40-60%)
3. Regenerative activated carbon (RAC), (0.000001-0.1 ng-TEQ/Nm3-dry)
4. MEROS by Siemens (<0.1 ng/Nm3)

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Coke Oven


Pollution type

Unit

3
mg/m
Air Total
suspended
particulate

Sulfur
dioxide

Oxides of
nitrogen

Carbon
monoxide

ppm

ppm

ppm

Thailand Standard
Ministry of Industry
Non
Source
Combustion Combustion
Heat source
Oil or fuel oil
240
Coal
320
Biomass
320
Other fuel
320
Smelt, melt, roll and
300
240
aluminium production
General production
400
320
Heat source
Oil or fuel oil
950
Coal
700
Biomass
60
Other fuel
60
General production
400
Heat source
Oil or fuel oil
200
Coal
400
Biomass
200
Other fuel
200
General production
870
690

Typical value
MNRE*

120

50 - 150 mg/Nm3 (JFE Steel)


27 - 57 (SOACT)
15 (NSC)
27 - 57 mg/Nm3 (EC)

30 (NSC)
800

170 - 350 ppm (JFE Steel)


180 (NSC)
180

None (JFE Steel)

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Coke Oven


Pollution type

Reduction Technique

Air Total
suspended 1. Enclose & Filtration (0.5 - 4.5 mg/m3)
particulate 2. Coke Stabilizer Quenching (6 - 12 g/t coke)
3. Cyclone (coal crushing) (0.055 kg/t(SOACT))
4. Rotoclone (coal crushing) (0.027 kg/t(SOACT))
5. Enclosure (1st coal pulverizer) (0.00009 kg/t(SOACT))
6. Enclosure (2nd coal pulverizer) (0.000044 kg/t(SOACT))
7. Scrubber (Pre-heater) (0.13 kg/t(SOACT)) [93%]
8. Wet ESP (Pre-heater) (0.006 kg/t(SOACT)) [99%]
9. Coke Wet quenching (<20 g/t coke)
10. Bag filer (0.045 - 0.19 kg/t coke)
11. Coke Dry quenching (<20 mg/Nm3)
Sulfur
1. Gas desulfurizer
dioxide
2. Coke Dry Quenching (200 mg/Nm3)
Oxides of
1. Reduce the flame temperature (450 - 700 g/t coke)
nitrogen
2. Low Nox firing systems
3. DeNOx by SCR
Carbon
monoxide
NH3
CO2
CH4

1. By product gas use for BF, RHF


2. Coke Dry quenching
1. Absorptive processes

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Blast Furnace


Pollution type

Unit

Air Total
suspended
particulate

mg/m

Sulfur
dioxide

ppm

Oxides of
nitrogen

ppm

Carbon
monoxide

ppm

Thailand Standard
Typical value
Ministry of Industry
MNRE*
Non
Source
Combustion
Combustion
50 (JFE Steel-Chiba,
Heat source
Fukuyama) 100-200 (JFE
Oil or fuel oil
240
Steel, Keihin, Kurashiki)
Coal
320
Biomass
320
120
Other fuel
320
Smelt, melt, roll and
300
240
aluminium production
General production
400
320
Heat source
30 (NSC)
Oil or fuel oil
950
Coal
700
800
Biomass
60
Other fuel
60
General production
400
Heat source
10 (NSC)
Oil or fuel oil
200
100 - 250 (JFE)
180
Coal
400
Biomass
200
Other fuel
200
General production
870
690
21.52 - 5823g/t HM
(European commission)

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Blast Furnace

Pollution type

Air Total
suspended
particulate

Carbon
monoxide

Reduction Technique

1. Ventury scrubber (15-20mg/Nm3)


2. Bag filter (<5mg/Nm3)
3. Ring slit washer (<5mg/Nm3)
4. Bischoff scrubber (<5mg/Nm3)
5. Electrostatic space clear super (ESCS)
6. Dust suppression with inert gas. (European
Commission)
1. Dry cyclone, Deflector
2. Hurdle-type,Ventury or Annular Gap Scrubber.

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Basic Oxygen Furnace


Pollution type

Unit

Thailand Standard
Ministry of Industry
Non
Source
Combustion Combustion
3
mg/m Heat source
Air Total
suspended
Oil or fuel oil
240
particulate
Coal
320
Biomass
320
Other fuel
320
Smelt, melt, roll and
300
240
aluminium production
General production
400
320
ppm Heat source
Sulfur
Oil or fuel oil
950
dioxide
Coal
700
Biomass
60
Other fuel
60
General production
400
ppm Heat source
Oxides of
Oil or fuel oil
200
nitrogen
Coal
400
Biomass
200
Other fuel
200

Typical value
MNRE*

10 - 143 g/t LS
(EU commission)
120

3.79 - 13.4 g/t LS


(EU commission)
800

8.2 - 55 g/t LS
(EU commission)
180

Technique of Pollution Reduction for Basic Oxygen Furnace

Pollution type

Reduction Technique

Air Total
1. Bag filter
suspended 2. Venturi scrubber
particulate 3. Electrical dust catcher
4. Dry de-dusting and suppressed combustion (<50 mg/Nm3)
5. Dry de-dusting and open combustion (20-50 mg/Nm3)
6. Scrubbing and suppressed combustion (15-50 mg/Nm3)
7. Scrubbing and open combustion (10-50 mg/Nm3)
Oxides of
nitrogen

1. Scrubber and wet ESP (25 mg/Nm3)

Best Available Technologies for Sintering Electrostatic Precipitator


!
Electrostatic Precipitator
"#$& $'  #+; <<=> Sinter Plant 
3 $'  # '? Cyclone, Bag filter @!
Electrostatic Precipitator
Electrostatic Precipitator !$;
 "# J#K

$;N$"Q
Y
=" [Q
! <"N&#
iron oxide, alkali chlorides, heave metal oxide
\\
"!"<=> 
[ ]>N #^_>`_&
50 150
mg/m3 QK #^_ <!"< Specific Dust Resistivity
(SDR) @!/? Sinter Basicity
'_>`N_ #
$'  #+^
@_N$>"'?

;

Best Available Technologies for Sintering Regenerative Activated Carbon


!
Regenerative Activated
Carbon
>`N activated coke @!+! < ?
{&"^"[<? ;" SOx, NOx
@! Dioxin
"^"[< SOx !N
"K
De-SOx
equipment
+# NOx N
>`N activated coke
< NH3 >$;}#

Best Available Technologies for Sintering Regenerative Activated Carbon


& #_
+# NOx "#>`N NH3

}#'$"QK>+# NOx
* Activated coke { catalyst

Best Available Technologies for Coke Making - Coke Dry Quenching


 :
cooling chamber +;<_ #>N Hot coke  Coke Oven #&> inert gas
(  ) @$>`NK;> Wet quenching
;"= "# dust cyclone & dust collecting bunker

Benefit :

" dust emission


" SOx
">`N~

"N&# Recovers heat energy 800 1,200 MJ/t coke


~'&@
@
>N coke ~ 4%

Best Available Technologies for Coke Making - Coke Dry Quenching

Best Available Technologies for Coke Making - Coke Dry Quenching

Improving the Environment


Emission
(g/t -coke)

Gas
(Nm3/t -coke)

Wet quenching

200 ~ 400

Steam approx 700


CO and CO2 approx 2

CDQ

Less than 3

Best Available Technologies for Ironmaking Blast Furnace Gas Dedusting

!
Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) Dedusting
= BFG #^_>!"< 10-30 g/m3
"#$& ;"= BFG  2 K  '? First dedusting @! Second dedusting
Fist dedusting !>`N Dust catcher ><= !"<
=!"
? 300 mg/m3
Second dedusting  3 $'  # '? Venturi Scrubber (VS), Ring Slit Washer (RSW) @! Bag Filter
!"<=$" "N VS !? ! 15-20 mg/m3 +_& RSW @! Bag Filter !"= "N? 2-5 mg/m3

Best Available Technologies for Ironmaking Top gas pressure Recovery


Turbine (TRT)
270 kPa, 170c

263 kPa, 155c

!
Top gas pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)
'&"[
Blast Furnace (BF) Gas +;>`N! #`]>Y  "N
! 40-60 kWh/ton-pig iron +Y "N TRT [Q
>`N>`
~`#]K
@_ 1974 @!
< TRT >`N< BF $>

Best Available Technologies for Ironmaking Top gas pressure Recovery


Turbine (TRT)
!$
TRT @!!+$~>Y 

Landscape of Voestapline, Linz

Landscape of Voestapline, Linz

Landscape of POSCO, Pohang

JFE STEEL, 


 

6CO

7CO
5CO

1.5 .



280 .
750 .









 

54

55

JFE STEEL, 




1.5 .

5CO
1.4 .
6,7CO


1.3 .

56