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3.

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OPERATING PROCEDURES

WELDING PROCEDURE MANUAL PROCESS PIPING

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RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF WELDS

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HIS SECTION PROVIDES STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION of field welds performed on the Companys process piping associated with LP Plants.
GENERAL

Process Piping requiring non-destructive testing in accordance with Section 3.02 (NonDestructive Testing Requirements) of this manual can utilize Radiographic Testing (RT) provided another type of more reliable non-destructive testing is not required or utilized. If another type of non-destructive test is used, RT may not substitute for its specific requirements. NOTE: Radiography will provide better sub-surface detection of discontinuities. This type of tests may not be practical due to the shape or location of the weld. This procedure defines the requirements for conducting radiographic film interpretation, and is intended to comply with ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) and ASME BPV Section V Article 2. This process is used to detect discontinuities that extend through the entire weld, RT is intended to: Verify weld integrity Identify the need for correction of improper welding techniques by indicating recurring defects Assist in verifying welder quality in the production weld process

All personnel conducting radiographic testing will be qualified as required by SNT-TC-1A (Level II for Radiographic Testing).
PRIOR TO RADIOGRAPHY

PREPARING THE EXTERNAL PIPE SURFACE

Surface conditions greatly influence the sensitivity of the inspection process. The surface should be clean, dry, and free from oil, water, excessive weld spatter, or other accumulations that would interfere with efficient inspection. Wire brushing, sandblasting, or other comparable cleaning methods are usually satisfactory for most welds.

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The Field Inspector is responsible to: 1. Ensure the pipe is essentially clean, dry, and free of contaminants within no less than 1 inch of the test area. 2. Remove any disbonded coating or corrosion products by using power brushing or light abrasive blasting: A blasting medium of a 3:1 mixture of 12/20 size crushed walnut shells with medium coarse sand (20/50 mesh) may be used Commercial grit (Black Beauty) may be substituted for sand 3. Use a method that will clean and polish the pipeline without cutting an anchor pattern in the steel; if requested by the non-destructive testing personnel, a power grinder can be utilized to smooth the weld surface provided the weld reinforcement is not cut away beyond the effective weld metal.
RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE SAFETY

It is the responsibility of the NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) Service Provider to ensure that an adequate perimeter is established around the area while the source is exposed when performing the actual shot of the weld. The field inspector and all personnel within close proximity to this area will be informed and kept outside the established perimeter to minimize any chance of radiation exposure during this shot.
RADIOGRAPHIC FILM INTERPRETATION PROCEDURES

These procedures provide the basic steps in performing radiographic film interpretation. They are not intended to cover all details relative to the process and procedures utilized by each non-destructive testing firm. The NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) Service Provider is responsible for having a written radiographic examination procedure. Each procedure shall include at least the following information, as applicable: a. b. c. d. e. f. Material type and thickness range Isotope or maximum X-ray voltage used Source to object distance Source size Film brand and designation Screens used

Demonstration of the density and image quality indicator (IQI) image requirements of the written procedure on production or technique radiographs shall be considered satisfactory evidence of compliance with that procedure.

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RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF WELDS

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RADIOGRAPHY

Radiographic film or a phosphor imaging plate produced under this procedure will have sufficient density, clarity, and contrast to make the determinations required by this standard. If images are produced utilizing the phosphor imaging plate, the viewing facilities will provide subdued background lighting of an intensity that will not cause troublesome reflections, shadows, or glare on the monitor that will interfere with interpretation. Images produced by any other system, approved for use by the Company, will have the requisite sensitivity to clearly define the hole or wire diameter of the proper penetrameter. Personnel will evaluate images compatible with accepted standards via: An acceptable image quality free from fog and processing irregularities that could mask the image of actual discontinuities The prescribed penetrameter (IQI) and essential hole or wire diameter A satisfactory identification system

Reader sheets or the digital medium will be stored in the work order packet and maintained for the life of the pipeline. Reader sheets or the digital medium used for Welder Qualification will be maintained and stored in the individual welder packets.
EQUIPMENT FOR INTERPRETATION

Personnel responsible for interpretation of radiographic film should use the following equipment for film interpretation:
FILM VIEWERS

All film viewers will be the high-intensity type with a variable intensity control. The viewer will produce sufficient illumination to view a maximum film density of 4.0. A dimmer control switch may be a part of the viewer to provide the proper illumination for range of densities being viewed. The viewer screen will be free of scratches which could lead to misinterpretation, and masking aids will be used as necessary to prevent light leakage from interfering with film interpretation. Radiographic film will only be viewed in an area with subdued background lighting.
FILM DENSITY INDICATORS

Film density will not be less than 1.8 or more than 4.0 through the thickest portion of the weld. To assure the specification densities are met, each darkroom will have a densitometer for checking film density. The densitometer will be kept in good working condition and a density calibration strip will be used to calibrate the unit prior to daily use. The densitometer calibration will be checked per manufacturers recommendation.

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RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF WELDS

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TOOLS FOR DEFECT MEASUREMENT

Accuracy is important in measuring discontinuities. Therefore, personnel will use these tools as necessary for measuring discontinuities: A clear, thin plastic ruler graduated in 1/16 inch increments Optical Comparators (if necessary to use a comparator, a maximum of 5X with a positive focusing adjustment should be used) Film Markers (when a discontinuity is beyond the acceptance limits, use a felt tip pen that does not smudge, smear or melt to mark the defective area on the film and indicate the type of defect being rejected)

FILM QUALITY REVIEW

Personnel will consider the following details when reviewing radiographs:


FILM QUALITY

All radiographs will be free from indications which would interfere with proper interpretation. This includes fog, scratches, processing marks or other defects.
FILM IDENTIFICATION

All film will be properly identified in accordance with Company requirements. The location of the identification will not interfere or mask any part of the weld. Each film identification will include: Name of NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) Service Provider Date of Radiology Location Weld Number

PENETRAMETERS

The penetrameter thickness will be based on the nominal single wall thickness plus the average weld build-up. Penetrameters and their locations will have the requisite sensitivity to clearly define the 2-T hole or wire diameter and conform to the requirements of ASME BPV Section V Article 2.

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WELD COVERAGE

Unless otherwise specified, number belts with lead location numbers will be placed on the pipe so that complete coverage and overlapped film areas are fully identified and the relationship between the film and the weld is firmly established. The lead location numbers will be placed at increments around the pipe, beginning at zero that allow appropriate location markers for the diameter of pipe being radiographed. The top weld button will be used as the zero point for each weld radiographed. The numbers will be read clockwise facing the direction of flow upon completion of the pipeline. An arrow will be placed along side the weld indicating the direction of the weld numbers. The radiographic film will be of a width suitable to cover the weld, location number belt and film identification. The film will overlap in areas that can be identified to assure complete coverage of the weld. The maximum acceptable film lengths will conform to the requirements of the latest approved edition of ASME B31.3 (Process Piping). The weld area will be clear of number belts, penetrameters, lead numbers, etc., which would mask or interfere with film interpretation.
DENSITY

The H & D (Hurter-Driffeld) method of defining quantitative blackening of the film will be used to determine film density. The measurements will be made through the thickest and thinnest portions of the weld metal on each radiograph. At a minimum, these readings should be taken at the center and at each end of the radiograph. The minimum density will be 1.8 through the thickest portion of the weld image and the maximum density will be 4.0.
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FILM INTERPRETER

The film interpreter, NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) Service Provider, is responsible for assuring that all film meets the quality requirements of the specifications prior to film interpretation. In addition, the interpreter is responsible for interpreting the radiographs in accordance with the acceptability requirements of ASME B31.3 (Process Piping), Paragraph 341.3.2, and/or other Company specification requirements.
INTERPRETATION AND MEASUREMENT OF DISCONTINUITIES

All radiographs will be interpreted in accordance with the acceptance criteria in ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) and Section 3.02 (Non-Destructive Testing Requirements). Discontinuities will be measured, using the tools discussed in this section. For broken slag lines which appear in the same plane or line, each indication will be measured, with the sum total determining the disposition of this discontinuity. Outside undercut will not be cause for rejection when observed on the radiograph. This is a surface discontinuity and must be accepted or rejected by visual examination and measurement. The film interpreter will, however, note the undercut and location in the comment column on the radiographic report. The weld will not be accepted and/or rejected until the weld is visually inspected and measured.

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For internal undercut discontinuities, when the internal undercut condition cannot be measured by mechanical means, the acceptance criteria in the latest approved edition of ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) will govern. On large diameter pipe, the acceptance of the weld will be delayed until the weld is inspected, when possible, to determine the depth and length of the indication. This will be done using an approved dial indicator. If the undercut is within acceptable limits, the radiographic report will be signed by the inspector in the comment column for the respective weld. This will provide verification that the internal undercut condition has been visually measured and is acceptable. No further reports are required. If the undercut condition is unacceptable, the repair will be made and the weld re-radiographed. All non-destructive test methods are limited in the information that can be derived for the indications they produce. The Company may, therefore, reject any weld that appears to meet the ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) acceptance standards if, in the opinion of the inspector, the depth of a discontinuity may be detrimental to the weld.
MARKING WELDS FOR REPAIR

Welds needing repair as determined by these procedures may be marked in accordance with the suggested process below. Prior to construction or weld inspections, other marking processes may be submitted to the field inspector for review.
SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR MARKING WELDS FOR REPAIR

To mark welds for repair, the authorized representative of the NDE (Non-Destructive Examination) Service Provider will: 1. Paint a 6-inch diameter circle with bright yellow spray paint on the pipe to the left side of the weld near the twelve oclock position. If more than one repair is required, paint an additional circle adjacent to the first. 2. Indicate the specific defect, its location, and the defective weld area to be repaired, in yellow paint stick or marker inside the circle. 3. After repair(s) have been made and found to be acceptable by appropriate nondestructive testing, paint over the defect and location marks with white spray paint, completely filling in the yellow circle. This signifies the weld is acceptable and ready for protective coating. Only individuals authorized by the NDE (NonDestructive Examination) Service Provider and approved by the field inspector will use the yellow or white spray paint to mark such indications. 4. If a weld is to be cut out from the pipeline, apply red spray paint along the top of the pipe to the weld for at least 3 inches.
AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE

Only those individuals authorized by the field inspector are permitted to mark welds for repair or acceptance.

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EXAMINATION REPORTS

The Field Inspector is responsible to: 1. Verify the person performing the NDE performs the inspection per the requirements of this procedure. 2. Verify a daily report is completed including each weld non-destructively tested and all weld repairs. This sheet will include the person performing the interpretation and their ANST certification level. 3. Verify a status log is maintained daily to ensure all repairs are completed and that only those welds accepted are released for protective coating. 4. Ensure a copy of the report and status logs are turned into the Operating Center for filing for the life of the pipeline.
PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS FOR INSPECTION

All personnel conducting radiographic testing will be qualified as required by the latest edition of SNT-TC-1A (Level II for Radiographic Testing, latest edition). The Field Supervisor or Field Inspector is responsible to: 1. Verify personnel or contract personnel performing the radiographic inspection meet, at a minimum, ASNT (American Society of Nondestructive Testing) Central Certification Program Level II. 2. Verify this documentation is on file. 3. Verify that personnel have the appropriate Operator Qualifications on file.
ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS

The ASME B31.3 acceptance standards for welds apply to discontinuities located by visual, radiographic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant and ultrasonic methods which are stated in Section 3.02 (Non-Destructive Testing Requirements). All non-destructive test methods are limited in the information that can be derived for the indications they produce. The Company may, therefore, reject any weld that appears to meet ASME B31.3 acceptance standards if, in the inspectors opinion, the depth of a discontinuity may be detrimental to the weld.