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CIV TD The first td was about democracy:

The second TD: Hailsham on the monarchy -p27-

Constitutional monarchy of the UK - Elizabeth the second, 6 February 1952: She undertakes ceremonial, official, representational duties, opening the parliament, bestowing honors, appointing the prime minister.

These are limited non partisan functions. - The queens power is limited to little governmental activities / interferences. Walter Begot, 1867: the dignified part and not the efficient part of the government - The queen is to advice, to warn and to be consulted. - The monarchs prerogatives (powers). Question: for what reason does Lord Hailsham argue that hereditary monarchy is better than other systems of government? It deprives the nation which adopts it of the glamour, prestige and continuity which is one of the few remaining assents of our society Conservatism: a political and social philosophy. It promotes the maintenance of traditional institution. It supports gradual / minimal change in society. Conservatism is seeking the return to the past and preserves the way people lived; they prefer continuity over change and stability over experiment. Conservative / Tories / Torism (royalists) 1660-1688: restoration Torism is the first name of the conservatism. - A hierarchical society, absolute power of the king (divine right), apposes peoples representation. - Power stems not from the people but from the king and the church.

- The conservative party were defeated by the Whig party (liberal) and disappeared until 1819. - The Prime minister is called first among equals. The text: - It seems to me: personal point of view. Subjectivity. Objectivity. - Lord: Hailsham is involved in the events and part of the political debate of the time. Dictionary: (great, all, one part, no rival, no equal, I, us, our). - Constitution: monarchy/parliament/prime minister. Communist / socialist: defends equality No stability = revolution Democracy = rule of the majority (common body) Republic = rule of the law (individual)

TD: The House of Lords -Donald Shell (1983) - p37Question: what is anomalous about the House of Lords? - The overarching question that governs the debate over the House of Lords is notably its hereditary feature, it is according to the writer it is at variance with the basic principles of democracy (elections).

- Hereditary violates democratic values, will of people. - The main issue related to the Lords is legitimacy and representativeness. - Absentees / harmless: are the other anomalous aspects along with hereditary in the house. - The house throughout much of British history was harmless and not strong enough to face the House of Commons or the government: 1968-1999(one defeat of the government by the house). - The House of Lords is an anachronistic institution reflecting old traditions and medieval practices, extension of the patronage system, old fashioned and outdated institution. - According to the author, the House of Lords must be reformed to avoid the issue of legitimacy through inserting some forms of elections to the house. - Structure (approach): unsatisfactory satisfactory The author structures his text following a problem/solution structure. The proportional representation system # first past the post system Abolitionist: they were politicians representing: labor party and liberal democrats, animated by the belief that the House of Lords is not vigorous / strong enough to challenge the Commons.

Reformist: (conservative), they were strengthened by the idea that the Lords needs some rival, refreshment in order to survive the future challenges. - The party made concessions and accepted reform (1979). Labor manifesto 1983: we should take action to abolish the House of Lords as quickly as possible and introduce a bill in the 1st session of parliament to remove its legislative powers 1999 act: - To reduce the number of hereditry Lords, or peers to only 92 from (775). - 19992006: 350 defeats of the government in the House of Lords, ex: identity card bill. - Advances: is a source of anomaly but many changes has occurred to it. 1) The number was reduced to 775 from 1200 2) The hereditary peers were reduced to 92 3) Lord chancellor (2003) was abolished and replaces by Lord speaker who is now elected by the peers 4) The number of defeats increased after 1999 5) The House works in partnership with the Commons: the Commons backed up the lords in the race hatred and religious act 2006 Example of an introduction: Throughout much of British history, the House of Lords has been questioned regarding its composition and the

text we are commenting falls under the same heading. The extract appeared in one of Donald Shells books entitled the politics of parliamentary reform published in 1983 at a time characterizes by fierce conflicts between British political parties. Donald Shell actually does not raise a new concern, but he tries objectively through a problem-solution structured passage to sort out the mess about this institution. In this text, he tackles the anomalous feature about the House manifested in hereditary and projects further paths of reform which can be provided only by elections. We shall first introduce the most features making the House of Lords anomalous and offensive, then, we will discuss if some forms of election can make it more effective as the author suggested or just producing a mere replica to the Commons. TD: Magna Carta

Magna Carta has long been considered as the corner stone of democracy not only in Britain but also all over the world. It stressed the importance of the rule of the law, meaning that the king had to function within the laws. It also guaranteed the principle of due process, that is, people charged with crimes had to have a proper trial in accordance with the rules. Magna Carta protected certain rights of all subjects, most notably; it allowed appeal against unlawful imprisonment. There is

also the clause that says that the king must not deny, sell or delay justice to anyone. Much later in the 1st half of the 16th century, when relations between the king and parliament were very bad, Magna Carta was mythologizes and used as a power weapon against the monarchy. However, there is a lot of misunderstanding about this. Magna Carta was mainly designed to defend the privileges of the feudal barons and the church and it did not aim at turning England into a democracy.

The House of Commons -Michael Ryle- p38Equanimity: the quality of being calm. Sounding board: a device for developing and echoing sound/a group with whom you can discuss ideas. Question: where does the importance of the British House of Commons lie? 1) FORUM: political body where members should discuss with the government all policies and programs / criticize governmental actions. - 1st part determines the relationship between the House of Commons and the government. - The author builds the text in a form of question-answer structure. - The importance of the House of Commons and its most general function is to provide the prime (ultimate) political forum in the country. - In other words, it amends to a convenient suitable and non violent setting for the exchange of views between government and opposition. In short, parliament is a critical rather than governmental legislative body. 2) THE SOUNDING BOARD OF THE NATION:

(Reflect) HOC ---------- electoral/public people/party opinion ---------(Influence) - The parliament can influence the public opinion [ to speak to # to speak for ] - The main sentence: the main point in the text is that the importance and the influence of parliament do not lie in the contribution to the legislation and initiating bills; but, lies mainly in both the procedures and public discussions of all matters with the government and in acting as a sounding board to the nation. Example of the body of a text commentary: In the very first line of the text; Michael Ryle, questions the importance and the influence of the House of Commons. It needs then to be emphasized right from the outset that the rest of the passage is a serious reading in the true functions the Commons was designed to have. At the time the text was written, public demands to make the parliamentary sessions open to all the people and broadcast on TV were increasing, arguing that MPs and ministers are to be accountable to the electorate. One standing point in the text is to depict the House of Commons as a critical forum rather than a governing body, and this is how the Commons must be assessed. Simplifying greatly, it is in the sense that the parliament is the representative of the people and the

defender of their liberties, and these liberties are only protected by ensuring that ministers always have to explain, discuss and justify their policies and actions. Indeed the words stadium, crowd and boo are used respectively and metaphorically to represent the real role of the Commons and also as a clear reference to the weekly prime ministerial question time. In many cases, the head of government and members of his cabinet are subject to fierce and harsh criticism from the opposition or sometimes as the author mentioned through the embarrassing questions of their fellow backbenchers. For the writer, its by these tests, therefore that the functioning and the influence of the House of Commons must be evaluated, not by the extent to which the House contributes to legislation. For instance, discussing expenditure of the government or vetoing unpopular decisions and policies. In the light of this fact, the author perceives parliamentary procedures and discussion as the cement of the parliament. Essay/Topic outline Should the House of Lords be removed? What do you think? Opinion essay/call on opinion - Essay that presents persona opinion on a particular topic, your opinion must be stated clearly and supported by justification (arguments, details, examples).

- *organization: Introduction: must be ONE paragraph - General sentence (motivator): Questions, quotation, current situation, address the reader directly. - Specific: House of Lords (problematic /issue) - Thesis statement: main idea of the essay (your opinion): do not state bits of details, just main reasons - The thesis statement should answer the questions, how/why? Body: - Must be at least 2 paragraphs with another paragraph at the end about the opposition/ ideas related (in continuity) with your point of view - Each new paragraph must be indented - Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence. The topic sentence is the idea that summarizes your paragraph - The whole of the paragraph is to support the topic sentence - Concentrate on the key words that appear in the topic sentence - Keep asking yourself questions: how/why, or what examples can illustrate that Conclusion: - To restate the main ideas of the body using different words (paraphrase) - Do not raise a new point you didnt mention/dealt with in the body

- Do not focus again on minor details in the body HOW TO END YOUR ESSAY? - Address the reader directly - Question, rhetorical question - Suggest results/consequence - Universalize the issue (comparing it to another situation)

Civ TD : the declaration of independence -1776Question: what are the main themes /ideas of the declaration of independence ? -The US declaration of independence was announced by the second continental congress on the 4th of July 1776. - Declaring that the 13 colonies at war with Great Britain were now independent. Thus, no longer part of the British Empire it was written by Thomas Jefferson primarily, who used ideas about peoples right and focus of government. - The theorized by the philosophy of the enlightenment. - It's an explanation of why the congress voted to declare independence from Britain. - It's one of most cherished document in the American history and its enduring monument. - In history when a colony breaks away with the country that used to rule over it to become new and equal country. - Its right they explain and declare it to the world - The declaration of independence is divided into: * The Preamble * Declaration of people's rights * List of grievance to George 3 * Resolution (declaring independence)

- The Preamble is universal in tone and scope; it contains no explicit reference to the British and American conflict. But it outlines the philosophy of government that makes revolution justifiable. - Declaration of independence: may have several significance for Americans but its power is a symbol was potentially global in extent. it provides a model for similar doc in the world and asserts independence of new other states god gave people some natural rights which can't be taken away by unlawful means government are instituted among men not to give rights but to protect them through ( order/laws) the gvt power must originate according to thomas from the people (the consent ) john Locke : social contract the power of the gvt is limited to what people consented to give it jefferson theorized in this D.I for the republican system where the gvt represents not a majority but all the people and protect their common interest D.I formulated the political philosophy which led to the institutional foundation for the american system of gvt (republic) under which they live until now wherever this gvt is abusive or violates the rights of the people they have the right and duty to change it or to get rid of it to make a new gvt in whatever way it seems must likely to keep them safe and happy (break social contract) the ideas brought by Thomas Jefferson are not his own but they lend deeper in the past philosophy mainly the writings of john Locke and also Thomas Paine :"come on sense " Thomas Jefferson :" neither aiming at originality of principale or statement nor yet copied from any particular and previous writing it was intended to be an expression of the american mind " among 27 grievances directed to the king !: 1-he taxed people without their approval 2- he instituted legislation that affected the colony badly 3-he prevented them from trading freely

4- he prosecuted people without lawfil judgemnet 5-he obliged americans to quarter british soldiers . (quartering act 1765) US CONSTITUTION AND THE BILL OF RIGHTS the articles of confederation 1786 no money george washinton (1st president ) 1787 constitutional convention presided by george .w the problem was solved and was called "the great compromise " the constitution is the supreme law of the land the us constitution is the framework for the organization of the us federal gvt and for the citizens and it sets for the relationship between the federal gvt and state gvt the constitution was adopted by the constitutional convention in 1787 and ratified by the states in the name of the people it was amanded 27 timles the first 10 amendments are known the bill of rights the 1 st 3 articles established the branches of the federal gvt there should be a legislative branch (congress:bicameral:house of representatives and house of senate ) it should have a president (executive branch ) and the supreme court (judicial branch ) the 3 articles state the power and duties of every branch all powers not mentioned are reserved automatically to the states and the people establishing the federal system of gvt the constitution states several other principals which guide the gvt and the people

the bill of rights is the collective name of the first 2 amendments of the u.s constitution . putten for limitation these limitations serve to protect the national rights of liberty and property they guarantee a number of personal freedom limits the gvt power and reserve some powers to the states and the public the original constitution as proposed in 1787

contrained very few individual rights as the framers were primarely focused on an effective federal gvt the founding fathers and notably james madisson believed that the constitution protected liberty primarly through its division of powers which made it difficult for an oppressive majority ." bill of rights is what the people are untitled to against every gvt on earth and what no just gvt should refuse" critisism: the constitution is critisised historicly for leaving many groups out of the political process for exemple : blacks,wemen and landless white people the constitution places many restrictions on the federal gvt the president needs permition for major issus wemen and african americans remained disfranchised (vote) until 1920 native american were completely outside the constitutional system defined as allien people in their own land the constitution is based on : 1- people sovereignity :"we , the people of the usa do ordain this constitution " it reflects the philosophy of the declaration : the power must steem /originate from the people (gvt from /for the people ) 2- federalism : constitution divides powers between federal /central/national gvt and state / local gvt A- federal powers b-concurent powers c-state powers / reserved powers federal exemple : declaring war / dealing with foreign affairs printing money concurent exemples :taxes , creating counts panishment of criminals state exemple :set up schools, marriage laws 3- seperation of powers : the 3 first articles divide the gvt into 3 branches , they are kept seperate in order to avoid / prevent abuse of power this political doctorine originated in the writing of montesquieu who urged for the establishment of three seperate branches of gvt the founding fathers did not want that one branch or part becomes too powerful they cared to add a system of cheks and balances the constitution , each brach has the same limits set on it by the 2 other branches

each braanch check and controle the other branches being at the same time controlled by them to crerat balance in politics and avoid abuse and corruption