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# Mathematics upper-secondary4

## Distributions and Integration

Discrete random variables
XSIQ
* Intermediate Mathematics - Random variables

Random variables
A random variable [1] is a variable whose value is a numerical outcome of some random experiment. [ ] An experiment is random if the outcome is uncertain. !or example" an experiment could be the random selection of a male from a #roup of students \$probabilit% &ei#ht 1'()" or the selection of a mussel from a catch made in order to measure the lead content" or the toss of a coin" or the rollin# of a die in a board #ame or the selection of a card from a dec* of cards. !or example" with a #roup of male students three different bo%s mi#ht have hei#hts of 1+, cm" 1'- cm and 1.'cm. A random variable has an un*nown value before the experiment and an observed numerical value after the experiment. Random variables are denoted b% a capital letter" such as X" Y and Z. /he observed values are denoted b% the correspondin# lower case letters" x" %" and 0. !or example" when a die is rolled" let the random variable" X" be the number on the face which is uppermost when the die comes to rest. /here are onl% 1 possible values for X 2 1" " 3" -" , or 1. X cannot ta*e values li*e 1.. or 3. 1'. /hus X is a discrete random variable. 4revious 5 6ext 7in*s2 ------ [1] http288alison.com89 [ ] http://alison.com/9

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* Intermediate Mathematics - :iscrete probabilit% distribution

## Discrete probability distribution

/he discrete probabilit% distribution of a random variable is #iven b% its possible values to#ether with their probabilities. /his distribution ma% be displa%ed as a table or a #raph or sometimes" as a formula. !irst list all the possible values" x" that X can ta*e. /hen calculate the associated probabilities" Pr(X = x). Remember that the total probabilit% ; 1. <ive the probabilit% distribution for X" the number on the face of a die that will be uppermost after it is rolled. <ive the probabilit% distribution for =N"= the number of heads obtained" when a fair coin is tossed three times. 4revious 5 6ext

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Intermediate !at"ematics - #"e mean and variance o\$ a discrete random variable
/he mean and variance of a discrete random variable % particular lotter% involves a ver% simple bet.
Example 3 A particular lottery involves a very simple bet. Guess a particular 3-digit number (for example, 639). f you guess correctly you receive !"##. f you buy tic\$ets in t%is game regularly, &%at are your average &innings' Example 4

(ind t%e mean of ), t%e number on t%e face of a die t%at &ill be uppermost after it is rolled.

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Intermediate !at"ematics - &tandard deviation as a

/wo dice are rolled and the numbers showin# uppermost are added. 7et / be the random variable denotin# the result of one roll. 1a. <ive the probabilit% distribution of /. 1b. !ind the mean of /. 1c. !ind the standard deviation of /. 1d. !ind the percenta#e of the possible values that lie within two standard deviations of the mean. !irst list all possible values for =/"= the sum of the two numbers showin#" with all of the correspondin# pairs of numbers. >ach die has the numbers 1" " 3" -" ," and 1. /herefore the value for / mi#ht be the total on. /he total 3 mi#ht occur from throws of 1 and or and 1. and " and 3 and 1. /he total of - mi#ht occur from throws of 1 and 3" or the total 3 or the total - and so

A list of the full ran#e of possibilities for the var%in# totals would be2 2 \$1" 1) 32 \$1" )" \$ " 1) -2 \$1" 3)" \$ " )" \$3" 1) ,2 \$1" -)" \$ " 3)" \$3" )" \$-" 1) 12 \$1" ,)" \$ " -)" \$3" 3)" \$-" )" \$," 1) .2 \$1" 1)" \$ " ,)" \$3" -)" \$-" 3)" \$," )" \$1" 1) '2 \$ " 1)" \$3" ,)" \$-" -)" \$," 3)" \$1" ) +2 \$3" 1)" \$-" ,)" \$," -)" \$1" 3) 1(2 \$-" 1)" \$," ,)" \$1" -) 112 \$1" ,)" \$," 1) 1 2 \$1" 1) /here is a total of 31 possible combinations for the two numbers. The probability distribution table could be listed as follows: /he mean mi#ht be calculated with the formula2 /he smallest possible value e?uals 3. /he lar#est possible value e?uals 11. In this case" all the values" except for deviations of the mean. /his proportion of the possible values represents +-@ of the values. /hus +-@ of the possible values lie within two standard deviations of the mean. 4revious 5 6ext and 1 " lie within two standard

------------------------------------------------------------------------------XSIQ * Intermediate Mathematics - The normal curve The normal curve A series

of tests was given to a large number of students and the results of these tests were combined to obtain a Verbal Aptitude score for each student !or the whole group it was found that" Mean # \$%\$& and Standard 'eviation # () Samples of increasing si*e +,--& \$--& .---& and \$---/ were ta0en and the scores for each sample graphed as a histogram As the sample si*e increased the distribution became more s1mmetrical and approached the shape of the normal curve 2revious 3 4e5t

------------------------------------------------------------------------------XSIQ * Intermediate Mathematics - 6ontinuous random variables and the normal distribution 6ontinuous random variables and the normal distribution 2revious 3 4e5t

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ABIC * Intermediate Mathematics - Dalculation of probabilities for a normal distribution Dalculation of probabilities for a normal distribution /he E6ormal distribution - cdfE table can be used in reverse to find the value of the random variable for a #iven probabilit% or area under the curve. /he name #iven to this value of the random variable is a Cuantile. /he value of ? will correspond to an area e?ual to (...- under the 6ormal distribution #raph. /he probabilit% value (...- must be found in the Fbod%F of the E6ormal distribution - cdfE table. !irst" %ou loo* for a value close to" but sli#htl% smaller than" the re?uired value. /he appropriate section of the #eneral 6ormal distribution - cdf table is shown below. =x= 3 - , 1 1 3 - (.1 (..3,. (..3'+ (..(..-,- 3 1 1( 13 (.. (..1.3 (...(3 (...3- (...1- 3 1 + 1 (.' (..+1. (..++, (.'( 3 (.'(,1 3 1 ' 11 6otice that the probabilit% value (...3- in the bod% of the 6ormal distribution - cdf table is sli#htl% smaller than the re?uired value (...-. /he probabilit% value (...3- is at the intersection of the row for x ; (.. \$first decimal place) and the column for x ; (.(, \$second decimal place). /hat is" the #eneral x value e?uals (.., for the probabilit% value (...3-. 6otice that the probabilit% value (.((1 in the bod% of the 6ormal distribution - cdf table is in the

column for x ; (.(( \$third decimal place). Ghen we add these two readin#s to#ether for our case we find that the #eneral x value e?uals (.., for the probabilit% value (...-( \$(...3- H (.(((1). 4revious 5 6ext

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ABIC * Intermediate Mathematics - Approximatin# the binomial distribution with normal distribution Approximatin# the binomial distribution with normal distribution 4revious 5 6ext

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