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EEE/ETE412 Mobile & Satellite Communication Systems

Dr. Feroz Ahmed Assistant Professor School of Engineering and Computer Science Independent University, Bangladesh E-mail: fahmed@iub.edu.bd

Course Outline

Introductions to wireless communication systems; The cellular concept-system design fundamentals. Mobile radio propagation: large scale path loss, small-scale fading and multi-path. Modulation techniques for mobile radio. Equalization, diversity, and channel coding Multiple access techniques. Spread Spectrum Techniques (CDMA: DS-SS, FH-SS) Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) Standards: GSM/ CDMA Switching and traffic; Signaling; Digital cellular systems: cdmaOne, GPRS, EDGE, CDMA2000, W-CDMA, and 4G; Introduction to satellite communication systems.

GSM Architecture
Introduction Network Elements An example: Call setup Running a GSM network Present and Future...

Network Elements an overview

AUC

HLR BSC

MS

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MSC
VLR

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Mobile Station (MS)


MS consists of the mobile equipment (the terminal) and a smart card called the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The SIM provides personal mobility, so that the user can have access to subscribed services irrespective of a specific terminal. By inserting the SIM card into a GSM terminal, the user is able to receive and make calls at that terminal, and receive other subscribed services. Without the SIM, the terminal will not work. The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system, a secret key for authentication, and other information. The IMEI and the IMSI are independent, thereby allowing personal mobility. The SIM card may be protected against unauthorized use by a password or personal identity number (PIN).

AUC

HLR BSC

MS BTS

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MSC
VLR

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)


The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. It handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. A BTS may be placed in the center of a cell (omnidirectional) or shooting in one or more specific directions (sectorized). Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. Each BTS has typically between one and sixteen transceivers depending on the density of users in the cell. In a large urban area, there will potentially be a large number of BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost.

Cell concept
Dominant coverage area of one BTS sector A sectorized BTS typically shoots in 3 antenna directions, thus covering 3 sectors or cells Because of limited bandwith, frequency channels have to be reused Identical and neighbouring frequencies need to be distributed away from each other in order to avoid noise in terms of interference.

AUC

HLR BSC

MS BTS BSC

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MSC
VLR

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Base Station Controller (BSC)


The BSC controls a group of BTSs and manages their radio resources. The physical area the BSC covers is divided into one or more Location Areas. BSC handles radio-channel setup, handover, frequency hopping and the radio frequency power levels of the BTSs. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC). Before transmitting speech or data to the MSC the information is transformed and coded in an TRANSCODER.

Handover (HO)
- Intra BSC Handover - Inter BSC Handover (as illustrated) - Inter MSC Handover

BSC

BSC

AUC

HLR BSC

MS BTS BSC HLR

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Home Location Register

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MSC
VLR

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Home Location Register (HLR)


The HLR is a network database that contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile. Subscription data states the logical identity of each subscriber (MS) and which services that are accessible or barred for the respective subscriber. The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the address of the Visitor Location Register (VLR) associated with the mobile station. This information is used to route calls and SMS to the MSC/VLR where the mobile station is currently located. The HLR also contains a number of functions for managing these data, controlling services and enabling subscribers to access and receive their services when roaming within and outside their home GSM network.

AUC

HLR BSC

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MS BTS BSC HLR MSC VLR

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Home Location Register Mobile services Switching Centre Visitor Location Register

MSC
VLR

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Mobile services and Switching Centre (MSC) / Visitor Location Register (VLR)
The MSC is a very central component of the GSM network. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network and also provides connection to other networks. It additionally provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber. The VLR is always implemented together with a MSC; so the area under control of the MSC is also the area under control of the VLR. The VLR contains selected information from a subscriber's HLR necessary for call control and provisioning of the subscribed services to the visiting user. Signaling between functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signaling System Number 7 (SS7).

AUC

HLR BSC

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MS BTS BSC HLR MSC VLR AUC

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Home Location Register Mobile services Switching Centre Visitor Location Register Authentication Centre

MSC

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

Authentication Centre (AUC)


The AUC generates authentication and ciphering data. The purpose of the authentication security feature is to protect the network against unauthorized use. It also protects subscribers by denying the possibility for intruders to impersonate authorized users. The ciphering data is used to ensure that confidentiality and integrity is kept on the physical radio channels. Ciphering prevents user information and signalling to be available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals.

AUC

HLR BSC

VMS PrePaid Node


Telenor Nett

EIR

MS BTS BSC HLR MSC VLR AUC EIR

MSC

SMSC

IN

INTERNET

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Home Location Register Mobile services Switching Centre Visitor Location Register Authentication Centre Equipment Identity Register For blacklisting stolen and unwanted equipment SMSC Short Message Service Support Centre VMS Voice Messaging System PrePaid Node Hosting Prepaid services IN Intelligent Network PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

GSM Call Setup

GSM Call Setup

AUC

HLR BSC

VMS PrePaid Node IN

EIR

MSC

SMSC

INTERNET

Mobile Station = phone + SIM card Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Home Location Register Mobile services Switching Centre Visitor Location Register Authentication Centre Stand-alone or integrated in HLR EIR Equipment Identity Register For blacklisting stolen and unwanted equipment SMSC Short Message Service Support Centre VMS Voice Messaging System PrePaid Node Hosting prepaid service system IN Intelligent Network services PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange

MS BTS BSC HLR MSC VLR AUC

PSTN Fixed network

PSTN
International

PABX

MSC

BSC

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC
Base Station Controller

The call request reaches the BSC from the BTS and is forwarded to MSC. After call is established, the BSC will perform decoding of the call (in typical config.)

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Checks A number. To whom is A subscriber calling? (Checks B number) Example : A subscriber has GP prepaid.

MSC
Mobile Switching Centre

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Does the A subscriber have money left on his/her account? When the call is established and on-going the subscribers account is decremented accordingly.

PrePaid Node

HLR BSC

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

HLR BSC

VMS
Voicemail

EIR MSC SMSC


INTERNET

PrePaid IN

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

HLR BSC

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Where is the B subscriber? MSC interrogates in HLR.


(HLR = Home Location Register)

MSC
Mobile Switching Centre

HLR BSC

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

HLR BSC

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

HLR says I am the home of the B subscriber and I know where he/she is right now (i.e. which VLR) Tells this VLR Give me a visitor address for this subscriber (Roaming Number)

HLR
Home Location Register

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Hosting MSC/VLR returns B subscribers assigned visitor address.

MSC
Mobile Switching Centre

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Thanks for the visitor address! I will send this address to the MSC that requested for it.

HLR
Home Location Register

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Thank you, HLR! Speech connection is set up towards the MSC/VLR where the B subscriber is residing.

MSC
Mobile Switching Centre

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Setting up a speech connection towards BSC.

MSC
Mobile Switching Centre

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC will now send a paging signal to all the BTSs that it covers. Coding of speech when call is established.

BSC
Base Station Controller

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

The B subscriber has now many choices:


He/she may answer. He/she may be busy. The mobile (MS) may be forwarded. The mobile may be turned off or outside coverage area. And more...

What happens next depends on the B subscribers condition and what he/she chooses to do.

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

BSC

HLR

VMS
Voicemail

EIR

PrePaid IN

MSC

SMSC
INTERNET

MSC PSTN
Fixed Network

BSC

PSTN
International

PABX

Speech calls in the GSM system


MSC: BSC: HLR: VLR: TC: Mobile Switching Centre Base Station Controller Home Location Register Visitor Location Register Transcoder

BSC MSC
Capacity: 16 kb/s pr user

Location Area f1 f8 f3 f6 f4 f7 13 kb/s speech f2 f9 f 2, TS 8

PSTN
Fixed Network
64 kb/s

MSC

64 kb/s pr speech channel S

BSC

TC
speech

HLR
Home Register

VLR
Visitor Register

BSC

Data calls in the GSM system


MSC: BSC: HLR: VLR: TC: IWU: Mobile Switching Centre Base Station Controller Home Location Register Visitor Location Register Transcoder Interworking Unit

BSC MSC
Modem pool Capacity: 16 kb/s pr user

Location Area f1 f8 f3 f6 f4 f7 9.6 kb/s data f2 f9 f 2, TL 8

PSTN
Fixed Network
64 kb/s

MSC

IWU

64 kb/s pr data channel call marked with data flag D

BSC

TC
data

HLR
Home Register

VLR
Visitor Register

BSC

Running a GSM network


technically speaking...

Technical disciplines within a GSM operator company


Radio planning Site allocation, frequency use and reuse. Switch planning Capacity of processor and links, new nodes. Implementation Civil works, site acquisition, roll-out.

Operation of existing network Fault monitoring and handling, quality supervision. Expertise on core network, including signaling system No. 7, value added services and IN
(NSS = Network Switching System).

Expertise on access network, i.e. radio and BSC


(BSS = Base Station System).

Expertise on transmission and power. Provisioning of new elements into the network. Provisioning of computer network infrastructure for O&M (OSS). Local presence for rapid physical fault handling. Research and Development

GSM technology at present...

GSM technology at present...


High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
Available in some markets. Requires a special GSM terminal. Allows you to utilize more than one timeslot on the air interface, thus increasing the transmission capacity. Dynamic resource allocation. As a result data rate will vary, but still be considerably higher than 9.6 kbps.

MMS
Mobile Multimedia Service Send and receive sound, text and picture in one message (even in color given the right terminal).

Other value added services


My webpage, administrate your own subscription, bill, email, short messages, address list and more on the internet. Hundreds more...

GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)


In principle, GPRS can be compared to short messages (SMS), but it can handle much bigger chunks of data. GPRS provides a natural way of transmitting most types of data:
You only use the network resources when you need them, i.e. when you are sending or receiving a defined amount of data. The rest of the time network resources are available for other users. Instead of using a small portion of the networks resources for a long period of time, the user can utilize a bigger portion of the resources over a shorter time span.

Packet switching: - Efficient use of radio resources


Circuit switiched GPRS Time

Time

Circuit switched GPRS

Time

Time

GSM has been through BIG changes in size, capacity and functionality

...and future

Whats in store for us?


EDGE
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Supplement to GPRS Improvement lies mainly in the modulation on the air interface

UMTS
Universal Mobile Telephony System GPRS will live in partnership with UMTS New radio technology (WCDMA) New frequency band New service concept

GSM evolution
Functionality & capacity

IMT 2000
capable systems
UMTS/WCDMA
2 Mbps

EDGE
384 kbps

GPRS
115 kbps
Packet switched

HSCSD/14.4
57.6 kbps
Circuit switched

Circ. sw. data


<9.6 kbps

Speech

Time

UMTS exterior

UMTS interior

Thank you!
Questions?