G.R. No. L-12767 In the matter of the estate of EMIL H. JOHNSON.

EBBA INGEBORG JOHNSON, applicant-appellant, Hartigan & Welch for applicant and appellant. Hartford Beaumont for Victor Johnson and others as appellees. Chas. E. Tenney for Alejandra !a"e# de Johnson$ personally and as guardian$ and for %imeona !a"e#$ appellees. Street, J.: On February 4, 1916, Emil . !o"n#on, a nati$e o% &'e(en an( a naturali)e( citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate#, (ie( in t"e city o% +anila, lea$in, a 'ill, (ate( &eptember 9, 191-, by '"ic" "e (i#po#e( o% an e#tate, t"e $alue o% '"ic", a# e#timate( by "im, 'a# .2/1,011. 2"i# (ocument i# an "olo,rap"ic in#trument, bein, 'ritten in t"e te#tator3# o'n "an('ritin,, an( i# #i,ne( by "im#el% an( t'o 'itne##e# only, in#tea( o% t"ree 'itne##e# re4uire( by #ection 610 o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il .roce(ure. 2"i# 'ill, t"ere%ore, 'a# not e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e pro$i#ion# o% la' ,enerally applicable to 'ill# e6ecute( by in"abitant# o% t"e#e 7#lan(#, an( "ence coul( not "a$e been pro$e( un(er #ection 610. On February 9, 1916, "o'e$er, a petition 'a# pre#ente( in t"e 5ourt o% Fir#t 7n#tance o% t"e city o% +anila %or t"e probate o% t"i# 'ill, on t"e ,roun( t"at !o"n#on 'a# at t"e time o% "i# (eat" a citi)en o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#, *nite( &tate# o% 8merica9 t"at t"e 'ill 'a# (uly e6ecute( in accor(ance 'it" t"e la'# o% t"at &tate9 an( "ence coul( properly be probate( "ere pur#uant to #ection 6/6 o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il .roce(ure. 2"i# #ection rea(# a# %ollo'#: ;ill ma(e "ere by alien. < 8 'ill ma(e 'it"in t"e ."ilippine 7#lan(# by a citi)en or #ub=ect o% anot"er #tate or country, '"ic" i# e6ecute( in accor(ance 'it" t"e la' o% t"e #tate or country o% '"ic" "e i# a citi)en or #ub=ect, an( '"ic" mi,"t be pro$e( an( allo'e( by t"e la' o% "i# o'n #tate or country, may be pro$e(, allo'e(, an( recor(e( in t"e ."ilippine 7#lan(#, an( #"all "a$e t"e #ame e%%ect a# i% e6ecute( accor(in, to t"e la'# o% t"e#e 7#lan(#. 2"e "earin, on #ai( application 'a# #et %or +arc" 6, 1916, an( t"ree 'ee># publication o% notice 'a# or(ere( in t"e ?+anila @aily Aulletin.B @ue publication 'a# ma(e pur#uant to t"i# or(er o% t"e court. On +arc" 6, 1916, 'itne##e# 'ere e6amine( relati$e to t"e e6ecution o% t"e 'ill9 an( upon +arc" 16t" t"erea%ter t"e (ocument 'a# (eclare( to be le,al an( 'a# a(mitte( to probate. 8t t"e #ame time an or(er 'a# ma(e nominatin, Cictor !o"n#on an( !o"n 2. .ic>ett a# a(mini#trator# o% t"e e#tate, 'it" t"e #ill anne6e(. &"ortly t"erea%ter .ic>ett #i,ni%ie( "i# (e#ire not to #er$e, an( Cictor !o"n#on 'a# appointe( #ole a(mini#trator. Ay t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion t"e te#tator ,i$e# to "i# brot"er Cictor one "un(re( #"are# o% t"e corporate #toc> in t"e !o"n#on-.ic>ett Rope 5ompany9 to "i# %at"er an( mot"er in &'e(en, t"e #um o% .21,1119 to "i# (au,"ter Ebba 7n,ebor,, t"e #um o% .-,1119 to "i#

e( a# a #ol(ier %rom t"e #er$ice o% t"e *nite( &tate# "e continue( to li$e in t"e . 1090.rap"ical %act# relati$e to t"e (ecea#e( nece##ary to an un(er#tan(in.itimate "eir o% "er %at"er.per mont". t"i# motion 'a# (enie(. "e 'a# marrie( to Ro#alie 8c>e#on.. !o"n#on 'a# a re#i(ent o% t"e city o% +anila an( not a re#i(ent o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# at t"e time t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion 'a# e6ecute(9 . t"e 'ill to probate. t"e attorney# %or Ebba 7n. ."ilippine 7#lan(# a# a #ol(ier in t"e 8rmy o% t"e *nite( &tate#. Eleonor an( 8lberto. Ro#alie !o"n#on.o by a pa#tor o% t"e &'e(i#" Lut"eran 5"urc" upon October 16. i% #"e remain# #in. 1916.roup 'it" "i# %at"er. On February 21. Cictor.per mont". 8# a re#ult o% relation# bet'een !o"n#on an( Ro#alie 8c>e#on a (au.ebor. e6"ibite( in e$i(ence in t"i# ca#e. bapti)e( +ay /1. From 5"ica. .e. 'it" "er . 'a# .one to &'e(en. 'a# ta>en in '"ic" "e appeare( in a .ran(parent# in &'e(en."ter. 1090.ebor. Encarnacion. to 'it. On +ay 9.o "e appear# to "a$e . 2"e bio. 1912. 1077. t"e 'i%e. 2"e re#t o% t"e property i# le%t to t"e te#tator3# %i$e c"il(ren < +erce(e#. t"e 'ay %or t"e e#tabli#"ment o% t"e claim o% t"e petitioner a# t"e #ole le. bapti)e( 8pril 29. +erce(e#. on be"al% o% t"e petitioner i# to annul t"e (ecree o% probate an( put t"e e#tate into inte#tate a(mini#tration. an( on No$ember 21. 19169 an( Cictor.le9 to &imeona 7baDe). 2"i# c"il( 'a# c"ri#tene( in 5"ica. 191/. t"u# preparin. 7llinoi#.6.rap". i% #"e remain# #in. t"e #um o% . On October /1. On !une 12. 191/9 Encarnacion. mot"er. on t"e . t"e #ame attorney# mo$e( t"e court to $acate t"e or(er o% +arc" 16 an( al#o $ariou# ot"er or(er# in t"e ca#e. 8# 'ill be (i#cerne(. an( t"e little (au. Ebba 7n. an( %rom t"i# action o% t"e trial court t"e pre#ent appeal "a# been per%ecte(. 1917.o. 7llinoi#. by '"om "e "a( t"ree c"il(ren. or about t"ree mont"# a%ter t"e 'ill "a( been probate(. '"o 'a# t"en li$in. 2"e ot"er t'o c"il(ren mentione( in t"e 'ill 'ere borne to t"e (ecea#e( by &imeona 7baDe). 8%ter !o"n#on 'a# (i#c"ar. at 5"ica. 2"e .roun(# upon '"ic" t"e petitioner #ee># to a$oi( t"e probate are %our in number an( may be #tate(.ebor. an( imme(iately t"erea%ter embar>e( %or t"e . 1917. '"ere "e pro#pere( in bu#ine## an( continue( to li$e until "i# (eat". 1916.rate( to t"e *nite( &tate# an( li$e( in 5"ica. #pin#ter. t"e (ecea#e( returne( to +anila.roun( o% (e#ertion. '"ere a p"oto.o. in t"e #ame #e4uence in '"ic" t"ey are #et %ort" in t"e petition.o.rante( a (ecree o% (i$orce %rom "im in t"e 5ircuit 5ourt o% 5oo> 5ounty. 8le=an(ra 7baDe). 'a# born a %e' mont"# a%ter t"eir marria. %rom '"ic" country "e emi. +ay 2-."en t"i# $i#it 'a# conclu(e(. t"e purpo#e o% t"e procee(in. bapti)e( @ecember 9. !o"n#on entere( an appearance in "er be"al% an( note( an e6ception to t"e ot"er a(mittin."ilippine 7#lan(#. 7n t"i# city "e appear# to "a$e entere( into marital relation# 'it" 8le=an(ra 7baDe). 8 little later !o"n#on appeare( in t"e *nite( &tate# on a $i#it an( on !anuary 11."ter.. a# %ollo'#: E1F Emil . procure( a certi%icate o% naturali)ation at 5"ica. %rom 109/ to 1090. name( Ebba 7n.7.le.'i%e. o% t"e ca#e are t"e#e: Emil . !o"n#on 'a# born in &'e(en.

t"e 'ill to probate 'a# ma(e 'it"out notice to t"e petitioner9 an( E4F 2"e or(er in 4ue#tion 'a# beyon( t"e =uri#(iction o% t"e court. 7t 'oul( be an e6ceptional ca#e '"ere a court 'oul( (eclare a #tatute $oi(.ular an( t"at t"e publication 'a# #u%%icient to . it i# apparent %rom an in#pection o% t"e recor( o% t"e procee(in. '"ere it "a# ab#olute po##e##ion o% t"e re#. accor(in. bein. it 'a# appri#e( o% t"e %act t"at t"e petitioner li$e( in t"e *nite( &tate# an( t"at a# (au. t"at. 8# 'a# #ai( in t"e ca#e o% 7n re @a$i# E1/6 5al. 2"i# muc" i# un4ue#tione(. in#i#te( t"at t"e court #"oul( "a$e appointe( a (ate %or t"e probate o% t"e 'ill #u%%iciently %ar in t"e %uture to permit t"e petitioner to be pre#ent eit"er in per#on or by repre#entation9 an( it i# #ai( t"at t"e %ailure o% t"e court t"u# to po#tpone t"e probate o% t"e 'ill con#titute# an in%rin. t"en.ment %rom '"ic" t"e petitioner #ee># relie% #"oul( be #et a#i(e becau#e t"e te#tator 'a# not a re#i(ent o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# an( t"e 'ill 'a# not in con%ormity 'it" t"e la'# o% t"at &tate. +oreo$er. o$er t"e %ir#t t'o9 an( a lo. 7t i#. t"e c"aracter o% t"e con#tructi$e notice to be . 2"e %ourt" propo#ition abo$e #tate( mu#t.# %or t"e probate o% t"e 'ill 'ere re.ly.E2F 2"e 'ill i# in$ali( an( ina(e4uate to pa## real an( per#onal property in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#9 E/F 2"e or(er a(mittin. in t"i# cae in t"e or(er la#t abo$e in(icate(.roun(# #tate( ta>e prece(ence. On t"i# point 'e are o% t"e opinion t"at t"e procee(in. a# to t"e probate o% a 'ill i# e##entially one in rem. t"ere%ore. an( t"e re# .. at t"e time t"e court ma(e t"e or(er o% publication.# t"e #tate i# allo'e( a 'i(e latitu(e in (eterminin. an( in t"e $ery nature o% t"in. 7n t"e (i#cu##ion '"ic" i# to %ollo' 'e #"all con#i(er t"e problem# ari#in. an( to allo' t"e 'ill to be probate(. -96F. be interprete( in relation 'it" t"e t"ir( an( mu#t be con#i(ere( a# a corollary (e(uce( %rom t"e latter. t"e 'ill to probate 'a# beyon( t"e =uri#(iction o% t"e court an( $oi( becau#e ma(e 'it"out notice to t"e petitioner9 E77F 2"e =u(.ument #ubmitte( in be"al% o% t"e petitioner. a# (epri$in. *pon t"e 4ue#tion.i$e t"e court =uri#(iction to entertain t"e procee(in. t"e procee(in. pointe( out in t"e ar. by rea#on o% t"eir more %un(amental implication#. #trictly in rem."ter an( "eir #"e 'a# nece##arily intere#te( in t"e probate o% t"e 'ill. ?t"e procee(in."ilippine Aill '"ic" (eclare( t"at property #"all not be ta>en 'it"out (ue proce## o% la'. o% t"e =uri#(iction o% t"e court. a party o% "i# property 'it"out (ue proce## o% la'. 7t i#.i$en to t"e 'orl( in a procee(in. -91. "o'e$er. 7t cannot o% cour#e be maintaine( t"at a court o% %ir#t in#tance lac># e##ential =uri#(iction o$er t"e probate o% 'ill#.# in t"e court belo' t"at all t"e #tep# pre#cribe( by la' a# prere4ui#ite# to t"e probate o% a 'ill 'ere complie( 'it" in e$ery re#pect an( t"at t"e probate 'a# e%%ecte( in e6ternal con%ormity 'it" all le. propo#ition#: E7F 2"e or(er a(mittin. bot" t"e t"ir( an( %ourt" .al re4uirement#.ical e6po#ition o% t"e contention# o% t"e petitioner i# e6pre##e( in t"e t'o %ollo'in.ement o% t"at pro$i#ion o% t"e .

in contra#t 'it" t"e la'# in %orce in per"ap# all o% t"e &tate# o% t"e 8merican *nion.ain#t "im t"rou.. an( in our opinion it# operation i# not to be re#tricte( to =u(. an( it 'a# alle. an appeal in t"e probate procee(in. upon t"e . 7n ot"er 'or(# t"e utility o% t"e pro$i#ion i# not limite( to action# proper but e6ten(# to all #ort# o% =u(icial procee(in..ton. 09F. a 'ill. t"e petitioner "a( a %ull year 'it"in '"ic" #"e mi.F 7n t"e @a$i# ca#e E1/6 5al.i#lature to . in 5ali%ornia.eneral nature aut"ori)in. or procee(in. or (i#allo'in.#.B in t"i# #ection in(icate# an intention on t"e part o% t"e Le. #i6 mont"# a%ter #uc" =u(.'it"in t"e #tate." "i# mi#ta>e.ation '"ere a plainti%% implea(# a (e%en(ant an( brin. E&ee E#tate o% @a$i#. but in no ca#e e6cee(in.al repre#entati$e %rom a =u(. or(er."an $#. 2"i# contention 'a#. /109 2racy $#. "o'e$er.roun( t"at t"e con#tructi$e notice pre#cribe( by t"e #tatute 'a# unrea#onably #"ort.#.ro$i(e(. %or t"e petitioner to appear an( oppo#e t"e probate on t"e (ay #et %or t"e "earin.ment.ment# or or(er# entere( in or(inary contentiou# liti. O3Arien E199 *. '"ic" rea(# a# %ollo'#: *pon #uc" term# a# may be =u#t t"e court may relie$e a party or "i# le. 2"e u#e o% t"e 'or( ?=u(.. ot"er t"an t"at allo'in. a court un(er certain circum#tance# to #et a#i(e any =u(. or(er or ot"er procee(in.i$e a 'i(e latitu(e to t"e reme(y "ere pro$i(e(.B 7n t"at ca#e t"e petitioner "a( been (omicile( in t"e a'aiian 7#lan(# at t"e time o% t"e te#tator3# (eat"9 an( it 'a# impo##ible. 2"i# ca#e aro#e un(er t"e la'# o% t"e &tate o% . "o'e$er. 2"e la'# o% t"e#e 7#lan(#. in $ie' o% t"e (i#tance an( mean# o% communication t"en e6i#tin. 7t 'a# in#i#te( t"at t"i# 'a# an in%rin."t to conte#t t"e 'ill 'it"in a year 'a# a complete re%utation o% t"e ar. 7n t"e #econ( #ection o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il . '"ate$er... or(er.ument %oun(e( on t"e i(ea o% a $iolation o% t"e (ue proce## pro$i#ion. 2"at application t"ere%or be ma(e 'it"in a rea#onable time. "a$e a pro$i#ion o% a .roce(ure it i# (eclare( t"at t"e pro$i#ion# o% t"i# 5o(e #"all be liberally con#true( to promote it# ob=ect an( to a##i#t t"e partie# in . 2"e #ame circum#tance 'a# commente( upon in O35alla. &. +uir. 1-1 5al.ment. re=ecte( an( it 'a# "el( t"at t"e #tatutory ri. 7t 'a# ne$ert"ele## "el( t"at publication in t"e manner pre#cribe( by #tatute con#titute( (ue proce## o% la'. #urpri#e or e6cu#able ne.ement o% t"e Fourteent" 8men(ment o% t"e 5on#titution o% t"e *nite( &tate#. 2"i# pro$i#ion i# %oun( in #ection 11/ o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il . or ot"er procee(in. ina($ertence.lect9 . or(er or ot"er procee(in.i$en a# re4uire( by la'. ta>en a."t "a$e in#titute( a procee(in. -91F t"e court commente( upon t"e %act t"at. 'a# ta>en. un(er t"e la'# o% 5ali%ornia. .roce(ure.ment.ment. /6/.e( t"at a 'ill "a( been t"ere probate( 'it"out t"e notice o% application %or probate "a$in. (eci(e( in t"e &upreme 5ourt o% t"e *nite( &tate#. un(er '"ic" relie% o% any #ort can be obtaine( %rom an or(er o% a court o% %ir#t in#tance improperly allo'in. to conte#t t"e 'ill9 an( t"i# 'a# #tate( a# one o% t"e rea#on# %or "ol(in. t"at publication in t"e manner pro$i(e( by #tatute 'a# #u%%icient. contain no #pecial pro$i#ion. 1-1 5al.e (o.# "im into court by per#onal #er$ice o% proce##.a#"in. been .

1916.e u#e( in t"e #tatute.roce(ure. 7t i# no (oubt true t"at #i6 mont"# 'a#. t"e 'ill to probate "a( been erroneou#ly entere( upon in#u%%icient proo% or upon a #uppo#e( #tate o% %act# contrary to t"e trut". by t"e mo#t rea#onable interpretation o% t"e lan. a $ery #"ort perio( o% time 'it"in '"ic" to e6pect t"e petitioner to appear an( be prepare( to conte#t t"e probate 'it" t"e proo% '"ic" #"e mi. in t"e probate procee(in.rant a re"earin." t"e time allo'e( %or t"e ma>in. at any time 'it"in #i6 mont"# %or +arc" 16. abo$e cite(. an( "a$e obtaine( relie% %rom t"e or(er by '"ic" #"e i# #uppo#e( to "a$e been in=ure(9 an( t"ou.rap" o% t"i# #ection #pea># only o% t"e 'ill ma(e "ere by an alien an( to t"e %urt"er %act t"at t"e 'or( ?#tateB in t"e bo(y o% t"e #ection i# not capitali)e(. alt"ou. !o"n#on to probate cannot be (eclare( null an( $oi( merely becau#e t"e petitioner 'a# una$oi(ably pre$ente( %rom appearin. 1916."et"er t"e re#ult 'oul( "a$e been t"e #ame i% our #y#tem o% proce(ure "a( containe( no #uc" pro$i#ion a# t"at e6pre##e( in #ection 11/ i# a matter '"ic" 'e nee( not "ere con#i(er. an intere#t in t"e #ub=ect matter o% t"e procee(in. Ne$ert"ele##." t"e perio( 'it"in '"ic" t"e application #"oul( "a$e been ma(e 'a# #"ort.ue( t"at #ection 6/6 i# not applicable to t"e 'ill o% a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate# re#i(in. an( upon #"o'in.B u#e( in t"i# #ection. . a(mittin. in con%ormity 'it" t"e (octrine announce( in t"e @a$i# ca#e. to ot"er procee(in."t an( are o% t"e opinion t"at. t"e reme(y 'a# bot" po##ible an( practicable. t"e 'or(# ?anot"er #tate or countryB inclu(e t"e *nite( &tate# an( t"e &tate# o% t"e 8merican *nion. un(er t"e circum#tance#. upon t"e matter o% t"e probate o% t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion.ment. . 2"e po#ition i# ta>en by t"e appellant t"at t"i# #ection i# applicable only to 'ill# o% lien#9 an( in t"i# connection attention i# (irecte( to t"e %act t"at t"e epi. t"e 'ill to probate.ua. or(er.otten a "earin. t"at #"e "a( been preclu(e( %rom appearin.obtainin.# in t"e court belo' 'ere con(ucte( in #uc" manner a# to con#titute (ue proce## o% la'.e t"in> t"at t"e intention t"u# e6"ibite( #"oul( be applie( in t"e interpretation o% #ection 11/9 an( 'e "ol( t"at t"e 'or( ?party. in t"i# ca#e coul( "a$e applie(. in t"e#e 7#lan(#. 7ntimately connecte( 'it" t"e 4ue#tion o% t"e =uri#(iction o% t"e court. 1916. mean# any per#on "a$in."t "a$e (e#ire( to collect %rom remote countrie#. t"e court 'oul( "a$e been aut"ori)e( to #et t"e probate a#i(e an( .inal "earin. an( t"at t"e operation o% t"e #tatute i# not limite( to 'ill# o% alien#."t "a$e . From t"i# it i# ar.. #"e in %act "ere appeare( in court by "er attorney# an( e6cepte( to t"e or(er a(mittin. un(er t"e #ection cite(. 2"e la' #upplie( a reme(y by '"ic" t"e petitioner mi. o% #uc" application 'a# incon$eniently #"ort. ta>en. t"e reme(y e6i#te(9 an( t"e po##ibility o% it# u#e i# pro$e( in t"i# ca#e by t"e circum#tance t"at on !une 12..e con#i(er t"e#e #u. t"e 'ill o% Emil . 7t re#ult# t"at. #pee(y =u#tice. 7t i# a rule o% "ermeneutic# t"at . . at t"e ori. 2"i# relate# to t"e interpretation to be place( upon #ection 6/6 o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il .e#tion# o% little 'ei. i# anot"er matter '"ic" may be properly (i#cu##e( at t"i# =uncture. From '"at "a# been #ai( it %ollo'# t"at t"e or(er o% +arc" 16. t"e procee(in.# by con(ition# o$er '"ic" #"e "a( no control an( t"at t"e or(er a(mittin. t"ere%ore. '"o i# in a po#ition to be conclu(e( by t"e =u(. 2"e petitioner.

#: 2"at upon t"e (ate '"en t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion 'a# e6ecute( Emil . *pon t"e la#t point t"e %in(in.e o% a #tatute an( can ne$er control a. more t"an a con$enient in(e6 to t"e content# o% t"e pro$i#ion. pro$i(e( t"e in#trument 'a# #o e6ecute( a# to be a(mi##ible to probate un(er t"e la'# o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. or "ea(in. 2"e mo#t t"at i# #ai( on t"i# point i# "e 'a# ?ne$er a re#i(ent o% t"e &tate o% . an( t"at t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion 'a# e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e (i#po#ition# o% t"e la' % t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. o% t"e certi%icate o% naturali)ation. "i# 'ill 'a# pro$able un(er t"i# #ection in t"e court# o% t"e . are citi)en# o% t"e *nite( &tate# an( o% t"e &tate '"erein t"ey re#i(e. t"at upon t"e (ate o% t"e e6ecution o% t"e 'ill t"e te#tator 'a# a citi)en o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# an( t"at t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e la'# o% t"at &tate."t to annul t"e probate o% t"i# 'ill (oe# not a##ert t"at t"e te#tator 'a# not a citi)en o% 7llinoi# at t"e (ate '"en t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute(. t"e lan."t to con#i(er t"e #econ( principal propo#ition #tate( at t"e out#et o% t"i# (i#cu##ion. !o"n#on 'a# at t"e time o% "i# (eat" a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate# an( o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. 5ounty o% 5oo>. naturali)e( in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. . a# a con(ition prece(ent to t"e . . 2"e naturali)ation la'# o% t"e *nite( &tate# re4uire. in it# openin. '"ic" rai#e# t"e 4ue#tion '"et"er t"e or(er % probate can be #et a#i(e in t"i# procee(in. t"at t"e applicant #"oul( "a$e re#i(e( at lea#t %i$e year# in t"e *nite( &tate# an( %or one year 'it"in t"e &tate or territory '"ere t"e court ."ilippine 7#lan(#.rantin. an( #ub=ect to t"e =uri#(iction t"ereo%.ree in interpretin.e are t"u# brou. on t"e ot"er . a# 'ell a# o% t"e *nite( &tate#.rap". 'or(#. Furt"ermore. t"e operati$e 'or(# containe( in t"e bo(y o% t"e te6t. cannot "a$e t"e e%%ect o% limitin.ain#t t"e intelli.. namely.ible meanin. 7n t"i# connection it #"oul( be remembere( t"at t"e Fourteent" 8men(ment to t"e 5on#titution o% t"e *nite( &tate# (eclare#. o% a #ection.punctuation an( capitali)ation are ai(# o% lo' (e. t"e 'ill to probate recite#. 7t re#ult# t"at i% Emil .roun( #tate( in t"e petition. t"e epi.. t"at t"e te#tator 'a# not a re#i(ent o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# an( t"at t"e 'ill 'a# not ma(e in con%ormity 'it" t"e la'# o% t"at &tate. t"at all per#on# naturali)e( in t"e *nite( &tate#. amon.rantin. 2"e or(er o% t"e 5ourt o% Fir#t 7n#tance a(mittin. 7t i# note'ort"y t"at t"e petition by '"ic" it i# #ou. !o"n#on 'a# a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate#. bein. naturali)e( in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. not"in.e con#i(er t"i# e4ui$alent to a %in(in. #"oul( be ta>en to imply t"at "e 'a# a citi)en o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. t"e naturali)ation paper# i# "el(9 an( in t"e ab#ence o% clear proo% to t"e contrary it #"oul( be pre#ume( t"at a per#on naturali)e( in a court o% a certain &tate t"ereby become# a citi)en o% t"at &tate a# 'ell a# o% t"e *nite( &tate#. o% t"e 'ritten 'or(#. ot"er t"in. i# e6pre##9 an( in our opinion t"e #tatement t"at t"e te#tator 'a# a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate#.ua.

relie% coul( be . 8# t"e 5ourt o% Fir#t 7n#tance %oun( t"at t"e te#tator 'a# a citi)en o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# an( t"at t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e la'# o% t"at &tate. or by #omeone in "i# be"al%. '"olly in#u%%icient. '"ate$er. Rep.. CaDo.. *nite( . ."il. to la'.9 an( no #uc" 4ue#tion i# no' pre#ente(. but became an( 'a# a re#i(ent o% t"e city o% +anila.roce(ure it i# (eclare( t"at ?t"e allo'ance by t"e court o% a 'ill o% real or per#onal property #"all be conclu#i$e a# to it# (ue e6ecution."il.ment or (ecree ren(ere( in t"e $ariou# #ta.alanca E/7 . in any ot"er procee(in. 4/69 5"ion."te#t intimation t"at a 'ill '"ic" "a# been probate( accor(in."il. in e%%ect.nin.ment i# concerne(. Rep.ularity or (e%ect in t"e e6ecution o% t"e 'ill or on account o% any error in t"e action o% t"e court upon t"e proo% a((uce( be%ore it.#G 7n &ection 62.nature# to t"e 'ill to atte#t t"e act.. can be annulle(."ilippine 7#lan(# i# compatible 'it" citi)en#"ip in 7llinoi#9 an( it mu#t be con#i(ere( t"at t"e alle. Rep.. t"at t"e te#tator 'a# a citi)en o% t"at &tate place# t"e =u(. an( t"e ac>no'le(.. t"i# 'oul( intro(uce an entirely (i%%erent %actor in t"e cae."t be . . t"ere 'oul( "a$e been a pre#umption %rom t"e a(mi##ion o% t"e 'ill to probate a# t"e 'ill o% a citi)en o% 7llinoi# t"at t"e %act# 'ere a# recite( in t"e or(er o% probate."il. !oc-&oy $#.ment o% t"e trial court recite# t"at t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e la' o% 7llinoi# an( al#o.e an( mental capacity o% t"e te#tator.. 0 . 921F. con#i(ere( in t"eir bearin. 7n 8u#trua $#."il.a#cual. Aut re#i(ence in t"e . o% t"e (ocument by t"e te#tator. an( 'it"out %rau(. 4269 .imentel $#. a# an attempt to re%ute citi)en#"ip in 7llinoi#."tly (one. E5a#taDe(a $#. 101. Centenilla E21 .rante( in #ome ot"er procee(in.. 104F. 14 . it 'a# #u.B etc. probable t"at e$en i% t"e =u(.F Our reporte( ca#e# (o not contain t"e #li."il.alanca.B 2"e (ue e6ecution o% a 'ill in$ol$e# con(ition# relatin. 8n( "o' i# it po##ible to e$a(e t"e e%%ect o% t"e#e %in(in. t"e 'ill 'a# nece##arily an( properly a(mitte( to probate.e# o% t"e procee(in. &ue#a. "o'e$er. in ca#e t"e probate o% a 'ill #"oul( be procure( by %rau(. /9-9 +ontaDano $#.e(.# %rom t"eir initiation to t"eir completion ECoor"ee# $#.7llinoi# a%ter t"e year 1090. 11 . Rep. ?2"ere i# no principle o% la' better #ettle( t"an t"at a%ter =uri#(iction "a# once been ac4uire(.eneral =uri#(iction #"all be pre#ume( to "a$e been ri. 8# 'a# #ai( by t"i# court in t"e ca#e o% Aanco E#paDol-Filipino $#."il.. 8lemany.e#te( but not (eci(e( t"at relie% mi.. Rep. 2"e proo% o% all t"e#e re4ui#ite# i# in$ol$e( in t"e probate9 an( a# to eac" an( all o% t"em t"e probate i# conclu#i$e. 676.rante( in ca#e t"e probate o% a 'ill 'ere procure( by %rau(.ment o% t"e in#trument by "im in t"e pre#ence o% t"e re4uire( number o% 'itne##e# '"o a%%i6 t"eir #i. Rep. 2"i# court "a# ne$er been calle( upon to (eci(e '"et"er. on account o% any #uppo#e( irre.ation# o% t"e petition on t"i# point are. Aut it i# rea(ily #een t"at i% %rau( 'ere alle. Rep. 2"e circum#tance t"at t"e =u(. . 2"i# rule i# applie( to e$ery =u(. 1199 &anc"e) $#. #uc" a# t"e a. / .o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il . t"e #i. 7t i#. to a number o% matter#.ment upon an una##ailable ba#i# #o %ar a# any #uppo#e( error apparent upon t"e %act o% t"e =u(. e$ery act o% a court o% .ment "a( not containe( t"e#e recital#. .

a#i(e. in connection 'it" t"e alle. in '"ic" a re$ie' o% t"e e$i(ence can be #ecure( i# by appeal. 2"e only procee(in. 2"e trial court t"ere%ore nece##arily "a( t"e po'er to (etermine t"e %act# upon '"ic" t"e propriety o% a(mittin. .inal =u(.inal an( .roun( t"at t"e %in(in.ation# o% t"e petition. an( t"e ca#e i# not be%ore u# upon appeal %rom t"e ori.# o% t"e trial court are un#upporte( by t"e proo% a((uce( be%ore t"at court... #econ(ly. no e$i(ence 'a# a((uce( #"o'in. 2"e e$i(ence a((uce( upon t"i# point in t"e trial court con#i#t# o% t"e certi%icate o% naturali)ation . to #"o' t"at in #uc" a procee(in. t"i# relie%. to $acate a =u(. "o'e$er.ation. '"et"er t"e e$i(ence #ubmitte( to t"e trial court 'a# #u%%icient to =u#ti%y it# %in(in. an( in%erentially al#o a citi)en o% #ai( &tate. a##erte( t"at t"e %in(in.et. "i# (i#c"ar. it 'ill be pre#ume( t"at #uc" %act 'a# properly brou. '"et"er t"e petition contain# any matter '"ic" 'oul( =u#ti%y t"e court in #ettin."at "a# been #ai( e%%ectually (i#po#e# o% t"e petition con#i(ere( in it# a#pect a# an attac> upon t"e or(er o% probate %or error apparent on t"e %ace o% t"e recor(.ment.inal or(er on t"e .inal or(er a(mittin."t to it# >no'le(.ment 'a# ba#e(. 2"e certi%icate o% naturali)ation #upplie# incontro$ertible proo% t"at upon t"e (ate #tate( t"e te#tator became a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate#.roce(ure. '"en !o"n#on %ir#t came to t"e *nite( &tate# a# a boy. "o'e$er. /149 /. t"e =u(." "e remaine( in t"e#e 7#lan(# %or #ometime a%ter recei$in. in t"e autumn o% 1912. in or(er to #ee.# o% t"e trial court < e#pecially on t"e 4ue#tion o% t"e citi)en#"ip o% t"e te#tator < are not #upporte( by t"e e$i(ence. 8lt"ou. %ir#t. 7t i# ob$iou# t"at on appeal %rom an or(er re%u#in.ment re$ie'e(."tly acte(. t"e 'ill to probate.ment it i# not po##ible to re$ie' t"e e$i(ence upon '"ic" t"e ori. 2"e principal contro$er#y i# o$er t"e citi)en#"ip o% t"e te#tator. Aut t"e petitioner #ee># to "a$e t"e =u(. o'e$er.e. t"at at t"e time "e returne( to t"e *nite( &tate#. "e too> up "i# abo(e in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# an( t"ere remaine( until "e came a# a #ol(ier in t"e *nite( &tate# 8rmy to t"e . 'e propo#e to e6amine t"e e$i(ence #ubmitte( upon t"e ori. 11 .inal "earin.e. 449F9 an( i% t"e recor( i# #ilent 'it" re#pect to any %act '"ic" mu#t "a$e e#tabli#"e( be%ore t"e court coul( "a$e ri. 7t nee(# but a moment3# re%lection. in connection 'it" certain bio..rap"ical %act# containe( in t"e oral e$i(ence. 2"e pre#ent procee(in."t o% appeal. a# t"i# it i# not po##ible to re$er#e t"e ori.B 2"e 5ourt o% Fir#t 7n#tance i# a court o% ori. 191/. "e "a( t"en aban(one( .#. 7n t"e te#timony #ubmitte( to t"e trial court it appear# t"at.&tate# Aan>. &. an( t"e appeal "erein i# %rom t"e or(er (enyin.nore t"e circum#tance t"at t"e petition 'a# %ile( a%ter t"e e6piration o% t"e #i6 mont"# allo'e( by #ection 11/ o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il . it bein. 7llinoi#.ment 'a# probably not e##ential to it# $ali(ity. 7n t"i# connection 'e #"all %or a moment i. nece##ary on t"i# point. No e6pre## rulin. t"e 'ill to probate (epen(e(9 an( t"e recital o% t"o#e %act# in t"e =u(. i#. an(.rante( upon !anuary 11.*. %or t"e purpo#e o% arri$in. at a =u#t conception o% t"e ca#e %rom t"e point o% $ie' o% t"e petitioner. in t"e 5ircuit 5ourt o% 5oo> 5ounty.# by petition to #et a#i(e t"e or(er o% probate."ilippine 7#lan(#.eneral =uri#(iction9 an( t"ere i# no (i%%erence in it# %acultie# in t"i# re#pect '"et"er e6erci#e( in matter# o% probate or e6erte( in or(inary contentiou# liti. 2o permit t"i# 'oul( operate un(uly to protract t"e ri.

t"at. it i# to be pre#ume( t"at "e retaine( "i# citi)en#"ip in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# alon. 2"e e%%ect o% t"i# pro$i#ion nece##arily i# t"at a per#on tran#%errin. in our opinion.o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il . 2"e proo% a((uce( be%ore t"e trial court mu#t t"ere%ore be ta>en a# #"o'in. impo##ible %or t"e te#tator. t"e probate a#i(e %or lac> o% t"e nece##ary citi)en#"ip on t"e part o% t"e te#tator. t"at #ection aut"ori)e# t"e court# "ere to ta>e =u(icial notice. an( on t"e contrary t"e certi%icate o% naturali)ation it#el% recite# t"at at t"at time "e claime( to be a re#i(ent o% 7llinoi#. a# e6"ibite( in $olume / o% &tarr H 5urti#3# 8nnotate( 7llinoi# &tatute#. 2n( e(. t"ere%ore.e no (oubt 'a# #ati#%ie( t"at t"e 'ill 'a# properly e6ecute( by e6aminin. 2"e trial =u(. 2"i#. 'it" "i# #tatu# a# a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate#. amon. 7t 'oul( be no$el (octrine to 8merican# li$in. to e6patriate "im#el% %rom t"e *nite( &tate# an( c"an.e o% (omicile (oe# "e lo#e t"at '"ic" "e brou. in t"e .. . ere "e cannot ac4uire a ne' citi)en#"ip9 nor by t"e mere c"an.y to t"at '"ic" ari#e# '"en a citi)en o% an 8merican &tate come# to re#i(e in t"e . citi)en#"ip in t"e &tate o% "i# ne' abo(e.e "i# political #tatu# %rom a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate# to a citi)en o% t"e#e 7#lan(#. 2"e ac4ui#ition o% t"e ne' &tate citi)en#"ip e6tin. "e imme(iately ac4uire# citi)en#"ip in t"e &tate o% "i# ne' (omicile."ilippine 7#lan(#. 7% #o. i% upon !anuary 11. true. t"e te#tator became a citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate# an( o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. a# #tate( in t"e or(er o% probate.ui#"e# t"e ol(.. No'.roce(ure. 2"i# bein.i#lati$e (epartment o% t"e *nite( &tate#."ilippine 7#lan(#."ilippine 7#lan(# to be tol( t"at by li$in. ot"er t"in.ation o% t"e petition on t"i# point i# '"olly in#u%%icient to =u#ti%y any relie% '"ate$er. 4269 an( "e may "a$e a##ume( t"at "e coul( ta>e =u(icial notice o% t"e la'# o% 7llinoi# un(er #ection 27. at t"e time t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute(.7llinoi# a# t"e &tate o% "i# permanent (omicile. in connection 'it" t"e circum#tance t"at t"e petition (oe# not e$en #o muc" a# (eny #uc" citi)en#"ip but only a##ert# t"at t"e te#tator 'a# a re#i(ent o% t"e . t"e te#tator 'a#. p. 8# alrea(y ob#er$e(. a citi)en o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#.re## o% t"e *nite( &tate#9 an( 'e 'oul( . "a# no analo.e are not unmin(%ul o% t"e %act t"at '"en a citi)en o% one &tate lea$e# it an( ta>e# up "i# abo(e in anot"er &tate 'it" no intention o% returnin. t"e alle.n nati$ity can become a naturali)e( citi)en o% t"e .#. "i# (omicile %rom one &tate to anot"er lo#e# "i# citi)en#"ip in t"e &tate o% "i# ori.inal abo$e upon ac4uirin. e$en i% "e "a( #o (e#ire(. 191/. "ere t"ey lo#e t"eir citi)en#"ip in t"e &tate o% t"eir naturali)ation or nati$ity. "o' "a# "e lo#t t"e c"aracter o% citi)en 'it" re#pect to eit"er o% t"e#e =uri#(iction#G 2"ere i# no la' in %orce by $irtue o% '"ic" any per#on o% %orei. "e 'a# in our opinion mi#ta>en. 2"at #ituation. o% t"e act# o% t"e le."t 'it" "im. #ection 1074 o% t"e Re$i#e( &tatute# o% 7llinoi#. 2"e#e 'or(# clearly "a$e re%erence to 8ct# o% t"e 5on. 2"i# i# in accor(ance 'it" t"at pro$i#ion o% t"e Fourteent" 8men(ment to t"e 5on#titution o% t"e *nite( &tate# '"ic" #ay# t"at e$ery citi)en o% t"e *nite( &tate# i# a citi)en o% t"e &tate '"ere in "e re#i(e#."ilippine 7#lan(#9 an( it 'a#. *pon t"e ot"er point < a# to '"et"er t"e 'ill 'a# e6ecute( in con%ormity 'it" t"e #tatute# o% t"e &tate o% 7llinoi# < 'e note t"at it (oe# not a%%irmati$ely appear %rom t"e tran#action o% t"e te#timony a((uce( in t"e trial court t"at any 'itne## 'a# e6amine( 'it" re%erence to t"e la' o% 7llinoi# on t"e #ub=ect o% t"e e6ecution o% 'ill. (emon#trate# t"e impo##ibility o% #ettin.

#"all be re. unle## it #"oul( be ma(e to appear a%%irmati$ely t"at t"e con=ecture 'a# 'ron. 7t i# $ery clear.B . e$en upon application ma(e 'it"in #i6 mont"# un(er #ection 11/ o% t"e 5o(e o% 5i$il proce(ure. te#tamentary #ucce##ion# in t"e#e 7#lan(#. an( 'e are cite( to no aut"ority in t"e appellant3# brie% '"ic" mi..ar(# t"e (ue e6ecution o% t"e 'ill.ua.rap" o% article 11 o% t"e 5i$il 5o(e it i# (eclare( t"at ?le.itime to '"ic" #"e i# entitle( un(er t"e la' .otten t"at t"e intrin#ic $ali(ity o% t"e pro$i#ion# o% t"i# 'ill mu#t be (etermine( by t"e la' o% 7llinoi# an( not.e ?#imilarB to t"o#e t"erein enumerate(.i$en by t"e 'ill or ot"er (i#po#ition ma(e t"erein i# contrary to t"e la' applicable in #uc" ca#e. becau#e t"e a##i. it #"oul( appear t"at any le. Ganara."ilippine 7#lan(#9 an( it i# #u.e. '"ate$er may be t"e nature o% t"e property an( t"e country '"ere it may be #ituate. #tate# in . 2"ou. a# t"e appellant apparently a##ume#.F 7%. upon t"e (i#tribution o% t"i# e#tate.. t"at t"e trial court may "a$e erre( in ta>in. an(. 6149 &a"a. 119. by t"e . '"ere it i# #ai( t"at our court# may ta>e =u(icial notice o% matter# o% public >no'le(. /47. /9-. *pon t"i# point it i# #u%%icient to #ay t"at t"e probate o% t"e 'ill (oe# not a%%ect t"e intrin#ic $ali(ity o% it# pro$i#ion#.nment o% error an( ar. E5o(e o% 5i$il .ment coul( not be #et a#i(e. #uc" error i# not no' a$ailable to t"e petitioner. /499 5"ion.o$ernin. =u(icial notice o% t"e la' o% 7llinoi# on t"e point in 4ue#tion. 2"e proper rule 'e t"in> i# to re4uire proo% o% t"e #tatute# o% t"e &tate# o% t"e 8merican *nion '"ene$er t"eir pro$i#ion# are (eterminati$e o% t"e i##ue# in any action liti.ument %or t"e appellant in t"i# court rai#e# no 4ue#tion ba#e( on #uc" #uppo#e( error. 'it" re. 62-. it #"oul( not be %or. Rep.itimate "eir o% t"e te#tator #"e cannot be (epri$e( o% t"e le. @e Goro#ti)a. u#e( in t"e #ame action."ilippine court#.ate( in t"e . CaDo.al an( te#tamentary #ucce##ion#. but t"i# i# merely a conclu#ion o% la'. 0 ."t tent to rai#e a (oubt a# to t"e correctne## o% t"e conclu#ion o% t"e trial court. in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. t"ere%ore."il.ar( to t"e or(er o% #ucce##ion.e( a# o% #eriou# moment. Ne$ert"ele##. t"e (ecree o% probate bein. conclu#i$e only a# re."t# an( to t"e intrin#ic $ali(ity o% t"eir pro$i#ion#.e#te( t"at a# t"e petitioner i# a le. ta>e =u(icial notice o% t"e multi%ariou# la'# o% t"e $ariou# 8merican &tate#. e$en #uppo#in. un(er t"i# pro$i#ion. Rep.eneral term# t"at t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion i# in$ali( an( ina(e4uate to pa## real an( per#onal property in t"e &tate o% 7llinoi#. Nor (o 'e t"in> t"at any #uc" aut"ority can be (eri$e( %rom t"e broa(er lan.. #econ(ly. a# 'ell a# to t"e amount o% t"e #ucce##ional ri."il. t"ere%ore. Aut it i# in#i#te( in t"e brie% %or t"e appellant t"at t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion 'a# not properly a(mi##ible to probate becau#e it contain# pro$i#ion# '"ic" cannot be .i$en e%%ect con#i#tently 'it" t"e la'# o% t"e .un $#. 2"e a%%i(a$it# by '"ic" t"e petition i# accompanie( contain no re%erence to t"e #ub=ect.. 7 . it# =u(.ulate( by t"e la'# o% t"e nation o% t"e per#on '"o#e #ucce##ion i# in 4ue#tion. it i# true. 11 ..eneral pro$i#ion# "ere applicable in #uc" matter#9 %or in t"e #econ( para. 1219 Lim=uco $#. 2"e petitioner. %ir#t." t"e trial court may "a$e acte( upon pure con=ecture a# to t"e la' pre$ailin. #ec#. /9/.roce(ure. !oc-&oy $#. becau#e t"e petition (oe# not #tate any %act %rom '"ic" it 'oul( appear t"at t"e la' o% 7llinoi# i# (i%%erent %rom '"at t"e court %oun(. Rep."il. Ne$ert"ele##. t"at t"i# point cannot be ur.acy ."e#itate to "ol( t"at our court# can. t"e 'ill mu#t nece##arily yiel( upon t"at point an( t"e la' mu#t pre$ail.

1916. ba#e( upon t"e ne' e$i(ence #ubmitte( in t"e a%%i(a$it# '"ic" accompany t"e petition."t. 8n( in t"i# latter a#pect t"e petition i# #ub=ect to t"e %urt"er %atal (e%ect t"at it 'a# not pre#ente( 'it"in t"e time allo'e( by la'. t"e relie% #ou. &o or(ere(. it i#. concur. 8$anceDa an( Fi#"er. 2"e or(er appeale( %rom i# accor(in. 7t %ollo'# t"at t"e trial court committe( no error in (enyin. mani%e#t t"at t"e petition #ubmitte( to t"e court belo' on October /1.ly a%%irme( 'it" co#t#.. !o"n#on. 'a# entirely in#u%%icient to 'arrant t"e #ettin. !!. +alcolm. a#i(e o% t"e ot"er probatin. 'e t"in>. or '"et"er it be con#i(ere( a# an application %or a re"earin. 2orre#. '"et"er #ai( petition be con#i(ere( a# an attac> on t"e $ali(ity o% t"e (ecree %or error apparent.From '"at "a# been #ai(. t"e 'ill in 4ue#tion. .

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