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Statics

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October 3, 2013 Slide 1 Pressure Pressure is dened as a normal force exerted by a uid per unit area. Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called a pascal (Pa). Since the unit Pa is too small for pressures encountered in practice, kilopascal (1 kPa = 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106 Pa) are commonly used. Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2, lbf/in2=psi. Slide 2 Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures Actual pressure at a give point is called the absolute pressure. Most pressure-measuring devices are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere, and therefore indicate gage pressure, Pgage = Pabs Patm . Pressure below atmospheric pressure are called vacuum pressure, Pvac = Patm Pabs . Slide 3 Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures Slide 4 Pressure at a Point Pressure at any point in a uid is the same in all directions. Pressure has a magnitude, but not a specic direction, and thus it is a scalar quantity. Slide 5 Variation of Pressure with Depth In the presence of a gravitational eld, pressure increases with depth because more uid rests on deeper layers. To obtain a relation for the variation of pressure with depth, consider rectangular element. Force balance in z-direction gives Fz = maz = 0 P2 x = P1 z g xz = 0 Dividing by x and rearranging gives P = P2 P1 = gz = z (3) (4) Slide 6 Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure in a uid at rest is independent of the shape of the container. Pressure is the same at all points on a horizontal plane in a given uid. Slide 7 Scuba Diving and Hydrostatic Pressure If you hold your breath on ascent, your lung volume would increase by a factor of 4, which would result in embolism and/or death. Pressure on diver at 100 ft? (1) (2)

Slide 8 Pascals Law Pressure applied to a conned uid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount. In picture, pistons are at same height: F1 F1 F2 A2 = = A1 A1 F1 A1

P1 = P2

(5)

Ratio A2/A1 is called ideal mechanical advantage. Slide 9 The Manometer An elevation change of z in a uid at rest corresponds to P/rg . A device based on this is called a manometer. A manometer consists of a U-tube containing one or more uids such as mercury, water, alcohol, or oil. Heavy uids such as mercury are used if large pressure dierences are anticipated. P1 = P2 P2 = Patm + gh (6) (7) (8) Slide 10 Mutlifluid Manometer For multi-uid systems pressure change across a uid column of height h is P = gh. Pressure increases downward, and decreases upward. Two points at the same elevation in a continuous uid are at the same pressure. Pressure can be determined by adding and subtracting gh terms P2 + gh1 + gh2 + gh3 = P1 Slide 11 Measuring Pressure Drops Manometers are well-suited to measure pressure drops across valves, pipes, heat exchangers, etc. Relation for pressure drop P1 P2 is obtained by starting at point 1 and adding or subtracting gh terms until we reach point 2. If uid in pipe is a gas, 2 >> 1 and P1 P2 = gh. Slide 12 The Barometer Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer; thus, atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure. PC can be taken to be zero since there is only Hg vapor above point C, and it is very low relative to Patm . Change in atmospheric pressure due to elevation has many eects: Cooking, nose bleeds, engine performance, aircraft performance. PC + gh = Patm Patm = gh (10) (11) (9)

Slide 13 Fluid Statics Fluid Statics deals with problems associated with uids at rest. In uid statics, there is no relative motion between adjacent uid layers. Therefore, there is no shear stress in the uid trying to deform it. The only stress in uid statics is normal stress. Normal stress is due to pressure. Variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the uid ? uid statics is only relevant in presence of gravity elds. Applications: Floating or submerged bodies, water dams and gates, liquid storage tanks, etc. Slides 14,15,16 Hoover Dams Slide 17 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces On a plane surface, the hydrostatic forces form a system of parallel forces For many applications, magnitude and location of application, which is called center of pressure, must be determined. Atmospheric pressure Patm can be neglected when it acts on both sides of the surface. Slide 18 Resultant Force The magnitude of FR acting on a plane surface of a completely submerged plate in a homogeneous uid is equal to the product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the surface and the area A of the surface. Slide 19 Center of Pressure Line of action of resultant force F R = PC A does not pass through the centroid of the surface. In general, it lies underneath where the pressure is higher. Vertical location of Center of Pressure is determined by equation the moment of the resultant force to the moment of the distributed pressure force. y p = yc + Ixx,C is tabulated for simple geometries. Slide 20 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces FR on a curved surface is more involved since it requires integration of the pressure forces that change direction along the surface. Easiest approach: determine horizontal and vertical components FH and FV separately. Slide 21 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces Horizontal force component on curved surface: FH = Fx . Line of action on vertical plane gives y coordinate of center of pressure on curved surface. Vertical force component on curved surface: FV = Fy + W , where W is the weight of the liquid in the enclosed block W = gV , x coordinate of the center of pressure is a combination of line of action on horizontal plane (centroid of area) and line of action through volume (centroid of volume). Ixx,C yC A (12)

Angle of force is a = tan1 (FV /FH ) Slide 22 Buoyancy and Stability Buoyancy is due to the uid displaced by a body. FB = f gV. Archimedes principal : The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in a uid is equal to the weight of the uid displaced by the body, and it acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume. Slide 23 Buoyancy and Stability Buoyancy force FB is equal only to the displaced volume f gV displaced. Three scenarios possible. body < f luid : Floating body body = f luid : Neutrally buoyant body > f luid :Sinking body Slide 24 Example: Galilean Thermometer Galileos thermometer is made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid. Suspended in the liquid are a number of weights, which are sealed glass containers with colored liquid for an attractive eect. As the liquid changes temperature it changes density and the suspended weights rise and fall to stay at the position where their density is equal to that of the surrounding liquid. If the weights dier by a very small amount and ordered such that the least dense is at the top and most dense at the bottom they can form a temperature scale. Slide 25 Example: Floating Drydock Using buoyancy, a submarine with a displacement of 6,000 tons can be lifted! Slides 26,27, 28, 29 Example: Submarine Buoyancy and Ballast Submarines use both static and dynamic depth control. Static control uses ballast tanks between the pressure hull and the outer hull. Dynamic control uses the bow and stern planes to generate trim forces. Slide 30 Stability of Immersed Bodies Rotational stability of immersed bodies depends upon relative location of center of gravity G and center of buoyancy B.

G below B: stable G above B: unstable G coincides with B: neutrally stable Slide 31 Stability of Floating Bodies If body is bottom heavy (G lower than B), it is always stable. Floating bodies can be stable when G is higher than B due to shift in location of center buoyancy and creation of restoring moment. Measure of stability is the metacentric height GM. If GM > 0, ship is stable. Slide 32 Rigid-Body Motion There are special cases where a body of uid can undergo rigid-body motion: linear acceleration, and rotation of a cylindrical container. In these cases, no shear is developed. Newtons 2nd law of motion can be used to derive an equation of motion for a uid that acts as a rigid body P + g k = a In Cartesian coordinates: P = ax x P = ay y P = ( g + a z ) z Slide 33 Linear Acceleration Container is moving on a straight path ax = 0; ay = 0; az = 0 P = ax ; x Total dierential of P dP = ax dx gdz Pressure dierence between 2 points P2 P1 = ax (x2 x1 ) g (z2 z1 ) Find the rise by selecting 2 points on free surface P2 = P1 z s = z s2 z s1 = ax (x2 x1 ) g (20) (21) (19) (18) P = 0; y P = g z (13)

(17)

Slide 34 Rotation in a Cylindrical Container Container is rotating about the z-axis ar = r 2 ; a = az = 0 P = r 2 ; r Total dierential of P dP = r 2 dr gdz On an isobar, dP = 0 r 2 2 r2 zisobar = zisobar = + C1 r g 2g Equation of the free surface 2 2 (R 2r2 ) 4g (24) (23) P = 0; P = g ; z (22)

zs = h0

(25)

Slides 35, 36 Examples of Archimedes Principle. The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of Syracuse Archimedes, 287-212 B.C. Hiero, 306-215 B.C. Hiero learned of a rumor where the goldsmith replaced some of the gold in his crown with silver. Hiero asked Archimedes to determine whether the crown was pure gold. Archimedes had to develop a nondestructive testing method. Slides 37 The Golden Crown of Hiero II, King of Syracuse The weight of the crown and nugget are the same in air: Wc = c Vc = Wn = n Vn . If the crown is pure gold, c = n which means that the volumes must be the same, Vc = Vn . In water, the buoyancy force is B = H2 O V . If the scale becomes unbalanced, this implies that the Vc = Vn , which in turn means that the c = n Goldsmith was shown to be a fraud! Slides 38 Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing What is the best way to measure body fat? Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing using Archimedes Principle! Process Measure body weight W = body V . Get in tank, expel all air, and measure apparent weight Wa Buoyancy force B = W Wa = H2 O V . This permits computation of body volume. Body density can be computed body = W/V . Body fat can be computed from formulas. Slides 40 Hydrostatic Bodyfat Testing in Air? Same methodology as Hydrostatic testing in water. What are the ramications of using air? Density of air is 1/1000th of water. Temperature dependence of air. Measurement of small volumes.

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