Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service


Landscaping and Gardening for Birds
David Hillock Ron Masters
Wildlife Specialist Extension Consumer Horticulturist

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu
seeds or fruits for birds. On the other hand, an evergreen holly hedge loaded with berries will be attractive, provide shelter in the winter, and still feed wildlife. Use native plants whenever possible. Our native birds are adapted to the native plants, which are often drought resistant, cold and heat tolerant, and many are proven bird attractors. An additional benefit is that they are often low maintenance. Use flowering plants. Hummingbirds require a constant and diverse supply of flowers on which to feed from April until late fall. Some early blooming plants are the American columbine, petunia, foxglove, hardy fuchsia, and larkspur. Late blooming plants include red bergamot, cardinal flower, scarlet trumpet honeysuckle, salvia, and trumpet creeper. For best results, choose plants that prefer bright sunny areas. The plants will yield greater quantities of nectar given adequate access to sunlight, and the hummingbirds will benefit from the sun’s warming rays.

John M. Dole

Associate Professor of Floriculture

Stephanie A. Smith Paul J. Mitchell

Wildlife Extension Program Assistant

Professor of Horticulture

Attracting birds to landscapes and outdoor areas is an activity that can bring much enjoyment to the entire family. Landscaping and gardening for birds is gaining in popularity as people become more aware of the benefits of having a diverse environment around them. Bringing these beautiful creatures near homesites also helps manage insect populations and maintain the ecological balance of outdoor environments. Birds need three things to survive — food, water, and shelter. These elements can easily be supplied in your backyard. One of the key elements for attracting many species of birds is a wide variety of plants arranged into sheltered areas of shrubs and trees, open areas of lawns and gardens, and/or wet areas around ponds and streams. Gardeners and landscapers should be aware that the predominant habitat type in the area will determine which bird species can be attracted to a yard. For example, if the entire neighborhood is heavily wooded, purple martins will be difficult or impossible to attract. On the other hand, areas with many tall, mature trees will have numerous birds, such as some of the owls, vireos, and warblers, that open areas may not attract. Some species such as the cardinal and mockingbird require shrub cover. In particular, if you have a new house in a recently built residential area, give the yard time to mature. As the shrubs and trees grow, so will the number of birds in your yard. New areas with few mature trees and little shelter for birds will take several years to become hospitable places for birds requiring trees and shrubs.

Trees and Shrubs
Many tree and shrub species can be useful for both wildlife and gardeners. There are several selections in the listings that follow. An example would be the oaks: chinkapin, live, northern, and shumard oaks are all good selections. Check for species best adapted to your location and soil type. (See Tables 1, 2, and 3.)

Herbaceous Plants
Herbaceous plants can be either annuals or perennials. Annuals are those plants that need to be replanted each year. Perennial plants that are adapted to Oklahoma’s Winter Hardy Zones 6 and 7 should provide years of benefit to the landscape. Some perennials are tender and need extra protection by mulching during the winter. There are also a few tender perennials grown as annuals. Vines on fences and other supports can turn a part of the yard into prime real estate for food, nesting, and shelter. Bittersweet, trumpet creeper, clematis, honeysuckle, grapes, and Virginia creeper have the added attraction of flowers and/or fruits. (See Tables 4 and 5.)

Plant Materials
Use a diverse selection of plant materials to provide food and shelter for birds. Fill your yard with fruit- or seed-bearing plants for the best habitat development. Although most plants are beautiful, not all benefit wildlife other than to give shelter. For example, a forsythia or lilac hedge can provide shelter and be a spectacular sight in the spring, but they provide no

Miscellaneous Plant Materials
Vegetable crops make nice choices for many birds. Sacrifice a few vegetables each year by picking damaged pieces and leaving them in another open location for the birds to eat. Many times the rest of the crop will be left alone.

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources • Oklahoma State University

and rinse thoroughly with warm water. Dandelion seeds are a favorite of goldfinches. and occasionally a variety of other seemingly unlikely birds such as woodpeckers and chickadees. Never use honey or a sugar substitute when making your own nectar mix. or native grasses like alfalfa. woodpeckers. Fruit feeders (wedges of oranges. When placing the feeders near the house. grains. ponds. Bark. or natural streams. sea oats. sparrows. Hummingbird Feeders For the best success. but do not forget that summer feeding can also be rewarding. Weeds in the right places. Shelter Birds require shelter for nesting and resting areas as well as protection from predators and inclement weather. Shelter 6435-2 . hummingbird feeders should be placed in or near the hummingbird garden to encourage feeding from natural sources. Diseases can grow in wet and moldy seed. or switchgrass. pheasants. be sure to use several feeders and hang them far apart. especially when your feeder already has the appropriate red plastic blossom. and flickers because of the insects and worms they find there. towhees. squirrels. In a smaller section of the garden or landscape. brown thrashers. orioles. can be very useful for animal food and shelter. Keep the bath away from the bird feeder to prevent food from spoiling the water. and finches. especially in warm weather. or ceramic should be washed with a solution of 1 tablespoon white vinegar and 1 cup water. Harvest a few heads for feed during the winter and then let the finches. catbirds. A bird bath heater can be used during the winter to keep the water from freezing and thus attract an amazing variety of birds. apples. chickadees. Seed feeders are visited by cardinals. Dripping water is especially enticing to birds and can be as elaborate as a fountain or as simple as a garden hose turned on at low volume. buntings. blackbirds. mockingbirds. usually far away from gardens. mourning doves. Do not add any chemicals to the water. do not be concerned if small insects are found in the mouth of the feeder. The water level should be no deeper than two inches. glass. Bird baths should have a clear area of ten feet in diameter around the bath to prevent predators from sneaking up on birds drinking from the water. clover. leaf. juncos. and others. Bird feeders should be cleaned regularly. Supplemental Feeding Supplying bird feeders in your landscape will create additional opportunities to watch birds feed. Lawns play a role in feeding several species of birds such as robins. Allow the nectar to cool before filling the feeder. and in warm sugar water. Allow weedy areas to grow up at the back of your yard or wherever you and the neighbors will not see them. especially during bad winter weather. or compost mulches attract insects on which many animals and birds feed. or lakes. chipping sparrows. shallow edges of decorative ponds. the use of red food coloring in your solution is both unnecessary and unhealthy for the birds. Keep feeders stocked. Shrubs or trees should be no closer than 10 feet so birds can escape in case of danger. Honey will attract bees as well as a black fungus that will cause a fatal liver and tongue disease in hummingbirds. or rake up the seed debris and place it in the compost pile. The bath should be washed out every 3 to 4 days and disinfected once or twice a year with bleach. Equally effective is a milk jug (with a small hole in the bottom) hung from a tree branch over a bird bath. You can either buy a commercial nectar solution or simply make your own using one part granulated sugar to four parts boiling water. They fulfill the protein requirements for hummingbirds and should not be removed from the feeder until cleaning. tanagers. It is a good idea to move your feeders each season to give the ground underneath time to break down the seed debris and bird droppings. Also. bluebirds. For this reason pesticide use should be minimized. chipmunks. Hummingbirds are extremely territorial and aggressive around a single food source. Place a rock in the center to make it easier for birds to use. in bird droppings. Nectar feeders attract hummingbirds. Plastic mulches or weed barriers can be covered with organic material. Place bird feeders where you can easily see them from the house and enjoy the activities of the birds. However. incorporate legumes. and juncos eat what is left. finches. quail. but avoid using stone mulches. Water Water can be supplied by bird baths. Feeders made of plastic. quaking oats. and robins. Hummingbird feeders require cleaning every 2 to 3 days. you may wish to place additional feeders near a window or porch in order to see and photograph the hummingbirds up close. Farm supply stores will carry these seeds. This will eliminate aggressive competition for nectar between these insects and hummingbirds. mourning doves. millet. Use a bottle brush to clean hardened debris on feeders. bananas) are favored by orioles. It is important to use a feeder with a bee and wasp guard. However.

and rhododendrons are examples. Russian olive. Nest Boxes Bluebirds. Evergreens provide shelter during the winter when other plants have lost their leaves. blackberries. and sparrows. and woodpeckers can be attracted to your yard with the right nest boxes. hollies. barberries. Boxes should be cleaned and ready for occupancy by mid-February. wrens. marshes Mature bottomland forests Farmland.Add 2" to 3" wood chips to simulate floor of natural cavity e . Northern Flickers Pileated Woodpeckers 4x4 6x6 6x6 7x7 12x12 12 14 14 18 24 6-8 9-12 9-12 14-16 16-18 1 1/2 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 4 5-15 8-20 8-20 8-20 15-25 KEY: a . or large tree Forest openings & edges Forest openings & edges Forest openings & edges Farmland. Thorny or densely branched trees and shrubs. and rose acacia provide excellent shelter. towhees. to 4 ft. woods Wooded swamps. on barn.can be provided in many ways. Clean nest boxes at the end of each nesting season to prepare them for next year’s occupants.Staple 3"-wide hardware-cloth “ladder” directly under hole on inside of nest box c . pile broken branches.e 12x12 24 12-16 4 3-30 Barred Owls d 14x14 28 18-20 8 15-30 Barn Owls d 16x20 16 4 6 15-30 WOODPECKERS f Downy Woodpeckers Hairy Woodpeckers Red-bellied & Red-headed W. southern magnolias. trifoliate orange.Species prefer nest box mounted on post 3 ft.Staple 5"-wide hardware-cloth “ladder” directly under hole on inside of nest box f . and other miscellaneous plant materials into an open pile for cardinals. Pine trees. wrens. open country Mature forest LARGE CAVITY NESTERS American Kestrels 8x8 18 9-12 3 8-30 Screech Owls d 8x8 18 9-12 3 8-30 Wood Ducks a. raspberries.d. rivers. Junipers also provide berries in the winter but are so common in Oklahoma that wildlife may benefit more from less prevalent evergreens. The European starling and English (house) sparrow are introduced species of birds that may cause problems in nest NEST BOX SPECIFICATIONS FOR OKLAHOMA CAVITY NESTERS SPECIES SMALL CAVITY NESTERS Eastern Bluebirds Chickadees Titmice Nuthatches Wrens Prothonotary Warblers a Swallows b Great-crested Flycatchers House Finches Purple Martins Floor of Cavity (inches) 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 5x5 6x6 6x6 8x8 Depth of Cavity (inches) 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 12 8 6 Entrance above Floor (inches) 6 6-8 6-8 6-8 4-6 4-6 1 side open 6-8 4-6 2 Diameter Height of Entrance above Ground (inches) (feet) 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 3/4 c 2 2 1/4 3-6 4-15 4-15 4-15 3-10 3-12 3-8 6-20 5-10 15-25 Preferred Habitat Open land with scattered trees Open woods & edges Open woods & edges Open woods & edges Old fields & thickets Wooded streams & swamps Open land near ponds or lakes Open woods & edges Backyards & porches Open country near water Open farmland & wooded edges Farmland. such as shrub roses. chickadees. above open water b . silo.Pack woodpecker nest box with sawdust for birds to “excavate” 6435-3 . prunings. If you have the room.Use a 1 9/16" hole if starlings are problem d . orchards.

Realize that you do not have to plant it all in one season. 6. Hummingbirds are identified by the extremely rapid movement of their tiny wings that creates a humming sound as they fly or hover. using plants that you know will work best for you. Try to remove problem insects by hand.). Realize that while your yard and garden may not provide all of the necessary components. 5. dry. For its size. Decide which types of birds or other animals you may feasibly attract given the habitat surrounding your yard and already in place (for example. weeding. Some insects can be ignored without damaging plants too much. generally more than the owner realizes. Review the basic needs of birds (food. Houses. as martins seem to prefer being close to humans. Once they use it to nest. acrobatics. your neighbor’s yards may contain some of these. nuthatches. One good way to control starlings is to make entrance holes less than 1 3/4 inches in diameter. This involves watering. 6. you may obtain Shelves.00 from your local OSU Cooperative Extension office. Leave as many thick. Develop a planting plan. chickadees. Check the tables for listings of plants to determine which plants are appropriate for your area that you may want or need to obtain. Draw a map of your property. and brown creepers will look for insects on them. 4. Minimize the use of chemicals in your yard. Maintain your plan. cover) and determine those components already present in your yard and those that may be lacking. the more birds you will have. Purple martin houses are especially popular and widely used. The metabolism of hummingbirds is also one of its distinguishing features. Leave a small area of the garden unplanted and dry to make a dust bath. hummingbirds are often as brightly colored as jewels. The hummingbird is the smallest native bird in North America. Determine how much money you are willing to spend. keeping in mind those areas that are either shady. it surpasses all other warm 6435-4 . Both species compete with native songbirds for nest cavities and structures. For additional information in building bird houses and feeders. Woodpeckers. Keep a small area of your garden muddy for robins and swallows to use for making their mud nests. Neither of these species are protected by law and should be controlled if necessary. water. Open. Other birds can use the cavities in dead wood for homes. Check with natural resource professionals and various reference books at your library or bookstore for practical tips. If you have a cat. and Feeders for Birds and Mammals for $6. dusty areas are great for birds to use as dust baths. Further Wildlife Enhancements 1. etc. and mowing. A pile of sand or crushed egg shells nearby can also serve as grit for birds that need it for digestion of food. You may have to regularly evict starlings and house sparrows until a colony of martins finds the house and starts to occupy it. Implement your plan. Remember. A map can help you experiment with different designs. hair. The average wingbeat of a hummingbird in flight is 55 strokes per second. or the feathers from an old feather pillow in the yard. length totaling about 3 1/2 inches overall. energetic birds can provide hours of enjoyment through their dazzling flying abilities. dry. 3. The more insects around the yard. 5. Encourage your neighbors to keep their cats inside or to use collars with bells. Set your objectives and priorities. place them in an open area within 100 feet of a house. Emphasize native plants! 4. whether the area is open. 2. Place short pieces of yarn (4 to 6 inches). pruning. warblers. sunny. fertilizing. For success with martin houses. 2. Birds will use the material for their nests. dead branches and tree trunks (snags) in your landscape as possible. native plants will be more forgiving of lack of care and will require less maintenance than exotics. shelter. 3. These tiny. There should be no vines or shrubs by the pole and no trees within a 50 foot radius of the martin house. keep it indoors as much as possible. Cleaning the martin house requires raising and lowering the apparatus. 7. A map will help determine how much available space you have and other features about your yard. Its weight is only about 1/4 of an ounce. too. hummingbirds are particularly interesting and delightful to attract to the yard. or scenic. Most plants can tolerate some insect or disease damage without harmful effects. SEVEN STEPS TO LANDSCAPING YOUR YARD FOR WILDLIFE 1. They often physically drive native species from nest sites. forested. Keeping the cat inside all the time would be best. Organize your landscape design accordingly. Removing house sparrow nests is a way to successfully control sparrow numbers in your yard. In addition. Hummingbirds Of all of the hundreds of bird species. Use native plants where possible. Safety of the trees must be considered. Keep records of your expenses and take pictures as your plan develops. wet. Stir up the soil occasionally to get it started.boxes. the martins should come back around the middle of March year after year. Cats are very efficient predators and can kill numerous birds each day. and bold personalities. Maintaining nest boxes and feeders on a regular basis is also necessary. Shop local nurseries and garden centers as well as catalogues of plant and seed suppliers to determine the availability of plant materials. It is important to draw shrubbery and trees at full or mature size to plan for space needs.

which requires them to extract nectar from blossoms using their long. Washington. Torpor will usually not occur unless the outside temperature is less than 95°F. They have iridescent colors on their bodies. To fulfill their nutritional requirement. OK 73105 (405) 521-4616 The National Wildlife Federation 1412 16th St. some plantings for lepidoptera may also benefit hummingbirds. Hummingbirds are probably able to distinguish all wavelengths of light which is functional for feeding and mating. Hummingbirds and some sphinx moths hover and therefore prefer flowers with tubular corollas. retractable tongue. especially when raising their young. OK 74107 Special thanks to other contributors to this fact sheet: Teresa Thomas. or there have been negligible sources of food. and Skippers. which creates both a loud humming sound and a wonderful visual display of his iridescent feathers. Tulsa. In order for the ruby-throated hummingbird to sustain itself for the journey. it must feed every fifteen minutes during the day in order to survive. Moths. By becoming torpid. 500 of those miles are nonstop over the Gulf of Mexico..TV You’ll Grow to Love Produced by the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service on OETA Visit the Backyard Wildlife Habitat at the OKG Studio Gardens located in the OBGA in Stillwater between May and October. Melynda Hickman and Champe Green provided valuable technical reviews. Hummingbirds also capture small insects flying about in the air. The two species of hummingbirds most frequently seen in Oklahoma are the two that migrate the farthest distance each year. For additional information on lepidopterans. although lepidoptera prefer more fragrant blossoms than hummingbirds. Lincoln Blvd. All North American hummingbirds are migratory except the Anna’s hummingbird which remains in California. its feeding requirements are drastically reduced. N. These are the ruby-throated and the less frequently occurring rufous hummingbirds which may travel 2. These trips are made individually and not in flocks or small groups. but rather. For the ruby-throat. obtain a copy of Poisonous Plants by Paul Mitchell from your local OSU County Extension office. Because there is no way for the hummingbird to continue this feeding activity during the night. the male will ascend to varying heights and then dive straight down toward the object of his affection or irritation. Oklahoma Gardening . split. the black-chinned and broad-tailed hummingbirds can be seen. although these are produced with tiny feathers rather than with scales.W.blooded creatures on earth in energy consumption. Male hummingbirds exhibit their most dramatic display of color and behavior during courtship and defensive displays. Lepidopterans need petals to provide a secure landing place because they must perch before nectaring. HLA-6430 Landscaping to Attract Butterflies. and skippers (Lepidopterans). hummingbirds rely on the protein found in small insects trapped in the sticky nectar that they ingest from flowers.000 miles or more. In these displays. Torpor is utilized by all species of hummingbirds except for those females that are incubating or brooding their young. As a result. and Clydette Borthick . If you have small children. and vice-versa. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Inquire about Oklahoma’s Backyard Certification Program through: Nongame Wildlife Program Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation 1802 N. Their tongues have tiny fringes along the split edges that help with the ingestion of small insects trapped in nectar. This protein is especially important for the feeding of young. In addition to the ruby-throated and rufous hummingbirds. The most prominent similarity between lepidoptera and hummingbirds is that both feed on nectar.Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum Volunteer Ambassadors. On average. Hummingbirds are unique in their method of feeding. moths. Cautionary Note: Some fruits and seeds may be poisonous to humans. Oklahoma City. although rarely. see Fact Sheet No. hummingbirds and lepidoptera share a dependence upon body temperature for the ability to fly. His wingbeat will sometimes increase to up to 200 beats per second. hummingbirds cannot survive on nectar alone. it must accumulate about half of its normal body weight in fat. hummingbirds do not use their tongues as humans would a straw. 6435-5 . Like lepidopterans. DC 20036-2266 (800) 432-6564 Oklahoma Partners in Flight “Make Every Home a Habitat” Program 7412 W. Hummingbirds cannot fly if their body temperature is below 86° Fahrenheit. it must either store up excess fat and carbohydrates prior to nightfall or go into a torpor. Contrary to popular belief. Hummingbirds have many similarities with butterflies. in the western part of the state. 38th St. Last. exhibit a licking motion at a rate of about 13 licks per second. Don Banks. which is a period of dormancy.

) Cherry (Prunus spp. YR . resents root disturbance. fragrant blooms messy.) Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) X Hackberry (Celtis spp. flowers small & obscure very shade tolerant need male & female.) Oak (Quercus spp. Sun Moist Dry Flowers Foliage Fruit Seed Nuts Fruit Flowers Shelter TREES Medium .) Mimosa or Silk tree (Albizia julibrissin) X X Sum X X X X X X X X F/W X Sp X W X X X Sp 6435-6 Mulberry (Morus spp.) River Birch (Betula nigra) Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) KEY: *Hummingbird Favorite W . cultivars with some resistance to vascular wilt diseases are ‘Charlotte’ & ‘Tryon’ Sp F/W F/W F/W Sum YR F/W Sp fruit messy in high traffic areas numerous species galls on foliage evergreen interesting bark does poorly in central and western Oklahoma Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) X X X F F X X X X F/W F X Sp/Sum Sp F Sp YR F F F/W W F/W F/W F/W Sp Sum Sum Sp Sp F/W Sp X X X X X X X X X Buckeye (Aesculus spp.Year Round SOURCE: The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening .Large (>25') tolerant of pollution.TABLE 1 REMARKS ENVIRONMENT PEOPLE WILDLIFE Sun Shade Pt.) Hickory (Carya spp.) Lacebark Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Maple (Acer spp.Fall. Sum . evergreen durable. F . galls on foliage interesting bark YR evergreen.Spring.) Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Pine (Pinus spp.Summer.Winter. Sp . pest prone.

) X X X Sp Sum Sum birds like purple-black fruits.Small (<25') 6435-7 American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) X X X F F/W F/W fruit edible in late fall American Red Plum (Prunus americana) X X Sp F Sum Sum Carolina Buckthorn (Rhamnus carolinianus) X X X Sp Sum/F Sum/F Cherry & Plum (Prunus spp. can be a problem lustrous foliage. foliage may have thorns Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) X X X Sp Sp fruit edible Pear (Pyrus spp.Fall. F .Year Round SOURCE: The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening . YR . moist.TABLE 2 REMARKS ENVIRONMENT PEOPLE WILDLIFE Sun Shade Pt.) X X X Sp F F F needs wind protection in western OK Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.Summer.) X X X Sp F Sum Sum fruit edible Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) X X Sp Sp stems often spiny.well-drained soil colors well in fall Serviceberry (Amelanchier spp. Sun Moist Dry Flowers Foliage Fruit Seed Nuts Fruit Flowers Shelter TREES .) X X X Sp F/W F/W YR usually thorny Holly (Ilex spp. Sum . Sp . intense fall foliage color Soapberry (Sapindus drummondii) X X F/W F/W Wax Myrtle [Bayberry] (Myrica cerifera) X X W F/W F/W YR evergreen KEY: * Hummingbird Favorite W . most are evergreen.Winter. deep.) X X Sp F/W F/W select single-flowered varieties only.Spring. select cedar apple rust & scab resistant types Desert Willow (Chilopsis linearis) X X Sum Sum Dogwood (Cornus spp.) X X Sp Sum Sum Crabapple (Malus spp. fragrant flowers Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) X X X F F F glossy aromatic foliage. fertile.) X X W F/W F/W YR need male & female. spreads prolifically.

Rugosa types best spiny branchlets highly aromatic shiny.) Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X X X Weigela (Weigela spp.Fall.) YR F Sum X X X Sweet Bay (Magnolia virginiana) Sum/F Sum/F Sp X X X Viburnum (Viburnum spp.) Sum Sum X X X Indian Current Snowberry [Buckbrush} (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus) YR F/W F/W W X X Juniper (Juniperus spp. only 2 species evergreen in Okla. evergreen thorny.) Sum/F Sum/F Sp X X X Privet (Ligustrum spp.Spring.) Sum Sum F Sp X X X Huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp. Sp . pollution tolerant thorns spiny foliage.) YR Sp/Su Sp/Sum W X X Yucca (Yucca spp. fertile.Winter. well-drained soils.) Sp Sp X X X Azalea (Rhododendron spp. fruits are bright purple thorns provide shelter needs acid soil watch for spider mites evergreen fragrant flowers 6435-8 semi-evergreen.Year Round SOURCE: The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening . evergreen thorny.) YR Sum Sum X Blackberry (Rubus spp. F . can spread and be a problem *needs acid soil thorns. evergreen. suckers not susceptible to fire blight disease.) X X New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) X YR Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sp/Sum W X X Prickly Pear (Opuntia spp.) Sum Sum F X X X Burning Bush (Euonymus atropurpureus) X Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X X Butterfly Bush (Buddleja spp. Sun Moist Dry SHRUBS * fragrant flowers. need male & female for berries select variety with fruit.TABLE 3 REMARKS PEOPLE WILDLIFE ENVIRONMENT Fruit Flowers Shelter Seed Nuts Flowers Foliage Fruit Sun Shade Pt. evergreen.) YR F/W F/W W X X Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Sum/F F/W X X X X Beautyberry (Callicarpa spp. YR .) F/W F/W F X X X Sumac (Rhus spp.) YR Sum Sum W Sp X X X Holly Grape (Mahonia spp.) Sum Sum Sp X X Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus spp. leathery foliage scale problems under stress beautiful fall foliage Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X X X Abelia (Abelia spp.) Carolina Buckthorn Sum Sum Sp X X X X (Rhamnus carolinianus) Carolina Cherry Laurel Sum/F Sum/F Sp X X X (Prunus caroliniana) Sum Sum Sp X X Clove Currant (Ribes odoratum) Sp Sum Sum Sp X X X X Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) Sum Sum X X Fetterbush (Lyonia lucida) YR F/W F/W W Sp X X X Firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea) YR Sum Sum Sp X X Flowering Quince (Chaenomeles spp. Sum .) Sp F/W F/W Sp X X X X Roughleaf Dogwood (Cornus drummondii) X Sum Sum Sp X X Sand Plum (Prunus augustifolia) Sp Sp X X Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) Sum Sum X X Staggerbush (Lyonia mariana) F Sp/Sum Sum F X X X X Strawberry bush (Euonymus spp.) YR Sum Sum Sp/Sum/F X X Rose (Rosa spp.) * spiney KEY: * Hummingbird Favorite W .) YR F/W F/W W X X X Holly (Ilex spp.) Sum Sum F Sp X X X Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) YR Sum Sum F/W Sp X X X X Barberry (Berberis spp.Summer.

scale is possible perennial *annual. root suckers unusual. coral flowers 6435-9 X X X X F Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) X X Trumpet Creeper (Campsis radicans) X X X Sp/Sum Sp/Sum Sum/F Sum Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) beautiful fall color KEY: * Hummingbird Favorite W .Summer. shade in hot summer sun native.Fall.TABLE 4 REMARKS ENVIRONMENT PEOPLE WILDLIFE Sun Shade Pt. red tubular flowers Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) Bugleweed (Ajuga reptans) Coral Bean (Erythrina herbacea) X Sum Sum X X X X X X X X Sum X X X Sp/Sum W Sum X Sum X Sum Sum Sum Sp/Sum YR Sum X X W X Sum Sum YR X X X Sum Sum Cross Vine [Trumpet Flower] (Bignonia capreolata) evergreen Cypress Vine (Ipomoea quamoclit) English Ivy (Hedera helix) Field Pea (Pisum sativum var. well-drained soil evergreen vine aggressive. F . water sparingly in winter. sometimes edible fruits. annual. plentifully in growing season *very aggressive.) Morning Glory (Ipomoea spp.Year Round SOURCE: The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening . Sp . shrubs to vines *annual often fragrant. moderately fertile.) X X Sum Sum/F Sum/F Sum Pepper Vine (Ampelopsis arborea) X X X Sum Sum/F Sp/Sum Pipevine (Aristolochia spp. attractive. Sun Moist Dry Flowers Foliage Fruit Seed Nuts Fruit Flowers Shelter VINES/GROUND COVERS X X X X X Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X X X Sum/F Sum/F primarily native species needs male and female. rootsuckers (Madame Galen var. often malodorous flowers. well-drained loamy soil rich in organic matter. will not root sucker).) aggressive numerous species.Spring. Sum .) Passion Vine (Passiflora spp. arvense) Grapes (Vitis spp. YR .Winter. prolific. nectar-rich flowers.

) Hibiscus (Hibiscus spp. cool season perennial *perennial perennial perennial perennial *perennial *perennial *perennial perennial *perennial annual annual.) Coral Bells (Heuchera sanguinea) Coreopsis (Coreopsis spp.) Mallow (Malva spp. Sun Moist Dry Flowers Foliage Fruit Seed Nuts Fruit Flowers Shelter HERBACEOUS PLANTS X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sum X Sp Sum Sum X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sp X Sum X X Sum X Sp/Sum X X Sum X Sum Sum Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sp Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sp Sum Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sum X Sum Sum X Sum Sum Sum Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X X Sp/Sum Sp/Sum X F F X Sum Sum annual. cool season perennial perennial *perennial annual Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) Aster (Aster spp.TABLE 5 REMARKS ENVIRONMENT PEOPLE WILDLIFE Sun Shade Pt.) Corn (Zea mays) Sum Cosmos (Cosmos spp.) .) Blackeyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) Blanket Flower (Gaillardia spp.) Larkspur (Consolida spp.) Lupine (Lupinus spp. Lord Baltimore: scarlet—hummingbird favorite Sum Sum Sum *perennial *perennial/semi parasites.) Dill (Anethum graveolens) Evening Primrose (Oenothera spp.) Coneflower (Echinacea or Rudbeckia spp.) Beebalm [Bergamot] (Monarda didyma) Bellflower (Campanula spp.) X X X Sum Sum Hollyhock (Alcea rosea) Indian Paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea) X X Sp Sp Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium spp.) Gentian (Gentiana spp. usually on grass roots X X X X X Sum Sum Sum Sp Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sp Sum Sum Sum Sp Sum Sp/Sum Sp perennial tender perennial *annual.) Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Liatris [Gay Feather] (Liatris spp.) 6435-10 X X X X X X X X Dame’s Violet (Hesperis matronalis) Sum Sum Sum/F Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) Gerardia (Gerardia spp.) Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa) Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis) Columbine (Aquilegia spp.) Goldenrod (Solidago spp. swallowtail butterfly favorite *perennial annual *reseeding perennial *tender perennial *tender perennial *perennial perennial wildflower perennial annual or perennial. leave some for quail & pheasants annual *annual perennial annual.) Firebush (Hamelia patens) Sum Sum Sp/Sum Sum Sum Sp/Sum Four O’Clocks (Mirabilis jalapa) Foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora) Fuchsia (Fuchsia spp.) Lantana (Lantana spp.

) Primrose (Primula vulgaris) Red Hot Poker (Kniphofia uvaria) Sage (Salvia spp. 4 Vols.) X X Mint (Mentha spp.) Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Verbena (Verbena rigida) Yarrow (Achillea spp.Year Round SOURCE: The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening.) annual *annual or perennial annual annual. Sun Moist Dry Flowers Foliage Fruit Seed Nuts Fruit Flowers Shelter REMARKS Marigold (Tagetes spp. spider mites *perennial.) *annual or perennial tender perennial cool season annual *perennial.) X Sum Sum Sum Sp/F Sum Sum Sum Sum F Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sp/F Sedum (Sedum spp.Winter. annual or perennial annual or perennial annual Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus) Tickseed (Bidens spp.Fall.) Petunia (Petunia hybrida) Phlox (Phlox spp. ENVIRONMENT PEOPLE WILDLIFE Sun Shade Pt. YR .) Scabiosa [Pincushion Flower] (Scabiosa spp. leave some fruit for wildlife moisture retentive soil. . red varieties *annual (are red) & perennial annual or perennial perennial cool season annual well-drained moderately fertile soil Pineapple Sage (Salvia elegans) Pot Marigold (Calendula spp.) Mullein (Verbascum spp. tender *perennial.) Nicotiana [Flowering Tobacco] (Nicotiana alata) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Partridge Pea (Cassia fasciculata) Penstemon (Penstemon spp. 1992. invasive Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia rotundifolia) Milkweed (Asclepias spp.Summer.) 6435-11 X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sum Sum Sum Sum X X F Sum/F Snapdragon (Antirrhinum spp. F .) X Sum Sum Sum Sum perennial Sum Sum biennial *annual annual *perennial annual *annual Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sp Sp/F Sum Sum F Sp Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum Sp Sp/F Sum Sum F Sp Sum Sum Sum Sum Sum/F X X X X annual. cool season. MacMillian.) Sunflower (Helianthus spp. Sum . Sp .) Zinnia (Zinnia spp.Spring.) KEY: * Hummingbird Favorite W . spider mites annual.) Pentas (Pentas spp.

Oklahoma. and other sources to help people make their own decisions. financial aid. 0702 6435-12 . Extension carries out programs in the broad categories of agriculture. most successful informal educational organization in the world. color.The Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Bringing the University to You! The Cooperative Extension Service is the largest. It is not a regulatory agency. Extension has the built-in flexibility to adjust its programs and subject matter to meet new needs. and educational services. and local governments that delivers information to help people help themselves through the land-grant university system. Extension staff members live and work among the people they serve to help stimulate and educate Americans to plan ahead and cope with their problems. national origin. state. Oklahoma State University. • It is administered by the land-grant university as designated by the state legislature through an Extension director. Dean. Local programs are developed and carried out in full recognition of national problems and goals. meetings. and local governments cooperatively share in its financial support and program direction. gender. acts of May 8 and June 30. and Director of the Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and has been prepared and distributed at a cost of 80 cents per copy. or procedures. government. age. It is designated to take the knowledge of the university to those persons who do not or cannot participate in the formal classroom instruction of the university. More than a million volunteers help multiply the impact of the Extension professional staff. religion. Activities shift from year to year as citizen groups and Extension workers close to the problems advise changes. or status as a veteran in any of its policies. and other federal laws and regulations. but it does inform people of regulations and of their options in meeting them. and research-based information. does not discriminate on the basis of race. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. and community resource development. Department of Agriculture. employment. Robert E. This includes but is not limited to admissions. This publication is printed and issued by Oklahoma State University as authorized by the Vice President. Some characteristics of the Cooperative Extension system are: • The federal. state. disability. in cooperation with the U. 4-H and other youth. The Extension staff educates people through personal contacts. It dispenses no funds to the public. natural resources and environment. Director of Cooperative Extension Service. Executive Order 11246 as amended. Whitson. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work. • • • • • • • • Oklahoma State University.S. It utilizes research from university. • It provides practical. objective. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 1914. It is a nationwide system funded and guided by a partnership of federal. problem-oriented education for people of all ages. Stillwater. demonstrations. in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. and the mass media. family and consumer sciences. Extension programs are nonpolitical. practices.

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