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The 39 Melachos

The Basic Premise of Bishul Bishul is defined as causing a change in the properties of a food or substance using heat. Therefore, changing raw food through heat, even if it remains inedible, is still considered Bishul. A unique aspect of Bishul is that it is often a lengthy process, something that takes plenty of time to complete. For example, if one left a raw stew in the oven to cook for hours, only when the cooking is complete has Bishul been transgressed. In the Mishkan Bishul, cooking, is the last of eleven Melachos of the Sedura DPas, the order of bread. According to Rashi and the majority of Poskim, Bishul was when herbs in a paste were cooked in water in order to produce dyes needed to colour the tapestries in the Mishkan. However, some Rishonim and Rav Hai Gaon hold that Bishul was when dough was baked to make the Lechem Haponim so in reality, the Melachah is called Ofeh, baking.

heated chicken soup very slightly, most people still wouldnt eat it. Therefore, to transgress Bishul, the minimum amount of heat required is known as Yad Soledes, the hand draws back. This is the temperature that would cause a person to remove his hand as a reflex, upon touching the liquid. The Igros Moshe defines Yad Soledes as 43 C. For example, if one melts ice cream at standard room temperature, even though it has undergone a significant physical change, as the heat applied wasnt Yad Soledes it is not considered Bishul. However, melting ice cream is forbidden Rabbinically due to the restriction of Molid, creating a new form.

21st December 2013

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Issue No: 451 Shabbos In: 3:38 Shabbos Out: 4:53 Sof Zman Krias Shema: 10:01

Direct and Secondary Heat With regards to Bishul, there are two Halachic types of heat, direct heat and secondary heat. Aish, direct heat, is simply when food is cooked from a direct source of heat. For example, cooking chicken in an oven. Toldas Aish, secondary heat, is when a material that has previously absorbed heat from a flame cooks something. If hot enough, Toldas Aish can cause Bishul Mdeoraisa. For example, if a frying pan was Solids heated on a flame before Shabbos until very hot and then Regarding solids, Bishul only occurs when a significant used on Shabbos to fry an egg, it is considered Bishul physical change has taken place because of heating. For Mdeoraisa. example, if one heats a solid food such as chicken, Bishul is only transgressed when the food becomes edible. Reheating Foods However, the chicken only has to be edible, not necessarily We have a concept of Ein Bishul Achar Bishul, there is no fully cooked. The exact point at which a food is cooking after cooking. This means that it is permitted to considered edible is defined by the Gemara as Maachal ben reheat food. However, only solid food may be reheated if Drusai, food of a fugitive, meaning that the food must be cold and the food may only be reheated with the same cooked so that a fleeing outlaw would eat it. method that was used to prepare it originally. For example, cold roast beef may only be reheated through roasting. Liquids With solids, Bishul is transgressed if a significant change Bathing occurs however; Bishul is transgressed with liquids even if There is a Rabbinical restriction connected with Bishul of the liquid is just heated. For example, most people bathing or washing ones entire body in warm water. The wouldnt drink cold chicken soup so just heating up the soup reason is that one is likely to forget himself whilst bathing is Bishul, even though the soup hasnt undergone any physi- and heat up more water, thereby transgressing Bishul. cal change would constitute Bishul. However, if one just
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In this weeks Parshah, we encounter an episode of And he slew the Egyptian within himself. And hid immense bravery on the part of Moshe, which discerns him in the sand he totally detached himself from the him as the future Leader of the Bnei Yisrael Egyptian mind set, and aligned himself fully with the fate of the Jews. And it came to pass in those days, when Moshe was grown, that he went out to his brothers, and looked on It was, then, at this moment, that Moshe became the their burdens; and he spied an Egyptian beating a leader of the Bnei Yisrael, identifying himself as a Jew Hebrew, one of his brothers. And he looked this way and nothing else. In fact, the difficulty of Moshes and that way, and he saw that there was no man; and situation is heightened when we look further through he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand". (Shemos Sefer Shemos. Why is it that Moshe is unable, in the 2:11-12) context of the first three plagues, to strike the Nile or the Earth? The well established understanding is that However, this dauntlessness displayed by Moshe is Moshe, evidently a great person, felt gratitude, Hakaros somewhat overshadowed in the pasukim: why did Hatov, toward these inanimate entities that had, at Moshe look this way and that? This dubitative some stage in his life, been of enormous benefit to him. wording seems to imply that Moshe was afraid of doing the right thing in saving a fellow Jew, not firm in the Thus, we can see that Moshe considered gratitude as an belief that Hashem would protect him for having acted important principle in his life. How difficult must it have correctly. then been for him to turn his back on the house of Egypt, which had brought him up, with the debt of A sublime answer to this paradox, offered by Rav Shlogratitude he no doubt felt towards them? Compared to mo Kluger, suggests that the looking Moshe did was dust and water, the people who raised him must have not fearful, or even literal; Moshe saw the situation, and conjured enormous emotional gratitude from Moshe. had to undergo fierce introspection to decide what to do. Rav Kluger expounded that Moshe was, at this pivot- This immense emotional strain that rested upon Moshe al moment, discovering himself. He was, no doubt, a in this instance made his decision deserving of praise. In Jew, but he had been brought up as an Egyptian Prince, the face of his overwhelming feelings, Moshe decided to and was suffering from an immediate lack of identity. abandon the Egyptian culture and beliefs to pursue his Judaism; this was a tremendous sacrifice, and This is apparent in the pasukim. When Moshe saw the distinguished him as a true leader, someone truly Egyptian beating the Jew, He looked this way and that committed. To be a leader requires tremendous way he looked at his royal Egyptian upbringing, and dedication to the people. Moshe had to bring that dediat his Jewish ancestral roots. And he saw that there cation to light - by painfully giving up on his upbringing was no man he saw that he lacked a true identity. as the Prince of Egypt.

Tannaic Story

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A great Persian astrologer was close friends with Shmuel and they would frequently sit together discussing and debating. Once, they noticed some labourers who were making their way over to a field to cut grass. As one particular labourer passed by, the astrologer remarked to Shmuel, The stars have revealed to me, that there goes a man who will not return alive, because the stars show me that a snake will bite him and he will die. Shmuel replied adamantly If that person is a Jew, he will assuredly return home safe and sound. This is because a Jewish persons fate depends on his deeds, not on mere stars!. A while later they saw the man return from his labour. It was obvious that no harm had befallen him and he appeared in good spirits. The astrologer in bewilderment jumped up and shook the bundle of freshly cut grass, which the man was carrying on his shoulders. A snake cleaved in two fell out of the bundle at his feet. It was obvious that the snake had been ready to strike the worker, but some

special merit must have saved him from what would have been certain death. Shmuel proceeded to ask the worker What unique and special deed did you recently perform, that would have had created such a great merit for your life to be saved? The Jew replied: We workers always put our bread into one basket and eat it all together. Today I noticed that one of the workers, a poor and humble man, had no bread to put in the basket. So, I decided to volunteer to collect the bread from everyone and when I approached the poor man, I pretended to collect the bread from him, and later gave him a portion along with everyone else, so that he would not feel ashamed in any way whatsoever. Shmuel replied You performed a very great deed, and it was in that merit, that you were saved. The astrologer meanwhile could only look on abashed and wondrous at the greatness and piety of these Jews and the faith Shmuel had in every single one of his brethren.

And Moshe returned to Hashem and said, Hashem, that Hashem created and continues to run all of why have You done evil to this people? Why have You Creation. Simply put, nothing can exist and no activity sent me? (Shemos 5:22) can occur without Hashem. Bitachon, however, is quite a different matter. Trusting in Hashem is a sense of Hashem sent Moshe to be the redeemer of the Jewish relying on Him to watch over and protect me, as if to people. However, from the moment that he embarked say, I take my heavy burden and place it on Hashem. on this mission, the slavery became more intense and While I am responsible to be proactive, I am not in the pain more profound. Out of love for his nation, charge of the outcome, and I am not the determinant Moshe turned to Hashem and said, Why have You of the results. I rely on Hashem to care for me. worsened the situation? Why have You sent me? The Gemara tells us that Moshe was punished for question- Emunah is a state of understanding; Bitachon is more ing Hashem. Hashem said, It is a shame that that of an attitude. Emunah means knowing that Hashem is which is lost can no longer be found. It is as if Hashem involved in every activity on the planet; Bitachon were saying, They dont make them like they used to. means having confidence that Hashem runs every Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov - those were great situation the best way possible. people, but no more. Moshe, you dont compare to Therefore the answer to the question seems to be that them. They trusted Me, but you arent on their level. Moshe had a higher level of Emunah than any other The problem with this is that we know Moshe was the human being. He saw Hashem with an absolute clarity. single greatest human being who ever lived. The Just as we see a piece of wood in front of us as undeniRambam calls him the father in Torah and wisdom. In ably real, he saw Hashem right there. But absolute fact, one of our Thirteen Principles of Faith is that trust in Hashem doesnt necessarily follow. Bitachon is Moshe was the greatest of all prophets, greater than learned and practiced. Much like a character trait that those who came before him and those who came after. one develops over many years, one learns, often How is it possible that Moshe lacked an element of through life experiences, to be totally and utterly trust, Bitachon, in Hashem? Since we know that Moshe trusting in the kindness of Hashem. Apparently, the was greater than even the three Avos, how can we Avos had reached a higher level in this regard. They understand this passage of the Gemara? It seems to be had an unwavering sense of the constant goodness and saying that Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov were loving kindness of Hashem; hence, they were able to superior to Moshe. be more trusting of Hashem even when on the surface, there were many questions to be asked. Moshe was The answer to this question lies in understanding the greater in Emunah, while they were greater distinction between Emunah and Bitachon faith and in Bitachon. trust. The Rambam defines Emunah as the knowledge

Q) Is it permitted to eat something before training in eating later than that or in the summer then ideally the morning, prior to davening? one shouldnt eat. If one needs to, then it should be something which doesnt serve to give pleasure, but Natan Bloom rather a necessity for training. A) It is widely debatable whether one should Hasmonean Beis Rabbi complete any form of substantial task before Shacharis. Yet if there is no other appropriate time to go If you have a question on any topic you would training then it would be permitted. In the winter, like answered, just email us at Hasmolivingtorah one would certainly be permitted to eat before Alos or send a text to 07779579188 Hashachar, which is roughly around 6:40. However, if

Who, where, when and in what cirucmstance would one say 21 Berachos during the repetition of the Shemonah Esrei. Answer in next weeks Living Torah Last weeks riddle: What Aveirah does one transgress by taking off, when the actual Aveirah is putting on? Answer: A man is prohibited from putting on womens clothing and this is extended to any action done with the intention to imitate women. Therefore by, for example, by trimming ones eyebrows with the same intention (taking off) he is fact transgressing the prohibition of not putting on womens clothing.