Eighteenth Century Political Formations

The Mughal empire flourished under the Great Mughals, whose rule began with Babur’s accession in 1526 and ended with Auranga eb’s death in 1!"!# After Auranga eb’s death the empire declined rapidl$# The Later Mughals% Auranga eb’s successors called the later Mughals, ruled for 15" $ears &1!"!'1(5!)# *mportant among them were Bahadur +hah *, ,ahandar +hah, -arru.hsi$ar and Muhammad +hah# The /ater Mughals were not as capable as the Great Mughals, and their nobles made it all the more difficult for them to rule efficientl$# The nobles assumed the role of .ingma.ers# The$ hatched conspiracies to depose .ings and raise ri0al candidates to the throne# The fre1uent change of rulers caused political instabilit$# As central authorit$ wea.ened, pro0inces bro.e awa$ and the north'western frontiers, left unprotected, attracted foreign in0asions# Ta.ing ad0antage of these conditions, the 2nglish and -rench traders 3oined the *ndian regional powers in the competition for political authorit$# Mughal rule ultimatel$ ended in 1(5!# Breaking up of Mughal rule% 4uring Muhammad +hah’s reign&1!15'1!6(), some ambitious nobles established states that were 0irtuall$ from Mughal control# Among other .ingdoms that rose to prominence in the 1(th centur$ were the 7a3put state of ,aipur, the +i.h state of 8un3ab, the ,at state of Bharatpur and the state of M$sore# +ome of these states were economicall$ and culturall$ prosperous and had strong armies# Bengal: Murshid 9uli :han, who had been made the ;awab of Bengal in 1!1!, became almost independent# <e and his successors ruled efficientl$ and made Bengal a prosperous state# Awadh% The state of Awadh became more or less independent under +aadat :han and his successors, who became the ;awab of Awadh around 1!26# The =/uc.na0i culture’ de0eloped under them and /uc.now became a centre of art and literature# ydera!ad% *n 1!26, >hin 9uilich :han, better .nown as the ;i am'ul'Mul., forced Muhammad +hah to gi0e him the title Asaf ,ah and recogni e him as the go0ernor of the 4eccan# Thereafter, he became an independent ruler and established the state of <$derabad# <e crushed the rebellious chiefs, and the state of <$derabad progressed under his administration# "aipur% The 7a3put state of Amber&later ,aipur) rose to prominence under +awai 7a3a ,ai +ingh# ,ai +ingh founded the cit$ of ,aipur and made it a centre of art and scientific learning# <e was deepl$ interested in astronom$ and built obser0atories at 4elhi, ,aipur, ?33ain, @aranasi and Mathura# Bharatpur and #ohilkhand% The ,ats around the regions of 4elhi, Agra and Mathura established the state of Bharatpur, while the 7ohilla Afghans formed the state of 7ohil.hand centered round Bareill$ in ?ttar 8radesh# Foreign $n%asions% The 8ersian in0ader ;adir +hah in0aded *ndia and carried awa$ enormous wealth, including :ohinoor diamond and +hah ,ahan’s 3ewel studded 8eacoc. throne# <is in0asion eAposed the wea.ness of the Mughals# After this in0asion the Marathas eApanded northwards and threatened Mughal authorit$#

8age & of '

mainl$ the rulers of 7ohil.Between 1!6( and 1!61.adir +hah and Ahmad +hah Abdali# Chile fighting against the foreign in0aders. who succeeded Auranga eb in 1!"!.ened b$ infighting among their chiefs# Moreo0er. the Marathas won 0ast territories from the . released +hahu# The Peshwas% +hahu was the Maratha . +irhind and /ahore from the Afghans and all this led to the third battle of 8anipat# Third !attle of Panipat% Ahmad +hah Abdali entered into alliance with the enemies of the Marathas.illed +hi0a3i’s son +hambha3i# The$ also captured +hambha3i’s infant son +hahu&+hi0a3i **)# +hambha3i’s brother 7a3aram fell fighting at +atara in 1!""# Thereafter 7a3aram’s widow Tarabai ruled the Marathas from :olhapur on behalf of her minor son +hi0a3i ***# Bahadur +hah *. defeated and . son of Ba3i 7ao *. were outdated and unsuitable for use on the plains# Ahmad +hah Abdali easil$ defeated them# The defeat at 8anipat ruined the possibilit$ of the Marathas replacing the Mughals as an all'*ndia power# This allowed the 2nglish to become a political force in *ndia# <owe0er within a decade.ened after the in0asions of . he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas in the third battle of 8anipat# The Marathas% The hard$ Maratha people li0ed in the hill$ region that now forms Maharashtra# The$ had a distinct cultural identit$ and feelings of unit$# *n 16!6. :angra and . 8eshwa became a 0er$ dominant figure in Maratha empire# After Bala3i’s death.en o0er b$ <$der Ali.hand&northern Madh$a 8radesh) under their direct control# The$ angered the . the Mughals under Auranga eb. that a union of Maratha chiefs called Maratha confederac$ was formed and the 8eshwa was the head of this Maratha >onfederac$# ?nder Bala3i Ba3i 7ao. the$ were desperatel$ short of supplies and their militar$ techni1ues and weapons too. and laid the foundation of the Maratha state# The Marathas made Mughal eApansion in the 4eccan 0er$ difficult# +hi0a3i died in 16("# *n 16(5.hand and the . +hi0a3i proclaimed himself ruler Marathas and too. the +i. the$ too.i am of <$derabad and from the rulers of M$sore# The$ also brought Malwa and large parts of Bundel.ammu towards the end of the 1(th 8age ) of ' . the Marathas helped the Mughal emperor b$ remo0ing the agent posted in 4elhi b$ Ahmad +hah Abdali# *n 1!5(. the Afghan ruler Ahmad +hah Abdali in0aded *ndia se0eral times# *n 1!61. he made M$sore a powerful state# The (ikhs% Mughal control o0er +i. the Marathas reco0ered and tried to re'establish themsel0es as a political power# But the British crushed the Marathas and abolished the post of the peshwa# Mysore% *n 1!61.hand and Awadh# Bala3i Ba3i 7ao sent an arm$. the 7ohillas of 7ohil. Ba3i 7ao *.ing in 1!1B and he appointed Bala3i @ishwanath as his 8eshwa or 8rime Minister# +oon under his capable leadership.hs wea. through his successes in wars# <$der Ali moderni ed M$sore’s arm$ and eApanded its territories# Thus. the title =>hattrapati’#<e united the Marathas politicall$.hs eAtended their influence o0er 8un3ab.awab of Awadh b$ raiding their territories# *n 1!51. a soldier who had risen to a high ran. the go0ernment of M$sore was ta.ats. the position and the title of 8eshwa became hereditar$ and siA other 8eshwas rose to power# The 8eshwas ruled on behalf of Marathas# 4uring the rule of second 8eshwa. which met Abdali’s forces on the battlefield of 8anipat in 1!61# The Marathas did not recei0e an$ local support and were wea.

Ans% +awai 7a3a . ?33ain. Ans% /uc.&* -hat were the causes of rapid decline of Mughal empire in the &4th century.)* -hich regional ruler set up astronomical o!ser%atories at different places.centur$# 7an3it +ingh united the +i.3* 1ame the Afghan in%aders who in%aded $ndia during &4th century. Throne# . Ans% +hi0a3i was the powerful Maratha ruler who established Maratha state and too. including :ohinoor diamond and +hah . Ans% The third battle of 8anipat was fought between Ahmad +hah Abdali and the Marathas# ./* -hat %alua!le o!0ects did 1adir (hah carry away from $ndia .2* Between whom was the third !attle of Panipat fought.ah# .h state of 8un3ab# $* Answer the following +uestions in one sentence each: . Ans% The state of <$derabad was established b$ >hin 9uilich :han or .na0i culture de0eloped in the state of Awadh# .ers# iii) The$ hatched conspiracies to depose . the title =>hattrapati’# $$* Answer the following !riefly: .'* $n which state did Lucknawi culture de%elop. or Asaf .ahan’s 3ewel studded 8eacoc.ingma.ings and raise ri0al candidates to the throne# i0) The fre1uent change of rulers caused political instabilit$# All these causes led to the decline of Mughal 2mpire in the 1(th centur$# 8age / of ' .adir +hah in0aded *ndia and carried awa$ enormous wealth.i am'ul'Mul.hs li0ing west of the ri0er +utle3 and established the independent +i. . @aranasi and Mathura# .4* -ho was (hi%a0i. Ans# % Ahmad +hah Abdali was the Afghan in0ader who in0aded *ndia during 1(th centur$# .ai +ingh was deepl$ interested in astronom$ and built obser0atories at 4elhi. Ans% The 8ersian in0ader .nown as /ater Mughals# . Ans% The successors of Auranga eb are .&* -ho esta!lished the state of ydera!ad.5* -ho are known as Later Mughals. Ans#% i) The later Mughals were not as capable as the Great Mughals and their nobles made it all the more difficult for them to rule efficientl$# ii) The nobles assumed the role of .aipur.

. were outdated and unsuitable for use on the plains# iii) Thus. +irhind and /ahore from the Afghans and all this led to the third battle of 8anipat# Ahmad +hah Abdali entered into alliance with the enemies of Marathas and easil$ defeated them# iii#) The defeat at 8anipat ruined the possibilit$ of the Marathas replacing the Mughals as an all'*ndia power# i0#) This allowed the 2nglish to become a political force in *ndia# . the$ were desperatel$ short of supplies and their militar$ techni1ues and weapons too. Ans#% The following causes led to the failure of Maratha in the third battle of 8anipat% i) The Marathas did not recei0e an$ local support and were wea./* -hat were the main causes of Maratha failure in the third !attle of Panipat. the Marathas helped the Mughal emperor b$ remo0ing the agent posted in 4elhi b$ Ahmad +hah Abdali# ii#) *n 1!5(. the$ too. Ans% i#) *n 1!51.)* -hat were the causes and conse+uences of the third !attle of Panipat. Ahmed +hah Abdali easil$ defeated them# 66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666 6 8age ' of ' .ened b$ infighting among their chiefs# ii) Moreo0er.

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