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8 The judiciary MAKE CASE NOTES FOR: R (Jackson and others) v A-G [2005] R (Anufrijeva) v Secretar of State for

or the !o"e #e$art"ent [200%] #irector of &u'(ic &rosecutions of Ja"aica v )o((ison [200%] !irst v *+ (,o 2) [2005] A v Secretar of State (,o 2) [2005] R (&ro-ife A((iance) v ../ [200%] 0th"an (A'u 1atada) v *+(2022) ,ote: re"e"'er that the i"$ortance of the cases a'ove relates to what they tell us about various aspects o the judiciary3 as discussed in this cha$ter4 )ake sure our case note focuses on this funda"enta( issue4 So"e of the e5ercises 'e(o6 6i(( 7uide our readin7s of these cases and assist ou in "akin7 the re(evant case notes4

!"troductio"# Role of Judiciary is changing 8he role a"d u"ctio" o the judiciary in 9n7(and and :a(es has cha"$ed co"siderably in recent ears4 )ost i"$ortant( 3 the role o the Supre%e Court &SC' a"d the Court o Appeal &CA' in i"terpreti"$ a"d applyi"$ hu%a" ri$hts (a6 and scruti"isi"$ o icial decisio" "akin7 has dra6n it into "ore $o(itica(( sensitive areas4 0ne of the "ain the"es of this cha$ter is the i%pact o the (u%a" Ri$hts Act )**8 (!RA) on 6hat J4A4G4 Griffith ca((ed +the politics o the judiciary+4 0ne i"$act of these chan7es is that the judicia( a$$oint"ents $rocess has attracted "ore $u'(ic attention4 ;n $articu(ar3 the continuin7 (ack of diversit in the co"$osition of the judiciar has co"e into focus4 8he lac, o accou"tability in the selectio" $rocess has beco%e a %ore pressi"$ issue in the (i7ht of the e5$andin7 ro(e of the jud7es4

Changes in judicial appointment process ;n 200< these concerns (ed to the i"troductio" o u"da%e"tal cha"$es to the judicial appoi"t%e"ts process ;n )arch 20223 the 25th Re$ort on the (ouse o .ord+s Co"stitutio" Co%%ittee o" /udicial Appoi"t%e"ts re$orted as fo((o6s: 8he pri"ciple o judicial i"depe"de"ce3 without which the rule o law is i%possible3 is reco7nised as an essentia( feature of constitutiona( de"ocracies around the 6or(d444 ;t is i"$ortant not on( that the judiciary act i"depe"de"tly3 'ut that the are seen to do so4 8his $rinci$(e a(so e0te"ds to the appoi"t%e"ts process4 -ord Justice 8ou(son3 =ice/hair"an of the JA/3 noted that prior to the e"act%e"t o the CRA >there 6as 6ides$read $u'(ic concern that jud$es were bei"$ appoi"ted throu$h cro"yis%

8he establish%e"t o the /AC 6as intended to put a" e"d to such co"cer"s444 As 6e(( as u$ho(din7 inde$endence and 'ein7 o$en and trans$arent3 the judicial appoi"t%e"ts process %ust be e ective444 Another $rinci$(e re(evant to judicia( a$$oint"ents is diversity444 ($aras 2<-2? avai(a'(e at: 6664$u'(ications4$ar(ia"ent4uk@$a @(d202022@(dse(ect@ (dconst@2A2@2A2054ht") ;t is necessar that ou understand the 'asic structure and co"$osition of the judiciar 3 'ut the critical issues are outli"ed by the para$raph above4 8hus3 6e need to ocus o" the relatio"ship betwee" jud$es3 $articu(ar( the se"ior .aw .ords1 a"d the rule o lawB a concern 6hich raises issues a'out the "ature o de%ocracy4 8his re(ates to co"cer"s with judicial i"depe"de"ce3 'ut a(so the

of the s ste" for judicia( a$$oint"ents4 ,ote that the issue o diversity is a(so funda"enta(4 :e 6i(( e5a"ine the e5tent to 6hich the judiciary are diverse3 and re(ate this to the 2uestio" o the %ulticultural "ature of the *nited +in7do"4

ACTIVITY 8.1 Go to: 6664judiciar 47ov4uk@a'outthe-judiciar @introduction-to-justices ste" and "ake notes on S/ jud7es4 8hen 7o to 6664judiciar 47ov4uk@a'out-thejudiciar @introduction-to-justices ste"@court-structure and "ake notes on the court s ste" and the different $ersonne( of each court and tri'una(4

8-)-) /ud$es+ u"ctio"s 3ispute settle%e"t /ivi( case )ost jud7es s$end the "ajorit of their ti"e on 6ork relati"$ to dispute settle%e"t in the civi( and cri"ina( courts4 ;n the civil courts3 this invo(ves: deter%i"i"$ procedure3 decidi"$ which acts are proved3 applyi"$ settled law to those facts3 reachin7 a decisio"3 writi"$ a jud$%e"t settin7 out the reaso"s for that decision and decidin7 on costs4

/ri"ina( case ;n cri%i"al cases3 act4 i"di"$ is carried out by lay %a$istrates a"d juries4 &rofessiona( jud$es sit in the /ro6n /ourt 6ith a jur and decide 2uestio"s o law and procedure3 costs and se"te"ci"$4 Since "ost defendants either $(ead 7ui(t or are found 7ui(t 3 se"te"ci"$ is a %ajor u"ctio" o a cri%i"al jud$e 8he sentencin7 s ste" in 9n7(and and :a(es3 in contrast to that of other jurisdictions such as "an *S states3 o ers a wider %easure o judicial discretio"-

Case %a"a$e%e"t Since 2???3 6hen "ajor refor"s 6ere introduced to the civi( justice s ste" fo((o6in7 the :oo(f re$ort3 jud$es have spe"t %uch %ore o their ti%e actively %a"a$i"$ cases 'efore and durin7 tria(4 5reviously3 jud7es usua(( ca"e to court ,"owi"$ very little about a case and 6ere e5$ected to fu(fi( a li%ited +re eree+ role3 (eavin7 "uch of the "ana7e"ent of the case to the (a6 ers4 ,o63 they %ust read the papers be ore the trial a"d participate i" decisio"s a'out "atters such as 6hich e5$ert 6itnesses are to 'e ca((ed4

Trai"i"$ /han7es such as the 7ro6th of case %a"a$e%e"t3 the i"troductio" o the (RA and the e0pa"sio" i" the ra"$e o se"te"ci"$ o$tions avai(a'(e to jud7es have increased the need for the judiciar to receive a$$ro$riate trainin74 Traditio"ally3 jud7es did "ot co"sider that trai"i"$ was "ecessary and indeed3 re7arded it as a pote"tial threat to their i"depe"de"ce4 8he esta'(ish"ent in 2?A? of the /udicial Studies 6oard3 6hich provides trai"i"$ to jud7es3 6as on( considered acce$ta'(e 'ecause it was ru" by jud$es or jud$es and the trainin7 $rovided 6as lar$ely volu"tary Since then3 ho6ever3 the ran7e and a"ount of trainin7 has increased and jud$es "ow $e"erally welco%e all the trai"i"$ they ca" $et3 a(thou7h this sti(( a"ounts to on( a fe6 da s a ear on avera7e4

E0tra4judicial activities ;n addition to the diverse ran7e of judicia( 6ork 6hich jud7es carr out3 %a"y also ul il a "u%ber o di ere"t respo"sibilities not direct( re(ated to their case load4 )an senior jud7es 6i(( 'e invo(ved in decisio"s about sta i"$ resources a"d decidi"$ which cases will be heard by which jud$es and 6hen4 Al%ost all jud$es will be i"volved in the co"sultatio" process for the appoi"t%e"t to judicial o ice So"e 6i((: s$end ti"e deali"$ with the %edia3 advisi"$ on the use o !T in the courts3 co"sulti"$ with court users+ 7rou$s3 receivi"$ a"d $ivi"$ judicial trainin73 deliveri"$ lectures and $u'(ic s$eeches3

writi"$ jour"al articles $ivi"$ evide"ce to3 or headin73 $over"%e"t i"2uiries/udicial review Senior jud7es a(so $(a an i"$ortant ro(e in $(acin7 a chec, o" o icial actio"4 0ver the (ast <0 ears3 jud7es have deve(o$ed the law o judicial review which $ives the% the power to 2uash decisio"s that are i((e7a(3 'ecause the 7o 'e ond the decision "aker>s $o6ers3 or have 'een arrived at throu7h an unfair or irre7u(ar $rocedure4

8-)-7 3o jud$es %a,e law8 Geare et a(3/22 +The jud$e a"d the li%its o the law+ 8he ar7u"ent $resented in Geare et a(4 is that jud$es do %a,e law4 Geare et a(4 ar7ue that the critica( Cuestion re(ates "ot so %uch to the issue o judicial law "akin7 as the le$iti%ate bou"daries of their $ractice4 8his issue is e5a"ined 'oth in ter"s of reasonin7 in cases - the theory o public reaso" - and in ter"s of le$al reaso"i"$ a"d statutory i"terpretatio"4 Geare et a(4 are concerned 6ith the 6a in 6hich judicia( (a6 "akin7 has 'een a ected by the (RAB a concern 6hich can 'e (inked to our ana( sis of the politics o the judiciary in this cha$ter4

/onsider the fo((o6in7 ar7u"ent: ;n "odern societ 3 6here the state is a((-$ervasive 3 [the] values 9that: deter%i"e the 2uality o our social e0iste"ce - [444] tru( 'e(on7 to the $u'(ic - and as a conseCuence3 the ra"$e o voices that $ive %ea"i"$ to these values is as 'road as the $u'(ic itse(f4

8he (e7is(ative and e5ecutive 'ranches of 7overn"ent3 as 6e(( as $rivate institutions3 have a voiceB so shou(d the courts4 /ud$es have "o %o"opoly on the task of $ivi"$ %ea"i"$ to the public values of the /onstitution3 'ut "either is there reaso" or the% to be sile"t4 8he too can %a,e a co"tributio" to the public debate and inCuir 4 Adjudicatio" is the social process ' 6hich jud$es $ive %ea"i"$ to our public values4 (Diss3 $$42-2)

8he A"erican jurist 06en Diss is ar7uin7 that jud$es have a" esse"tial role i" the articulatio" o the values ' 6hich 6e (ive to7ether in a political co%%u"ity4 !o6ever3 the +values+ that are ar$ued over +belo"$+ to the +public+4 8he current ar7u"ents are over the ru(e of (a6 and hu"an ri7hts4 8o c(arif : Diss ar7ues that i" a republic all people co"tribute to the o"$oi"$ debate a'out the ter"s of co%%o" li e (the $u'(ic >thin7>)4 /ud$es do so throu$h adjudicatio"4 8his is ver si"i(ar to the ar7u"ent a'out public reaso" i" ;earey et al43 and hence under(ies the account of the judiciar in this cha$ter4

;n /ha$ter 223 Geare et a(4 confront the Cuestion of the le$iti%acy o judicial law %a,i"$ 8he 'ook re(ies on the 6ork of Diss to ar7ue that judicial law %a,i"$ ta,es place withi" very li%ited ter%s Diss is $resentin7 a theor of judicia( deference4 8his is (inked to the idea that jud$es ta,e part i" a de%ocratic dialo$ue over the ter"s of >our socia( (ife>3 or3 $erha$s "ore $rosaica(( 3 the %ea"i"$ o the rules that de i"e political co%%u"ity 8his is thou7ht throu$h i" hu%a" ri$hts ter%s3 and (inked to the ar7u"ent that hu%a" ri$hts adjudicatio" is political< or3 rather3 that it is ver difficu(t to trace a co"siste"t li"e betwee" le$al a"d political decisio" "akin7 in this area4

/ha$ter 22 of Geare et a(4 then "akes use of so"e co"$arative "ateria( to "ake a 'roader ar7u"ent4 8he historica( e5$erience of jud7es in ,aEi Ger"an and3 "ore recent( 3 in /hi(e3 su77ests that there are i"deed da"$ers i" ar$ui"$ that law a"d judicial decisio" %a,i"$ has "othi"$ to do with politics 8he ar7u"ent is that it is $erha$s 'etter to ackno6(ed7e that judicial law %a,i"$ is political1 and3 in the conte"$orar conte5t of .ritish (a63 to 'e c(ear a'out the ter"s in 6hich jud$es e"$a$e i" a de%ocratic dialo$ue over hu%a" ri$hts ;t "i7ht 'e 6orth considerin7 cases (ike EM a"d .a%buela in the (i7ht of this c(ai": it 6ou(d 'e hard to ar$ue that either o these decisio"s are so%ehow ille$iti%ate4 8hese 2 cases 'ein7 ar7ued that !0- takin7 the (ead in deve(o$ !R over 9/t!R 9) is $rotect the "u" (eavin7 fro" sonF -a"'ue(a- deter"ined that the correct test to assess Ginhu"an or de7radin7 treat"entF under Artic(e % for as (u" seeker

Rather3 'oth see" to 'e %otivated by hu%a"itaria" ar$u%e"ts that broade" a"d stre"$the" the rule o law

3evelopi"$ a pri"cipled jurisprude"ce of hu%a" ri$hts is a(so e"tirely i" ,eepi"$ with what 5arlia%e"t has instructed the jud7es to do in $assin7 the !RA4 ;t "a a(so 'e the case that a robust develop%e"t o hu%a" ri$hts law 6i(( restrai" e0ecutive power a"d reali$" the 6ritish co"stitutio" 8o stress: hu%a" ri$hts li%itatio"s on e0ecutive actio" are cohere"t 6ith notions of de%ocracy a"d the rule o law4 8his $oint a(so takes us to other concerns e5$(ored (ater in this cha$ter: if the jud7es "ake (a63 and if this is in fact a vita( $art of a hea(th and functionin7 de"ocrac 1 to what e0te"t is the process o judicial appoi"t%e"t tra"spare"t a"d accou"table8

So3 >interstitia(> (a6 "akin7 and the deve(o$"ent of the co""on (a6 is an entire( $ro$er judicia( activit 4

8-7 The politics o the judiciary a"d the (RA 9SS9,8;A- R9A#;,G Geare et a(3 / 20 8he $o(itics of the judiciar >4 Geare et a(4 ar7ue that the judicial role3 and in $articu(ar that of jud$es o the SC3 has to 'e understood in the co"te0t o the (RA4 Geare et a(4 e(a'orate ;ri ith+s thesis that jud$es are i"here"tly political ;ri ith does "ot %ea" that jud7es are $o(itica( in the sense that they decide cases i" avour o a political party Rather3 they are i" the positio" 6here the are orced to %a,e political decisio"sB and that3 at (east in the areas that Griffith studied3 judicial decisio"s te"ded to support +the establish%e"t> and re rai" ro% criticis%s o $over"%e"t /ha$ter 20 of Geare et a(4 ar7ues that the history o judicial politics supports ;ri ith+s thesis-

!o6ever3 "atters are s(i7ht( "ore co"$(e54 /ud$es have i"deed bee" critical o $over"%e"t and have %ade i%porta"t decisio"s that are critical o policy even to the e5tent that3 as Ste$hen Sed(e ar7ues3 jud$es have be$u" to address the proble%s i" 6ritish politics that are rooted i" a" over( power ul 5arlia%e"t4 8he (RA has ed i"to this subtle reali$"%e"t o the co"stitutio"4 /ha$ter 20 then returns to the c(ai" that there is no6 so%ethi"$ o a dialo$ue betwee" jud$es a"d 5arlia%e"t3 and that jud$es have bee" less willi"$ to be de ere"tial to &ar(ia"ent4 8his does "ot "ean3 of course3 that jud$es ca" use hu%a" ri$hts to stri,e dow" Acts o 5arlia%e"t-

o!er shifting from Judges"

arliament to

R (Jackson and others) v A-G [2005] is a ke case for u"dersta"di"$ the jud$es+ perceptio" o their role -ord .in7ha" $ointed out that the co"stitutio"al bala"ce has bee" throw" out1 a"d the +Co%%o"s1 do%i"ated by the e0ecutive3 [has 'eco"e] the ulti%ately u"co"strai"ed power i" the state+ (Jackson3 $ara4<2)4 !o6ever3 his s$eech is a(so note6orth for stressi"$ a" i%porta"t co"stitutio"al co"ve"tio"4 ;t is +i"appropriate or the (ouse i" its judicial capacity> ($ara4<2) to elaborate political criticis%s o the e0ecutive4 8he $oint "ade3 thou7h3 corres$onds 6ith the ar7u"ents "ade ' -ord Ste n ($ara4202)4 8he co""ent that the (RA +created a "ew le$al order+ a"d the +pure a"d absolute doctri"e+ o 5arlia%e"tary soverei$"ty is +out o place+3 "ust 'e co"sidered radical state%e"ts3 eve" thou$h

they are obiter (6e 6i(( e5a"ine -ord Ste n>s s$eech 'e(o6)4

/entra( to the "ew politics o the judiciary is the develop%e"t o a body o hu%a" ri$hts (a64 8his uses the ins$iration and resources of the !RA and 9/t!R to adopt Europea" ri$hts jurisprude"ce to a co%%o" law co"te0t4 8his shou(d not 'e seen as the courts atte%pti"$ to usurp the will o 5arlia%e"t4

8he "ain thrust of the different judicia( dicta and 6ritin7s su77est that the i"te"tio" o the jud$es is to use the powers that 5arlia%e"t has $ive" the% to re%a,e the chec,s a"d bala"ces o the co"stitutio"-

5arlia%e"tary soverei$"ty re%ai"s the cor"ersto"e o the co"stitutio"4

!o6ever3 Co"or ;earty has taken a "ore radica( a$$roach and has ar$ued that +parlia%e"tary soverei$"ty is itsel a le$al arti ice + &p-7' (6664conor7eart 4co4uk@$dfs@S*&R 9)9H/0*R80cto'er200?4$df) 5arlia%e"t is supre%e because the jud$es reco$"ise it as such: >6hat the jud7es have "ade3 the can un"ake3 or at (east var >4 8he !ouse of -ords su77ested in Jackson that >there "a 'e basic values---which "ot eve" a" Act o 5arlia%e"t could law ully co"tradict+4 8hese 'asic va(ues are: +respect or hu%a" ri$hts say as well as a ri$ht o access to the courts and perhaps also a co%%it%e"t to the rule o law+ ($42 of Geart )4 8hese ar7u"ents 7o so"e 6a beyo"d prese"t co"stitutio"al doctri"es and envisa7e a +co"stitutio"al revolutio"+ - 6here jud7es effective( assert a co%%o" law co"stitutio" ou"ded o" hu%a" ri$hts-

8his 6ou(d c(ear( 'e a si$"i ica"t shi t i" the bala"ce o power away ro% 5arlia%e"t a"d to u"elected jud$es 8his is proble%atic3 and a u"da%e"tal reali$"%e"t o the co"stitutio" is perhaps u"li,ely at the ti%e o writi"$4 !o6ever3 it is 6orth re"e"'erin7 that an e%powered judiciary protecti"$ hu%a" ri$hts a$ai"st the e0ecutive is "ot "ecessarily u"de%ocratic ;t 6ou(d 'e7 i"$ortant Cuestions a'out how jud$es are appoi"tedB Cuestions that3 as 6e 6i(( see3 are $resent( 'eco"in7 %ore pressi"$ withi" the co"te%porary ter%s o 6ritish politics :hether or not 6e 6ant to su'scri'e to the ar7u"ent that a +dialo$ue+ betwee" the courts a"d 5arlia%e"t is evidence of a shi t i" the bala"ce o the co"stitutio"1 it is c(ear that the (RA has had a si$"i ica"t i%pact on the 6a in 6hich jud$es co"ceive o their role4

Current go#t oppose$s #ie! to the %RA 8he !RA has led to developi"$ te"sio"s betwee" the jud$es a"d 5arlia%e"t4 :hi(st there 6ere often tensions 'et6een the jud7es and the ,e6 -a'our 7overn"ent ($articu(ar( over the res$onse to terroris")3 the cha"$e o $over"%e"t i" 7=)= has1 ar$uably1 ope"ed up a "ew chapter ;n o$$osition3 the Co"servative 5arty had bee" critical o the (RA ;n )a 200A #avid /a"eron stated that >the civil liberties o the suspect+ were bei"$ put + irst+ by the courts (see 66647uardian4co4uk@$o(itics@200I@ jun@2I@conservatives4constitution)4 #avid /a"eron ar7ued that the (RA has brou$ht about a culture o +ri$hts without respo"sibilities>4 Co"servative %i"isters see judicia( interference in &ar(ia"ent>s de"ocratic "andate as e0te"di"$ hu%a" ri$hts i" a way that

co%pro%ises the will o the people4

!o6ever3 their roo" for $o(itica( "anoeuvre is (i"ited ' the fact that they have to co4operate with their .iberal 3e%ocrat $artners 6ho are co%%itted to the (RA4 -ord )c,a(( 3 )inister of State for the )inistr of Justice (at the ti"e of 6ritin7) and a senior -i'era( #e"ocrat3 has stated that he would rather resi$" ro% the $over"%e"t tha" see the cou"try withdraw ro% the Europea" Co"ve"tio" o" (u%a" Ri$hts &EC(R'-

rison$s right of #ote issue A $articu(ar $ro'(e" has arisen over $risoner>s ri7hts4 ;n (irst v >K (,o 2) [2005]3 the 9/t!R ru(ed that the bla",et prohibitio" o" priso"ers voti"$ was i" breach o the Co"ve"tio"4 8he 'asis of the /ourt>s ar7u"ent 6as that it was i"deed up to 5arlia%e"t +to decide whether a"y restrictio" o" the ri$ht to vote should be tailored to particular o e"ces3 or offences of a $articu(ar 7ravit >4 !o6ever: there is "o evide"ce that the le$islature i" the >"ited Ki"$do% has ever sou$ht to assess the proportio"ality of the 'an as it affects convicted $risoners4 ;t ca""ot accept444that an absolute bar o" voti"$ by a"y servi"$ priso"er in an circu"stances fa((s 6ithin an acce$ta'(e "ar7in of a$$reciation ($ara4<2)4 8hus3 it "i7ht 'e the case that the ECt(R is a$ai" sta"di"$ up or

8he ru(e of (a6 re2uires that the power o the e0ecutive be de i"ed by rules and co"e out of a ratio"al rule %a,i"$ process4 ;t 6ou(d a$$ear that the bla",et ba" does "ot co%e out o a"y such co"sideratio"s4 D*R8!9R R9A#;,G Geare et a(43 /ha$ter J +Coda# priso"ers+ ri$hts+-

8-? Torture1 terroris% a"d justice 9SS9,8;A- R9A#;,G Geare et a(43 /ha$ter J3 section entit(ed >Di7htin7 ter"sK 0verru(in7 the !ouse of -ords>B /ha$ter 20 >8he $o(itics of the judiciar revisited: ri7hts3 de"ocrac 3 (a6>3 section entit(ed >8he jud7es3 the e5ecutive and the res$onse to terroris"> and >8he jud7es3 &ar(ia"ent and L8he #ia(o7ueM> and /ha$ter 2< >0$en justice3 c(osed $rocedures and torture evidence>3 section entit(ed >95tradition and Artic(e I>4 /ha$ter 20 of Geare eta(4 (>8he jud7es3 the e5ecutive and the res$onse to terroris">) 7ives us the essentia( conte5t for our discussion of the ke case: A v Secretary o State for the !o"e #e$art"ent [2005] and A v Secretary o State &No 7' [2005]

A (discrimination issue) :e 6i(( e5a"ine one of the "ajor $oints "ade in the ratio of the case4 After the attack on the :or(d 8rade /enter in 20023 the .ritish 7overn"ent asserted that there 6as >a public e%er$e"cy threate"i"$ the li e o the "atio"-+ (A v Secretar of State for the !o"e #e$art"ent [2005] 2 :-R JA)4 #ec(arin7 a $u'(ic e"er7enc allowed the $over"%e"t to dero$ate ro% Article @&)' of the 9/!R3 and usi"$ powers u"der s-7? of the Anti-terroris"3 /ri"e and Securit Act 20023 invoke $o6ers of dete"tio" or "o"4"atio"als if the (o%e Secretary suspected that the 6ere en7a7ed in terroris"4

8he $oint that "ust 'e stressed is that a(thou7h the !ouse of -ords a7reed 6ith the >$o(itica( decision> 7overn"ent3 the he(d that:

6here Co"ve"tio" ri$hts 6ere in issue "atio"al courts were re2uired to a ord the% e ective protectio" by adopti"$ a" i"te"sive review of 6hether such a ri7ht had 'een i"$u7ned 3 and the courts 6ere not $rec(uded ' an doctrine of deference fro" e0a%i"i"$ the proportio"ality of a "easure ta,e" to restrict such a ri$htB

that the ri$ht to perso"al liberty was a%o"$ the %ost u"da%e"tal ri$hts $rotected and the restrictions i"$osed ' section 2% of the 2002 Act ca((ed for close scruti"y (A v Secretar of State for the !o"e #e$art"ent [2005] 2 :-R JA) 8he !ouse of -ords 6ent on to hold that the $over"%e"t+s use o s-7? was a +disproportio"ate respo"se+ to the terrorist threat that the countr faced4

8he 7overn"ent>s res$onse discri%i"ated a$ai"st >K "o"4 "atio"als and 6as +i"co"siste"t+ with the >K+s +i"ter"atio"al hu%a" ri$hts obli$atio"s+ 8his case sho6s the !ouse of -ords assertin7 their co"stitutio"al ri$ht to scruti"ise Acts o 5arlia%e"t ;s this justifia'(eK ,ote that the (ouse o .ords are "ot stri,i"$ dow" or declari"$ void the 7==) Act4 8he are effective( statin7 that the (o%e Secretary has e0ceeded the powers that the re(evant Acts 7ive hi"4 8he !ouse of -ords is carefu( to state that the are "ot 2uestio"i"$ 5arlia%e"t+s political jud$e%e"t4 8his 6ou(d 'e co"stitutio"ally i%proper4 8he are actin7 to e"sure $over"%e"t accordi"$ to the law4

,ot just this: they are e"suri"$ that 5arlia%e"t does "ot u"duly restrict the ri$hts and (i'erties of .ritish citiEens4 .ord (o %a"" (a(thou7h he dissented on the $oint re(atin7 to the e5istence of a nationa( e"er7enc ) $uts the ar7u"ent a'out the court>s ro(e in a $articu(ar( $o6erfu( 6a : 8he (o%e Secretary has adduced evide"ce1 both ope" a"d secret3 to sho6 the e0iste"ce o a threat of serious terrorist outra7es4

8he Attorne Genera( did not invite us to e5a"ine the secret evidence3 'ut des$ite the 6ides$read sce$ticis" 6hich has attached to inte((i7ence assess"ents since the fiasco over ;raCi 6ea$ons of "ass destruction3 ; a" 6i((in7 to acce$t that credible evide"ce o such plots e0ists4

8he events of 22 Se$te"'er 2002 in ,e6 Nork and :ashin7ton and 22 )arch 200% in )adrid "ake it entire( (ike( that the threat of si"i(ar atrocities in the *nited +in7do" is a rea( one444

0f course the Govern"ent has a dut to $rotect the (ives and $ro$ert of its citiEens4 .ut that is a duty which it owes all the ti%e and 6hich it %ust dischar$e without destroyi"$ our co"stitutio"al reedo%s4 8here "a 'e so"e nations too fra7i(e or fissi$arous to 6ithstand a serious act of vio(ence4 6ut that is "ot the case i" the >"ited Ki"$do% :hen )i(ton ur7ed the 7overn"ent of his da not to censor the $ress even in ti"e of civi( 6ar3 he said: >-ords and /o""ons of 9n7(and3 consider 6hat nation it is 6hereof e are3 and 6hereof e are the 7overnors4> 4448he real threat to the li e o the "atio"3 in the se"se o a people livi"$ i" accorda"ce with its traditio"al laws and $o(itica( va(ues3 co%es "ot ro% terroris% 'ut fro" (a6s such as these4

8hat is the true "easure of 6hat terroris" "a achieve4 !t is or 5arlia%e"t to decide whether to $ive the terrorists such a victory (A v Secretar of State for the !o"e #e$art"ent [2005])4 -ord !off"ann stresses that a(thou7h the 7overn"ent has >a dut to $rotect the (ives and $ro$ert of its citiEens>3 the +real threat+ co%es ro% restrictio"s o" liberty1 "ot ro% terroris% itsel 4 -ord !off"ann is ur7in7 us to 6ei7h u$ the threat $osed ' terroris" and that $osed ' restrictive (a6s4 !e Cuotes the $oet John )i(ton to 7ive his $oint cu(tura( authorit 4 9ven thou7h the threat $osed ' terroris" is si7nificant3 it is not to 'e overesti"ated4

/onsider the fo((o6in7 $oint: ; think that it was reaso"able to sa that terroris% i" Norther" !rela"d threate"ed the li e o that part o the "atio" and the territoria( inte7rit of the *nited +in7do" as a 6ho(e4

;n a co""unit riven ' sectarian $assions3 such a ca"$ai7n of vio(ence threatened the fa'ric of or7anised societ 4

8he Cuestion is 6hether the threat of terroris% ro% Musli% e0tre%ists si%ilarly threate"s the li e o the 6ritish "atio"4 ;t is interestin7 that .ord (o %a"" tur"s bac, to the !RA a"d terroris% i" Norther" !rela"d4 ;t is as if his jud7"ent has to 'e read in the shado6s cast ' the "iscarria7e cases that 6e discussed a'ove4 -ord !off"ann>s rea( fear is not so "uch terroris"3 as the threat that i""oce"t people will su er pu"ish%e"t-

A (No.2) Torture evidence issue A v Secretary o State &No 7' [2005] a(so concerns the 2002 Act4 8he case takes us direct( to another dee$( trou'(in7 feature of the so ca((ed >6ar a7ainst terror> and the use o torture evide"ce4 Torture re$resents the "ost $rofound and e$re$ious breach o due process and the rule o law4 8hrou7hout this su'ject 7uide 6e have ar7ued in different 6a s that (a6 is a'out rationa( ar7u"ent4 0ne of the ke va(ues of due process is that the courts should be tra"spare"t and their ruli"$s based o" sou"d ar$u%e"ts4 Evide"ce obtai"ed by torture is si"$( an e5$ression of $o6er and vio(ence and has "o probative value

-et>s e5a"ine the ratio of A &No 7'# !e(d444that evidence of a sus$ect or 6itness 6hich had 'een o'tained ' torture had (on7 'een re$arded as i"here"tly u"reliable3 unfair3 offensive to ordinar standards of hu"anit and decenc and inco"$ati'(e 6ith the $rinci$(es on 6hich courts should ad%i"ister justice3 and that3 in conseCuence3 such evidence "i7ht not (a6fu(( 'e ad"itted a7ainst a $art to $roceedin7s in a *nited +in7do" court3 irrespective o where1 by who% or o" whose authority the torture had 'een inf(ictedB that the Secretary o State did "ot act u"law ully i" relyi"$ o" such tai"ted %aterial 6hen certif in73 arrestin7 and detainin7 a $erson u"der the 7==) Act 6ho" he sus$ected of internationa( terroris"B but that the co%%issio" was established to e0ercise judicial supervisio" of his e5ercise of those $o6ers and 6as reCuired to assess 6hether at the ti"e of the hearin7 'efore it there 6ere reasona'(e 7rounds for his sus$icionB that3 a(thou7h it %i$ht ad%it a wide ra"$e o %aterial which

was i"ad%issible in judicia( $roceedin7s3 but e0press statutory words would be re2uired to override the e0clusio"ary rule barri"$ evide"ce procured by tortureB that the wordi"$ o rule AA&?' could "ot be i"terpreted as authorisi"$ the dis$(ace"ent of that ru(e and that3 accordin7( 3 the co""ission cou(d not ad"it such evidence (A v Secretar of State (,o 2) [2005])4 8he ratio be$i"s ' assertin7 that torture evide"ce is +u"reliable3 unfair3 offensive to ordinar standards of hu"anit and decenc > and should "ot be used i" court !o6ever3 althou$h the (o%e Secretary could %a,e use of such evidence in >certif in73 arrestin7 and detainin7 a $erson under the 2002 Act>3 but a body sitti"$ i" a judicial capacity could "ot-

;t 6ou(d re2uire e0press wordi"$ i" a" Act o 5arlia%e"t to override the $rinci$(e that torture evidence is inco"$ati'(e 6ith >the $rinci$(es on 6hich courts shou(d ad"inister justice4> :hi(st the ad"ission that the !o"e Secretar can "ake use of >tainted "ateria(> is so"e6hat 6orr in73 6e can $erha$s a(so see the i%porta"ce o the (ouse o .ords+ assertio" o the "ecessity o due process i" preservi"$ the i"te$rity o judicial proceedi"$s Terroris% raises di icult proble%s or the police a"d the courts *n(ike >conventiona(> cri"es3 terroris% stri,es at the very idea o the rule o law4 ;t seeks to use viole"ce towards a political e"d4 8he risk is that in res$ondin7 to terrorist vio(ence3 a state that clai%s to be ou"ded a"d $uided by the rule o law reveals that it too is esse"tially a" order o viole"ce4

A and A (,o 2) sho6 the !ouse of -ords atte"$tin7 to de i"e that "arrow a"d di icult li"e that divides the le$iti%ate de e"ce o a de%ocratic order ro% disproportio"ate and i((-jud7ed actions4

Othman (Abu Qatada) v UK 8he $ro'(e" of torture a$$ears a7ain in Oth%a" &Abu Batada' v >K(2022)3 concernin7 the radica( ;s(a"ic $reacher A'u 1atada4 8he 6ritish $over"%e"t wa"ted to deport Batada to /orda" to face tria( for terroris"-re(ated offences4 8he 9/t!R he(d that as there 6as a real ris, that torture evide"ce 6ou(d 'e used a7ainst 1atada (is deportatio" would be i" breach of the 9/!R4

8he 9/t!R cited -ord .in7ha" in its jud7"ent: 444As -ord .in7ha" o'served in A and others no423 torture evide"ce is e0cluded 'ecause it is >unre(ia'(e3 unfair3 offensive to ordinar standards of hu"anit and decenc and inco"$ati'(e 6ith the $rinci$(es 6hich shou(d ani"ate a tri'una( seekin7 to ad"inister justice>4 8he /ourt a7rees 6ith these reasons444 8he trial process is a cor"ersto"e o the rule o law 8orture evidence da"a7es irre$ara'( that $rocessB it su'stitutes force for the ru(e of (a6 and taints the re$utation of an court that ad"its it4 Torture evide"ce is e5c(uded to $rotect the inte7rit of the tria( $rocess and3 u(ti"ate( 3 the rule o law itsel -- 8his is c(ear( inconvenient to the .ritish 7overn"entB it a(so sho6s ho6 the hu%a" ri$ht to a air trial is

a ru(in7 - the courts are standin7 u$ for the ru(e of (a64 Go 'ack to the notes ou "ade in Chapter C of this su'ject 7uide on statutor inter$retation3 as the are a(so usefu( to our $resent discussion4 8he notes ou "ade on the essa in Chapter A of this su'ject 7uide 6i(( a(so 'e re(evant4

Su%%ary 8he !RA has provo,ed so%ethi"$ o a reali$"%e"t o the relatio"ship betwee" the courts a"d 5arlia%e"t4 8his 'e7s "uch 'roader Cuestions a'out the nature of de"ocrac 3 and indeed3 Griffith>s thesis on the $o(itics of the judiciar 4 8ensions 'et6een the jud7es and &ar(ia"ent can a(so 'e re(ated to recent ru(in7s of the 9/t!R4

ACT!D!TE 8-7 Read the fo((o6in7 e5tract fro" -ord Ste n>s s$eech in R (Jackson and others) v A-G [2005] *+!- 5I and ans6er the Cuestion 'e(o6 it: 4446e [thus co"e to the $oint a'out] the su$re"ac of &ar(ia"ent4 :e do not in the *nited +in7do" have an uncontro((ed constitution as the Attorne Genera( i"$(ausi'( asserts4 ;n the 9uro$ean conte5t the second Dactorta"e decision [2??2] "ade that c(ear4 8he sett(e"ent contained in the Scot(and Act 2??J a(so $oint to a divided soverei7nt 4 )oreover3 the 9uro$ean /onvention on !u"an Ri7hts as incor$orated into our (a6 ' the !u"an Ri7hts Act 2??J3 created a ne6 (e7a( order4 0ne "ust not assi"i(ate the 9uro$ean /onvention on !u"an Ri7hts 6ith "u(ti(atera( treaties of the traditiona( t $e4

;nstead it is a (e7a( order in 6hich the *nited +in7do" assu"es o'(i7ations to $rotect funda"enta( ri7hts3 not in re(ation to other states3 'ut to6ards a(( individua(s 6ithin its jurisdiction4 8he c(assic account 7iven ' #ice of the doctrine of the su$re"ac of &ar(ia"ent3 $ure and a'so(ute as it 6as3 can no6 'e seen to 'e out of $(ace in the "odern *nited +in7do"4 ,everthe(ess3 the su$re"ac of &ar(ia"ent is sti(( the 7enera( $rinci$(e of our constitution4 ;t is a construct of the co""on (a64 8he jud7es created this $rinci$(e4 ;f that is so3 it is not unthinka'(e that circu"stances cou(d arise 6here the courts "a have to Cua(if a $rinci$(e esta'(ished on a different h $othesis of constitutiona(is"4

;n e5ce$tiona( circu"stances invo(vin7 an atte"$t to a'o(ish judicia( revie6 or the ordinar ro(e of the courts3 the A$$e((ate /o""ittee of the !ouse of -ords or a ne6 Su$re"e /ourt "a have to consider 6hether this is constitutiona( funda"enta( 6hich even a soverei7n &ar(ia"ent actin7 at the 'ehest of a co"$(aisant !ouse of /o""ons cannot a'o(ish4 ;t is not necessar to e5$(ore the ra"ifications of this Cuestion in this o$inion4 ,o such issues arise on the $resent a$$ea( ($ara 202)4 0ut(ine -ord Ste n>s ar7u"ent4 :hat is the si7nificance of his ar7u"ent that the su$re"ac of &ar(ia"ent derives fro" the co""on (a6K

-ord Ste n is $ointin7 out that there are li%its o" the supre%acy o 5arlia%e"t4 !e dra6s attention to the li%its i%posed by Europea" .aw3 'ut the focus of his ar7u"ent is on the Europea" Co"ve"tio" o" (u%a" Ri$hts4 !e su77ests that a(thou7h #ice >s account of &ar(ia"entar soverei7nt or su$re"ac is sti(( 7enera(( accurate3 it is increasin7( out of ste$ 6ith the rea(it of the conte"$orar constitution4 )ost i"$ortant( 3 he c(ai"s that the soverei$"ty o 5arlia%e"t is a judicial creatio"3 and that the jud7es cou(d a(ter or a"end it4 ,ote his e5a"$(es4 -ord Ste n is effective( statin7 that in the e5tre"e h $othetica( situations that he "entions3 the jud$es a"d "ot 5arlia%e"t are the $uardia"s o the rule o law4 ;t 6ou(d 'e co"siste"t with the rule o law to re use to obey a" Act o 5arlia%e"t which was i" breach o a +co"stitutio"al u"da%e"tal+-

.ord Stey"+s ar$u%e"t3 as $ointed out in the e5tract is radical a"d obiter4 !e c(ear( states that >[n]o such issues arise on the $resent a$$ea(>4 8he si$"i ica"ce of this o'iter ar7u"ent3 then3 is it $oints at a co"stitutio"al revolutio" 8he pri"ciple o 5arlia%e"tary soverei$"ty - $resent( the ,ey doctri"e o the co"stitutio" cou(d 'e Cuestioned3 and even chan7ed ' the Su$re"e /ourt4 8he 'roader $oint is that this orces us to thi", about de%ocracy i" the >K4 A constitution in 6hich there are hu%a" ri$hts li%itatio"s o" 5arlia%e"t is c(ear( one "ode( of a de%ocratic co"stitutio"4

/ud$es would play a very di ere"t role under such a constitution than the do no64 8he 6ou(d effective( 'e the $uardia"s o hu%a" ri$hts (u%a" ri$hts would beco%e soverei$" &ar(ia"ent cou(d not (e7is(ate in such a 6a as to breach hu%a" ri$hts4 ;t is 6orth stressin7 that in the $resent constitution 5arlia%e"t re%ai"s soverei$" a"d ca" le$islate a$ai"st the (u%a" Ri$hts Act if it so chooses4

8-A /udicial i"depe"de"ce a"d judicial accou"tability 8he de'ate a'out the "edia covera7e of jud$es+ decisio"s raises the proble% o judicial accou"tability4 /ud$es are "ot held accou"table i" the sa%e way as politicia"s are throu7h e(ections4 ;nstead3 they are accou"table i" the se"se that their decisio"s are ta,e" i" public3 are re$orted and can 'e a$$ea(ed a7ainst to a hi7her court4 /ud$es clai% that this %a,es the% o"e o the %ost hi$hly scruti"ised and publicly accou"table bodies in the state4 !o6ever3 'ecause the judiciary is i"creasi"$ly re2uired to %a,e decisio"s that are politically a"d ethically co"troversial3 de"ands are 7ro6in7 for jud7es to en7a7e in de'ate and to res$ond "ore direct( to $u'(ic criticis"4 /udicial i"depe"de"ce is the pri"ciple that jud7es "ust 'e ree ro% i%proper pressure in their decision "akin7 in order to e"sure their i%partiality4

;t is $rotected in a nu"'er of 6a s3 the "ost i"$ortant of 6hich are security o te"ure a"d salary 8he need for inde$endence "ust 'e 'a(anced a7ainst the reCuire"ent of judicia( accounta'i(it 4 8his is $ro"oted ' $u'(ic decision "akin73 the a$$ea(s $rocess and a 6i((in7ness on the $art of jud7es to en7a7e in a$$ro$riate $u'(ic de'ate a'out the courts and the (e7a( s ste"4

ACT!D!TE 8-? Go to 6664judiciar 47ov4uk@a'outthe-judiciar @the-judiciar -indetai(@jud-acc-ind and "ake further notes on the inde$endence and accounta'i(it of jud7es4

8-@ The judicial appoi"t%e"ts process 9SS9,8;A- R9A#;,G Geare et a(43 /ha$ter 22 >Jud7es3 accounta'i(it and the ru(e of (a6>4 9n7(and and :a(es does "ot have 6hat is ca((ed a +career judiciary+ as is found in other 9uro$ean countries4 Jud7es are appoi"ted ro% a%o"$ success ul lawyers i" practice4 0ne resu(t of this $ractice is that %ost jud$es are older tha" i" %a"y other Europea" cou"tries 8raditiona(( 3 a(( senior jud7es and "ost (o6er-rankin7 jud7es 6ere or%erly barristers4 8his practice has be$u" to cha"$e4 So(icitors no6 "ake u$ just under ha(f of the (o6er-rankin7 jud7es and are startin7 to 'e a$$ointed to the hi7her ranks of the judiciar 4 .efore 200<3 jud$es o the CA a"d above were chose" by the Buee"3 on the reco""endation of the 5ri%e

Mi"ister3 actin7 on the advice of the .ord Cha"cellor4 Dor (i$h Court jud$es a"d below3 the 5ri%e Mi"ister played "o role and the Buee" was advised by the .ord Cha"cellor direct( 4 8his s ste"3 in 6hich judicia( a$$oint"ents 6ere e ectively i" the ha"ds o the .ord Cha"cellor3 "i7ht have 6or,ed well whe" the judiciary was very s%all and a("ost a(( of its "e"'ers 6ere chose" ro% se"ior %e%bers o the 6ar3 %ost o who% the .ord Cha"cellor ,"ew perso"ally (a(thou7h3 such a s ste" cou(d c(ear( 'e criticised for $ro"otin7 $eo$(e on the 'asis of $ersona( (inks rather than a'i(it )4 As the s ste" e5$anded and co"cer"s about i"depe"de"ce1 accou"tability and lac, o tra"spare"cy 'e7an to 7ro63 $ressure to refor" the s ste" a(so increased4 ;n 20003 a (i"ited judicial appoi"t%e"ts co%%issio" 6as established i" respo"se to these co"cer"s 8his co""ission he(d the $o6er to advise on the a$$oint"ents $rocess and to revie6 individua( cases3 'ut

"ot to play a part i" the appoi"t%e"ts decisio"s the"se(ves4 ;n 20023 the co""ission $roduced a critica( re$ort on the a$$oint"ents $rocess3 6hich added to the $ressure for chan7e4 8he Co"stitutio"al Re or% Act esta'(ished a co"$(ete( ne6 s ste" in 6hich jud$es are appoi"ted by a" i"depe"de"t judicial appoi"t%e"ts co%%issio" A$$ro5i"ate( ?00 fu((- and $art-ti"e jud7es are a$$ointed each ear3 "akin7 it a "ajor ad"inistrative $rocess4 8here is an annua( co"$etition c c(e and a(( judicial positio"s below the CA are "ow advertised4 A co"sultatio" process $(a s a centra( $art in the a$$oint"ent of jud7es3 and allows the advice o se"ior %e%bers of the (e7a( $rofession to 'e taken into account in assessin7 the suita'i(it of an individua( for the ro(e for 6hich he@she has a$$(ied4

8his $rocess is descri'ed ' critics as a >secret soundin7F s ste">4 Soundin7> in the sense of >takin7 soundin7s>4 8his e5$ression ori7ina(( "eant "easurin7 the de$th of 6ater to see 6hether it 6as safe for a shi$ to $roceed4 !t ca%e to %ea" +testi"$ opi"io"+4 8he or%er .ord Cha"cellor3 -ord ;rvine3 fierce( de e"ded the syste% as a hi$hly pro essio"al a"d e ective "eans of o'tainin7 a 6ide ran7e of different vie6s and o$inions of candidates4 ,everthe(ess3 criticis" re"ains stron73 and (a6 ers fro" nontraditiona( 'ack7rounds in $articu(ar re"ain sce$tica( a'out the fairness of the s ste"4

JA/ 8he /udicial Appoi"t%e"ts Co%%issio" &/AC' is an i"depe"de"t "o"4depart%e"tal $u'(ic 'od 6hich 6as created on % A$ri( 200I as $art of the refor"s ollowi"$ the Co"stitutio"al Re or% Act 7==@4 ;t takes over a res$onsi'i(it that 6as $revious( in the hands of the -ord /hance((or and the #e$art"ent for /onstitutiona( Affairs ($revious( the -ord /hance((or>s #e$art"ent)3 a(thou7h the -ord /hance((or retains res$onsi'i(it for a$$ointin7 the se(ected candidates4 8he .ord Cha"cellor has also $ive" up his other judicial u"ctio"s3 inc(udin7 the ri$ht to sit as a jud$e in the !ouse of -ords4 8he /o""ission (aunched its ne6 s ste" on %2 0cto'er 200I 6hen it 6as used for the first ti"e to se(ect u$ to 25 ne6 !i7h /ourt jud7es4 8he /AC is separate ro% the Co%%issio" or /udicial Appoi"t%e"ts &C/A'-

8he /JA 6as esta'(ished in )arch 2002 to review the procedures for the a$$oint"ent of jud7es and 1ueen>s /ounse( (1/s)3 and to investi7ate co"$(aints into those $rocedures4 ;t c(osed on %2 )arch 200I 6ith the esta'(ish"ent of the JA/ and the Judicia( A$$oint"ents and /onduct 0"'uds"an (JA/0)4 A se$arate Judicia( A$$oint"ents .oard for Scot(and and ,orthern ;re(and Judicia( A$$oint"ents /o""ission undertake si"i(ar functions for Scot(and and ,orthern ;re(and3 res$ective( 4 Nou are advised to 7o to the JA/ 6e'site at: 6664judicia(a$$oint"ent47ov4uk Nou are further advised to do6n(oad the s$eech "ade ' the JA/ /hair"an .aroness &rashar as the )idd(e 8e"$(e Guest -ecture3 I ,ove"'er 200I4 8his is found at: 6664judicia(a$$oint"ents47ov4uk@ne 6s@s$eeches4ht"

To what e0te"t is the process or the appoi"t%e"t o jud$es accou"table a"d tra"spare"t8 8he selectio" o jud$es by a politicia"3 the -ord /hance((or3 traditio"ally provided a" ele%e"t o accou"tability in the s ste" ' %ai"tai"i"$ the li", betwee" the judiciary a"d elected represe"tatives4 !o6ever3 this ar7u"ent 6as very %uch wea,e"ed ' the fact that the .ord Cha"cellor was "ot elected !" %ost parlia%e"tary syste%s in 6hich jud7es are a$$ointed ' the e5ecutive3 the selectio" u"ctio" is carried out by a Mi"ister o /ustice 6ho is a(so an elected %e%ber o the le$islature and so is direct( accounta'(e for his or her decisions4 *nder the ne6 arran7e"ents3 the $rocess in 9n7(and and :a(es 6i(( therefore 'e c(oser to "ost other co""on (a6 s ste"s4

Since judicia( inde$endence reCuires that jud$es are1 to so%e e0te"t1 re%oved ro% the pressures o direct de%ocratic accounta'i(it 3 one other channe( throu7h 6hich the a$$oint"ents $rocess can 'e su'ject to $u'(ic scrutin is the "edia4 So far3 judicial appoi"t%e"ts have received relatively little %edia covera$e3 'ut the appoi"t%e"t o the SC jud$es are li,ely to attract %ore i"terest in the future4

Ope""ess 8hese various "eans of $u'(ic accounta'i(it can on( 'e effective i the syste% itsel is ope" to scruti"y *nti( a fe6 ears a7o3 ver (itt(e 6as kno6n a'out the "echanics ' 6hich the .ord Cha"cellor+s 3epart%e"t appoi"ted the jud$es4 ;n the 2?J0s3 in res$onse to criticis%s o lac, o tra"spare"cy3 the de$art"ent introduced a nu"'er of chan7es desi7ned to o$en u$ the $rocess4 Dor the first ti"e3 it published its policies a"d procedures1 job descriptio"s a"d selectio" criteria ;n 2??J3 the de$art"ent 'e7an to $roduce an Annua( Re$ort3 e5$(ainin7 the $riorities and 7oa(s of the $rocess and settin7 out fi7ures for a$$(icants and a$$oint"ents for a(( the ranks4 8he /AC co"ti"ues this practice ,everthe(ess3 there is sti(( criticis" of the (ack of o$enness in the consu(tation $rocess4

3iversity a"d the judiciary :hat is at stake in ar7u"ents for a "ore diverse judiciar K Dirst of a((3 6e need to consider so"e fi7ures: A(thou7h overa(( (eve(s of judicia( diversit "a not at first 7(ance see" drastic - AF o jud$es are ro% %i"orities and )*F are wo%e" - it 7ets 6orse the hi7her ou c(i"'4 ;t>s i%possible to i$"ore the act that there are no "inorit jud7es and on( one 6o"an on the Su$re"e /ourt !irsch3 Guardian3 25 De'ruar 20203 avai(a'(e at 66647uardian4co4uk@co""entisf ree@ henr $orter@202o@fe'@25@"inorit -jud7es-diverse-uk)4 8he low levels o diversity in the judiciar $er$etuate certain net6orks of $rivi(e7e and "ake it a$$ear that $ersona(3 cu(tura( and educationa( connections3 rather than a'i(it 3 deter"ine a$$oint"ent to judicia( office4

As the !ouse of -ords Se(ect /o""ittee on Judicia( A$$oint"ents $ointed out: At one (eve( this "eans that the process %ust be--- air a"d "o"4discri%i"atory: ' that 6e "ean that it "ust continue to resu(t in the appoi"t%e"t o hi$h 2uality jud$es3 'ut 6ithout the i"$osition of 'arriers a7ainst ta(ented (e7a( $ractitioners fro" an section of societ 4 !o6ever3 the issue of diversit 7oes further than this: 6e received evidence3 6ith 6hich 6e concur3 ar$ui"$ that diverse courts are better e2uipped to carry out the role o adjudicati"$ tha" courts that are "ot diverse and that the $u'(ic 6i(( have 7reater trust and confidence in a "ore diverse judiciar 444 #iversit is justified ' the "eed or e2ual opportu"ities 6ithin the (e7a( $rofession3 'ut a(so 'ecause it would %a,e jud$es %ore se"sitive to the proble%s that the are adjudicatin74

8here is a(so the i"$ortant sense that there 6i(( 'e $reater public trust in a judiciar that is "ot culturally a"d eth"ically ho%o$e"ous4 !o6ever3 there are $ro'(e"s 6hich 6ere aired 'efore the !ouse of -ords4 -ord &hi((i$s "ade an interestin7 interjection: Are we setti"$ out to %a,e sure those 6ho are appoi"ted as jud$es are best itted to carry out the duties o the jud$e3 or are 6e tr in7 to do other thin7s at the sa"e ti"e to "ake sure jud$es re lect society or that the appoi"t%e"t syste% is a de%ocratic syste%K ;t 6i(( not necessari( (ead to the sa"e resu(t4 -ord ;rvin7 $icked u$ on the issues re(atin7 to diversit in the judiciar 4 !e stressed that the 7==@ Co"stitutio"al Re or% Act ai%ed to bala"ce diversity a"d %erit #iscussion then focuses on 6hat >eCua(( Cua(ified> "i7ht "ean4

8he ter" co"es fro" s425? of the 9Cua(it Act 20204 :hi(st a7reein7 in $rinci$(e that the $rovisions are 'oth re(evant and necessar 3 their .ordships cast doubt o" the robust"ess o the de i"itio" o e2uality4 -ord ;rvin7 e0presses his ear that this 6ou(d indeed call i"to 2uestio" the +i"te$rity+ o the process -ord &annick further $icks u$ on these "is7ivin7s : he states that +the co"cept o %erit+ %i$ht "ot be su icie"tly broad to a((o6 the a$$ointin7 'od to take into account the re(evant Cuestions4 8hese considerations sho6 that the "atter is serious( de'ated3 'ut the ris, is that without so%e or% o robust actio"1 historical patter"s o pro%otio" to hi$h o ice si%ply repeat the%selves 8he su't(e 6a s in 6hich a certain e(ite $er$etuate their o6n net6orks of $refer"ent and $rivi(e7e re%ai" resista"t to cha"$e4

Reassessi"$ accou"tability Shou(d judicia( confir"ation hearin7s 'e 'rou7ht in to dea( 6ith the "atters that 6e have 'een thinkin7 a'out a'oveK A recent $a$er has asked 6hether co" ir%atio" heari"$s would provide a" opportu"ity to e0a%i"e a" i"dividual ca"didate+s politics 'efore the 6ere invited to take judicia( office4 Such a $ractice is an acce$ted $art of $o(itics in the *nited States4 So far3 $ro$osa(s for confir"ation hearin7s have "ot ou"d accepta"ce i" >K politics4 8he /o""ons /o""ittee that considered the issue did not acce$t that confir"ation hearin7s 6ou(d +e"sure co" ide"ce i" the judiciary+4

8he /o""ittee fe(t that M5s did "ot have the co%pete"ce to %a,e a" assess%e"t o the le$al s,ills o appoi"teesB "ore si7nificant( 3 confir"ation hearin7s 6ou(d +be i"co"siste"t with the %ove to ta,e the Supre%e Court out o the pote"tial political are"a> (A4 !orne >8he chan7in7 constitution: a case for judicia( confir"ation hearin7sK> Stud of &ar(ia"ent Grou$ &a$er ,o4 2 (-ondon: 2020)3 avai(a'(e at 6664stud of$ar(ia"ent4or74uk@s$7$a$er-24$df3 $42?)4 (owever3 the Co%%ittee did su$$est that it 6as possible to e"$a$e with the judiciary i" +a co"structive dialo$ue on constitutiona( issues> (!orne3 2020)4 8he )inistr of Justice>s Green &a$er on the Governance of .ritain a(so considered a "ore enhanced ro(e for &ar(ia"ent in judicia( a$$oint"ents4

A(thou7h the 7overn"ent rejected 'oth confir"ation hearin7s and &ar(ia"entar in$ut in a$$oint"ents3 there was a proposal that a +%eeti"$ o the Co%%o"s /ustice Co%%ittee a"d the .ords Co"stitutio" Co%%ittee+ cou(d >ho(d the s ste" to account on an annua( 'asis> (!orne3 20203 $4%0)4 8he issue 6i(( not 7o a6a 4 !orne Cuotes .o7danor: +the %ore that jud$es are as,ed to provide the a"swers to co%ple0 %oral and $o(itica( Cuestions3 6hich are the su'ject of de'ate in societ 3 the $reater will be the pressure to %a,e the% politically accou"table+ (!orne3 20203 $4%<) the critica( issue is the e5tent to 6hich a process o e"suri"$ accou"tability is co"siste"t 6ith the funda"enta( idea of the i"depe"de"ce o the jud$e-

Su%%ary 8he /onstitutiona( Refor" Act 2005 created a ne6 s ste" for the a$$oint"ent of jud7es and "a7istrates4 A(thou7h it 6as "eant to have brou$ht to a" e"d the use o +secret sou"di"$s>3 Cuestions still re%ai" about the ope""ess a"d tra"spare"cy of the a$$oint"ents s ste"4 8here are a(so concerns a'out the diversity o the judiciary< a"d a" i"creased i"terest i" judicial co" ir"ation hearin7s4

8he e0a%i"able areas covered in this cha$ter are: 8he $o(itics of the Judiciar and the i"$act of the !RA4 Diss> account of judicia( deference and judicia( (a6 "akin74 8he Judicia( res$onse to terroris" and torture evidence4 8he Judicia( a$$oint"ents s ste" and Judicia( accounta'i(it 4