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Barrera G. Luis, Parra A. Juan, Cortesi R. Nelson, Aros O. Nelson Department of Electrical Engineering. University of La Frontera. Box 54-D. Temuco, Chile, 2012 l.barrera01@ufromail.cl, j.parra03@ufromail.cl, n.cortesi@ufromail.cl, naros@ufro.cl

Summary In this paper we study the strategy of model-based predictive control (MPC) and applied to an induction machine fed by three-phase inverters of two three and five levels, compared with each other. The simulation is done using Simulink / Matlab easily and quickly. Keywords: Multilevel Inverter, Predictive Control, Direct Torque and Flux Control 1. Introduction For years the induction machines have provided the most common operations in the industries, because of this and the need of improving its dynamic response, new control techniques have been developed and in the literature predictive control is presented as an alternative to dynamically enhance the response of these drives This paper presents a theoretical and contractual analysis of an actuation of the induction machine, via simulation, using tools of Simulink/Matlab. The relevant aspects of this control strategy are: (i) The torque and flow behavior is predicted for all voltage vectors generated by the inverter, and (ii) The switching state-of the inverter-that simultaneously minimizes torque and flux error is selected through a quality function. The originality and technical improvement of this work is the dynamic simulation of the induction machine and the comparison of different multilevel inverters, showing which offers a better response. It exposes how easy it is to simulate in Simulink/ Matlab various types of multilevel inverters. 1.1 State of art As will have become apparent the advantages of the induction motor, was the need to develop new monitoring techniques in order to expand its field of application. However, two aspects limited the development of induction machines actuators for induction machines: (i) the induction machine is a non-linear dynamic system and the mathematical models represented a difficulty in the implementation of a control system, and (ii) The development of power electronic devices have not yet reach the convenient development to implement such controllers. With the first advances in power electronics, actuators for industrial use appeared. In asynchronous machine control schemes, scalar control technique was implemented. However this did not allow control on the torque developed by the machine and showed a poor response in conditions of low speed. Then, vector control is developed, which allows working with variables and torque-flow technique that is based on rewriting the dynamic equations of the induction machine in a reference frame rotating with the rotor flux vector (Bose, 2002). Currently, model based predictive control is defined as a control strategy based on the use of an explicit mathematical model of the motor which is used to predict the evolution of the variables to be controlled along a specific temporal horizon prediction, thus future manipulated variables are calculated to achieve that in such horizon, the controlled variables converge to their respective reference values (Camacho & Bordons, 2004). The optimum switching state is applied during the next sampling period (Rodrguez et al., 2004a, Rodrguez et al., 2004b; Cortes et al., 2009). 2. Objectives Compare the performance -via simulation- of the predictive controller design on an actuation the induction machine fed by multilevel inverter. Specifically: - Designing a predictive controller for the induction machine fed by a multilevel inverter. Punctually two, three and five levels. - Determine the dynamic performance simulation, of the proposed control system. 3. Study case via

In this section there is a brief description of the model of the machine and the AC / DC / AC converter used. In addition the MPC control strategy (model predictive control) is presented.

= 1

(9)

Where is the spreading factor The mechanical equation and the torque developed by the machine expressed in terms of stator current and stator flux, are:

3.1 Model of the induction machine The induction machine, to study, is formed by a stator of three-phase windings, and a rotor cage short circuited. For the elaboration of model the following simplifying assumptions are considered: (i) The magnetomotive forces follow a sinusoidal spatial distribution. (ii) The rotor is regarded as a balanced three-phase winding. (iii) The effects produced by the slots on the stator-and rotor on the value of the self and mutual inductances are neglected. (iv) The effects of saturation and hysteresis are neglected. Vector model of the machine: Assuming a rotational symmetry of the asynchronous machine, space vectors are defined in a plane perpendicular to the motor axis for the variables: current, voltage and flux linkage depending on the tree-phase variables as, it follows: =

2 3

=

3 ( ) ()

(10) (11)

= 2

Where is the total momentum of inertia and is the number of pair poles; and corresponds to the load torque. 3.2 The inverter model AC / DC / AC The converter AC / DC / AC is composed by: (i) A rectifier bridge; (ii) The continuous liaison with passive filter (inductor and capacitor), (iii) A threephase inverter. (See Figure 1).

+ + 2

(1) (2) (3) Figure 1. Basic scheme of the converter AC / DC / AC Three types of three-phase inverter are studied: (i) two-level, (ii) three-level inverter, (iii) five-level inverter. These are detailed below. Two-level three-phase inverter model The two-level inverter is shown in Figure 2a. The inverter switching states are determined by the gate signals S_A, S_B and S_C, dependent on-off states of semiconductors S1, S2, ..., S6. The spatial voltage vector generated by the inverter is defined as: = 3 + + 2 (12) Where , y are phase to neutral voltages of the inverter. Then the voltage vector of the machine is related to the inverter switching states S of the form: = (13)

2

2 () = 3 + + 2 2 () = 3 + + 2

2

Where = 3 , and the subscript (s) indicate the variables to the stators reference frame. Thus, the electric equations of the stator and rotor are set into fixed stator coordinates, and the flux linkage of the stator and rotor are associated with the stator and rotor currents, respectively, by the following equations:

()

( ) () () = + () () () = + () () () = +

= +

()

( )

(4)

()

Where and are the rotor and stator resistances; the variable is the angular frequency of the rotor; and y are the self inductances and the mutual inductance. Another representation of the inductive coupling, which associates all stator dispersion, is represented by the following equation:

()

= +

()

()

(8)

Where is the voltage at the DC link. Considering all possible combinations generated by the inverter, has eight possible switching states, 7 different voltage vectors, with 0 = 7 . These vectors are shown in Figure 3a.

(a)

(c)

Three-phase three-level inverter model The three-level inverter is shown in Figure 2b, (Peter Stolze, 2011). The inverter switching states are determined by signals from the gate , with i=1...3; j=1...4. Like in the two-level inverter the voltage space vector generated by the inverter is defined by the expression (12). Considering all possible combinations generated by the inverter, it has 27 possible switching states, with 19 different voltage vectors, these states are shown in Figure 3b. Three-phase five-level inverter model The five-level inverter is shown in Figure 2 obtained from (D Lalili, 2006). The inverter switching states are determined by the signs of the gates. Like in the two-level inverter the voltage space vector generated by the inverter is defined by the expression (12). Considering all possible combinations generated by the inverter, there are 125 possible switching states, being 61 different voltage vectors, these states are shown in Figure 3c.

The control scheme of the proposal shown in Figure 4. Thus, the proposed method of torquecontrol and flow- require the references of: (i) the torque , obtained from the output of the speed PI controller; y (ii) The stator flux , which is a constant value given by the user. Furthermore, the rotor and stator flux are obtained from an inference model from the current measurements and stator voltages. The control strategy is based on the minimization of the quality function:

= +

(14)

Where A is a weighting factor for the flow signal, torque and flux are predictions one step away. Since the inverter is a nonlinear element with multiple voltage vectors, all predictions are calculated for the torque and flux. The selection of the optimal vector is obtained by minimizing the quality function g and applying during the next sampling period.

Figure 4. Block diagram of predictive control Predictive model of the machine Rotor flux and the stator flux can be estimated from measurements of the machine terminals.

()

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 3. Vector of state model 3.3 Control strategy 3.3.1 Predictive control (MPC)

()

1 +

= +

(15) (16)

+ 1 = +

(17)

+ 1 = 1

+ (

+ )

(18) Where =

speed. The voltage vectors are related to the inverter switching states. The electric torque can be calculated with the predictions and current flow through the following equation. = 2 [ 4. Results For the implementation of the system, the induction machine is modeled with the parameters: Table 2.Parameters of the used machine Parameter Power Voltage Speed Frequency Lm Ls Lr Rs Rr Values 5 [Hp] 460 [v] 1750 [rpm] 60 [Hz] 203.7 [mH] 209.67 [mH] 209.67 [mH] 1.115 [] 1.083 []

3

+ 1 + 1 ]

(19)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 6. Electrical torque of the induction machine in the start simulation, inversion of march and braking. (a) two-level inverter. (b) With threelevel inverter. (c) With five-level inverter. In Figures 5 and 6 shows that during the start of the machine the electrical torque applied is maximum (limited to 25 [nm]) and the speed increases linearly. When the speed reaches the reference speed (600 [rpm]), the torque decreases to zero. During reversing, the electric torque saturates at -25 [Nm] and the speed decreases linearly to reach its new state. Finally, the machine brake occurs requiring a zero reference speed, in this case the torque increases again to 25 [Nm], then drops to zero to keep the locked machine. During these maneuvers the machine has a flow vector of constant magnitude given by the reference of the control system, see Figure 7 (reference flow: 1 [Wb]).

4.1Predictive control (MPC) The predictive controller was implemented in the block "Embedded Matlab Function". In order to verify the right performance of the predictive controller the following thick maneuvers where made: machine starting, reversing and braking, and fine maneuvers: changing the reference speed and mechanical torque application. Figure 5 shows the behavior of the no load starting machine, reversing and braking. This simulation was developed for a sampling time of 10 [ms], speed between 600 and -600 [rpm] and torque of 25 [Nm]. The results obtained from simulations in the induction machine fed with two-level inverter Figure 5a, three-level inverter 5b, and five-level inverter of Figure 5c.

Figure 8 shows the three phase currents that feed this during the thick maneuvers.

6. References

Bose, B.K. (2002). Modern power Electronics and AC Drives.Prentice Hall PTR. Camacho F., &Bordons, C. (2004). Control Predictivo Pasado Presente Futuro. Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla. Rodriguez, J., Pontt, J., Silva, C., Rees, S., Ammann, U., Lezana, P., Huerta, R., & Cortes, P. (2004a, April). Predictive control of a three-phase inverter.IEEE Electronics Letters, vol 40, no. 9, pp 561-562. Rodriguez, J., Pontt, J., Silva, C., Cortes, P., Rees, S., &Ammann, U. (2004b, September). Predictive direct Torque Control of an Induction Machine. 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE- PEMC 2004, Riga Latvia. Cortes, P., Rodriguez, J., Miranda, H., &Yuz, J.I. (2009, June). Predictive Torque Control of Induction Machines Based on State-Space Models.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 6. D. Lalili, E. B. (2006). A Simplified Space Vector Pulse with Modulation (SVPWM) Algorithm for Diode Clamoing Five Level Inverter with DCVoltage Balancing. Ilmenau: Universittsbibliothek Ilmenau. Peter Stolze, F. B. (2011). Predictive Torque Control of an Induction Machine Fed by a Neutral Point Clamped Inverter.Stellenbosch, South Africa: University of Stellenbos.

Figure 8.Triphasic currents of the machine Summarizing The predictive control system has a good dynamic performance on thick maneuvers. The tracking of the flux variables of the machine are emphasized, which is kept inside the reference values considering a change of state.. 5. Conclusions The main advantage of this control strategy is the ease with which the nonlinearities are included in the system, besides different control variables (multivariable case), in this case the electric torque and magnetic flux of the machine through a quality function, the inclusion of these two variables appropriately scalable by a weighting factor. This strategy allows the possibility on extensions of both variables as of system restrictions. It has been found that the best results are obtained in the five-level inverter with locked diode, since this presents lower harmonic distortion in the current signals. The models developed in this work - in Simulink / Matlab have

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