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International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. 3 (2012) No. 2, pp.

745-750 ISSN 2078-2365

Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices
Pudi Sekhar#1, K. Venkateswara rao#2, T.Devaraju#3
M.Tech Student, EEE Department, GITAM University #2 Lecturer, EEE Department, GITAM University #3 HOD, EEE Department, Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering college
#1

Abstract— A Power quality problem is an occurrence manifested as a nonstandard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure or mis-operation of end use Equipments. Utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial loads, and critical commercial operations all suffer from various types of outages and service interruptions which can cost significant financial 1oss per incident based on process down-time, lost production, idle work forces, and other factors. With the restructuring of Power Systems and with shifting trend towards distributed and dispersed Generation, the issue of Power Quality is going to take newer dimensions. The aim therefore, in this work, is to identify the prominent concerns in the area and thereby to recommend measures that can enhance the quality of the power, keeping in mind their economic viability and technical repercussions. In this paper three custom power controllers: DVR, DSTATCOM (modelled in MATLAB/Simulink), PWM Switched Autotransformer (modelled in PSCAD/EMTDC & MATLAB/SIMULINK) are presented. Comprehensive results are presented to assess the performance of each device to mitigate the Voltage sag and economical device is proposed. Index terms— Power Quality Problems, Voltage sag, DVR, DSTATCOM, PWM Switched Autotransformer

voltages can cause over heating tripping or even destruction of industrial equipment such as motor drives. Electronic equipments are very sensitive loads against harmonics because their control depends on either the peak value or the zero crossing of the supplied voltage, which are all influenced by the harmonic distortion. This paper analyzes the key issues in the Power Quality problems. As one of the prominent power quality problems, the origin, consequences and mitigation techniques of voltage sag problem has been discussed in detail. The study describes the techniques of mitigating voltage sag in a distribution system by two power electronics based devices called Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) and Distribution STATCOM (D-STATCOM) and a new mitigation technique called PWM Switched Autotransformer. II. SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS The distortion in the quality of supply power can be introduced /enhanced at various stages; however, some of the primary sources of distortion [2] can be identified as below: A. Power Electronic Devices B. IT and Office Equipments C. Arcing Devices D. Load Switching E. Large Motor Starting F. Embedded Generation G. Electromagnetic Radiations and Cables H. Storm and Environment Related Causes etc. Some of the common power quality issues and their prominent impact are summarized in the table below: TABLE I Effects

I. INTRODUCTION Power quality is certainly a major concern in the present era; it becomes especially important with the introduction of sophisticated devices, whose performance is very sensitive to the quality of power supply. Modern industrial processes are based a large amount of electronic devices such as programmable logic controllers and adjustable speed drives. The electronic devices are very sensitive to disturbances [1] and thus industrial loads become less tolerant to power quality problems such as voltage dips, voltage swells, and harmonics. Voltage dips are considered one of the most severe disturbances to the industrial equipment. Swells and over

Problem

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Pudi et. al., Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices

buck-boost regulators. Dstatcom. CVT (Constant. Excessive losses and heating in motors. But Present day modern equipments are very sensitive to voltage sags and they need the mitigating device to be very fast in acting. IV. software glitches. QUALITY Dynamic Voltage Restorer is a series connected device designed to maintain a constant RMS voltage value across a sensitive load. So in order to overcome the above disadvantages. Custom power devices are the new generation of power electronics-based equipment aimed at enhancing the reliability and quality of power flows in lowvoltage distribution networks.. There are various custom power devices available such as DVR (dynamic voltage restorer). capacitors and transformers connected to the system Visual irritation. Therefore as shown in Figure 1. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 Voltage sags Transients Harmonics Flicker Devices /Process down time. pp. failure/malfunction of customer equipments and associated scrap cost. effect on product quality.voltage transformer). MODELING OF CUSTOM POWER DEVICES AND SIMULATION RESULTS The main function of a DVR is the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags/swells coming from the network. USE OF CUSTOM POWER DEVICES TO IMPROVE POWER In order to overcome the problems mentioned above conventional devices such as: • • • • • • • • Line. M-G Sets (Motor-generator Sets) Magnetic Synthesizers SVC (Static VAR Compensators) UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies) SMES (Superconducting magnetic energy storage) Static Transfer Switch Fuel Cell Based Inverter System Fig. DVR Page 746 Pudi et. This means that any differential voltages caused by transient disturbances in the ac feeder will be compensated by an equivalent voltage generated by the converter and injected on the medium voltage level through the booster transformer. 3 (2012) No. poor product quality etc. al. If a fault occurs on other lines. 1 Schematic diagram of DVR can be used. The DVR considered consists of:  an injection / series transformer  a harmonic filter  a Voltage Source Converter (VSC)  an energy storage and  a control system as shown in Figure 1 III.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. clean up costs. 2. UPQC and PWM switching auto transformer. Tripping. maintenance and repair costs etc. components failures. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices . The momentary amplitudes of the three injected phase voltages are controlled such as to eliminate any detrimental effects of a bus fault to the load voltage VL. DVR inserts series voltage VDVR and compensates load voltage to pre fault value. Vload is the desired load voltage magnitude Vs is the source voltage during sags/swells condition The test system employed to carry out the simulations concerning the DVR actuation is shown in Figure 2 (1) A. The series injected voltage of the DVR can be written as [3] Vinj = Vload + Vs Where. the DVR is located on approach of sensitive loads. a new category of devices called custom power devices are developed.voltage regulators: Tap changers. introduction of many harmonic components in the supply power and their associated equipment. which cannot possible by the above conventional devices. flashover of instrument insulation hardware re booting.

simulation studies are carried out as follows: A three–phase short-circuit fault is applied during the period of 200 to 500 ms with a fault resistance of 0. D-STATCOM The STATCOM consists mainly of a PWM inverter connected to the network through a transformer. like a thyristor static compensator. and the rms voltage at the sensitive load point is maintained at 98%.4s.2s and it is kept until 0. 2. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices . Page 747 Pudi et.2s and Figure 3(b) shows voltage injected by the DVR and the corresponding load voltage in Figure 3(c) with compensation. (b) Injected Voltage (c) Load Voltage Fig. as shown in Figure 3. 3 (2012) No. When the DVR is in operation the voltage sag is mitigated almost completely. The dc link voltage is provided by capacitor C which is charged with power taken from the network [4]. pp. The first simulation shows three phase voltage sag is simulated. 2 Proposed System Configuration (DVR) To verify the working of a DVR employed to avoid voltage sags. al. 3 Simulation results showing: (a) Supply Voltage. with total voltage sag duration of 0. As a result of DVR. The D-STATCOM function is to regulate the bus voltage by absorbing or generating reactive power to the network.Figure 3(a) also shows a 30% voltage sag initiated at 0. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 Fig.The control system ensures the regulation of the bus voltage and the dc link voltage. B.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. the load voltage is kept at 1pu. The simulation started with the supply voltage 30% sagging as shown in Figure 3(a).001..

2 to 0. This introduction of sudden load produces a reduction in voltage causing a voltage dip is shown in Fig.3s. 7. al. 6 Voltage sag generated due to sudden increase of load Fig. 4.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. 2. Fig. 5 Simulink model for Voltage Sag mitigation using D-STATCOM Fig. The restored voltage waveform is shown in Fig. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 Fig. The SIMULINK model for generating a three phase sag in a power system is shown in Fig. 3 (2012) No. 7 Restored Voltage Waveform The error signal is obtained by comparing the per unit value of the voltage with a constant 1. In one of the feeders. C. The PWM techniques have several advantages compared to other techniques. Two feeders originate from this transformer. VOLTAGE SAG MITIGATION USING PWM SWITCHED AUTOTRANSFORMER Fig. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices .. The introduction of this sudden load introduces voltage sag. a sudden load is included. At any specified time interval. 4 Block diagram of the proposed model The block diagram of the proposed model is shown in Fig. 8 Block diagram of the single phase voltage sag mitigation scheme Page 748 Pudi et.6. a sudden load is included from the period of 0. 5. Hence if a DSTATCOM is connected in parallel to the distribution. A three phase linear transformer is provided for isolation. pp. The reference sinusoidal signals required for the generation of PWM pulses is obtained by using a PI controller in conjunction with the error signal obtained. The load 1 shown is the normal running load. it will correct the voltage sag in that interval.

2 sec with a fault resistance of 0. The waveforms for source and load voltages. It is tested on a simple a. and the error voltage V err is zero. Voltage Verr applied to the pi controller gives the phase angle  . The control voltage given in (2) is constructed at power frequency f = 50 Hz.1 ohm. which creates a voltage sag of 50% at load .S voltage as a reference RMS detection method: In this method the instantaneous load voltage is converted into rms voltage and compared with the reference rms voltage. RMS value of the load voltage V L is calculated and compared with the reference rms voltage Vref Under normal condition when there is no voltage disturbance the power flow is through the anti parallel thyristors used as the ac bypass switch. In this scheme sinusoidal PWM pulse technique is used. The phase angle delta is dependent on the percentage of disturbance and hence controls the magnitude of Vcontrol. 3 (2012) No. load currents before. This combination with a suitable control circuit maintains constant rms load voltage. Hence the IGBT switch operates only during voltage sag condition and regulates the output voltage according to the PWM duty-cycle.At 0. Single phase voltage sag supporter using a PWM Switched autotransformer with R.. Vcontrol = sin (wt+  ) Where ma is the modulation index. al. Four power diodes (D1 to D4) connected to IGBT switch (SW) controls the direction of power flow and connected in ac voltage controller configuration. When the sensing circuit detects an error voltage greater than of the normal voltage the voltage controller acts immediately to switch off the thyristors. Output filters containing a main capacitor filter and a notch filter are used at the output side to filter out the switching noise and reduce harmonics. The gate pulses are blocked to IGBT.2 sec for a duration of 0. which gives an error voltage and this voltage given PI controller. 10. 9 shows the PSCAD/EMTDC model for single phase PWM switched auto transformer for mitigation of voltage sag with peak voltage as a reference. the PWM switched auto transformer switches ON and it takes one cycle to detect the sag and compensate the voltage sag. Page 749 Pudi et. during and after the fault are as shown in Fig. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 (i) Principle of operation An IGBT is used as power electronic device to inject the error voltage into the line so as to maintain the load voltage constant. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices .c system [5] [6] at which a single phase to ground fault is created at 0.M. 2. During this normal condition VL=Vref. 9 PSCAD/EMTDC model of single phase PWM switched auto transformer with RMS voltage as reference The Fig. which calculates the required angle delta in proportion to error voltage.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. or due to faults. The supply voltage Vs and hence VL decreases during disturbance. (2) Fig.This control voltage is then compared with the triangular voltage Vtri to generate the PWM pulses VG which are applied to the IGBT to regulate the output voltage. pp.2 sec. A sag or swell occurs in the system may be due to sudden increase or decrease in the load.

N. This topology requires only one PWM switch per phase as compared to DVR or DSTATCOM requires two switches per phase. 11 Simulink model PWM Switched Autotransformer of a 3-phase system used for voltage sag studies V.V. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 Fig. Figure 11 shows Simulink model PWM Switched Autotransformer [7] of a 3-phase system for voltage sag mitigation. Venkatesh. IEEE. Prasad Reddy. IEEE. 2. IEEE. 10 Simulation results (a) Source voltage with sag (b) Load Voltage without sag Fig. Siva Sarma.2 sec [6] Page 750 Pudi et. Keister. 2008 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC'08) Paper P-027. Mitigation Of Voltage Sags/Swells Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Rosli Omar and Nasrudin Abd Rahim. the proposed devices are very fast acting and efficient.6 June 1995 p 41-48.Chandra Sekaran. Thomas L..2 sec and a sag is observed as shown in Figure 12 and sag is mitigated using PWM Switched Autotransformer and the corresponding waveform is shown in 13. CONCLUSIONS Power quality measures can be applied both at the user end and also at the utility level. Student Member. Mitigation of voltage sag using Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) S. VOL. Member. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Though conventional techniques are available. Fellow. 12Waveform of the load voltage with sag during 0. IEEE. MARCH 2007 A Voltage Sag Supporter Utilizing a PWM-Switched Autotransformer Dong-Myung Lee.1 sec to 0. vol. 22. and Joseph R. V. Fellow. PWM switched autotransformer is efficient and economical among the custom power devices. Habetler. Rostron. E. Hingorani and L. Student Member. 3 (2012) No. A sudden loading is applied at 0. D.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. al. Gyugyi. NO. This paper has presented models of custom power equipment. so. IEEE.32 no. and Dr. Elango Dr. D-STATCOM and PWM switched autotransformer. Hingorani “Introducing Custom Power” IEEE Spectrum. Ronald G. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices . 13 Waveform of load voltage showing mitigated sag using PWM Switched autotransformer Fig. A new Voltage sag mitigation topology called PWM switched auto transformer is modelled and simulated. IEEE. namely DVR. Harley. “Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems”. IEEE. IEEE. 2011 IEEE. applied them to mitigate voltage dip which is very prominent as per utilities are concerned.G. 2. Thomas G. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] H.S.S. Member. Member. Senior Member. pp. Mitigation of Voltage Sags/Swells using PWM Switched Autotransformer C.1 sec to 0. The PWM switched auto transformer does not require energy storage device for mitigation of voltage sag as compared to DVR and DSTATCOM requires energy storage elements. [4] [5] Fig.

pp. 745-750 ISSN 2078-2365 [7] Modeling and simulation of PWM Switched Autotransformer for voltage sag mitigation using MATLAB. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices . International Journal of electrical and power engineering 4(3). 164-168. 2.International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ) Vol. al. 3 (2012) No. 2010. Page 751 Pudi et..