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Peplau’s Nursing Theory

Nursing Theory: Definition:
Nursing theory is an organized and systematic articulation of a set of statements related to questions in the discipline of Nursing.

“A Nursing theory is a set of concepts definitions, relationships and assumptions or propositions derived from Nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter relationships among concepts for the purpose of describing, explaining predicting and or prescribing.

Characteristics of theory:
!heories are  "nterrelating concepts in such a way as to create a different way of loo#ing at a particular phenomenon.  $ogical in Nature  %eneralizable  &asic for hypotheses that can be tested  "ncreasing the general body of #nowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them.  'sed by the practitioners to guide and improve their practice.  (onsistent with other validated theories laws and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigated.

it is vital to have the theory to analyze and explain what nurses do. Purposes of theory in practice: o Assist nurses to describe explain and predict everyday experiences o )erve to guide assessment.  Nursing continuous to strive to establish a unique body of #nowledge.Importance of Nursing theory:  Nursing theory aims to describe.  "t should provide foundation of Nursing practice help to generate further #nowledge and indicate in which direction nursing should develop in the future.  "t include better patient care. predict and explain the phenomenon of Nursing. intervention and evaluation of Nursing care. o *rovide a rationale for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of client which are essential for effective decision ma#ing and implementation. .  !his can be seen as an attempt by the nursing profession to maintain it professional boundaries. o +elps to establish criteria to measure the quality of Nursing care. enhanced status of for nurses and guidance for research and education.  !he main exponent of Nursing caring cannot be measured.  "t helps us to decide what we #now and what we need to #now.

/40 a cloctorate in nursing education from teachers college (olombia 'niversity. )he integrated *sychoanalytical. New 5or#./12 she was awarded on 3A in *sychiatric Nursing in .). )he borrowed from the behavioral sciences and draw from the wor#s of )igmund 7reud. Evolution of Peplaus theory: *eplaus first published her model in . Peplaus Nursing theory Introduction: *eplau-s began her nursing carriers in .o +elp build a common Nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health *rofessional o . )he has held positions in the '. Army. Abraham 3aslow and Neal 3iller./10 she received a &A in interpersonal psychology from &enningition college. "n developing her model peplau was committed to incorporating established #nowledge in to her wor#.nhance autonomy of Nursing by defining its own independent functions. "n . ./0. after receiving a diploma in Nursing from *ottstown hospital school of nursing. social learning human motivational and personality development theories in to her model at a time when Nursing theory development was relatively new. *rivate and general hospitals Nursing research teaching and private practice psychiatric Nursing. "n ./46 in "nterpersonal relations in Nursing.

the phases of the nurse:patient relationship reflect occurrences in personal interaction. "f functions co: operatively with other human process that ma#e health possible for individuals in communities. Peplau’s theory concept: *eplau basis her model on psychodynamic Nursing. occur over time. Paradigm & peplau’s theory : Person : A developing organism that tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs. 9hich she defines as using an understanding of ones own behavior to help others identify their difficulties. productive . Health : a word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human process in the direction of creative.xisting forces outside the organism and in the context of culture. constructive.)he developed the first conceptual curriculum for the &achelor of science in Nursing program at 8utgers 'niversity. Phase of the process< . personal and community living. "n peplaus model. Although separate these phases overlap . *sychodynamic nursing applies principles of human relations to problems that wise at all levels of human experiences. Environment: . Nursing : a significant therapeutic interpersonal process.

!hey do overlap. Identification phase:  (lient selectively determines who will after the help required. and the facility in general to address the problem.  Nurse and client meet. rientation : the nurse and patient must get to #now each other and deal with any differences in bac#ground including culture and level of education. E!ploitation phase: .  >evelopment of the nurse ?client relationship.  (lient may begin to feel a sense of belonging and increasing in self confidence.  (lient-s involvement may differ according to individual.  Nurse and client wor# together to understand their reactions to one another.!he nurse and patient interaction consists of four overlapping phases. 9hile these phases tend to occur in order. #our phases in peplau’s interpersonal relations model rientation phase:  (lient had a felt need and see#s professional assistance. &ecome increasingly more comfortable with one another while defining the problem together. E!ploitation : the team uses the resources of the nurse.  )ense of helplessness and hope less ness replaced by an increasing optimistic attitude. exploitation . "esolution : the team wor#s to resole the health problem for the patient. =rientation. Identification : the medical team focuses on discovering and understanding the health problem. identifications and resolution.

drawing help.  (lient becomes activity involved . Nurse assists the client to access and utilize available resources. 3ay not be a felt need • • Nursing diagnosis: • )ummary statement bases on analysis. >efine needs. Identification: • "nterdependent goal setting. . Interpersonal theory rientation : • Non continuous data collection. Planning: • 3utually set goals E!ploitation : Implementation: • *lans initial towards achievement of mutually • • *lant actively see#ing . Interpersonal theory and nursing process: Nursing process $ssessment: • • >ata collection and analysis. "esolution phase:  (lient needs have been met through collaboration with the nurse.  8esolution is achieved when client no longer identifies with the nurse had dissolves the relationship. may gain control over some aspects of the situation.  (lient benefits from what is offered to them through the nurse:client relationship. while maintaining a therapeutic relationship. 7elt need. *atient initiated.

&oth are sequential and focus on therapeutic relationship. )he must overcome the distance between them. Evaluation : • • &ased on mutually expected behaviours. &oth use observation communication . $eads to termination. • "esolution : • =ccure after other phases are completed successfully. with the end purpose of meeting the patient needs.set goals. recording as basic tools utilized by nursing. • 3ay be accomplished by patient. "oles of the nurse:  *eplau-s theory lists six primary nursing roles<  )tranger  !eacher  8esource person  (ounsellor  )urrogate  $eader %tranger: 9hen the nurse first receiver the client. . &oth use problem solving techniques for the nurse and patient to collaborate on. nurse or family. 3ay lead to termination and initiation of new plans.

%urrogate : +elps to clarify domains of dependence interdependence and independence and acts on client behalf as on advocate. guidance and encouragement to ma#e changes.Teacher : )he must transfer important #nowledge to the patient in reference to a need or interest. $dditional roles include:  !echnical expert  (onsultant  +ealth teacher  !utor  3ediator  Administrator  8ecorder observer  8esearcher. provides . Conclusion : . &eader: +elps to client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in a mutually satisfying way. =ne who provides a specific needed information that aids in the understanding of a problem or new situation. "esource person< Counsellor: +elps to understand and integrate the meaning of current life circumstance.

new jersey 6AA6. paradigm and 8ole of nurse. 3c twen melunine B6AA6C. 064:06F. . B. evelyn. phases of the peplaus interpersonal relations model.124 ? .122.//6C fundamentals of nry concepts process . American journal of Nry 4 edition . +. $ondon 3osby. interpersonal process.//. wil#ins.  *olter . .  9ills 3. !he psychiatric nurses family group 46th edition . practice 0rd edition . lippincott willians .E  !he American journal of nry.  "nterpersonal relationship in Nry. 4th edition . 'i(liography :  %eorge @&./4. New yor#.C towards a new concept in Nry . .*. !heretical basis for nursing philacletphia . )ournal references:  *eplar . %. nry education.7rom this topic we come to #now about the pelaus nry.volution concepts.  'tilizing themes in nry situations. interpersonal theory and nursing process. putman D. Nry theories. American journal of nry ? 41th edition .. 0 volume pa. perryB.6 volume pa ? . the base for professional nry practice.6 volume per 266:261.

Ierbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. the analysis revealed that the process of recovering as described by the seven depressed women consisted of eight categories which comprised three phases. 3cNaughton >& conduct a study of a naturalistic test pf peplau-s theory in home visiting. !he process of recovering is internal and ongoing further research is suggested.*eden conduct the research with peplaus theory on the topic of recovering in depressed women. Audiotaped interviews were conducted in the women-s homes. 'niversity of Hentuc#y. $exington . . *eden .. 8ecovering was initiated by a crisis or turning point experience.. *hase " consists of the turning point and professional supportG phase "" consists of determination wor#:overtime support of family and friends. H5 $(stract < !he descriptive research design for this study was guided by peplau-s interpersonal theory of nursing. Ann .8. 8NG >)N .. Ann 8. *urpose of this research was to describe the process of recovering in women who have been depressed. and successesG and phase m consists of self esteem and maintaining balance. !he sample consisted of seven women who had at one time been hospitalized with a diagnosis of depression and who now considered themselves to be recovering.

A.. .6A/../46 .C in the context of home visiting .A202:. +ome visits were observed and audio recorded beginning with the first prenatal home visit and ending in the early postpartum period. (hanges in the percentage of interaction assigned to the relationship phases along with a rating from the relationship form were compared over time to determine whether relationships progressed as predicated by peplau. implications for nursing practice and research are discussed. .66A4AF.J Abstract< !his article reports a small study that tested the applicability of *eplau-s theory of interpersonal relations in nursing B*eplau.!ype < @ournal article >=" < .. @. Audiotapes were transcribed and analyzed using a start list of codes based on *eplau-s theory. five prenatal clients and public health nurses participated in the study.6AA4.//. 7indings of this study supported *eplau-s theory ..

and two different nurses with the same client. tas#. semantic differential scales related to the nurses view of the client and the clients view of the nurse. !he same nurse wor#ing with two different clients had different preconceptions. and goals with each client. experiences very different therapeutic relationships with different people.0 clients who had two a different nurses. . and a different relationship with respect to bond.(hery. !here was a relationship between the time required to establish a therapeutic relationship with the two different clients. (lients wor#ing with two different nurses had no significant relationship on any of the relationship measures. !his secondary analysis included 0F nurses who had two different clients in the original study. 7indings suggest that the same individual. and the relationship form. whether a nurse or a client. and . "nstruments included the wor#ing alliance inventory. forchu# conduct a study on uniqueness with in the nurse client relationship !he uniqueness of individual nurse:client relationships was explored by comparing therapeutic relationships of two different clients with the same nurse.