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UNI TED STATES DI STRI CT CO URT SO UTHERN DI STRI CT O F FLO RI DA

CASE NO .1224253CI VMI DDLEBROO KS/ BRANNO N
MI CHELLE SPENCEJONES,
Pl ai nt i f f ,
VS.

STATE AU ORNEY KATHERI NE

FERNANDEZ RUNDL E,MAYOR TOMAS
REGA LADO,ASSI STA NT STATE AU O RNEY W I LLI AM RI CHARD SCRUGGS, and I NVESTI GATO R RO BERT FI ELDER,
Def endant s.
/

O RDER DI SM I SSI NG AM ENDED CO M PLAI NT
THI S CAUSE comes bef or et he Coud upon t he f ol l ow i ng:

Mo t i on t o Di s mi s sb y Ka t h er i n e Fer n an dezRun dl e( DE 60 ) * , 2. Mo t i on t o Di s mi s sb yTomâ s Regal a dot DE 61 ) , * 3. Mo t i on t o Di s mi s s byRob ed Fi el der( DE 62) * ,
4. Mo t i ont o Di s mi s sb yW i l l i am Ri ch ar d Sc r ug gs( DE 73) ,an * d

5. Mot i on t o St r i k eAmen de d Compl ai n tb yW i l l i am Ri ch ar d Sc r ug gs( DE

74) .
Ihave had t he benef i tofmem or anda f i l ed by t he Par t i es as wel las or al ar gument .
1 . I nt r oduct i on

Th e Pl ai n t i f t Mi ch el l e Spen c el on es( ' t sp en c elon es n ) ,af or merMi am i Ci t y
Com m i ssi onerhas sued Dade Count y St at e At t or ney Kat her i ne Fer nandez Rundl e
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( $ ' Run dI e' ' ) , As s i s t an tSt at e At t or n ey Ri ch ar d Sc r u gg s( l d sc r ug gs n ) , an i n v es t i g at ori nt h e St a t eAt t or ne y' sof f i c e, Rober tFi el der( ' ' Fi el der ' ' ) , an dt he Ma y orofMi am i , Tomé s Reg al a do ( l l Re gal adon ) . Es s en t i al l yt h e Co mpl ai n tal l ege st ha tt h e De f en dan t s
conspi r ed t or em ove M s.Spencelones f r om of f i c e by m anuf ac t ur i ng f al se evi dence, hi di ng excul pat or yevi dence,and m ani pul at i ng t he cr i mi nalpr ocess by char gi ng heri n t wo cr i mi nal cases. One oft he cases was di sm i ssed. I nt he ot hershe was acqui t t ed by

aj ur yofh erp eer s .
The com pl ai nt lr eads m or eI i ke a pol i t i cal m ani f est ot han t he shod, pl ai n

s t a t emen to f j ur i s di c t i o n an dt he c l ai msc on t empl a t ed b y Rul e8o ft he Fed er al Rul eso f

Ci v i l Pr o c edur e. Ni n et een c l ai msar ea s s er t ed: t en c l ai ms p ur s uan t t o 42 U. S. C. j1 983
al l egi ng f abr i cat i on and conceal m entofevi dence, f al se ar r est ,m al i ci ous pr osecut i on, Fi r stAm endm entr et al i at i on,ci vi lr i ght s conspi r acy,super vi sor yl i abi l i t y,r et al i at or y i nducem entt o pr osecut e,and Due Pr ocess St i gm apl us;Ci vi lRI CO ;com m on I aw f al se

ar r est ,m al ' i ci ous pr osecut i on' ,i nt ent i onali nf l i ct i on ofem ot i onal di s t r ess' ,and negl i gent hi r i ng,di sci pl i ne,t r ai ni ng,r et ent i on and super vi si on. M i ndf ul oft he dam age t hatcoul d be i nf l i c t ed on t he f unct i oni ng oft he gover nmentand l aw enf or cementof f i ci al s ofM i am i Dade Count y,Ist ayed di scover y pendi ng r esol ut i on oft he i nst antmot i ons t o di sm i ss.

See Chud as ama 7 .Ma z da Mot o rCo r p. ,1 23 F. 3 d1 35 3( 11 t h Ci r .1 99 7) .
I I . Am ended Com pl ai nt

The Com pl ai nti s 114 pages l ong and has 757 num ber ed al l egat i ons. I ti sf ul lof sel f s er vi ng hyper bol e,per sonal at t ack s,and f or m ul ai c,i m pl ausi bl e concl usi ons. For exam pl e,Spenc elones descr i bes her sel fas ' t a power f ulvoi ce f ort he com m uni t y ... 1 The Pl ai nt i f fam ended herCom pl ai nton M ar ch 7, 2013. AI Ir ef er ences t ot he ' d com pl ai nt 'ar e di r ec t ed att he oper at i ve, Amended Com pl ai ntatDock etEnt r y 48.
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I who )qui c k l yde v el o pe d ar ep u t a t i onf ori n d epen den c e an dI oy al t yt oh erc on s t i t uen t s,
of t en f i ght i ng power f ul ,m oneyed,and ent r enched i nt er es t sf ort he sak e ofwhatshe

bel i e ve dt o bet hegood o fhe rDi s t r i c ta nd t h e Ci t y. ' ' ( Compl . 1 1 30 ) . Heropp os i t i on ,
however ,d ' cam e f r om a som ewhatdi f f er entschoolofpol i t i cs t han Spencelones,a

sc h ool b as ed onf r i end sh i p, pa t r on ag e,an d po l i t i c al f a v or s . ' '( l d. : 1 3 5) .
Ful l ofpol i t i cali nt r i gue,t he Com pl ai ntm ovesf r om an at t em pt ed ext r adi t i on or

k i dn ap pi n gi n Co s t a Ri c a( i d. j ! ! r 83 8 8) , t h e1 993c on f r on t a t i onbet ween t h e FBl and

Br anc h Dav i di an sa tW ac o, Tex as( i d. ! ! I 89 9 3) ,a pl an t of i r et h e Mi ami Pol i c e Commi s si on erb ec a us e he h ad or d er e dr ai d s on i l l egal gambl i n g( i d. I N 53 55 40) , t he
May or ' s al l e ged mi s u s e ofa c i t yi s su e dg asc r edi tc ar d( i d. 1 1 1 151 55 ) , andt hef ai l ur et o

ar r es tan d pr o s ec u t et h e Ma yor( a tt h et i me, ac i t yc ommi s s i on er )o v er an i nc i den t
dur i ng s t r ee tpr o t e s t so ve rEl i an Gon z al e zwhi ch o c c ur r ed o v era dec a de ago. ( I d. 1 1 56) .
Forpur poses oft hi s Or der ,however , t he pedi nental l egat i ons ar er el at i vel y
di scr eet ,i nvol vi ng t wo cr i mi nalpr osecut i ons.

A. Kar vm Vent ur es ï caf é SoulPr os ecut i on Al l egat i ons oft he Com pl ai ntper t ai ni ng t ot he pr osecut i on ofMs.Spencelones ar i si ng outoft he Kar y m Vent ur es ï caf é Soulm at t erm ay be f ound i n par agr aphs 238-

325 and 543592. Ihave const r ued t he Com pl ai nti nt he I i ghtm os tf avor abl et ot he

Pl ai nt i f t accept i ng as t r ue al l f act st hatshe al l eges. See Hi shon e .Ki ng ofSpaul di ng,

46 7 U. S. 69, 73 ( 1 9 84) , * s ee al s oWr i ghtv . Ne ws o me, 79 5 F. 2 d9 64, 967 ( 1 1 t h Ci r . 1 98 6) .

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Ihave al so r evi ewed a docum entent i t l ed ' d cl oseoutMem o,M i chel l e SpenceJones Case No.F0937102, ' , at t ached as Exhi bi tB t ot he Def endantScr uggs'M ot i on t o

Di s mi s s( t h eu cl os eou tMemo ' ' ) .Re f er enc est ot h e Cl os eou tMemo ar ec on t ai n ed i n
par agr aphs 8,553577,584585,and 589592 oft he Com pl ai nt . The El event h Ci r cui t
has hel dt hata cour tm ay consi dera documentat t ached t o a m ot i on t o di sm i ss wi t hout

c on v er t i ngt he mo t i o ni n t o on ef or su mmar yj u dgmenti ft h ea t t ac he d doc u m en ti s: ( 1 )
c en t r al t ot he pl ai n t i f r sc l ai m, and ( 2)un di sp ut ed. l nt hi sc on t ex t' ' un di spu t ed' ' mean s
t hatt he aut hent i ci t y oft he docum enti s notchal l enged. A docum entneed notbe

physi cal l y at t ached t o a pl eadi ng t o be i ncor por at ed by r ef er ence i nt oi t ;i ft he
docum ent ' s cont ent s ar e al l eged i n a com pl ai ntand no par t y quest i ons t hose cont ent s,
such a docum entcan be consi der ed,pr ovi ded i tmeet st he cent r al i t yr equi r em ent . Day

g .T ay l o r , 400 F. 3d 1 272,1 27 6( 11 t h Ci r . 200 5) . 3e e al s o Hor s l e y7 . Fe l dt , 30 4 F. 3d 11 25 ( 1 1 t h Ci r . 200 2) . Unl i k et h ef ac t u al al l ega t i onso ft h e Compl ai n t ,I ha v en ot
pr esum ed t he t r ut h oft he st at em ent s cont ai ned i nt he Cl oseoutM em o. Buti ti s hel pf ul

i n under st andi ng t he nat ur e oft he di sput e and t he chr onol ogy ofevent s dur i ng t he
cr i mi nalpr osecut i ons.

Kar ym Ven t ur es, I nc .( ' ' Kar y m' ' )wa s a pr i v a t ec or p or at i onf oun de db y Ms.
Spencelones and s ever alofherf am i l y m em ber s whi l e M s.Spencelones was a ci t y

empl o ye e, bu tb ef o r es hewasel ec t e dt ot h e Ci t y Commi s si on. ( Co mpl . I N 31 , 239* ,
Cl o s eou tMemo, p.2 ) .Ac c or di n gt ot h e Compl ai n t , Dr . Bar b ar a Car ey shul er ,
Chai r per sonoft he Dade Count y Commi ssi on,aut hor i zed $50, 000 i n publ i cf unds t o

Kar y mf ora n ei gh bor h oo dr ev i t al i z a t i on p r o j ec tc al l e d Ca f é Soul t ha ti n v ol v ed

r e de v el opmen to fa c r a ckh ou s e.Th ep r o j ec th ad s ev er al c omp on en t s : ar es t au r an t
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f ocusi ng on sout her n cui si ne,an ar tgal l er y,a hai rsal on,and an ent er t ai nm entspace.

( / J. : 1 239 ) .On Sept emb er 23, 2 00 4, Dr . Car ey shul err ec ommend ed t h at t he Me t r oMi ami Ac t i on Pl an Tr u s t( ' C MMAP' ' )pr o v i d ef un di n gf o rCaf é Soul , bu t' d t h e Commi s si on,
atl eastaccor di ng t o some M MAP st af f ,appar ent l yr ecomm ended m i st akenl y' ' t hatt he

f un dsbe di r ec t edt ot wo o t heren t i t i es : Ti mbu k t u Mar k et p l a c ea nd Os unVi l l ag e.( / d. $

241 ) .
The Cl oseoutMem o descr i bes t he ' d mi st ake' ' as f ol l ows:

The f act sr el evantt ot he cr i mi nalcase agai nstM s.Spencelones began on Sept em ber 23, 2004. On t hat dat e t he Mi am i Dade Count y Com m i ssi on hel d a budgetm eet i ng t o det er mi ne how count yf unds shoul d be al l ocat ed i nf i scal year 2005. Shor t l y bef or e t he publ i c m eet i ng, Chai r per son Dr .Bar bar a Car eyshul erhad a m eet i ng i n hercount y of f i ce wi t h M MAP of f i ci al s and t ol dt hem she was goi ng t or ecom m end t hat

MMAP awar d gr an t st ot h r e es epar at e en t i t i es :( 1 ) Fr i end s ofMLK,I n c. ( $ ' FM LK' ' ) ; Ti mbu k t u Mar k et pl ac e( ' ' r i mbuk t u' ' ) ,an d Os u n Vi l l ag e( d $ Osun ' ' ) .
Com m i ssi oner Dr .Car eyshul er ' s' r ecom m endat i on' 'becam e par t oft he count y' s budget att hat ni ght s'Com m i ssi on m eet i ng' , however , no dol l ar amount s wer ei ncl uded i nt he I i ne i t em . Accor di ng t o MM AP oïci al s, not hi ng I i ke t hi s had everhappened bef or e. Undernor malci r cum st ances i ndi vi dual s subm i t gr ant appl i cat i ons on t hei rown behal f oron behal f of t hei ror gani zat i on t o M MAP,t he appl i cat i ons ar er evi ewed by mem ber s of M MAP' Ss t af fand t he pr opos ed gr ant ees t ot he M MAP Boar d!and f i nal l y t he M MA P Boar d vot es on whet hert of und t he gr ant . Com m l ssi onerDr . ' r ecom m endat i on' ' voi ded t hi s ent i r e pr ocess. Car eyshul er ' s ' M MA P of f i ci al s have s t at ed t hat t he r ecom m endat i on f r om Fudher m or e, t he Chai r per son oft he M i am iDade Count y Com m i ssi on was consi der ed t o be a di r ec t i ve and t hatnei t hert he s t af fnort he Boar d everbel i eved t hat t hey had any choi ce aboutt he t hr ee gr ant s.

( Cl o s eou tMemo, pp. 23) .
Accor di ng t ot he Com pl ai nt ,af t erMs.Spencelones i nf or med Dr .Car eyshul er

oft he d l mi s t ake, ' ' she t ookst epst o di r ectt he $50, 000 t o Kar ym . However ,t he Cl oseout
M em o st at es as f ol l ows:

ant s w as assi gned t o Wi l l i am Si m mons, Pr ocessi ng of t he t hr ee gr Si nce t he t hr ee gr ant s as vot ed on by t he M MAP' S seni or m anager .
5

.

' '

'

4 % n h k * s % M, k ' * j *' . ï 4 ? ? V *t . W* % k * % W h 6 n ' G' ' 6 ' *' ' . ! t 1t

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Count y Com m i ssi on had no dol l ar am ount , Mr . Si m m ons cal l ed Comm i ssi onerDr .Car eyshul er ' s of f i ce t o det er mi ne t he amountf oreach gr ant . He was t ol d by a s eni ors t af fper son i nt he Chai r per son' s of f i ce t hat

each oft hese gr ant s shoul d be f or$25, 000. The M MAP Boar d af f i r med
t he t hr ee gr ant s on Novem ber 8, 2008 wi t hout even knowi ng whi ch i ndi vi dual s w oul d ac t ual l yr ecei ve t he f unds. Af t ert he Boar d' s vot e,M r . Si m m ons t r i ed t o det er mi ne w ho woul d si gn t he gr antdocum ent sf oreach oft he t hr ee ent i t i es si nce he had neverhear d oft hem and no appl i cat i on had been subm i t t ed t o M MAP. Dur i ng Novem ber and Decem ber ,2004 Mr .Si m m ons was unabl et o ascedai n any of t he i ndi vi dual s associ at ed

wi t h FMLK, Ti mbu k t u, orOsu n. Mean whi l e, on Dec emb er1 5, 200 4( a f t er MMAP h ad a f f i r med t h e t hr e e gr an t s ) Kar ym Ven t u r es ,l nc . was
i ncor por at ed by at t or ney M ar l on Hi l l . Mr . Hi l l has t est i f i ed i n a swor n st at ementt hathe was cal l ed t ot he home ofM i chel l e Spencelones and r equest ed t of i l et he i ncor por at i on paper sf or Kar ym si nc e,accor di ng t o Ms. Spencelones, Kar ym was about t o r ecei ve a count y gr ant f r om M MAP.
Ar ound Januar y 3,2005,Ms.Spencelones cal l ed W i l l i am Si m m ons. Hi s not es

oft he conver sat i on ar ei ncl uded i nt he Cl os eoutM em o. She t ol d hi mt hatt he Caf é Soul

pr o j ec twa st o be c omp l e t e d wi t h Kar y m, t h at t h e ov er al l pr o j ec tn ame wa s Osu n, and
t hatCaf é Soul woul di ncl ude t he Ti m buk t u M ar ketPl ace. She al so t ol dMr .Si m mons

t ha ts hewou l dp uthi mi nt ouc hwi t ht h e Fr i en dsofMLK ( $ ' FM L K' ' ) ,mo s tI i k el yt h r ou gh
Past orGast on Sm i t h.

The Com pl ai ntal l eges t hat' d car eyshul erknew Spencelones per sonal l y and had c onf i dence t hatSpencelones woul d m ak e Caf é Soul a success. ' The Cl oseout
M em o put si ta I i t t l e di f f er ent l y. Accor di ng t oMr .Si m m ons' swor n st at em ent ,he was

wel l awar e oft he cl ose r el at i onshi p bet ween Com m i ssi on Chai r per son Car eyshul er
and M s.Spenc elones and bel i eved t hati twas i nt he besti nt er estofhi s cont i nued

empl o y ment t o' l mak et h i shap pen. ' '( Cl os eou tMemo, p. 4) .Si mmo ns r equ es t ed l e t t er s
f r om t he pr i nci pal s ofTi m buk t u and Osun aut hor i zi ng r ecei ptby Kar ym oft he t wo

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$25, 000 gr ant s and al so dr af t ed a pr oposed I et t ert o be si gned by Dr .Car eyshul er

app r o vi n gt h er edi r ec t i n g of f u n dsand s en t t h e dr af tt o Ms. Spen c el on es.( I d.a t4) .
These t hr ee I et t er s and t he ci r cum st anc es sur r oundi ng t hem cons t i t ut et he hear t

o ft h e Kar y mr el a t e d pr os ec u t i o no fMs. Sp enc el one s. ( Comp l . 1 1 4) .On eo ft h em , t h e

Car e yshu l erl et t er , i sa tt h ec r u xofh erc as ea gai n s t t h e St at e At t or n ey ' sOf f i c e( t d SAO' ' ) d ef e ndan t s. ( I d. 1 1 1 1 2 4758, 269 70, 2 798 3, 2 92, 31 4, 31 8, 48 08 4) .
M ar vi n W eeks,who or i gi nat ed t he i dea ofTi m buk t u M ar k et pl ace,had

di s c us si onswi t h Ms. Spen c el on esab ou t j oi n i n g wi t hh eri n Ca f é Soul , bu t wa s
unawar et haton Sept em ber23,2004,Dr .Car eyshul erdi r ect ed M MAP t o awar da

gr an tt oTi mbu k t u or t ha tt h e MMAP Boar dh ad ap pr o v ed a $25, 0 00 gr an t .( I d. ! 1 4) .On
Januar y 3,2005,M s.Spenc elones of f er ed her' ' publ i cr el at i ons and m ar ket i ng

ser vi ces' ' t o Mr . W eek sf or$3, 000. , t wo days I at ershe r eques t ed a l et t erf r om Mr . W eeks

su ppodi ngt h e Caf é Sou l pr o j ec t .Ac c or di n gt ot he Cl os eo utMemo, Mr . We ek s
pr ovi ded t he I et t erwi t houtknowi ng i twoul d be used t o obt ai n Ti mbuk t u' s $25, 000 gr ant

f r om MMAP. Mont hs l at er ,Mr . W eeksI ear ned t hatKar ym had r ec ei ved t he $25, 000
and conf r ont ed M s.Spencelones. He pr ovi ded s wor nt est i m ony t hatshe r epl i ed: i ' M ar vi n,t hati s notyourm oney.Thi si s m y m oney,t he Com m i ssi oneri nt ended m e t o

h av et h a tmon ey. '( Cl os e ou tMemo, p. 5 ) .
The second $25, 000 gr antwas di r ec t ed by Commi ssi onerCar eyshul ert o Osun

Vi l l ag e, ar e dev el opmen tpr o j ec to ft h e N. W. 7 t hAv enu ec or r i dorbe t ween 5 4t h an d
58t h St r eet si nM i am i t hatdi d noti ncl ude Caf é Soul . Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutM em o, t he or i gi nat or s oft he Osun Vi l l age,ar chi t ec t s Har l and W oodwar d and Nat hani el St yl es,

wer eI i kewi s e unawar et hatt hey had beenawar ded a $25, 000 gr antbyM MAP.The

7

.. . < . . . s w . . n v v wz v lk p x - - . q e x u a ow . .

.

. .v v ' z M m . s m o' * w i k * . d / .

$ -

* > >. 9 : . o & 7 +c . *# * J 5 4 * z % ; e 1# 9

* b'

' >' t v -' -

t '

'

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second I et t er ,a I et t erwi t ht he I et t er head oft hei rc or por at i on,Com m uni t y Bui l der s

Hol i st i c Devel opmentCor por at i on,was subm i t t ed t o M MAP by M s.Spencelones

suppodi ng t he r edi r ec t i on oft he $25, 000 Osun gr antt o Kar ym.Acc or di ng t o St i l es' and
W oodwar d' s swor n st at em ent s, t hey wer e unawar e oft he I et t erunt i li twas shown t o t hem by pr osecut or s and i nvest i gat or s and t hey di d notpr epar e oraut hor i ze t he

un s i gn ed l et t eront h ei rc or p or at es t at i on ar y .( I d. at6 ) .
Th et hi r dl et t er f or ms mu chof t he b as i so fMs. Sp enc e lon es ' l aws ui t .( Se e

Com p l . I N 247 5 8, 269 71, 2 79 8 5, 292, 303 05, 31 3 1 4, 31 8, 48 0, 4828 4, 56 5,5 7076, 589, 60 20 4, 6 48) .The Co mpl ai n tal l e gest h at t h e Kar y m' sp r os ec u t i onwas b as e d
upon ' ' f abr i cat ed' ' evi dence. Sur pr i si ngl y howev er ,t he socal l ed ' ' f abr i cat ed evi dence' ' i s
notphysi calevi denc e,but ,i ns t ead,a swor ns t at em entby Com m i ssi on Chai r per son Dr .

Bar bar a Car eyshul er . The k ey al l egat i on under l yi ng aI Ioft he exagger at ed and concl usor yr het or i ci s t hatt he SAO Def endan t s' ' f abr i cat ed evi dence i n an at t em ptt o m anuf ac t ur e pr obabl e cause,by l yi ng t o,t hr eat eni ng,and m ani pul at i ng Car eyshul ert oi nduc e hert o gi ve an appar ent l y unknown f al se st at ementt hatbecame t he basi sf orSpencelones'ar r es t . '

( I d. 1 1 235( i i ) ) . The Compl ai n tal l eg est h atDr . Car ey shul erha d' f or got t e n abo uth er
deci si onsaboutCaf é Soulf undi ng i ncl udi ng herdeci si on t or equesta $50, 000 gr antf or
Kar ym ...,t hather' f or get f ul ness was under s t andabl e, 'and t he SAO Def endant s

S del i b er at el y mi sl ed' h eri n t ob el i ev i n g sh e ha dn ev erau t h or i z ed t h e Kar y mf u ndi n g. ' ' ( I d. I T 27 8, 281 ) . By t hr e at en i n g,l y i n gt o, an dm i s l eadi n gt h ec hi efpr os ec u t i onwi t ne s s,
and wi t hhol di ng t he k ey pi eces ofexcul pat or y evi dence,d t he SAO Def endant si nduced
Car eyshul ert o m ake a swor n st at em enton Sept em ber18,2009,f al sel yi m pl i cat i ng

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Spencelones i n a schem e t ot ake Count y m oney i m pr oper l y wi t houtheraut hor i zat i on. ' '

I d. I I ! I 28 5, 602.
And how di dt he SAO Def endant st r i ck t he Count y Com m i ssi on Chai r per son i nt o

pr ov i di ng ' f abr i c at ed an df al s et es t i mon y ' ' ?( I d. ! 1 60 2) . By al l eg edl yc on c eal i ngf r om
herdr af t s ofherow n Febr uar y 15,2005 I et t er . W hi l ei tm i ghtseem i m pl ausi bl et hatan

educat ed,exper i enced,el ect ed publ i c of f i ci al ,descr i bed by Ms.Spencelones as a d ' homet own her o' ' woul d be so easi l ymi sl ed,t he Com pl ai ntal l eges t hatt he pr osecut or s act ed wi t hd ' a knowi ng,wi l l f ul ,want on,gr ossl yr eckl es s,unl awf ul ,unr easonabl e, unconsci onabl e, and f l agr antdi sr egar d ofPl ai nt i f f ' sr i ght s,pr i vi l eges,wel f ar e,and wel l -

bei n g an d ar e gui l t yofe gr egi ou s an d gr o s s mi s c on du c t t o war dsPl ai nt i E' '( I d. ! 1 60 5) .
The Cl oseoutMem o descr i bes t he i nt er act i on wi t h Dr .Car eyshul erf r om t he

per spect i ve oft he pr osecut or s. On Sept em ber10,2009,pur suantt o subpoena and
accom pani ed by counsel ,Dr .Car eyshul err evi ewed t he M MAP f i l ei ncl udi ng her Febr uar y 15,2005 I et t erw hi ch had been f axed t oMr .Si m mons and di r ec t ed M MAP t o

' ' r el ease t he $50, 000 t o Kar y m Vent ur es,l nc. ' The l et t erwas s t amped,butnot
per sonal l y si gned.

Dr .Car eyshul eral l egedl yt ol dt he pr osecut or st hatshe:had i nt ended t he t wo gr ant st o go t o Ti m buk t u and Osun Vi l l age' , t hatshe had notsi gned oraut hor i zed t he

st am ped si gnat ur e on t he Febr uar y 15,2005 I et t er ;and had neveri nt ended Spence-

J one s orKar y mt or ec ei v et h e $5 0, 000.( Cl os eou tMemo, p. 7) . No s wor ns t at emen t
was t aken t hatday,butshe was r equest ed t or et ur n a week l at er .

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On Sept em ber18,2009,agai n accom pani ed by counsel ,she r et ur ned t ot he St at e At t or ney' s of f i ce and pr ovi ded a s wor ns t at em ent . The Cl os eoutMem o
sum m ar i zes hers wor nt est i m ony as f ol l ows:

She i n t ended f orTi m buk t u M ar k et pl ace and Osun Vi l l age t o gett he M MAP gr ant s' , . She was notawar et hatM i chel l e Spencelones had cont ac t ed t he M MAP i n or dert or edi r ectt hes et wo gr ant st o Kar ym Vent ur es' ,
w She notonl y deni ed wr i t i ng t he Febr uar y 15t hl et t ert o M MAP,butal so st at ed t hati twas notherr ecogni zed st yl e ofwr i t i ng' , I twas neverheri nt entf orKar ym Vent ur es t o obt ai nt he gr antf unds; and She c oul d notr edi r ectt he pr ogr am m i ng off unds on herow n. They woul d have t o be r epr ogr am med by t he f ul lcount y com m i ssi on.

ç l d. ) .
On Novem ber13,2009,' d l ar gel y upon r el i ance on Dr .Car eyshul er ' s swor n
s t at em ent ,M i chel l e Spencelones was cr i mi nal l y char ged and ar r est ed f ort he t hef tof

$5 0, 000 i n MMAP and Mi ami Da de Cou n t yf un d s. ' '( I d. at 8) .W h ath app ene dn ex ti sa
m at t erofbi t t erdi sput e. Accor di ng t ot he pr osecut or s,af t err ecei vi ng Dr .Car ep shul er ' s swor n st at ement ,

butbef or et he cr i mi nalchar ges wer ef i l ed,i nvest i gat or sr evi ewed appr oxi m at el y si xt y

( 60)bo x esofc o mm i s s i o n doc u men t s .A c oun t ye mp l o y ee r emai ne di nt h er oom wi t h
t hem dur i ng t hei rr evi ew oft he f i l es. I nves t i gat or sI ocat ed Dr .Car eyshul er ' s Febr uar y 15,2005 I et t erwi t h hers t am ped si gnat ur e. They al so cl ai mt o have di scover ed an
em pt yf i l e m ar ked ' Caf é Soul . ' 'Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutMem o,pr osecut or s and

i nv e s t i gat or sd ' al l sp ec i f i c al l yr eme mbert he d ca f é Soul ' f i l ewas e mpt y . ' ' ç l d.a t7) .

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Pr osecut or s obt ai ned copi es ofappr oxi mat el y ni ne boxes ofdocum ent st hatwer et hen
bat es num ber ed and pr ovi ded t o def ense counsel .

Si x mont hs I at er ,on June 21,2010,Dr .Car eyshul erwas deposed by def ense couns el . She was conf r ont ed wi t ht wo docum ent st hathad neverbeen pr ovi ded t ot he
pr osecut or s and t hatappear ed t o be ear l i erdr af t s ofherFebr uar y 15,2005 l et t erw i t h

handw r i t t en not at i ons. Car eyshul eri dent i f i ed herhandwr i t i ng,butsai dt hatshe had no r ecol l ect i on ofpr epar i ng t he l et t er . Dur i ng herdeposi t i on,Dr .Car eyshul ert est i f i ed t hat she di d notr ecal lwr i t i ng t he I et t er ,di d notr ecal l speaki ng t o anyone abouti t s cont ent s,

c ou l dn o tc on f i r mi th ad b een i nh erf i l e s, bu t' ' i tI o ok l ed)l i k e( her )h an dwr i t i ng, s o( s h el
mu s tha v e appr ov ed i t . ' ' ( l d .a t9) .
I nvest i gat or st hen cont act ed t he M i am iDade Count y Com m i ssi on' s cust odi an of r ecor ds t oI ear n m or e aboutt he ci r cum s t ances ofhow Ms.Spencelones and her
counsel di scover ed t he docum ent s. Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutM em o,si gni nI ogs and

wi t nesses conf i r med t hatMs.Spencelones,hercouns el ,and sev er al' d t hi r d par t i es wi t h an expr essed i nt er es ti n hercase' ' vi si t ed t he Count y Bui l di ng on Mar ch 8,201 0t o r evi ew Car eyshul er ' sf i l es. The boxes wer e pl ac ed i nt he same r oom wher et hey had been r evi ewed by t he St at e,and t he sam e count y em pl oyee - who had st ayed i nt he conf er ence r oom w i t ht he s t at ei nves t i gat or s dur i ng t hei rr evi ew oft he docum ent s - was

i ni t i al l y pr esent . However ,ci t i ng at t or neycl i entpr i vi l ege,M s.Spencelones' counsel
dem anded t hatt he count y em pl oyee l eave,and af t era cal lt ot he count y at t or ney,t he

c ou n t yempl oy ee di ds o. Th e Cl os e outMemo s t at es :' 1 I a )sh od whi l eI a t er , t h et wo
dr af t s oft he Dr .Car eyshul erI et t er ,al ong w i t h sever al ot herdocum ent sr el at i ng t ot he

Caf é So ul pr o j ec tsu r f ac e di nt h e pr e vi ou sl yemp t yCa f é Soul f i l e. ' ' ( / d. a t1 0) .
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The case agai ns tM s.Spencelones was pr em i sed on t he subm i ssi on oft hr ee

f r audul entI et t er st o MMAP r edi r ect i ng t he $50, 000 t o Kar ym .W i t ht he di scover yoft he
Febr uar y 15t h dr af tI et t er s and t he i nabi l i t y orunwi l l i ngness ofDr .Car eyshul ert o r em em berorexpl ai n why she appear ed t o dr af tt he l et t er ,t he pr osecut or s det er mi ned

t ha tt h ei rc as e' ' ha l d)di s i n t e gr a t edt ot he po i n tt ha t , a t( t h at ) j un c t u r e, ( t he ywer e)u nabl e
t o pr oceed i n good f ai t h. ' 'Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutM em o,t he pr osecut or s:
hatt he cr i me of bel i eved att he t i me ofar r es t ofM i chel l e Spenc elones t Second Degr ee Thef toff unds bel ongi ng t o Mi am iDade Count y had been

commi t t ed when t he $50, 000 i n gr ant sf r om MMAP wer e di ver t ed f r om t he
i nt ended r eci pi en t st o Kar ym Ven t ur es,I nc. W e s t i l lbel i eve so t oday. The l aw r equi r es t he St at et o pr ove beyond a r easonabl e doubt i nc oud t hat t he def endant ,M i chel l e Spencelones com m i t t ed t he cr i m e ofgr and t hef t i nt he second degr ee. However ,based upon ci r cum st ances whi ch have occur r ed si nce t he t i m e ofar r est ,and whi ch wer e beyond ourcont r ol ,we ar e pr esent l y unabl et o m eet t he bur den of pr ovi ng t he case beyond a r easonabl e doubt . On August23,2011,char ges agai nstM s.Spencelones i nt he Car eyshul ercase wer e

di smi s s ed. ( Comp l . 1 1 551 ) .
B. Recl ai m and Bui l dt he Dr eam Recept i on Honor i nc Dr .Bar bar a Car evshul er

Descr i bed i nt he Com pl ai ntas ' A not herCase, Anot herFr aud, ' ' a second
pr osecut i on ofM s.Spencelones ended i n an acqui t t al .The event s gi vi ng r i se t ot hi s

aspec toft he case t r anspi r ed af t erM s.Spencelones was el ec t ed t ot he M i am i Ci t y
Com m i ssi on i n 2005. Accor di ng t ot he Com pl ai ntt he Ci t y ofM i am i pl anned a benef i t , schedul ed f orApr i l3,2006,i n honorofCom m i ssi onerCar eyshul er , w ho by t hen had

r et i r ed f r om t he M i am i Dade Count y Com m i ssi on. Ms.Spencelones,al ong wi t h

ano t h erCommi s s i on er , was' ' t as k e dt o ho s t t he ev en ti nI car e ysh ul er ' s )h onor , an dt o ben e f i ta c h ar i t yc al l ed t h e Fr i en dsofMLK ( d $ FMLK' ' ) . '( Compl . ! 1 402 ) . FMLK wasa
char i t y whose m i ssi on was t o advance t he vi si on and goal s oft he Rever end M ar t i n
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Lut herKi ng,Jr . ,and a cosponsoroft he event .( / d. 1 1 40 2) .Ac c or di ng t ot h e

Com pl ai nt ,t ' Spencelones'of f i ce undedook t he f undr ai si ng f ort he o#i ci al Ci t y ofM i am i

b ene f i t . ' '( I d. : 1 403 ) .
Ar m ando Codi na i s a pr om i nentdev el operi nMi am i ,and,t oget herw i t h Ri car do

I d. : N 39 293. , St a t e ' sTr a v er s e Gl a s, was i n v ol v ed wi t h adown t o wn hi gh r i s e pr o j ec t .(

an d Res p ons et ot h e De f en dan t ' s Swor n Mot i ont o Di smi s s,1 71 8( $ ' Tr av er s e' ' ) ) . 2I n
c onn ec t i onwi t ht h e pr o j ec t , t hedev el op er ss ou gh tanex t ens i on o fBr i c k el l Av enu ef r om t h e Mi ami Ci t y Commi s si on. ( Compl . 1 13 93, . Tr a v er s e,1 8 ) .W hi l et h e ma t t erwas pen di n g be f or et h e Ci N Commi s si on, an a s si s t an ti n Ms .Sp enc el on es' of f i c e

con t ac t ed Mr .Codi n as ol i c i t i n gac on t r i b u t i ont ot h e FMLK c har i t y. ( Compl . 1 1 407) .
Ac c or di n gt ot h ec ompl ai n t ,l ' l d j ur i n gt hi s br i e fc har i t abl es ol i ci t a t i on, t h e as si s t an t n ev ermen t i on ed t h et r i v i al s t r e etma t t erpen di n gb ef or et h e Commi s si on. ' '( I d. 1 1 408 ) .
$ $ The assi st antneverpr om i sed oreven i m pl i ed any ' t i tf ort at 'based on Codi na' s

c on t r i bu t i ont ot he c h ar i t y . ' ' ( I d. j .
Unsur pr i si ngl y,t he St at e' s Tr aver se i nt he cr i mi nal case descr i bes t he ci r cumst ances som ewhatdi f f er ent l y. Shodl y af t erM r .Codi na appear ed bef or et he
Com m i ssi on i n suppod oft he r equest ed Br i ckel l Avenue ext ensi on,Ms.Spencelones i s al l eged t o have di r ec t ed a m em berofherst af ft o obt ai na c ont ac tnum berf orhi m. Two days l at er ,and a week bef or et he schedul ed vot e on t he m at t er ,Ms.Spencelones

di r ec t edt ha ta c al l b e pl ac edt o Mr . Codi n a. Dur i n gt h ec al l , Ms .Sp enc e l one s( ora

2A di s t r i c tc ou r tma yt ak ej u di ci al n ot i c eo fc er t ai nf ac t swi t hou tc on v edi n g a mot i on t o di s mi s si n t o a mo t i on f orsu mmar yj u dgmen t . Pu bl i cr ec or ds ar e amon gt h e per mi s si bl e
f act st hata di st r i ctcour tm ay consi der . Uni v er salExpr ess,I nc.B.S. E. C. ,177 F. App' x

5 2, 53 ( 11 t hCi r . 200 6)( c ons i der i n gc ompl ai n ti n en f or c emen tpr oc eedi n gsa t t ac he dt o mo t i ont o di s mi s s ) .
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s t a f fmemb era ther di r ec t i on )s ol i ci t ed $ 25, 00 0f r o m Mr . Codi nat o be p ai dt ot h e FMLK Tr u s t , whi chdi d no te xi s ta tt h et i me.( Tr a v er s e, p.1 9) .Ac c or di n gt o Mr . Codi n a,h e
Becam e ver y concer ned when he r ecei ved t he t el ephone cal lbecause of t he m at t erpendi ng bef or et he Def endantand t he Ci t y Com m i ssi on. He i s not sur e who he spoke wi t ht hatday;however ,i t was cl eart hat he was

' ' ask ed t o donat e' '$25, 000 t ot he FMLK Tr usti n or dert o hel p sponsort he
event honor i ng Bar bar a Car eyshul er . . . . Accor di ng t o Mr . Codi na, despi t e hi s concer ns aboutt he pr opr i et y oft he sol i ci t at i on,he deci ded t o pay si nc e he di dn' tw ant $ t o poke t he Com m i ssi oner i nt he eye'w i t ht he

i mpor t an tvo t e on t he Br i c k el li s s u ej u s t on e week a way. Mr .Co di na deci ded t o wr i t e a check f or$12, 500,and deci ded t o cal lMr .Gl as,who was t h e own eran d de v el operoft h e METI pr o j e c tt og ethi mt o wr i t ea
checkf ort he r emai ni ng $12, 500.

( l d. , pp.1 9 20) .

Ac c or di n gt ot he Compl ai n t ,' j l u s ta st he yh ad i nt he Car ey shul erc as e, t h e
SAO Def endant sl i ed t o,m ani pul at ed and wi t hhel d evi dence f r om t he chi efpr osecut i on
wi t ness,t hi st i m e Codi na,i n an ef f or tt o m anuf ac t ur e pr obabl e cause t o ar r estand t hen

c har ge Spenc el on es. '( Compl . 1 1 4 27) .' ' I AJ Sar e sul tofSc r u ggs ' an d Fi el der ' sou t r i gh t
I i es,f abr i cat i ons,and t hr eat s,Codi na pr ovi ded a swor n st at em entt o ai dt he

pr os ec u t i on, v i a an i n t er s t at et el ep hon ec al l p ' '( / J.! ( 452) .' Th el n di c t ment was l ar gel y
b as ed on Codi n a' st e s t i mony . ' '( I d. : 1 62 ) .
The Com pl ai ntal l eges t hatDef endantScr uggs f al sel yt ol dMr ,Codi na t hatt he FM LK was a f ake,nonl egi t i m at e char i t yr un and cont r ol l ed by Spencelones,and t hat

sh e' ' us e dt h e ch ar i t y mon eyas h erper s onal pi gg yb ank . ' '( / d. I N 43 0, 432, 441, 453 ) .
Because oft hi s m ani pul at i on,Codi na r ef er r ed t ot he FM LK as a ' ' f ak e char i t y' 'bei ng r un

ou to fherI spen c el on es ' )o li c e. ' '( I d. ! ! 45 3) .Th e Co mpl ai n tdoe sn otd es cr i b e wh y
Ms.Spencelones woul d use herci t ys t af ft o sol i ci tf unds f ora pr i vat e char i t y orsend

Mr . Codi na an e mai l s t a t i n gu l t l h an k sagai nf ory ourt i me an d su pp od o ft h e ML K Tr u s t
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Fun d. ' '( I d. % 407 ) . Ho wev er , t h e St a t e' sTr av er s e an dt h e Cl os eou tMemoex pl ai nwh y
t hese event s at t r act ed t he i nt er estofpr osecut or s. Accor di ng t ot he Tr aver se,i n Mar ch of2004 M s.Spencelones appr oached Rever end G ast on Sm i t h and suggest ed he cr eat e a nonpr of i tcor por at i on cal l ed i vi t yt ook pl ac e unt i lJanuar y 2005,when M s.Spencelones Fr i ends ofM LK,I nc. No act t ol d Rever end Sm i t ht hatDade Count y Chai r per son Bar bar a Car eyshul erhad awar ded

FMLK a $25, 000gr antand t hathe onl y had t o compl et e some paper wor kt or ecei ve t he
f unds. Rever end Sm i t h was sur pr i sed because FM LK had neverappl i ed f orany f unds. As not ed above,M s.Spenc elones t ol dMr .Si m mons,t he cont r ac tmanagerf orM MAP, t hatshe woul d puthi mi nt ouch wi t ht he FM LK,mostI i kel yt hr ough Rever end Sm i t h. M s.Spencelones t ol d Rev er end Sm i t ht hatshe woul d be a ' ' consul t ant ' ' f orFM LK f ora

f ee o f$ 8, 000, an dt h ath erdu t i eswoul di n cl ud ef un dr ai s i n g.( Tr av er s e,1 41 5 ) .
A checkf or$25, 000was i ssued byMi ami Dade Count yi n June 2005.The Tr aver se al l egest hatMs.Spenc elones r ecei ved $8, 000 asaf undr ai si ng consul t ant

and Rever end Smi t ht ook$17, 000. Rever end Smi t h wasconvi c t ed i n December2009 f ort he t hef tofmostoft he $1 7, 000.W hen Ms.Spenceloneswasel ect ed t ot he Mi ami
Ci t y Com m i ssi on i n Novem ber2005,FM LK had been di ssol ved as a nonpr of i t

,i n Januar y 2006,M s.Spencecor por at i on f orf ai l ur et of i l e an annualr epor t . However

Jonessol i ci t ed a $20, 000 cont r i but i ont o assi s ti nt he r enovat i onoft he Lyr i cTheat r ei n
Ov er t own. The cont r i but i on was sol i ci t ed f ort he FM LK Tr ust ,an ent i t y whi ch was non-

ex i s t en t ,b ut t h e mon e y was pl a c ed i nt he a c c oun to fFMLK,l n c. ( l d. at1 6 ) .
The Tr aver se al l eges t hatby Januar y 2006,FM LK,I nc.exi s t ed onl y as a bank accountand t he FM LK Tr ustdi d notexi statal l . However ,accor di ng t ot he Tr aver se,

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c i t ys t af fi n Spen c elon es ' Commi s si on o f f i c et ol d pr os ecu t or st h at , ' ' FML K( whe t h er

l nc . orTr u s t )wast o t al l yc on t r ol l ed b y( Sp en c el on es )u si ng c i t yemp l o y eeson c i t y
t i me. ' '( I d. j .TheTr av er s e al l eg est ha taso fApr i l 200 6, FMLK ha dr ai s e d$ 45, 00 0-t h e
$25, 000f r om Dade Count y,ar r anged by Dr .Car eyshul er ,andt he $20, 000 cont r i but i on
f orr enovat i on oft he Lyr i c Theat r e.The pr osecut or s cont ended t hatM s.Spencelones

di r ect ed $20, 000t o be spenton t he benef i thonor i ng Dr .Car eyshul er ,t hatshe t ook
$8, 000f orherf undr ai si ng ef f ods, andt hatRever end Sm i t h st ol et he r emai ni ng $17, 000.

( I d.a t1 7) .
O n M ar ch 18,201 0,M s.Spencelones f i l ed a Mot i on t o Di sm i ss or ,i nt he Al t er nat i ve f orSt at em entofPar t i cul ar s and I ncor por at ed M em or andum ofLaw . At t ached t ot he Mot i on as At t achment2 was a s t at em entf r om M r .Codi na t hathe had r esponded t oar eques tf r om M s.Spencelones t oc ont r i but et o an eventhonor i ng Coun t y Com m i ssi onerBar bar a Car eyshul er , t hatt her e was no expect at i on ofa f avor abl e vot ef r om Com m i ssi onerSpenc elones,and he woul d have m ade t he
cont r i but i on whet hert her e was som et hi ng pendi ng ornot .The M ot i on was deni ed on

Oc t ober18, 2010. The Spencelones t r i alI as t ed f r om Febr uar y 28,2011 t o M ar ch 16,2011.

( Compl . 1 1 51 5 ) . Mr . Codi n at es t i f i ed t ha thi sc o n t r i bu t i on ' s wa sn ott t i tf ort a t . 'l fI t h ou gh t f ora s ec on di th ad b een, I woul dn o tha v e gi v ent h e ch ec k . ' '( I d. ! ! 52 4) .Af t er
del i b er a t i n gf or f e wert h an ni n e t y( 90)mi n u t e s, t h ej ur yac qu i t t ed Ms. Sp enc e lo neson

al l c oun t s. ( / d. 1 15 25 ) .OnAu gus t2 4, 2 011, t he Go v er norr es t or e d Commi s si on er
Spencelones t o of f i ce f ol l owi ng heracqui t t al . She r ecei ved f ul l back pay and t he

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em ol um ent s and al l owances f ort he per i od ofhersuper vi si on. Spencelones B.Dunn,

11 8 So. 2d 261, 2 62 ( FI a.3 d DCA 2 01 3 ) .
1 1 1 . / ïr t l t l h l t p i t l

Thi s case pr esent s at extbookexam pl e oft he r easons under l yi ng a pr osecut or ' s

i mmun i t y. I tr equi r esmet o an al y z e: ( 1 )i mmu ni t yf r om su i t ; ( 2 )qu al i f i ed i mmu ni t yf r o m damage s' , an d( 3 )Fl or i da I a wd el i n e at i ng a pr os ec u t or ' sr es pon s i bi l i t i es. Bec au s e of t he
concl usor y nat ur e oft he al l egat i ons oft he Com pl ai ntand i t st r anspar entat t em ptt o

pl e ad ar ou ndt h es ei mmuni t i es ,I mus tal s o appl yj udi c i al ex p er i en c e and c ommon
sense t ot he cont ext speci f i ct ask ofdet er mi ni ng whet hert her ei s a pl ausi bl e cl ai m of

r el i ef .As hc r of tB .I q bal , 55 6 U. S. 66 2( 200 9) * , Be l l At l a nt i c Cor p.B .Twomb l y, 55 0 U. S. 5 44 ( 200 7) .
A. I m m uni t yf r om Sui t

Al mo s t f or t yy ear sag o, i nI mb l er7 .Pa c ht man, 42 4 U. S. 409 ( 1 9 76) , Ju s t i c e
Powel lwr ot e,' ' The quest i on pr esent ed i nt hi s case i s whet hera st at e pr osecut i ng

at t or ney w ho act ed wi t hi nt he scope ofhi s dut i es i ni ni t i at i ng and pur sui ng a cr i mi nal

pr os ec u t i on i samenab l et os ui tu n der4 2 U. S. C. j1 98 3, f oral l eg ed dep r i va t i onso ft he
def endant ' s const i t ut i onalr i ght s. ' 'The pl ai nt i f fi nt hatc ase,PaulI m bl er , w as i m pr i soned

f ort en y ear sa f t erc on vi c t i onf orf el on ym u r d er .Hewas r el ea s ed a f t era f e der al j ud ge
concl uded t hatt he pr i nci pali dent i f i cat i on w i t ness, who subsequent l yr ecant ed hi s
t est i m ony,I i ed abouthi s backgr ound and pr esent ed m i sl eadi ng t est i m ony att r i al . The

di s t r i c t j u dg e al s or ul ed t h at ei t her t h e pr os e cu t orora p ol i c eo f f i c erpr e s en ti nt h e
cour t r oom knew t hatt he t est i m ony was m i sl eadi ng and t hatt he pr osecut orhad t ' cause

t o suspec t ' 'i t sf al si t y. Af t erhi sr el ease,I m bl ersued t he pr osecut oral l egi ng t hathe had

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al l owed t he wi t ness t ot est i f y,t hathe knew I m bl erhad pass ed a I i e det ect ort est ,and

t hathe had used a pol i ce adi st ' s sket ch dur i ng t he t r i al t hathad been al t er ed t o
r es em bl eI m bl er .

The Supr em e Cour thel dt hatt he pr osecut orwas absol ut el yi m m une f r om a

j1 983 s u i tf orda mag eswhi l e ac t i n g wi t hi nt h es c op e ofhi s pr os ec u t or i al du t i es .The
Coud poi nt ed outt hatwi t houtabsol ut ei m m uni t y,such act i ons ' coul d be expec t ed wi t h some f r equency, f ora def endantof t en wi l l t r ansf or m hi sr esent m entatbei ng pr osecut ed

i nt ot he at t r i but i on ofi m pr operand m al i ci ous act i ons t ot he St at e' s advocat e. ' ' I d.at425.

' . I I J ft h e pr o s ec u t orc oul db e ma de t o an s weri nc ou r t eac ht i me s uc hap er s on c har ge d
hi m wi t h wr ongdoi ng,hi s ener gy and at t ent i on woul d be di r ec t ed f r om t he pr essi ng dut y ofenf or ci ng t he cr i mi nalI aw. 'I d. Acknowl edgi ng t hatm ostexecut i v e br anch of f i ci al s wer e ent i t l ed onl yt o qual i f i ed i m m uni t yt he Cour tconcl uded t hat' ' qual i f yi ng a pr osecut or ' si m m uni t y woul d di ss er ve t he br oaderpubl i ci nt er est...because i twoul d pr eventt he vi gor ous and f ear l ess per f or m ance oft he pr osecut or ' s dut yt hati s ess ent i al

t ot he pr o p er f un c t i oni n go ft h e cr i mi n al j u s t i c es y s t em. ' 'I d.a t42 728. At t ai n i n gt h eI c r i mi nal j u s t i c e) s y s t em' sgoal o fac c ur a t el ydet er mi ni n g gu i l t
or i nnocence r equi r es bot ht he pr osecut i on and t he def ens e have w i de di scr et i on i nt he conduct oft r i aland t he pr esent at i on of evi dence. The

v er ac i t y ofwi t n es s e si n a cr i mi n alc a s ef r equen t l yi s su b j ec tt o doub t
bef or e and af t ert hey t est i f y,as i si l l ust r at ed by t he hi st or y oft hi s case. I f

pr os ec u t or s ar e hamp er e di ne x er c i s i n gt he i rj u dgmen tas t ot he us eo f
such w i t nesses by concer n aboutr esuf t i ng per sonalI i abi l i t y,t he t r i er s of f ac ti n cr i mi nalcases of t en woul d be deni ed r el evantevi dence.
I d.at426.

Thes e concer ns ar e par t i cul ar l y acut ei n cases i nvol vi ng publ i c of f i ci al s and al l eged publ i c cor r upt i on. $ ' A pr osecut orof t en m us tdeci de, especi al l yi n cases ofwi de
publ i ci nt er est ,whet hert o pr oceed t ot r i al w her et her ei s a shar p conf l i c ti nt he
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e vi den c e.Th e app r opr i a t ec our s eo fa c t i on i nsu c hac as e ma ywel l b et op er mi t aj ur y
t or esol ve t he conf l i c t . Yeta pr osecut orunder s t andabl y woul d be r el uc t antt o go f or war d wi t h a cl ose case wher e an ac qui t t all i kel y woul dt r i ggera sui tagai nsthi mf or dam ages. 'I d.at427. The Cour tconcl uded t hatt he bur den t hatwoul d be pl aced upon pr osecut or s

de f en di n gc i vi l dama ge c l ai mswoul ds e v er el yh ar mt h ej us t i c es y s t em .' ' I sl ui t st ha t
sur vi ved t he pl eadi ngswoul d pose subst ant i al dangerofI i abi l i t y even t ot he honest pr osecut or . 'I d.at425. The pr esent at i on ofi ssues sur r oundi ng a pr osecut or ' s conduct

i naj 1 98 3 ac t i on ' woul dr equ i r eav i du al r e t r i al o ft h ec r i mi n al o f f en s e. ' ' I d. ' d Fr e quen t l y
ac t i ng underser i ous const r ai nt s oft i me and even i nf or mat i on,a pr osecut ori nevi t abl y m akes m any deci si ons t hatcoul d engendercol or abl e cl ai m s ofconst i t ut i onal depr i vat i ons. ' 'I d. ' ' Def endi ng t hes e deci si ons ...coul di m pose uni que and i nt ol er abl e bur dens upon a pr osecut orr esponsi bl e annual l yf orhundr eds ofi ndi ct ment s and t r i al s. ' '
I d.

l nI mbl er ,t he Cour tal so r ecogni zed t hata pr osecut or ' si m m uni t y ext ended t o ' l ac t i ons pr el i mi nar yt ot he i ni t i at i on ofa pr os ecut i on and ac t i ons apar tf r om t he
cour t r oom . ' 'I d.at431.

A pr osecut i ng at t or ney i sr equi r ed const ant l y,i nt he cour se ofhi s dut y as such,t o m ake deci si ons on a wi de var i et y of sensi t i ve i ssues. These

i nc l u de qu es t i onsofwhe t h ert o pr es en ta ca s et o a gr andj ur y , wh et h ert o

f i l e an i nf or mat i on,whet herand when t o pr osecut e,whet hert o di sm i ss an i ndi ct m entagai nstpadi cul ardef endant s,whi ch wi t nesses t o cal l ,and what ot her evi dence t o pr esent . Pr epar at i on bot h f or t he i ni t i at i on of t he cr i mi nalpr ocess and f ora t r i al ,m ay r equi r et he obt ai ni ng,r evi ewi ng,and eval uat i ng ofevi dence. I d.at431.

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The Supr em e Cour tem phasi zed t hati ti st he i nt er es ti n pr ot ect i ng t he f unct i oni ng
oft he pr osecut or ' s of f i ce,noti t s occupant , t hati s ofpr i m ar yi m por t ance. I nI m bl er ,t he

Cour tdi d notdef i ne t he out erI i mi t s oft he pr osecut or ' s absol ut ei m m uni t y,buti tdi d r ecogni z et hatsom e of f i ci al ac t i vi t i es wouî d notbe encom passed,such as ' t hos e aspect s oft he pr osecut or ' sr esponsi bi l i t yt hatcas thi mi nt he r ol e ofan adm i ni st r at oror i nvest i gat i ve of f i c err at hert han an advocat e. ' 'I d. at43031. l n subsequentcases,t he Coud has f udherr ef i ned i t s anal ysi s. Bur ns B.Reed,

50 0 U. S. 478 ( 1 991 ) ,h el dt ha ta pr os ec u t or ' sapp ear anc ei nc ou r ti nsu pp or to fan
appl i cat i on f ora sear ch war r antand t he pr esent at i on ofevi dence att hathear i ng wer e pr ot ec t ed by absol ut ei m m uni t y. The Cour tf udherdeci ded,however , t hatsi nce pr ovi di ng I egal advi ce t ot he pol i ce was nota f unct i on cl osel y associ at ed wi t ht he

j u di c i al pr o c es s, a pr os ec u t or ' sad vi c e ont he pr opr i et yo fhy pn o t i zi n gas ub j ec t an d on

whe t h erpr oba bl ec au s ee x i s t ed t o ar r es tt h es ub j ec twasonl yen t i t l e dt o qu al i f i ed,n o t
mi l ar l y,i n Buckl ey 7.Fi t zsi m m ons,509 U. S. 259 absol ut e,i m m uni t y. I d.at49495. Si

( 1 9 93) , t h e Cour t hel dt h a thol di n g a pr es sc o n f er enc e' t doe sn oti n v ol v et he i n i t i a t i on o f
a pr osecut i on,t he pr esent at i on oft he St at e' s case i nc oud,orac t i ons pr epar at or yf or

t hese f unct i ons. 'I d.at278. W hi l es t at em en t st ot he pr ess m ay be an i nt egr alpad ofa

pr os ec u t or ' sj ob an d mays er v e avi t al publ i cf u nc t i o n, i nt h i sr es pe c ta pr o s ecu t ori sn o
di f f er entt han ot herexecut i ve of f i ci al s who deal wi t ht he pr ess and qual i f i ed i m m uni t yi s t her ef or et he nor m .l d.

I n Kal i na v .Fl et c her , 522 U. S. 11 8( 1 99 7) , t he Cour th el dt h ata pr o s ec u t or ' s
ac t i ons i n pr epar i ng char gi ng docum ent s,such as an i n f or m at i on and a m ot i on f oran

ar r estwar r ant ,wer e pr ot ec t ed by absol ut ei m m uni t y,butt hatheract i on i n per sonal l y

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a t t es t i n gt of ac t si nac er t i f i c a t i onf orpr ob abl ec au s e wa ss ub j ec tt o qu al i f i ed i mmu ni t y
because she was ac t i ng as a com pl ai ni ng wi t ness r at hert han as a I awyer .I d.at1 2931. I n a case r el evantt o cedai n al l egat i ons her e,t he Cour thas al so consi der ed whet herabsol ut ei m m uni t y ext ended t o af ai l ur et o di scl ose i m peachm entm at er i aldue

t o: ( 1 )af ai l ur et o pr o per l yt r ai npr o s ec u t or s , ' ( 2)a f ai l ur et o pr oper l ysu per v i s e
pr os ec u t or s; or( 3)a f ai l ur et oes t abl i s h an i nf or ma t i on s y s t em c on t ai ni ng p ot ent i al

i mp eac h men t . Van deKa mp F .Gol ds t e i n, 55 5 U. S. 33 5( 200 9) .Asi nI mbl e r , pl ai n t i f f
Gol d s t ei n' sj 1 983 a c t i on ar o s e af t erasu c c es s f ul h abea sp e t i t i on. He c l ai me d: t h a th e waswr on gf ul l yc on v i c t ed o fmu r d erb as e d on t h et es t i mon yo faj ai l h ous ei n f or man t ,
Edwar d Fl oyd Fi nk;t hatFi nk' st est i m ony was unr el i abl e,i ndeed f al se;t hatFi nk had

r ecei ved r educed s ent enc es f orf avor abl et est i m ony i n ot hercases;t hatsome pr os ecut or si nt he Los Angel es Di st r i ctAt t or ney' s Of f i ce knew aboutt he f avor abl e t r eat ment ' ,and t hatt he di s t r i c tat t or ney' sf ai l ur et o pr ovi de hi s at t or ney w i t ht hi s i m peachm enti nf or m at i on had I ed t ot he c onvi ct i on. I d.at339. Af t eran evi dent i ar y
hear i ng t he di s t r i ctcour tagr eed t hatFi nk had been unt r ut hf ul and f udhert hati ft he pr osecut i on had di scl osed t he i nf or m at i on i tm i ghthave m ade a di f f er ence. The coud or der ed t he St at et o ei t hergr antGol dst ei n a new t r i al ort or el ease hi m . Rat hert han

r et r yGol ds t ei n, wh oh ad al r ea dys er v edt wen t y f ou r( 2 4) ye ar so fhi ss en t en c e, t h e
s t at e deci ded t or el eas e hi m. Gol dst ei n sued t he f or m erLos Angel es Di st r i ctAt t or ney and Chi efDeput y Di s t r i c t

At t or ney al l egi ng t hatt he pr osecut i on' sf ai l ur et o di scl ose t he f ac t s aboutFi nk' s ear l i er
t est i m onyr el at ed r ewar ds vi ol at ed t he pr osecut i on' s const i t ut i onal dut i es underGi gl i o 7.

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Uni t ed St at es , 405 U. S.1 50 ( 1 97 2) , an dr es ul t ed f r om t h ef ai l ur e oft he o ïc e' sc hi e f
super vi sor y at t or neys t ot r ai n and super vi se t he pr osecut or s who wor k ed f ort hem as
wel las t hei rf ai l ur et o est abl i sh an i nf or mat i on sys t em abouti nf or m ant s.

The Supr em e Coud unani m ousl y hel dt hatpr osecut or si nvol ved i n such super vi si on ort r ai ni ng ori nf or m at i on syst em managem entwer e ent i t l ed t o absol ut e
i m m uni t y:

These cl ai msf ocus upon a cedai nt ype ofadm i ni s t r at i ve obl i gat i on ...a ki nd t hati t sel fi s di r ect l y connect ed wi t ht he cont entofa t r i al . Her e,unl i ke wi t h ot her cl ai ms r el at ed t o adm i ni st r at i ve deci si ons, an i ndi vi dual pr osecut or ' s er r or i nt he pl ai nt i l' s speci f i c cr i mi nal t r i al const i t ut es an essen t i al el ementoft he pl ai nt i f f ' s cl ai m.
I d.at344.

The Cour tnot ed t hatdeci si ons abouti ndi ct mentort r i al pr os ecut i on w i l lof t en i nvol ve m or et han one pr os ecut orwi t hi n an of f i ce. l d.at345. M or eover ,t he f aul t y t r ai ni ng cl ai m r es t ed i n necessar y par tupon a consequenter r orby an i ndi vi dual
pr os ecut ori nt he m i dstofa speci f i c pl ai nt i f f ' st r i al . The Cour tf ound t hati t s concer ni n I m bl er ,t hatt he t hr eatofdam ages I i abi l i t yf oran er r orcoul dI ead a t r i alpr osecut ort o t ak e accountoft hatr i sk when m aki ng t r i al r el at ed deci si ons,appl i ed equal l yt o m or e

wi despr ead I i abi l i t yt hr oughoutt he of f i c et i ed t ot hats am e t r i aler r or .I d.at34647. S ' Mosti m por t ant , ' 'sai dt he Cour t ,' d t he ease wi t h w hi ch a pl ai nt i f fcoul dr est yl ea com pl ai ntchar gi ng a t r i al f ai l ur e so t hati tbecom es a com pl ai ntchar gi ng a f ai l ur e of
t r ai ni ng orsuper vi si on woul d evi sc er at e/ m b/ en' 'I d.at347. Jus tl as tyeart he Supr em e Coud deci ded a case whi ch r ef l ec t s appl i cat i on ofi t s f unct i onalappr oach t o absol ut ei m m uni t yi naf act ualpost ur e wi t h par t i cul arr el evance

t ot he al l e ga t i on si nt hi sc as e. Reh ber gv . Paul k,1 3 2 S. Ct .1 49 7( 201 2) .Si n c et h e
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case ar ose i nt he El event h Ci r cui t ,and because t he al l egat i ons i n Rehber g bear

si mi l ar i t yt o al l egat i ons i nt hi s case,i ti s us ef ult o anal yze bot ht he opi ni ons oft he Cour t ofAppeal s and t he Supr eme Cour t .

Al l egi n gf ou rf e der al j1 98 3 cl ai ms, Rehb er gs ue d a Geor gi a Di s t r i c t At t or ne y, a
speci al l y appoi nt ed pr osecut or ,and t he di st r i c tat t or ney' s chi efi nvest i gat oraf t erbei ng

i ndi ct ed t hr ee t i m es and af t eraI Ichar ges wer e di sm i ssed by t he s t at e coud. The Cour t
ofAppeal s descr i bed t he al l eged pr ei ndi ct m entconduc tas f ol l ows: i nves t i gat or s,got t oget her as a f avor t ot he hospi t al ,wi t h m al i ce and wi t hout pr obabl e cause,and m ade up a st or y about Rehber g,and t hen

Hodg es ( t h e Di s t r i c t At t or n ey )an d Pau l k( t h e Chi efI n v es t i g at or ) , ac t i n ga s

Paul k( a tHodg e' s di r e c t i on )t ol dt ha tf ak es t or y un dero at ht ot h e gr an d j u r y ,I ea di ngt o Reh ber g' si n di c t men tan d ar r es t . Re hbe r g? . Pau l k, 611F. 3 d8 28, 8 40 ( 11 t h Ci r .2 01 0 ) .Th e Cour tde sc r i be dt he
ques t i on bef or ei tas d s whet herabs ol ut ei m muni t y appl i es t ot he al l eged conspi r acy

deci si on i nt he i nvest i gat i ve st age t o make up and pr esentPaul k' sf al se t est i m ony t o

t h e gr an dj ur y. ' 'I d. a t840 41 . Rel yi ng on pr i orpr ec e den t , i n c l u di n g Ma s t r o i an ni7 .
Bowe r s,1 73 F. 3d 1 3 63 ( 11 t h Ci r .1 99 9) , Jo ne s? .Ca nnon,1 7 4 F. 3d 1 271( 1 1 t h Ci r . 1 99 9) ,an d Rowe ? .Ci t yofFt . Lau der dal e, 279 F. 3 d1 271 ( 11 t h Ci r . 200 2) , t h e Cour t
hel dt hatsi nce Paul k had absol ut ei m m uni t yf orhi sf al se t est i m ony bef or et he gr and

j ur y, bo t hh ea nd t h e di s t r i c ta t t or n eywer e si mi l ar l yi mmun ef or t hei ral l eg ed c o ns pi r ac y
t of abr i cat e and pr esentf al se t est i m ony. To hol d ot her wi se, t he Cour tc oncl uded,woul d

ev i s c e r a t ea bs ol u t ei mmun i t ya swel l ast h e pur p os ei ts er v es .( ' To al l o wa cl ai mb as ed onsu bor di n at i on o fper j ur e dt e s t i monywh er et h e al l eg ed per j u r e d

j1 983

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t est i m ony i t sel fi s cl oak ed i n absol ut ei m m uni t y woul d be t o per mi tt hr ough t he back doorwhati s pr ohi bi t ed t hr ough t he f r ont ' '. Rowe, 279 F. 3d at1282. 3 . )

I n af f i r mi ng t he El event h Ci r cui t ,t he Supr em e Coud appl i ed i t s' t f unc t i onal

ap pr o ach, ' ' an da gr ee dt ha tgr an dj u r ywi t n es s essh oul db ea c c or de dt h es a me abs ol u t e
g,132 S. Ct .at1 499. Mor eover , t he Cour t i m m uni t y as wi t nesses att r i al . Rehber s t at ed:

conspi r ed t o pr es ent f al se t est i m ony or usi ng evi dence of t he wi t ness

( Tl h i sr ul e ma yn otb ec i r c u mv en t e db yc l ai mi n gt h a ta gr an dj u r y wi t ne s s

t es t i mon yt o su pp or tan yo t h erj 1 9 83 c l ai mc on c er ni n gt h ei n i t i at i on or
m ai nt enance of a pr os ecut i on. W er ei t ot her wi se,' a cr i mi naldef endant t ur ned ci vi lpl ai nt i # coul d si m pl yr ef r am e a cl ai mt o at t ack t he pr epar at i on i nst ead of t he absol ut el yi m m une act i ons t hem s el ves. ' '. . .l nt he vast

ma j or i t y of c as es i n v ol v i n g a cl ai m agai n s t a gr an dj ur y wi t ne s s,t he
wi t ness and t he pr osecut or conduct i ng t he i nvest i gat i on engage i n pr epar at or y act i vi t y,such as a pr el i mi nar y di scussi on i n whi ch t he wi t ness r el at es t he subs t ance ofhi si nt en ded t es t i mony. W e decl i ne t o endor se a r ul e ofabsol ut ei m m uni t yt hati s so easi l yf r us t r at ed.

l d.a t1 5 07 ( i n t e r n al c i t a t i on s omi t t e d) .
B. Q ual i f i ed I m m uni t v Q ual i f i ed I m m uni t y shi el ds f eder al and st at e of f i ci al sf r om m oney dam ages

unl es sa pl ai n t i f fp l ea dsf ac t ss h owi n g: ( 1 )t h a tt h eo f f i c i al vi ol a t ed as t a t u t or yor con s t i t u t i on alr i gh t , an d( 2)t ha t t he r i gh twa s' ' c l ear l ye s t abl i sh ed' ' a tt h et i me of t he

ch al l eng ed c on du c t .Ha r l ow B .Fi t z ger a l d, 457 U. S. 800, 81 8( 1 982 ) . Qu al i f i ed
i m m uni t y gi ves gover nm en tof f i ci al s br eat hi ng r oom t o m ak er easonabl e,butm i st ak en

j u dgmen t sa bou top en l egal que s t i on s.W h enpr op er l yapp l i ed,i tpr o t ec t s' l al l bu tt h e

3 A second aspectofRehber g has a bear i ng on t hi s case as wel l . Ther et he pr osecut orwas al so sued f ors t at em ent s made t ot he m edi a. However ,si nce Rehber g

wa s un abl et op oi n tt o an yc on s t i t u t i on al i n j ur y , o t h er t h an hi si ndi c t men tan dr el at ed
event s,t he pr os ecut orr ecei ved qual i f i ed i m m uni t yf orhi s pr ess s t at em ent s.
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pl ai nl yi ncom pet entort hose who vi ol at et he I aw. ' ' Ma/ / ey 7.Br i ggs,475 U. S.335

( 1 9 86) .
I fan of f i ci alwas act i ng w i t hi nt he scope ofdi scr et i onar y aut hor i t y,t he bur den

shi f t st ot he Pl ai nt i f ft o show t hatqual i f i ed i m m uni t yi si nappr opr i at e. Mccul l ough 7 .

Ant ol i ni , 55 9 F. 3 d1 201,1 205 ( 1 1 t h Ci r . 200 9) . The g ov er nmen t of f i c i al i sen t i t l ed t o
qual i f i ed i m m uni t y unl ess t he Pl ai nt i f fcan show : f i r s t ,t hatt he f act s vi ewed i nt he I i ght
m os tf avor abl et ot he Pl ai nt i l est abl i sh a const i t ut i onal vi ol at i on by t he of f i ci al ,and second,t hatt he unl awf ul ness oft he Def endant ' s act i onsw as cl ear l y es t abl i shed att he

t i me o ft h ei nc i den t .Pe ar s o nv .Ca / / a ha n, 55 5 U. S. 2 23 , 232 ( 20 09) .The i n qui r y
concer ni ng w het hera r i ghti s cl ear l y es t abl i shed m ustbe under t aken i nI i ghtoft he speci f i c cont ex toft he case,notas a br oad gener alpr oposi t i on. Lee v.Fer r ar o,284

F. 3 d 11 8 8, 11 9 4( 11 t h Ci r . 200 2) .
C. Fl or i da Law

Pur s u an tt ot h e Fl or i da Con s t i t u t i on,i n ea chj u di c i al ci r c ui twi t hi nt h e St a t e - an d
t her e ar et went y - a st at e at t or ney shal lbe el ect ed f ora f our yeart er m and ' ' shal lbe t he

pr os ec u t i n go f f i c erofa I I t r i al c ouds i nt h a tc i r c ui t... . ' ' FL A. CON S T. ar t . 1 , j1 5. Ex c ep t
f orcapi t alcr i m e,m os tpr osecut i ons i n Fl or i da ar ei ni t i at ed by i nf or m at i on. Sec t i on 27. 04 oft he Fl or i da St at ut es pr ovi des i n per t i nentpar tas f ol l ows:
The s t at e at t or ney shal lhave sum moned aI Iwi t nesses r equi r ed on behal f of t he st at e, and he i s al l owed t he pr ocess of hi s coud t o sum m on wi t ness es f r om t hr oughout t he st at e .. .t ot es t i f y bef or e hi m as t o any vi ol at i on oft he cr i mi nalI aw upon w hi ch t hey m ay be i nt er r ogat ed,and he i s em power ed t o adm i ni s t eroat hs t o aI Iwi t nesses sum m oned t ot es t i f y by t he pr ocess ofhi s coud orwho may vol unt ar i l y appearbef or e hi mt ot est i f y as t o any vi ol at i on orvi ol at i ons oft he cr i mi nalI aw.

I d. Fl or i da Ru l eo fCr i mi nal Pr oc edu r e 3. 1 0 ( g)pr o v i d es:
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An i nf or m at i on char gi ng t he com m i ssi on ofa f el ony shal lbe si gned by t he st at e at t or ney,ora desi gnat ed st at e at t or ney,underoat hs t at i ng hi s good f ai t h i n i ni t i at i ng t he pr osecut i on and cedi f yi ng t hat he has r ecei ved t est i mony under oat hf r om t he m at er i al wi t ness or wi t nesses f or t he of f ense.
I ç 1 .

The Fl or i da Supr em e Coud has sai dt hatt he pr i m ar y pur pos e ofal l owi ng cr i mi nal

c har gest ob e br ou gh tbyi n f or ma t i on i s' ' I t l h eu nd oub t e d ben ef i t sf r om t h ec on t i n ued
pr es enc e an df u nc t i oni ng i neac hj u di ci al c i r c ui to fs ome t r ai n ed an dr es pon si bl eo f f i c er
r epr esent i ng t he s t at e ves t ed wi t ht he ver y gr ave butnecessar y aut hor i t y ofi ni t i at i ng

p r os e cu t i on s. ... ' Ha#B . St at e, 1 87 So. 39 2, 39 9( FI a.1 93 9) .On eo ft h es e ben ef i t s,
accor di ng t ot he cour t ,i st he r educt i on ofexpens e and del ay i nvol ved i nf r equent

s ummo ni n go fgr an dj u r i es.I d.
A pr ef i l i ng con f er ence hel df ort he pur pose oft aki ng s wor nt est i m ony f r om

wi t n es s esi sa nec es s ar ypr edi c a t et ot h ef i l i ng o fan i n f or ma t i on,' ' l l l n f l uen c i n ga si t
may t he di scr et i onar y deci si on t of i l e cr i mi nal char ges agai ns tanot her , 'i thas been

c ha r ac t er i z ed asbo t hd ' qu as i ju di c i a l ' ' an d an' ' o f f i c i a lp r oc e edi n g. ' 'Sf al ev . Wt t e, 451 So. 2d 95 0, 9 54 n. 8( FI a. 3d DCA 1 98 4)( c i t i n g Hal l , 1 87 So.3 92) . Pr ef i l i n g c on f er enc e sh av e be en hel dt ob et h e eq ui v al en to fgr an dj ur yt es t i mon yi nt er ms o f

appl i c a t i on o ft h ef el on yp er j ur ys t a t u t e. ' t ( A)pr oc eedi ng i sno tmad eo f f i c i al b yt he
f or m al i t y wi t h w hi ch i ti s conduct ed' ,i nst ead,i t s of f i ci al i t y depends on i t s pur pose and

t he aut hor i t yf r om whi ch i tder i ves. ' 'I d.at953. Fl or i da cour t s have descr i bed t he s t at e

a t t or n e yi nn onc a pi t al c a s esasac t i ng a sa o n ep er s ongr an dj u r y . &eeDoe v .Sf af e, 63 4 So. 2d 61 3, 61 5( Fl a.1 9 94) ,J . mper af ov .Spi c o l a, 238 So. 2d 50 3, 5 06 ( Fl a. 2d DCA 1 970 ) .
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' d underFl or i da' s Cons t i t ut i on,t he deci si on t o char ge and pr osecut ei s an ex ecut i ve r esponsi bi l i t y and t he st at e at t or ney has com pl et e di scr et i on i n deci di ng

wh e t h eran dh o wt o pr o s ec u t e. ' 'Sf al e? . Bl oo m, 49 7 So. 2d 2,3 ( FI a.1 9 86) . Fudh er ,
undert he Fl or i da Cons t i t ut i on, t he Gover nori st he chi efI aw enf or cem entof f i ceroft he s t at e and r esponsi bl ef ort aki ng ' car et hatt he I aws be f ai t hf ul l y execut ed. ' ' FL A.CONST.

ar t .I V, j1 ( a) . He al s o po s s es s est h ep ower t os us p en df r om o f f i c es t at e of f i c er sn ot s ub j ec tt oi mpe ac hmen t , an d' ' an y el ec t ed mun i c i p al o f f i c eri n di c t e df orc r i me ma yb e su s pen de df r om o f f i c e un t i l ac qui t t e d. ' ' I d. j 7.Mor eo v er , Sec t i on 11 2. 51 4 2)o ft he
Fl or i da St at ut es pr ovi des: W henever any el ec t ed or appoi nt ed m uni ci pal of f i ci ali s ar r est ed f or a f el ony orf ora m i sdem eanorr el at ed t ot he dut i es ofof f i ce ori ni ndi c t ed or i nf or m ed agai nstf ort he com m i ssi on ofa f eder al f el ony orm i sdem eanoror st at ef el ony or m i sdem eanor ,t he Gover nor has t he power t o suspend such m uni ci palof f i ci al f r om of f i ce. I d.
I V. Cl ai m sf orRel i ef

Havi ng r evi ewed t he l aw ofabsol ut e and qual i f i ed i m m uni t y,as wel l as Fl or i da
I aw wi t hr espectt o a st at e at t or ney and t he gover nor ' s aut hor i t yt o suspend m uni ci pal of f i ci al s,It ur nt ot he al l egat i ons oft he Com pl ai nt . l t ' s notan easy t ask.The amended com pl ai nti sad ' shotgun' ' pl eadi ng oft he sor t

t he El event h Ci r cui t' ' has been r oundl y,r epeat edl y,and consi s t ent l y condem ni ng f or

y ear s. ' Dav i sB .Coc a co l a Bot t l i n g Co.Con s ol . ,51 6 F. 3 d 955, 9 79 n. 5 4( 11 t h Ci r .

20 08) .An d aswa st he c a s ei nDav i s, t h e pl e adi n gs t r at e gyempl oy e db y Pl ai n t i f f ' s
counsels eem s nott o have been t aken outofi gnor anc e,but ,i ns t ead,i s del i ber at e and cal cul at ed as par toft he ef f or tt o pl ead ar ound i m m uni t y. The Com pl ai ntcont ai ns

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sever alcount s,each i ncor por at i ng by r ef er ence t he al l egat i ons ofi t s pr edec essor s,
l eadi ng t o a si t uat i on w her e m ostoft he count s cont ai ni r r el evantf ac t ual al l egat i ons and

I egalconcl usi ons. St r at egi cI ncom e Fund B . Speac Leeds & Kel l og,305 F 3d 1 293,
.

1 295 ( 1 1 t h Ci r . 2002 ) .I tb ur i esma t er i al al l e gat i on sd l b en eat hi nnu mer ab l ep age so f
r am bl i ng i r r el evanci es' 'm aki ng no di st i nct i on bet ween t he def endant s engaged i nt he

var i ous al l eged act s,i . e.' ' t he SAO def endant s ' See M ag/ ul a v.Sampl es,256 F. 3d
.

1 28 2,1 28 4( 11 t h Ci r . 20 01 ) .
W hi l eI was t empt ed t o or deranot heram ended com pl ai nt was al so cogni zant ,l

t hata pur pose ofabsol ut e and qual i f i ed i m m uni t yi st o spar e a pr osecut or ' s of f i c et he
bur den and expense ofI i t i gat i on. d ' l El n t i t l emen tt o ab s os u t ei mmun i t ymus tbe det er mi ned as ear l y as possi bl e. ' ' M ar x v. Gu mb i nne r , 85 5 F. 2d78 3, 788 ( 1 1 t h Ci r .

1 988 ) . Mor eo v er ,a pl ai n t i f fmus tno tbe p er mi t t ed t h r ou gh s ho t gu n pl eadi ng s
cont ai ni ng al l egat i ons ofgener al i zed abs t r ac tr i ght st o st r i p gover nm entof f i ci al s oft he pr ot ect i on pr ovi ded by i m m uni t y doc t r i ne. I d.at792.So Is t ayed di scover y, at t em pt ed

t o wade t hr ough t he al l egat i ons,and hel d or al ar gum entt o hel p si f tt hr ough t he det r i t us.
A. Fi r stand Second Cl ai m sf orRel i ef :' s Fabr i cat i on and Conceal m entof Evi dence' '

I qbaldi r ect st hatl f i r sti dent i f y al l egat i ons oft he com pl ai ntt hatbecause oft hei r
concl usor y nat ur e ar e notent i t l ed t ot he assum pt i on oft r ut h Among t hose ar e:
.

par agr aph 605,S i rhe SAO Def endant s ac t ed wi t h a knowi ng, wi l l f ul ,want on,gr ossl y
r eckl ess,unl awf ul ,unr easonabl e,unconsci onabl e, and f l agr antdi sr egar d ofPl ai nt i f rs

r i ght s,pr i vi l eges, wel f ar e,and wel l bei ng and ar e gui l t y ofegr egi ous and gr oss
mi sconduc tt owar d Pl ai nt i f r;par agr aph 607, ' d l n vi ol at i on oft he Fi r stAm endm ent he ,t

SAO Def endant st ar get ed Spencelones because ofherpol i t i calposi t i on, becaus e she
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opposed t he M ayor ,and i n or dert o depr i ve herofherr i ghtt o hol d publ i c el ect ed of f i ce' ' ' , par agr aph 600, S ' Rundl e,Scr uggs, and Fi el der ,ac t i ng i ndi vi dual l y and i n concer t ,

knowi ngl y and i nt ent i onal l y conceal ed evi dencen ;and par agr aph 601,' ' l n knowi ngl y and

i n t en t i ona l l yc on c eal i n g su c he vi den c e, Run dl e an d Sc r ug gs( an do fc our s e, Fi el der )
wer e notact i ng as advocat es,butwer ei ns t ead act i ng as pol i ce of f i cer si nvest i gat i ng a case. ' 'The Com pl ai ntl um ps t he Def endant st oget her ,m akes concl usor y and abs t r ac t al l egat i ons aboutf abr i cat i on/ c onceal m entofevi dence,and hi des r at hert han i l l um i nat es t he f act s gi vi ng r i se t ot he cl ai m . Thi si s an ef f or tt o di sgui se how i m pl ausi bl e and f anci f ul t he cl ai m s ac t ual l y ar e.The Supr em e Cour thas speci f i cal l y war ned agai ns t

al l owi ng gener al i zed pl eadi ng ofabs t r ac tr i ght st ot r ans f or m a guar ant ee ofi m m uni t y

i n t oar u l eo fp l e adi n g.An der s o nv . Cr ei g ht on, 483 U. S. 635, 63 9( 1 98 7) .Se t t i n g as i de
t he concl usi ons and hyper bol e, t he f act s per t i nentt ot he ' ' f abr i cat i on and conceal m ent ' ' cl ai m s ar e as f ol l ows:

O n Sept em ber10,2009,pur suantt o a subpoena,M r .Scr uggs and M r .Fi el der
4( Com pl1 me twi t h Dr Car 12 75. Cl o s eou tMemo, p. 7) . ey shul eran dh era t t or n ey. ,
.

.

Scr uggs al l egedl yt hr eat ened Dr .Car eyshul er ,accused herofr ecei vi ng cash
paymen t swi t hr espectt o count y busi ness,sai dt hatMs.Spencelones and Rev.

G ast onsm i t h had m i sspentf unds ear mar ked f ort he Fr i ends ofM ar t i n Lut herKi ng,and

t ha tMs. Sp enc e l one sh adt ak en mo ne yd es i gn a t edf orCa f é Sou l . ( Compl . 1 5 27 677) .
Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutMem o,Dr .Car eyshul erexpr essed shock and out r age t hat

Ms.Spenceloneshad used hername t o obt ai nt he $50, 000 t hatshe had i nt ended go
t o Ti m bukt u and Osun Vi l l age.Dr .Car eyshul erand herat t or ney wer e asked t or et ur n

4 The at t or ney,accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutMem o,was M i l t on Hi r sch, w ho i s now a s t at e Ci r cui tJudge,and by r eput at i on,abl e and no shr i nki ng vi ol et .
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f ora swor n st at em enton Sept em ber18,2009. They wer et ol dt hati fDr .Car eyshul er ' s

s t at emen t swer ef al s es hewoul db e pr o s ec u t e df orp er j ur y; ho we ver , i f t h eywer et r u e

Ms. Sp en c e lon e swoul db e ar r e s t e d. ( Cl o s eou tMemo, p. 7) .
O n Sept em ber18,2009,Dr .Car eyshul er ,agai nr epr esent ed by counsel ,

pr o vi de d as wor ns t at emen t t ha twa st h eb as i sf orpr o s ec u t i on.( Compl . I I ! I 28 593 ) . Mr . Sc r u ggsqu es t i on ed Dr .Car e y sh ul er ,a nd Mr .Fi el d erwaspr e s en t .( I d . 1 1 $ 28 788 ) .
Accor di ng t ot he Cl oseoutM emo t he f ol l owi ng t est i m ony was gi ven: 5

Q:

( DJ i dy ou, i n an ywayi n t en df orKar y m Ven t ur est og ett h e mon eyf r om

Ti m buk t u M ar k et pl ace and Osun Vi l l age?

nt ended i tt o go t o gr oupst hatIal l ocat ed i tt o att hat A: Absol ut el y not . Ii budgetm eet i ng. Q: Ar e you sur pr i sed by t he f actt hatt hi s m oney gotr eal l ocat ed appar ent l y by hert o her sel fusi ng yourname and posi t i on?
A: Yes,Iam sur pr i sed.

Q' .

Does i t ?

scussi ng w i t h me you sai d ( I n t er j e c t i on b y Mr . Hi r s c hl : Lastweek you used,di
you wer e shock ed.

A: Yes,because I t hought ,yes Idi d say t hatbecause when lr ead t hat1 was I i k ei n shock. Thi s money was supposed t o go t ot hes e or gani zat i ons.

Q: I st her e any way as you si ther e now t hatyou woul d have al l owed hert o have t hi s m oney?
A: Notunl ess she m ade a r eques tand came back bef or et he boar d and

s omeh ow we woul d ha v er ev i ewed h erpr o j ec t .But addi t i onal mone y, we woul d
nothave t ak en i tf r om t hese gr oups.

( Cl os eou tMemo. . 78) .Ac c or di n gt ot h e Compl ai n t , b y Sep t e mb er1 8, 2009 ,Mr .
Scr uggs and M r .Fi el der' knew orshoul d have known' ' t hatDr .Car eyshul erhad

r equest ed t hatMMAP r el ease $50, 000 i nf undi ng t o Kar ym and ' ' on i nf or mat i on and
5 Quest i oni ng i s by M r scr uggs - Answer s ar e by Dr .Car eyshul er .
.

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b el i e r ' k ne wt h a tMMAP ha dv o t edt o do s o.( Co mpl . 1 1 %2 71 7 2) .Th usf orCoun tOn e,
t he ' f abr i cat i on' ' cl ai m ed i nt he Com pl ai nti s Dr .Car eyshul er ' s swor nt est i m ony w hi ch Pl ai nt i f fal l eges was ' ' i nduced' 'by M r .Scr uggs. The t l conceal m ent ' 'i st he bel i eft hat
when M r .Scr uggs t ook t he s wor ns t at em enthe knew orshoul d have known, because of

t he annot at ed dr af tI et t ert hatal l egedl yw as i n Dr .Car eyshul er ' sf i l e,t hatshe had aut hor i zed Kar ym t o gett he f unds,and t hathe f ai l ed t ot el l t hi st o Dr .Car eyshul er
.

The t heor y under l yi ng CountTwo i s si mi l ar . The Com pl ai ntal l eges t hatM r . Scr uggs and M r .Fi el dermetw i t h Ar m ando Codi na and hi sc ounselon Januar y 12,

201 0. ( I d. 1 1 428) . Mr . Sc r ug gsal l eg edl yt ol d Mr . Co di nat h at t he FM LK wasa f a k e
char i t y,cont r ol l ed by M s.Spencelones,and t hatshe used i t sf unds as herper sonal

pi g gy ban k. ( I d. ! N 430, 43 2) .On Mar c h 2, 201 0, ' ' a sa r es ul to fMr .Scr u g gs ' and Mr .
Fi el der ' s out r i ghtI i es,f abr i cat i ons,and t hr eat s, ' 'M r .Codi na pr ovi ded a s w or n

s t a t emen t . ( I d. 1 1 45 2) .Th ei n di c t men t was I ar g el y ba s ed on Mr .Codi na' st es t i mon y.
Agai nt he ' ' f abr i cat i on' ' i s al l eged t o be M r .Codi na' s swor ns t at em ent ,t ' he d ' conceal m ent ' '
w as nott el l i ng Codi na t hatt he m oney wentt o' ' ar ealchar i t y' ' i n connec t i on wi t ha' ' r eal char i t y event . ' Iam t em pt ed t of i nd t hese cl ai m si m pl ausi bl e on t hei rf ace. lquest i on whet her t he Pl ai nt i f fhas nudged hercl ai m acr oss t he I i ne f r om conc ei vabl et o pl ausi bl e. See

Be l l At l a nt i c Cor p.v .T wo mbl y,5 50 U. S. 54 4, 57 0( 200 7) , The i deat h a tMr . Sc r ug gs
coul d bam boozl et wo sophi st i cat ed wi t ness es,each r epr esent ed by counsel ,i nt o

concoc t i ng f al se t est i m ony aboutt he Pl ai nt i f fseem s hi ghl y unl i kel y. However ,i nI qbal ,

t he Supr eme Coud sai dt hatal l egat i ons shoul d notbe di sm i ssed because oft hei r
ext r avagant l yf anci f ulnat ur e oron t he gr ound t hey ar e unr eal i st i c ornonsensi cal ,but

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i nst ead t hei rconcl usor y nat ur e.Even assum i ng t he t r ut h,however ,oft hese unl i k el y al l egat i ons,M r .Scr uggs i s absol ut el yi m m une.

I nt aki ng s wor nt es t i m ony f r om Dr .Car eyshul erand M r .Codi na,pur suantt o

Se c t i on 27. 0 4 of t he Fl or i da St a t u t esan d Fl or i da Rul eo fCr i mi n al Pr oc edur e 3. 1 40( g) ,
Mr .Scr uggs was padi ci pat i ng as an advocat ef ort he St at ei n an of f i ci alpr oceedi ng. I n

Fl or i da,such swor nt est i m ony i s a pr er equi si t ef ort he f i l i ng ofan i nf or m at i on,and i st he

f u nc t i on al e qui v al en to fgr an dj ur yt es t i mo ny .Th es wor nt es t i mon y an dt h e mee t i n gM r .
Scr uggs had wi t h Dr .Car eyshul erand hercounseland Mr .Codi na and hi s counsel ,
pr i ort ot hatt est i m ony wer e par tof ,and pr el i mi nar yt o,t he i ni t i at i on ofa cr i mi nal pr osecut i on t o w hi ch a pr osecut or ' si m m uni t y ext ends. I m bl er ,424 U. S.at431. See

al s o Reh ber g,1 3 2 S. Ct .1 497, . Mu l l i na xB .Mc El he nne y, 81 7 F. 2d 71 1 ,71 5( 11 t h Ci r . 1 98 7)( ' ' ( A)pr os ecu t ori sen t i t l e dt oa bs ol u t ei mmun i t yf or t h ef ac t u al i nv e s t i ga t i on
necessar yt o pr epar e a case,i ncl udi ng i nt er vi ewi ng wi t nesses bef or e pr esent i ng t hem

t ot he gr andj u r y . ' ' ) .
The Com pl ai nti st r anspar enti ni t s at t em ptt oi dent i f y som e ac tby M r .Scr uggs
out si de oft he pr osecut i ons t hem sel ves orpr el i mi nar yt ot hei ri ni t i at i on. Pl ai nt i f ft r i es t o

char act er i ze M r .Scr uggs' quest i oni ng ofwi t nesses as f abr i cat i on and conceal mentand cl ai m st hati n doi ng so he was act i ng as a pol i ce of f i cerr at hert han a pr osecut or . By cl everpl eadi ng t he Com pl ai ntseeks t o evade i m m uni t y by i nvoki ng case I aw i nvol vi ng f abr i cat i on ofphysi calevi dence dur i ng t he i nvest i gat i ve st age ofa cr i mi nalac t i on. See

Bu c k l e y, 509 U. S. a t262 64 ( no i m mu ni t yf orpr o s ec u t orwh of ab r i c a t edex ped

t e s t i mon yI i n ki n g de f en dan t ' sb oo twi t h bo otp r i n ta tmur ders c en el ; Rowe, 27 9 F. 3d a t 1 281 ( n oi mmuni t yf or f abr i c at i onof j u mp r op el ; Jo nes ,1 7 4 F. 3d a t1 289 90 ( no
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i mmuni t yf orf abr i c at i on o fbo otpr i n t l ; Ri l ey v .Ci t y ofMo nt go me@, AI a. ,1 0 4 F. 3d 1 2 47,

1 253 ( 11 t h Ci r .1 99 7)( n oi mmun i t yf orp ol i c eo f f i c er ' s pl an t i n go fc oc ai n e) .
Ofcour se,t he f act s oft hose cases ar e ver y di f f er ent . But ,even m or e si gni f i cant l y,t he e#or tt o ci r cum ventabsol ut ei m m uni t y cr eat es yetanot herbart ot he
Pl ai nt i f f ' s cl ai ms. Si m pl y put ,i nt r yi ng t o evade i m m uni t yt he Pl ai nt i # has pl ed her sel f
outofcour t .

Fabr i cat i on orconceal m entofevi denc e dur i ng an i nvest i gat i on does noti t s el f

vi ol at et he Const i t ut i on. Thi si s appar entbot hf r om t he Supr em e Coud' s deci si on i n Buc kl ey and al so Judge Eas t er br ook' s opi ni on f ort he Sevent h Ci r cui ton r em and.

Buc k l e y, 20 F. 3 d 789 ( 7 t h Ci r .1 99 4) .
l n 8&c#/ ey,t he pr osecut oral l egedl y padi ci pat ed w i t h pol i ce of f i cer s dur i ng t he

i n v es t i gat i v es t a ge o ft h ec as e wel l be f or et h e gr an dj ur ywas i mpan el e d and b ef or e
nvest i gat i on I ed t o unr el i abl e exper tt est i m ony concer ni ng pr obabl e cause exi st ed. The i

a bootpr i ntf ound att he m ur dersc ene. The Supr em e Cour thel dt hatt he pr osecut or ' s par t i ci pat i on i nt he i nvest i gat i on was notpr ot ect ed by absol ut ei m m uni t y. However ,t he

ma j or i t yi nBu c k l e y war ne da gai n s tu c on f l a t l i n g) t h e ques t i onwhe t h era I se c t i on)1 983
pl ai nt i f fhas s t at ed a cause ofact i on wi t ht he quest i on w het hert he def endanti s en t i t l ed t o absol ut ei mm uni t yf orhi s act i ons. ' 'Buckl ey,509 U. S.at275 n. 5. l n concur r i ng,

Jus t i ce Scal i a was even m or e speci f i c. Respondi ng t ot he di ssent ' s concer nt hat absol ut ei m m uni t ym i ghtbecom e ' ' l i t t l e m or et han a pl eadi ng r ul e' 'he wr ot et hatsuch

r e f r ame d cl ai ms ' d ar eu nl i k el yt o be c og ni z abl eu n derj 1 98 3, si nc e pe t i t i onerc i t es , and I
am awar e of ,no aut hor i t yf ort he pr oposi t i on t hatt he m er e pr epar at i on off al se

33

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evi dence,as opposed t oi t s use i n af ashi on t hatdepr i ves som eone ofa f ai rt r i al or

o t her wi s eh ar ms h i m, v i ol at est h e Con s t i t u t i on. ' 'l d. a t281 ( Sc al i a, J . , c onc u r r i n g) .
Onr emand,t he Seven t h Ci r cui tconsi der ed Buckl ey' s ar gum entt hatpr osecut or s vi ol at ed hi sr i ght s undert he Due Pr oc ess Cl ause by coer ci ng t wo wi t nesses and payi ng ey al l eged t hatt he pr osecut or sr epeat edl y t hem m oney t of al sel yi m pl i cat e hi m . Buckl i nt er r ogat ed t wo i ndi vi dual s, pai dt hem f orst at ement si ncul pat i ng hi m ,t hatdur i ng t he i nt er r ogat i ons,t he pr osecut or sS ' coer ced' ' t hem t of i ngerhi m ,and t hatt he accusat i ons
I evel ed agai nsthi m wer ef al se. Buc kl ey,20 F. 3d at794. The Sevent h Ci r cui tf ound

t hatt he al l egat i ons di d nots t at e a cl ai m undert he Const i t ut i on,m uch I ess suggesta vi ol at i on ofa cl ear l y est abl i shed r i ght ./ d. K he exchange ofmoney f ori nf or m at i on m ay be a r egr et t abl e way ofsecur i ng evi dence,buti ti s com m on. ' 'I d.' ' So t oo ar e pr om i ses t o go eas y. ' ' l d. W hi l et he paym ent s woul d have had t o have been di scl osed att r i al ,t he Cour tnot ed t hatBuckl ey had notal l eged conceal m entatt r i al , whi ch woul d have i n any eventbeen wi t hi nt he scope ofabsol ut ei m m uni t y. I d. And whi l e coer ci on ofwi t nesses coul d have been a genui ne const i t ut i onalwr ong,t he aggr i eved per sons woul d be t he wi t nesses,notBuckl ey. t ' Buckl ey cannotcom pl ai nt hatt he w i t nesses m ay have t wi st ed Cr uz' s ar m any m or et han he can col l ectdam ages because t hey f ai l ed t o r ead Cr uz M i r anda war ni ngs. ' 'l d. Letus suppose t he pr osecut or s putCr uz on t he r ack,t or t ur ed hi m unt i lhe nam ed Buckl ey as hi s conf eder at e,and t hen putt he t r anscr i pti n a dr awer , orf r amed i tand hung i ton t he wal lbutt ook no ot her s t eps,orbegan a pr osecut i on,butdi d not i n t r oduce t he st at ement . Coul d Buckl ey col l ect dam ages undert he Cons t i t ut i on? Sur el y not ;Cr uz hi m sel fwoul d be t he onl y vi ct i m.

Buc k l ey , 20 F. 3d a t795 . See a l s o Mi c hae l sv .New J er s e y, 22 2 F. 3d 11 8, 1 23 ( 3d Ci r . 20 00) , c e r t . de ni ed, 531 U. S. 11 8( 2001 ) . , Za hr e y7 .Cof f e y, 221 F. 3d 3 42, 3 48 ( 2 d Ci r .
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20 00)( $ ' Th e manu f ac t u r eo ff al s ee vi den c e,i n an d ofi t s el f... d oesno ti mp ai ran y one' s

c on s t i t u t i onal r i gh t . ' ' )( i n t er n al c i t a t i on omi t t e dl ; La nd r i ga nF .Ci t yo fW a r wi c k, 6 28 F. 2 d

73 6, 7 44 ( 1 s tCi r .1 98 0)( $ ' ( W) e do n ots e e ho wt h e ex i s t en c eo faf al s ep ol i c er epod,
si t t i ng i n a dr aweri n a pol i ce s t at i on,by i t sel fdepr i ves a per son ofa r i ghtsecur ed by

t he Con s t i t u t i onan dI a ws. ' ' ) .
Wi t hr espectt ot he exper tw i t nes s pr ovi di ng f al se evi dence I i nki ng t he bootpr i nt t ot he def endant ,t he Sevent h Ci r cui tI i kewi s ef ound no basi st o pr oceed: So f ar as we can t el l , no cour t has ever hel d a pr osecut or I i abl ef or seeki ng outand hi r i ng a w i t nes s,even one d l w el lknown f orherwi l l i ngness t of abr i cat e unr el i abl e exped t est i mony. ' ' Qual i f i ed i mm uni t y does not per mi t us t or ec ogni ze such a r i ght i nt hi sl i t i gat i on, even i f we wer e

p er s ua de d( wh i c h we ar en o t )t h a ts u ch an en t i t l emen tsh oul db ec r e at e d.
And what we have sai d about Robbi ns i s equal l yt r ue wi t hr espec tt o Buckl ey' s cont ent i on t hat t he pr osecut or s S ' suppr essed' 'a f avor abl e eval uat i on oft he bootpr i nt by a ser geantoft he Dupage Count y Sher i f f ' s

Of f i c e( i . e. , t h a tt h eyvi ol at et h ei rdu t i es u nd erBr a dy v . Mar yl a nd,3 73 U. S. 8 3,83 S. Ct .11 9 4,1 0 L. Ed. 2d 21 5( 1 9 63) ) and t h att h ey i n du c ed t wo
exper t st o gi ve t es t i m ony m or e dam agi ng t o Buckl ey t hen t hese expeds' i ni t i alnot es and r epods suggest ed. These w r ongs,i ft hey ar e wr ongs at al l ,occur r ed att r i al ,and do notsuppod an awar d ofdam ages. Buckl ey,20 F. 3d at797. So i ti s her e. As Ihave sai d bef or e,M r .Scr uggs'quest i oni ng ofDr .Car eyshul er

and M r .Codi na occur r ed dur i ng and i n pr epar at i on f ori ni t i at i on ofcr i mi nalchar ges and
i st her ef or e absol ut el y pr i vi l eged. However ,even i fwe assume t he al l egedl yi m pr oper

i nt er r ogat i on occur r ed bef or e Mr .Scr uggs puton hi s pr osecut or ' s hat , t her ei s no basi s
f orr ecover y. The st at ement st hem sel ves wer e neverused att r i al .I ndeed,t ot he

cont r ar y,M r .Codi na,accor di ng t ot he Com pl ai nt ,t ur ned on t he pr osecut or s and com pl ai ned t hathe had been m i sl ed by t hem . M or eover ,t her ei s no aut hor i t yf ort he

pr oposi t i on t hatM r .Scr uggs was r equi r ed t ot el lei t herDr .Car eyshul erorM r .Codi na

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ever yt hi ng t hathe m i ghthave know n aboutt he case He c er t ai nl y had no obl i gat i on t o
.

t el l t hem Ms.Spencelones' ver si on oft he f act s.
I ti s notunconst i t ut i onal t oI i et ow i t nesses. Coer ci ve orover bear i ng t ac t i c s m ay vi ol at e some r i ghtoft he wi t ness, butnotM s.Spencelones. And,even assum i ng he

knew oft he Car eyshul erdr af t s,M r .Scr uggs'obl i gat i on t o di scl ose t hem ar ose af t er i ndi ct m ent ,notbef or e. Count s O ne and Two do nots t at e a cl ai m undert he Const i t ut i on,I etal one a vi ol at i on ofcl ear l y est abl i shed r i ght s.

B. Thi r d Cl ai mf orRel i ef :Fal se Ar r qs tf ort he Car evshul erCase
The Com pl ai ntal l eges i n concl usor yf ashi on t hat' Rundl e, Scr uggs,and Fi el der
ar r est ed,sei zed,det ai ned,and i m pr i soned Spenc elones wi t houtpr obabl e caus e, and orf ai l ed t oi nt er vene t o pr eventt hi s conduc t .' '( Compl . 1 161 7) .Al s o, i nt h es ec t i on o f

t he Com pl ai ntent i t l ed ' ' Act i ng as Pol i ce Of f i c er s, Rundl e,Scr uggs and Fi el derFi l ea

Fal s eAr r es t Ali da vi t , ' ' t h e Pl ai n t i f fal l e ge st h a t :( 1 )on No v ember1 2, 200 9, M r .Fi el der
f i l ed a k no wi n gl yf al s ea fi d av i t ;( 2 )Mr . Sc r ug gs r ev i ewe da nd ap pr ov e dt h ea f f i d av i t ;( 3 )

on ' ' i n f or mat i on an d bel i e t' ' Ms. Run dl er ev i e wed and a ppr o v ed t h ea f f i da vi t ; and ( 4)a
war r antwas i ssued f orMs.Spencelones' ar r est ( / d. ! N 29 830 0,31 0) .The al l e gedl y
.

f al se af f i davi ti s notat t ached t ot he Com pl ai nt di dt he Def endant si ncl ude i ti nt hei r , nor
Mot i ons t o Di sm i ss. Nonet hel ess, i ti s a publ i cr ecor d,i ndeed i ti s at t ached t ot he St at e

ofFl or i da' s Execut i ve O r der09- 248 w hi ch suspended M s. Spencelones f r om of f i ce. 6
W her et he al l eged Four t h Am endm entvi ol at i on i nvol ves a sear ch orsei zur e
pur suantt o a war r ant ,t he f ac tt hata neut r al m agi st r at e has i ssued a war r anti st he

c l ear es ti ndi c a t i ont h at t he o f f i c er sa c t ed i n anob j ec t i v el yr eas on abl e m an n er , orput
6 St at e ofFl or i da Of f i ce oft he Gover nor i ve O r der09248,avai l abl e at , Execut - . l aw. f su. edu/ l i br aw/ col l ect i on/ Exec t ut i veor der s. 36

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d i f f er en t l y,i n' t ob j ec t i ve g oodf ai t h, ' ' Mes s e r s c hmi dtv .Mi l l end er , U. S.

,1 3 2 S. Ct .

1 235,1 2 45,1 82 L. Ed. 2d 47 ( 2 01 2 ) ,Uni t e d St at es v . Le on, 468 U. S. 897, 9 2223 ( 1 98 4) .Ho we v er , t hef ac tt ha ta ma gi s t r a t eh as i s s ue d awar r an td oes n o tendt he
i nqui r y. The Supr em e Coud has r ecogni zed an except i on al l ow i ng sui tw hen d ' i ti s obvi ous t hatno r easonabl y compet entof f i cerwoul d have concl uded t hatt he war r ant

s h oul di s su e. ' 'Me s s er s c h mi dt , 13 2 S. Ct . a t1 2 45 ( ci t i ng Ma l l e yv . Br i gg st 475 U. S. 335, 3 41( 1 98 6) ) .u The s hi el do fi m mu ni t y' ' o t h er wi s ec on f er r ed byt h e war r an t wi l l b eI os t , f or
exam pl e, wher et he war r antw as l ' based on an af f i davi tso I acki ng i ni ndi ci a ofpr obabl e cause as t or enderof f i ci albel i efi ni t s exi s t ence ent i r el y unr easonabl e. 'M esser schm i dt ,

1 3 2 S. Ct . a t1 2 45 ( c i t i n g Leo n, 468 U. S. at9 23)( i n t er nal c i t at i on an d quo t a t i on mar k s

omi t t ed) .d ' ( TJ h et hr es hol df o res t abl i s hi n gt h ee x c ep t i on i sa hi gh on e, an di ts hou l db e. '
I d. W hi l e notdi sposi t i ve,t he f actt hatan af f i davi thas been r evi ewed by ot her s,such
as an of f i cer ' s super i or ,ora par tofa pr osecut i on t eam ,' ' i s cer t ai nl y per t i nenti n

assessi ng whet hert hey coul d have hel d ar easonabl e bel i eft hatt he war r antwas
suppoded by pr obabl e cause. I d.at1250. I ti s notnecessar yt o deci de whet hert he f act s cont ai ned wi t hi nt he af f i davi t

act ual l y es t abl i sh pr obabl e cause. Qual i f i ed i m m uni t y gi ves gover nm entof f i ci al s

br ea t hi ng r oom t o mak er eas on abl e bu tmi s t ak enj u dgmen t s.As hc r of tB .a l Ki d d, 1 31
S. Ct . 20 74, 2081( 2011 ) .An o f f i c er ' sj ud gmen tt h a ta war r an ti ss up pode db y pr obab l e
cause m ay be m i s t ak en,butunl ess ' ' pl ai nl yi ncom pet ent , ' 'i tr em ai ns pr ot ec t ed. Messer schm i dt ,132 S. Ct .at1249. The Af f i davi ti n Suppod ofAr r estW ar r antwas si gned by Robed Fi el derand was swor n and subscr i bed bef or e Ci r cui tCour tJudge Beat r i ce A .But chk o on Novem ber1 2,

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2009.Af t erdescr i bi ng hi s exper i ence,Fi el derst at ed t hathe had per sonal l yi nt er vi ewed

num er ous wi t nesses,r evi ewed and anal yz ed hundr eds o fdocum ent s,i ncl udi ng t he r ec or ds oft he Met r oMi am i Act i on Pl an Tr ust ,cor r espondence,emai l s,and banki ng

r ec or ds.Th ea f f i da vi ti ss e v en pa gesl on g an dc on t ai nsei gh t een ( 1 8)numb er ed
par agr aphs and t hr ee at t achm ent s. Par agr aphs 18 oft he af f i davi tdescr i be Ti m bukt u M ar ket pl ace,Osun Vi l l age, and t he FM LK,and r ecountt haton Sept em ber23,2004,ata budgetm eet i ng oft he

Mi am i Dade Count y Com m i ssi on, t he M et r oMi am i Ac t i on Pl an Tr us twas di r ect ed t o
di s t r i but e count yf unds as gr ant st ot he t hr ee or gani zat i ons wi t ht he exactdol l ar

am ount st o be det er mi ned l at er . O n Novem ber8,2004,t he M MAP Boar d ofDi r ec t or s

al l ocat ed $25, 000 eacht ot he t hr ee or gani zat i ons.Par agr aphs818 ar e asf ol l ows:
8. The of f i ci al s at M MAP, i ncl udi ng Cont r act s Oli c er W i l l i am s Si m mons, wer e unsur e how t o di s t r i but et he f unds t o Ti m buk t u M ar k et pl ac e,O sun Vi l l age,and Fr i ends of M LK, l nc. The usual pr ocess was f ora pot ent i algr ant r eci pi en tt o appl yt o and make a pr es ent at i on t o M MAP' S st af fand Boar d of Di r ec t or ' ss t at i ng why t hey needed publ i cf unds and whatwas t o be accom pl i shed w i t h t hese f unds. However ,wi t ht he gr ant st ot he t hr ee ent i t i es ati ssue, M MAP of f i ci al s di d notknow w ho t oc ont ac tand w ho woul d si gn t he necessar y docum ent s bef or et he gr antf unds coul d be di st r i but ed. Somet i me i n November and Decem ber 2004, M I CHELLE SPENCEJONES cont act ed M MAP Cont r act s Of f i cer W i l l i am Si m m ons and t ol d hi m t hatshe woul d be t he cont actper son f ort he t hr ee gr ant s at i ssue. Al t hough t hi s pr ocess was hi ghl y unusual and unpr ecedent ed, M r . Si m m ons deci ded t o go al ong w i t h SPENCEJO NES'di r ect i ons becaus e he was awar e of her cl ose r el at i onshi p wi t h Chai r per son Car eyshul er and he was af r ai d of adver se em pl oym en t s act i ons i fhe f ai l ed t o cooper at e.
O n Dec em ber15,2004,Kar ym Ven t ur es,I nc.was i ncor por at ed as af or pr of i t cor por at i on wi t hi t s di r ect or s and of f i c er s consi s t i ng of MI CHELLE SPENC EJO NES and m ember s of her i m m edi at e f am i l y.

9.

10.

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11.

O n or about Januar y 4t hy 2005, M I CHELLE SPENCEJO NES spoke once agai nt oW i l l i am s Si m m ons and t ol d hi m t hatt he gr ant f unds f or Ti m buk t u M ar ket pl ace and Osun Vi l l age shoul d be woul d be l ocat ed at 4905 N. W . 7t h Avenue. She al so t ol d Si m m ons t hat t he Rever end Gas t on Sm i t h woul d l i kel y be t he pr i nci palofFr i ends ofM LK,I nc.and t he per son w ho woul d si gn f or and r ec ei ve t he gr antf unds.

r ed i r ec t ed t o Kar y m Ven t ur es ,I nc .f ori t s Ca f é Soulpr o j ec twh i c h

12.

Wi l l i am Si m m ons want ed some pr oof t hat t he i nt ended gr ant r eci pi ent s,Ti m buk t u M ar ket pl ace and O sun Vi l l age agr eed t ot he r edesi gnat i on of Kar ym Vent ur es,I nc.as t he new gr ant r eci pi ent . To sat i s f y Mr . Si m mons' r equest , MI CHELLE SPENCEJONES obt ai ned t wo I et t er s whi ch wer e subm i t t ed t o M MAP. SPENCEJO NES asked her' ' busi ness padner , ' 'M ar vi n W eeks,t owr i t e hera

I e t t eri ns u pp od o fh erCa f é Sou l pr o j ec t . He wr ot et h i sl e t t ern ev er
st at i ng and never i nt endi ng t hat SPENCEJONES and Kar ym Vent ur es,I nc.woul dr ecei ve gr antf unds i nt ended f orhi m . He was awar et hathe was t or ecei ve gr antf unds f r om M M AP;however ,he di dn' tr eal i ze t hat SPENCEJO NES had act ual l yt aken hi s gr ant

un t i l t h es ummero f20 05.( SeeAt t a c hmen t1 )
13. The second I et t er t hat M I CHELLE SPENCEJO NES pr ovi ded t o M M AP was an unsi gned I et t er f r om Com m uni t y Bui l der s Hol i st i c Devel opm entCor por at i on Associ at i on,t he cor por at i on ofNat hani el St yl es and Har l an W oodar d. Thi sl et t er pur poded t o suppod t he

SPENCEJ ONES' Ca f é Soul pr o j e c t . Ho we v er , ev en t h ough i twas
on t hei rcor por at i on' sI et t er head,M r .St yl es and M r .W oodar d never saw t he I et t er ,di d notsi gn i t ,and neveraut hor i zed anyone t o wr i t e aI et t eron t hei rbehal f .l nf ac t ,M r .W oodar d,when shown t he l et t er f ort he f i r stt i m e by you Af f i ant ,excl ai m ed t hat' ' W e ar et he vi c t i ms

o fi d en t i t yt h ef t l ' ' ( SeeAt t a ch men t2)
1 4. Even wi t ht he t wo I et t er s di scuss ed above,M M AP of f i ci alSi m m ons st i l l want ed ver i f i cat i on f r om Chai r per son Car eyshul er t hat she appr oved oft hi s unpr ecedent ed r edi r ect i on ofgr antf unds f r om t he i nt ended r eci pi ent st oat hi r d pady. On oraboutFebr uar y 15,2005, M MAP r ecei ved a l et t er pur podedl yf r om Chai r per son Bar bar a Car eyshul eron herof f i ci alof f i ce st at i oner y. Thi sI et t er , w hi ch was f axed t o M MAP f r om an unk nown t el ephone num ber ,st at ed t hat t he or i gi nali nt entoft he Chai r per son was f orM I CHELLE SPENCEJO NES and herf am i l y cor por at i on Kar ym Vent ur es,I nc.t or ec ei ve t he gr ant m oney i nst ead of Ti m buk t u M ar k et pl ace and O sun Vi l l age. M s.Car eyshul er has st at ed underoat ht hatshe di d not si gn t hi sI et t er ,t hata st amp of hersi gnat ur e was used i nst ead of heract ualsi gnat ur e,t hatshe woul d neversi gn a I et t erI i ke t hi s,t hat
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she had never seen or aut hor i zed t hi sI et t er ,and t hat she never di r ect ed M MA P t o r edi r ect t he f unds t o SPENCEJONES. Fudher m or e,M s.Car eyshul er s t at ed t hatshe had no aut hor i t yt o r eal l ocat et he f unds bec ause i t woul d be unl awf ul f or a si ngl e com m i ssi onert or eal l ocat ef unds wi t houta vot e oft he f ul lCount y Com m i ssi on. I n f ac t , Ms. Car eyshul er s t at ed t hat she was ' shocked' 't hat M I CHELLE SPENC EJO NES had got t en t he f unds

i n s t e ad o ft h ei n t en ded r ec i pi en t s .( Se e At t ac hmen t3 )
15. As f or t he $25, 000 gr ant t o Fr i ends of MLK, l nc. , MI CHELLE
SPENCEJO NES ar r anged f or Rever end Gas t on Sm i t ht o be t he cont r ac t i ng pr i nci paland r eci pi entoft he f unds. O n Jul y 17,2005, M MAP and M i am i Dade Count ywr ot e a check t o Fr i ends ofM LK,

I nc.f or$25, 000. Rever end Gast on Smi t hs t ol e a podi on oft hese
f unds and i s pr esent l y awai t i ng t r i alas a def endant i n a separ at e

case. MI CHELLE SPENCEJONES r ecei ved $8, 000 oft hese f unds
as an al l eged d d consul t ant ' ' t o Fr i ends ofM LK,I nc.

1 6.

O n oraboutApr i l8,2005,M i am i Dade Count yi ssued a check t o

Kar ym Vent ur es,l nc. f or$50, 000 whi ch wast he t ot alamountoft he
t wo gr ant si nt ended f orTi m buk t u M ar k et pl ace and Osun Vi l l age.

The cont r ac t bet ween M MAP, on behal f of M i am i Dade Count y, and Kar ym Vent ur es,whi ch was si gned by Kennet h Spence,t he br ot her of M I CHELLE SPENCEJO NES,speci f i cal l yr equi r ed t hat

t he Count y' s$50, 000 gr antbe pl aced i nt o a separ at e bank account
and not com i ngl ed wi t hf unds f r om any ot her sour ce. Thi si sa st andar d pr ovi si on i n count y gr ant s and I oans so t hataudi t or s can I at er ver i f y t hat t he c ount y f unds wer e used f or t he i nt ended pur pose. MI CHELLE SPENCEJO NES and her br ot her

i mme di a t el y vi ol at ed t h e pr oh i bi t i on a gai n s tc o mi n gl i n gf un d( s i c ) b ydepos i t i ng t h e$ 50, 00 0c h ec ki n t o a ban ka c cou n twi t hf un d( si c )
f r om ot her sour c es. Bet ween Apr i l2005 and Sept em ber 2005, Kar ym Vent ur e' s bank account i ncl uded i n addi t i on t o t he

af or ement i oned $50, 000,addi t i onalgr antf unds f r om Mi ami Dade Coun t yf o rt h e Ca f é Soul pr o j ec ti nt h e amou n to f$ 25, 00 0, ' ' consul t i ng' 'f eesf r om Fr i ends ofMLK,I nc.i nt he amountof$8, 000,
a' ' f i nder ' sf ee' 'f r om a cl i entof M I CHELLE SPENCEJO NES i nt he

amountof$3, 000,and a f ew sm al lcash deposi t st ot al i ng I ess t han $1, 000,and an addi t i onalr unni ng bal ance ofappr oxi mat el y $2, 000.
Ther ef or e,dur i ng t he r el evant t i m e per i od of Apr i lt o Sept em ber 2005,M I CHELLE SPENCEJONES and her f am i l y,t hr ough t hei r cor por at i on Kar ym Vent ur es, I nc. , had comi ngl ed f unds i nt he

amount of appr oxi mat el y $89, 000. I ti si mpodant t o not et hat $83, 000 f r om t he t ot alamoun toff unds came f r om count y ser vi ces ( i . e. ,t h e $5 0, 000 gr an tf r o m MMAP,t he $ 25, 00 0 ad di t i on algr an t
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f or Caf é Soul f r om Mi am i Dade Count y, and $8, 000 f r om t he M MAP gr ant t o Fr i ends of M LK, I n c. ) . By Sep t e mber23,20 05,

Kar ym Vent ur es bankaccounthad a bal ance of$728. 82

1 8. The $8 9, 0 00 ( wi t h$ 83, 00 0 der i v edf r om Mi ami Dad e Coun t yf un ds )
was spentas f ol l ows: MI CHELLE SPENCEJONES: Kennet h Spence:

$12, 408. 00 $ 9, 569. 00 $ 3, 175. 00

Yvo nn eL o we ( mo t h ero f MI CHELLE SPENCEJ ONES)
Amer i can Expr ess:

$ 10, 279. 71

( c r e di tc ar d ch ar g es by M I CHELLE SPENCEJ ONES an d
Kennet h Spence i ncl uded ai rt r avel ,hot el s, r est aur ant s,Pet car e, f oot wear , gasol i ne, gr ocer i es, sat el l i t e t el evi si on,

Cl o t hi n g an d au t omobi l er ep ai r ) .
Expenses r el at ed t ot he

Ca f é Sou l pr o j ec t :

=$ 5 4, 0 00

The af f i davi twas i ni t i al ed on each page by Judge But chko, who t hen i ssued an

ar r es t war r an tan dc er t i f i e dt h at' ' l bl as e du pont h es wor ns t a t emen to ff ac t s,I f i n d
pr obabl e cause t hatSpencelones,M i chel l e di d com m i tt he cr i me' ' ofsecond degr ee
gr and t hef t .

I nt he Com pl ai nt , t he Pl ai nt i f fconcedes t hatt he Dade Count y' s Comm i ssi on

r ec ommende dt h a tt hef un dsbe di r ec t ed n ot t o Kar y m( whi c h app ar en t l ydi d no ty e t

e xi s t ) ,b u tt oTi mbu k t uand Os unVi l l age. ( Compl . 1 1 2 41 ) .She al s o admi t st h a tDr .
Car eyshul ergave a swor n st at em enton Sept em ber18, 2009 i m pl i cat i ng heri na

s ch emet ot ak e Cou n t y mone y. ( I d. %2 85) .Th e Pl ai n t i f f hasn oti d en t i f i ed any

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t at em entwi t hi nt he af f i davi tas bei ng unt r ue. ?I nst ead, she ar s gues t hatM r .Fi el derand Mr .Scr uggs had seen t he dr af t s oft he Febr uar y 15,2005 l et t erpur por t edl y sentby Dr . Car eyshul er ,r ecogni zed t he w r i t i ng on t he dr af tas herhandw r i t i ng,and t hus r eal i zed t hathers wor n st at em ent' ' t hatshe woul d neversi gn a I et t erI i ke t hi s,t hatshe had never

s een oraut hor i zed t hi sI et t er ,and t hatshe neverdi r ec t ed M MAP t or edi r ectt he f unds t o
Spenc elones' 'coul d notbe t r ue and t hat' Car eyshul erhad f or got t en abouther

dec i si onsab ou tCa f é Soul f u ndi ng. ' '( l d. ! 1 2 78) .

Ofc our s et ha tal l eg at i on hi ng esen t i r el yont he a s su mp t i on s: ( 1 )t ha tMr . Fi el der
an d Mr . Sc r ug gsac t u al l ys a wt h e dr a f tI e t t er s ,( 2)t h at t h ey r ec ogni z edt h es i gn i f i c an c e
of t hedr af t s an dt h eh an d wr i t t en n ot esc on t a i n ed u pont h e dr a f t s; an d( 3 )t h at t he y
doubt ed Dr .Car eyshul er ' st est i m ony.Assum i ng t hataI I oft hati st r ue, t he quest i on bec om es whet her' d i ti s obvi ous t hatno r easonabl y com pet entof f i cerwoul d have concl uded t he war r antshoul di ssue. ' To me i ti s notataI I obvi ous. A r easonabl e of f i cercoul d have bel i eved Dr . Car eyshul erw hen she sai d she had no aut hor i t yt or eal l ocat ef unds because i twoul d be unl awf ul t o do so w i t houta vot e oft he ent i r e Count y Com m i ssi on. M or eover ,a r easonabl e of f i cerc oul d have bel i eved t hatHar l an W oodwar d and Nat hani elSt yl es,t he cr eat or s ofOsun Vi l l age,had neveraut hor i zed t he di ver si on off unds al l ocat ed t o O sun 1 I n Fr anks B. De / aear e, 438 U. S.1 5 4( 1 97 8) , t h e Su pr eme Cour ta ddr es s ed t h e si mi l ari ssue ofwhen a cr i mi naldef endantwho at t ackst he exi st ence ofpr obabl e cause f ora sear ch war r antbased on f al se s t at ement si nt he war r antaï davi ti s ent i t l ed t o an evi dent i ar y hear i ng. The Cour tst at ed t hatt o over come t he pr esum pt i on ofval i di t y,a chal l enge m us tbe ' l m or et han concl usor y' 'and t ' poi ntoutspeci f i cal l yt he podi on oft he war r antaf f i davi tt hati s ... f al se ... accom pani ed by a st at em entofsuppodi ng

r ea son s. ' ' I d. 1 ' ( I ) ft h es er e qu i r emen t sar e me t , and i f , wh en mat er i al t h ati st he s ub j ec t
oft he al l eged f al si t y orr eckl ess di sr egar di s sett o one si de, t her er em ai ns suf f i ci ent cont enti nt he war r antaf f i davi tt o suppor ta f i ndi ng ofpr obabl e caus e,no hear i ng i s r equi r ed. 'I d.at171.
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Vi l l age,and had neveraut hor i zed anyone t o wr i t et he I et t erat t ached t ot he af f i davi tas
Exhi bi t2. A r easonabl e of f i cercoul d have bel i eved i twas i m pr operf orM s.Spence-

Jones t o ar r ange f orRever end G ast on Sm i t ht o be t he cont r act i ng pr i nci paland

r eci pi entoft he $25, 000 al l ocat ed t o FMLK,t ake $8, 000 oft he f undsasa consul t ant ,
and al l ow Rever end Sm i t ht o st ealt he r em ai nder . Fi nal l y,a r easonabl e of f i cercoul d have bel i eved i twas unl awf ul t o com i ngl et he Count y' sf unds and us et hose f unds f or herown and herf am i l y' s own per sonalexpens es.
The exi s t enc e oft he dr af t s wi t h handwr i t t en edi t s,even i fM r .Fi el derdi d know

aboutt hem , does notpr ecl ude pr obabl e cause.W hi l et hey t end t o di scr edi tDr .Car eyShul er ' st es t i m ony,' d ar r est i ng of f i cer s,i n deci di ng whet herpr obabl e cause exi st s,ar e notr equi r ed t o si f tt hr ough conf l i c t i ng evi denc e orr esol ve i ssues ofcr edi bi l i t y so l ong as t he t ot al i t y oft he ci r cum st ances pr esenta su#i ci entbasi sf orbel i evi ng an of f ense has

be en c ommi t t ed. ' Dah lv . Ho / / e y, 31 2 F. 3 d1 22 8, 1 23 4( 11 t h Ci r . 200 2) . &ee al s o Smi t h7 . She r i % Cl a y Cnt y. , Fl a. , 50 6 F. App ' x89 4( 11 t h Ci r . 201 3) .
The Supr em e Cour thas caut i oned t hatt he ci r cumst ances ar er ar e w her e' i twi l l

b e appr opr i at et oi mp os ep er s on al l i abi l i t yon a I ayof f i c eri nt h ef a c eo fj u di ci al ap pr o v al
ofhi s ac t i ons. ' ' M esser schm i dt ,132 S. Ct .at1250.They ar e notpr esenther e. C .Foudh and Fi f t h Cl ai m sf orRel i ef :Mal i ci ous Pr osecut i on and Sei zur e
Count s Fourand Fi ve al l ege t hat' ' t he SAO def endant si nt hei ri nvest i gat or y capaci t yf abr i cat ed and wi t hhel d evi dence,i l l egal l y causi ng br i ngi ng ofcr i mi nalchar ges
. . .

( an dt ha j( a l sa r es ul to ft h e wr on g f ul p r os ec u t i on, Pl ai n t i f f wa ss ei z ed a nd de pr i v ed

ofherr i ght s undert he Foudh and Foudeent h Am endm ent st ot he Uni t ed St at es

Cons t i t u t i on. ' '( Comp l . ! N 627, 635 ) .
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Ho we v er , $ ' I a)pr os ec u t ori si mmun ef ormal i c i ou s pr o s ec u t i on. ' Ha r l7 . Ho dge st 58 7 F. 3 d1 2 88,1 29 5( 11 t h Ci r . 20 09 )( c i t i n g Ma l l e yF .Br i ggs , 475 U. S. 3 35, 3 4243,

1 06 S. Ct .1 0 92,1 09 7, 89 L . Ed. 2d 271( 1 9 86 ) . Se e al s o Reh ber g, 61 1 F. 3d a t837 ( ' At
com m on I aw,t he gener alr ul e was,and i s,t hata pr osecut ori s absol ut el yi m m une f r om

sui t f ormal i c i ou sp r os e cu t i on. ' ' )( qu ot at i on ma r k sand al t er a t i on so mi t t ed) .Pur s u an tt o
absol ut ei m m uni t y,Count s Fourand Fi v e m ustbe di sm i ss ed. D .Si xt h Cl ai mf orRel i ef :Fi r stAm endm entRet al i at i on Real l egi ng ever y t hi ng f r om t he pr evi ous 88 pages and 640 par agr aphs of al l egat i ons,Pl ai nt i f fI eaps t ot hi s unl i kel y concl usi on: By t he conduct setf or t h,su pr a,and by knowi ngl y and i n t ent i onal l y conc eal i ng and f abr i cat i ng evi dence i nt he Codi na and Car eyshul ercases,f al sel y ar r est i ng and wr ongf ul l y sei zi ng Spencelones,and m ani pul at i ng t he Com m i ssi on and t he pol i t i caland cr i mi nalpr ocess t o or ches t r at e her r emovaland exi l ef r om publ i c of f i ce,Rundl e,Scr uggs,and Fi el derwr ongf ul l yr et al i at ed agai nstSpencelones f orherpol i t i calposi t i on,because she opposed t he Mayor ,and i n or dert o depr i ve her of her r i ght t o hol d publ i c of f i ce i n vi ol at i on of Pl ai nt i f rs Fi r st Amendment r i ght s.
These al l egat i ons st at e no pl ausi bl e cl ai mf orr el i ef . Fi r s t ,as t he Supr em e Cour thas expl ai ned,a r et al i at or y pr osecut i on case cannot

be br oughtagai nstt he pr osecut or ,butonl y agai nstt he nonpr osecut i ng of f i ci al w ho successf ul l yi nduced t he pr osecut ort o br i ng char ges t hatw oul d notot her wi se have

been b r ou gh t .Ha r t ma n? . Moo r e ,5 47 U. S. 250, 26 2( 2006 ) , * s ee a l s o Re hbe r g, 61 1
F. 3d at848. The SAO Def endant s ar e absol ut el yi m m une wi t hr espectt ot he pr osecut i on ofMs.Spencelones.
O nce i ndi ct ed,i tshoul d have com e as no sur pr i se t o M s.Spencelones t hatshe

was suspended by t he Gover nor . Suspensi on was and i s aut hor i zed by bot ht he Fl or i da Const i t ut i on and Fl or i da St at ut es,and i tr out i nel yf ol l ows when a publ i c of f i ci ali s
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y 27,2010, att he Associ at ed Pr ess'annualI egi sl at i ve char ged wi t h a cr i m e. On Januar m eet i ng,G over norCr i s tt ol dr epoder st hathe had suspended no I ess t han 37 publ i c

of f i ci al s dur i ng t he pr evi ous 36 mont hs. Fl or i da Gov.Cr i stSays he has Sus pended 37

Pu bl i c Omc i al s, P OL I T I F AC T,( J an. 27, 201 0) ,
hop: / / . pol i t i f ac t . com / f l or i da/ st at ement s / zolo/ i an/ zg/ char l i ecr i svf l or i daqovcr i s t -

savshehassuspended37publ i c/ .
As bet ween t he obvi ous al t er nat i ve expl anat i on f orher' t r em ovaland exi l ef r om

publ i c of f i ce' '- t hati st he nor m alf unc t i oni ng ofFl or i da gover nm ent ,as oppos ed t ot he al l eged pur posef ulr et al i at i on due t o pol i t i calbel i efi nt he Com pl ai nt ,r et al i at i on i s nota pl ausi bl e concl usi on. I qbal :556 U. S.662. E. Sevent h Cl ai mf orRel i ef :Ci vi lRi qht s Conspi r ac v Anai ns tAI IDef endant s Ci vi lRi ght s conspi r ac yi s one oft wo cl ai m s asser t ed agai nstM ayorRegal ado.

Ho wev er , t oc omp l y wi t h Fed er al Ru l e ofCi v i l Pr o c edur e8 ( a) ( 2) , ac ompl ai n tmus t
pl ead enough f act st os t at e a cl ai mf orr el i eft hati s pl ausi bl e on i t sf ace. I d. See al so

Randa l l? . Sc o t t , 61 0 F. 3d 7 01( 1 1 t h Ci r . 201 0 ) .Rul e 8' s pl ea di n gs t an dar dl ' d eman ds
m or et han an unador ned, t he def endant unl aM ul l yhar m edm e accusat i on.... ' 'I qbal , 556 U. S.at678. A pl eadi ng t hatof f er sS ' I abel s and concl usi ons' 'or' $ af or m ul ai c

r e c i t a t i on o ft h e el emen t so fa c au s eo fa c t i on wi l l n otdo. ' 'I d. ( qu ot i ng Be l l At l ant i c
Cor p.7.Twom bl y,550 U. S.at555. The al l egat i ons agai ns tM ayorRegal ado ar es t r i ki ngl y si mi l art ot hose f ound i nsuf f i ci entagai nstJohn Ashcr of ti nI qbalwher e Ashcr of twas descr i bed ast he ' ' pr i nci pal ar chi t ec t 'ofa di scr i mi nat or y pol i cy. Her e,accor di ng t ot he com pl ai nt :

d ' I al i d ed by Run dl e an dt h e SAO, Regal a do wasal s os c hemi n gt oc on t r ol t h e

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Commi s s i on, ' ' ( Comp l . 1 111 1 ) , . Ma y orReg al a do an d St a t e At t or n ey Ru ndl e, wi t ht h e
assi s t ance ofM r .Scr uggs and M r .Fi el derconspi r ed t o ar r estM s.Spencelones i n

or dert or emo v e Ma y orRe gal ado' sp ol i t i c al oppon en t f r om el ec t e d of f i c e, ( i d . $1 40) , .
' d Regal ado wast he dr i vi ng f or c e behi nd t he schem e t of abr i cat ef al se char ges t or emove

Sp enc el on esf r om o ïc e.. .. ' $ ( I d . : 1 1 41 ) .
Ot hert han asser t i ons ofconspi r acy,t her ei s no f act ualal l egat i on t hatt he M ayor pl ayed any r ol ei n ei t hert he i ni t i at i on ofchar ges agai ns tMs.Spencelones orher

suspensi on by t he Gover nor . He i s notal l eged t o have been i nvol ved i nt he quest i oni ng
ofCom m i ssi onerCar eyshul erorAr m ando Codi na,t he pr obabl e cause af f i davi t ,t he ar r es t s,t he Cl oseoutMem o,ort he pr ess st at em ent s. Oft he 757 num ber ed par agr aphs i nt he Com pl ai nt ,ot hert han w i t hr espec tt o

at t endi ng a Ci t y Comm i ssi on meet i ng aboutr epl aci ng Ms.Spencelones - a dut y whi ch
obvi ousl yf al l s wi t hi n hi s Mayor alr esponsi bi l i t y- t her e ar e onl yt hr ee f act ualal l egat i ons concer ni ng M ayorRegal ado. Fi r s t ,l ' on i nf or m at i on and bel i ef , ' 'Pl ai nt i f fcl ai m st hati n August2009,pr i ort o her Novem ber2009 ar r es t ,M ayorRegal ado t ol d uni on m em ber s ata m eet i ng oft he Sout h

Fl or i daAFL CI Ot h at' ' Sp en c e l one swasgoi ngt oj ai l . ' '( I d. ! 11 29 ) . Ev en i ft r u e, t h i s
har dl y poi nt st ot he Mayor ' si nvol vem enti n a conspi r ac y agai nstM s.Spencelones.

Accor di ng t ot he Cl os eoutMem o,t he st at e at t or ney' si nvest i gat i on had been under way
si nce 2007. M or eover ,Rever end Gast on Sm i t h had al r eady been char ged w i t ht he t hef t
oft he FM LK f unds and was awai t i ng t r i al . And t hese pr os ecut i ons wer e nott he f i r stt i me

al l egat i ons ofcor r upt i on had been m ade agai nstt he Com m i ssi oner . Readi l y avai l abl e
publ i shed adi cl es r evealear l i eri nvest i gat i ons ofMs.Spencelones on a var i et y of

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char ges unr el at ed t ot he Kar ym ort he Codi na sol i ci t at i on. See,e. g. ,Spencelones Faces I ndi ct m ent .St at e At t or ney I nvest i gat es Et hi cal l y Chal l enged Mi am i

Commi s si one r, MI AMI NE W TI MES, ( Dec. 1 3, 200 7) , * Ci t y Ha l l St i nk s , MI A MI NE W TI MES,

( Feb.1 4, 200 8) .Spenc , e l one s Cl e ar edi nI nv es t i g at i on, SOU THFL ORI D A BU SI NES S
JOURN AL , ( Ma y2 2, 20 09)( r ep or t i n gt ha tMs . Spen c el on eswa sc l ear ed o fpr e vi ou sl y
made al l egat i ons t hatshe accept ed br i bes and ki ckback s and i nt er f er ed wi t h Ci t y Par ks

and Recr ea t i ondec i s i on s l ; Mi a mi Co mmi s s i one rMi c he l l e Spe nc el o nesBeat s Cor r u pt i on Char ge s, MI AMI NE W TI ME S, ( J un e 4, 2009 ) .Th ef a c t t h a tt h e May or , or
anyone el se i nt er est ed i nMi am i pol i t i cs,m i ghtpr edi c tI egalpr obl ems f orCom m i ssi oner

Spen c el on es, ore v en opi n e, i n c or r ec t l ya si tt u r nsou t , t h ats h e mi gh tgot oj ai l doe s
notpoi ntt oi nvol vem enti n a conspi r acy.

Second,i ti s al l eged t haton Novem ber11,2009,t he day bef or et he ar r est war r antofM s.Spencelones was f i l ed,and t wo days bef or e she t ur ned her sel fi nt ot he aut hor i t i es,t he Gover norvi si t ed Ci t y Hal l t o at t end MayorRegal ado' s swear i ngi n cer em ony. She soughtt o m eett he Gover norand have a phot ogr aph t aken. The ci t y
phot ogr aphert ooka pi c t ur e oft he G over nor ,M ayorRegal ado,and M s.Spencelones.

The Ma y orI a t ert ol dt he ph o t ogr a ph ert od es t r o yt h e ph ot o gr aph .( Compl . I N1 53 5 9) . The r e que s twa s ap par en t l yr e f us e d. ( I d. ! ! 1 5 9) . Mos tel e c t e do f f i ci al s pr e f ern ot t o be
phot ogr aphed w i t ht hose underi nvest i gat i on' ,al t hough,t he num berofphot ogr aphs of Fl or i da pol i t i ci ans posi ng wi t ht hose I at erconvi c t ed ofcr i m es shows how har dt hi si st o accom pl i sh. Agai n, t hi s does notpl ausi bl y poi ntt o a conspi r acy.
Fi nal l y,i ti s al l eged t hati nt he sum merof2011,af t erMs.Spencelones was

char ged i n bot h cases and af t qrshe had been acqui t t ed i nt he Codi na case,M ayor

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Regal ado vi si t ed St at e At t or ney Rundl e att he SAO' s of f i ce. ' I nt hi s secr et ,backdoor

m eet i ng,M ayorRegal ado and St at e At t or ney Rundl e di scussed how t hey woul d
cont i nue t he f r audul entpr osecut i on agai ns tSpencelones i n or dert o keep herf r om

I d. % : 1 5 31 3 4) .Thi si st h e onl yal l ega t i on o f r egai ni ng herseaton t he Comm i ssi on. ' '(
any com m uni cat i on bet ween Regal ado and any oft he SAO Def endant s. Ot hert han al l egi ng t he f ac toft he meet i ng, t hi s al l egat i on does not hi ng t o el uci dat e any par t i ci pat i on by MayorRegaf ado i n a conspi r acy. Even i fM ayorRegal ado and St at e At t or ney Rundl e' ' di scussed' 'con t i nui ng t he pr osecut i on,t her ei s no al l egat i on t hatt hey agr eed t o do so - an essent i alel em entofa conspi r acy cl ai m . See Gr i derv.Ci t y of

Aubu m, 61 8 F. 3 d1 2 40 ( 11 t h Ci r . 201 0) .Th er ei sno al l e ga t i ont h atMa y orReg al a do
di d anyt hi ng t o cont i nue t he pr osecut i on. l nf ac t , t he St at e At t or ney' s Of f i c e di sm i ssed
t he r em ai ni ng case agai ns tM s.Spencelones on Augus t24,2011. The al l egat i ons agai ns tMayorRegal ado f al l f ar' shor toft he I i ne bet ween possi bi l i t y and pl ausi bi l i t yt o

' ent i t l emen t t or el i e t' ' ' I q ba l t 55 6 U. S. a t6 78 ( quo t i n g Twombl y,5 50 U. S. a t55 7) .
As t ot he SAO Def endant s, f ort he r easons Ihave pr evi ousl ys t at ed,t hey ar e
ent i t l ed t o absol ut e and qual i f i ed i m muni t y. Mor eover , t he i nt r acor por at e conspi r ac y

doct r i ne bar s cl ai m s ofconspi r acy bet ween m em ber s oft he same or gani zat i on when ac t i ng i nt he scope oft hei rem pl oym ent ,i nt hi s cas et he s t at e at t or ney' s of f i ce. See

Gr i der , 681 F. 3d at1261;Rehber g,611 F. 3d at855. ,Denney 1.Ci t y ofAl banyt 247

F. 3d 1 1 72, 11 90 91( 11 t h Ci r . 2001 ) .
F. Ei qht h Cl ai mf orRel i ef :Super vi sow Li abi l i t v Anai ns tRundl e I n herei ght h cl ai mf orr el i ef ,M s.Spencelones aî d eges t hatSt at e At t or ney Rundl e knew M r .Scr uggs had a hi st or y ofdocument ed unl awf ul ,unpr of essi onal ,and

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unet hi calconduc tyetassi gned hi ml ' t oi nves t i gat e,assi st ,i m pr i son,and pr osecut e

Spen c el on esno t wi t h s t andi ng, an d( on i n f or ma t i onand b el i eg b ec aus e ofs uc h
mi s c on duc t . ' ' ( Compl . ! 1 65 8) . Sh e al s o al l ege st ha tSt at e At t or n ey Ru n dl e' ' k n ew t ha t
Scr uggs and Fi el derwoul d vi ol at e Pl ai nt i f f ' s const i t ut i onalr i ght s and f ai l ed t o st op t hem

f r om doi n gs o. ' '( / d. % 65 7) .
Assum i ng St at e At t or ney Rundl e assi gned M r .Scr uggs t o pr osecut e Ms.
Spenc elones,knowi ng he w oul d vi ol at e herconst i t ut i onalr i ght s,and f ai l ed t o st op hi m f r om doi ng so,herac t i ons ar e absol ut el yi m m une f r om sui t .Thi si s because d ' an
i ndi vi dualpr osecut or ' s er r ori nt he pl ai n t i f f ' s speci f i c cr i mi nal t r i alconst i t ut es an

e s s en t i al el emen to f t he pl ai n t i f f ' sc l ai m. ' ' Va n de Ka mp, 55 5 U. S. a t3 45 ( c i t a t i ons omi t t ed )( ' Dec i s i on sab ou ti n di c t men tort r i al pr os ec u t i onwi l l o f t e ni n v ol v e mor et han

one pr os ec u t or wi t h i n anof f i c e. n l . Padi c ul ar l yi na I ar g e of f i c e, d ef endi ng pr o s ec u t or i a l
deci si ons such as t he assi gnmentofpr osecut or s ort he handl i ng ofpadi cul arcases
coul di m pos ed ' uni que and i nt ol er abl e bur dens upon a pr osecut orr esponsi bl e annual l y f orhundr eds ofi ndi ct ment s and t r i al s. ' 'I m bl er , 424 U. S.at42526. See a/ so Van de Kamp,555 U. S.at347. G .El event h Cl ai mf orRel i ef :Ret al i at or vI nducem entt o Pr osecut e The cl ai m s agai nstM ayorRegal ado f orr et al i at or yi nducementt o pr osecut e ar e due t o be di sm i ssed f ort wo i ndependentr eas ons.
Fi r st ,as setf or t hi n gr eat erdet ai l wi t hr espectt ot he al l egat i ons r el at i ng t o M ayor

Regal ado' s padi ci pat i on i n a conspi r acy t o depr i ve M s.Spencelones ofherci vi lr i ght s, t he Com pl ai ntf ai l st o st at e a pl ausi bl e cl ai m .l t s concl usor yr ef r ai n - M ayorRegal ado

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' s i nduced' ' or' s cont i nued t oi nduce' ' -i s not hi ng m or et han a naked assedi on,notent i t l ed

t o an ya s su mp t i ono ft r u t h.( Compl . I 1 $6 83 8 4, 686 90) .
Second,because oft he com pl exi t y ofest abl i shi ng causat i on i n a cl ai mt hata

padi cul arpr os ecut i on was i nduced by r et al i at i on, t he Supr em e Cour thas hel dt hatt he
absence ofpr obabl ec ause m us tbe pl eaded and pr oven. Har t m an,547 U. S.at26566. Her e,al t hough t he Com pl ai ntconcl usi vel y asser t st he I ack ofpr obabl e cause,i t s speci f i c al l egat i ons speak t ot he cont r ar y. As setf or t hi n det ai li nt he di scussi on oft he cl ai mf orf al s e ar r esti nt he Car ey-

Sh ul erc as e, t h ep r ob abl ec a us ea f f i d av i twa sr e v i e wed bya s t a t e ci r c ui tj ud ge who
f ound pr obabl e cause t hatM s.Spencelones di d com m i tt he cr i m e ofsecond degr ee

gr an dt he f t .I nt h e Co di n ac as e, ast h e Compl ai n tal l ege s, ( Compl . 1 1 456 ) ,Ms. Sp en c eJ one swas i ndi c t ed b yt h e gr an dj ur yonMar c h 3, 201 0, and a c c or di n gt o Da de Cou n t y
Ci r cui tCour tr ecor ds,hers wor n m ot i on t o di sm i ss was deni ed on Oc t ober18,2010.

Th e Codi na c a s e pr oc eed ed t ot r i al , ( i d. ! 151 5 ) , an d pr e su mabl yatt he c l o s e of t he
St at e' s case,herabl e counselunsucc essf ul l y m oved f orJudgmentofAcqui t t alpur suant
t o Rul e 3. 380 oft he Fl or i da Rul es ofCr i mi nalPr ocedur e,ar gui ng t hatt he evi dence was

i nsuf f i ci entt o war r anta convi c t i on. These i ndependentdeci si ons br eak t he chai n of

causat i on bet ween t he al l eged i nducem entand negat e any cl ai m oft he absence of

pr ob abl ec au s e.Ha r t ma n, 5 47 U. S. a t2 6263 ( ' d I n or dert of i n dt h a ta d ef end an t
pr ocur ed a pr osecut i on,t he pl ai n t i f fm ustes t abl i sh ' a chai n ofcausat i on'I i nki ng t he

de f en dan t ' sa c t i onswi t ht h ei ni t i a t i on o fcr i mi n al pr oc e edi n gs. n )( qu o t i n g Bar t s? .

J o yne r , 8 65 F. 2d 11 8 7,1 1 95 ( 1 1 t h Ci r .1 98 9) ) .

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H. Twel f t h Cl ai mf or Rel i ef :Due Pr ocess/ st i nm apl us
The Com pl ai ntal l eges t hatM r .Scr uggs and Mr .Fi el derm ade f al se st at em ent s

t o Com m i ssi onerCar eyshul erand Mr .Codi na,and t hatSt at e At t or ney Rundl e m ade f al se st at em ent st ot he Gover norand t he pr ess t hus causi ng ' ' t he cons t i t ut i onal vi ol at i ons Spencelones su f f er ed,i ncl udi ng t he m ul t i pl e suspensi ons ofSpencelones f r om herpubl i c em pl oym entas an el ec t ed of f i ci al...herI oss ofI i vel i hood and busi ness

goo d wi l l , herI os sofl i ber t y , ' ' andt h eo t h erh ar ms al l eg ed. ( Compl . 1 1 697) .W hi l e
var i ous com m on l aw pr i vi l eges appl yt ot he al l egedl y def am at or y st at em ent s,i ti s not necessar yt o engage i nt hatanal ysi s because undercont r ol l i ng Supr em e Cour tand

El ev en t h Ci r c ui tpr ec ed ent , t he Compl ai n tf ai l st o al l e ge an yc on s t i t u t i onal i n j u r y. l n Pau l7 . Dav i s, 424 U. S. 6 93 ( 1 9 76 ) , t h e Supr eme Cou r th el dt h a tde f ama t i on
by gover nm entof f i ci al ss t andi ng al one and apar tf r om any gover nment alac t i on does notconst i t ut e a depr i vat i on ofI i bedy orpr opedy undert he Foudeent h Am endm ent . The
Davi s Cour test abl i shed whathas com e t o be known as t he ' d st i gm apl us' ' t est . See al so

Si e ger tv .Gi l l e y, 50 0 U. S. 2 26, 233, ( 1 9 91 ) ,Moo * r eB .Of e r o, 55 7 F. 2d43 5, 438 ( 5 t h Ci r .
1 97 7) .A pl ai nt i f fc l a i mi ng a depr i v a t i on ba s ed on d ef ama t i on u nd erc ol oro fs t a t eI aw
m ustest abl i sh t he f actoft he def am at i on ' ' pl us' ' t he vi ol at i on ofsom e m or et angi bl e

i nt er estbef or et he pl ai nt i f fi s ent i t l ed t oi nvoke t he pr ocedur alpr ot ect i on oft he due pr ocess cl ause. 8a&/ ,424 U. S.at701 02. See al so Sei ger tB .Gi l l ey,500 U. S.226,

233, 111S. Ct .1 7 89,1 79 4, 11 4L . Ed. 2 d 277 ( 1 9 91 )( d Def a mat i on, b yi t s el f , i sa t or t

a c t i on abl e un dert h eI a wsofmo s ts t at es ,b u tn ot ac ons t i t ut i on al d epr i v at i on. n ) .
I nk eepi ng w i t h Paul ,t he Ef event h Ci r cui thas succi nc t l y sum m ar i zed w hati s
r equi r ed t o sat i s f yt he st i gm apl us t est :1 d To es t abl i sh a I i ber t yi nt er estsuf f i ci entt o

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i m pl i cat et he Four t eent h Amendmentsaf eguar ds,t he i ndi vi dualm ustnotonl y be st i gm at i zed butal so st i gm at i zed i n connect i on wi t h a deni al ofa r i ghtors t at us

pr e vi ous l yr e c ogni z ed un ders t at eI a w. ' 'Beh r ensv .Reg i er , 422 F. 3 d1 25 5, 1 260 ( 11 t h

Ci r . 2005 )( quo t i n g Smi t he xr el . Smi t hB .Si eg el ma nï 3 22 F. 3 d1 290,1 2 96 ( 11 t h Ci r . 2003 ) ) . Ms. Sp enc e l one sa s s edst ha t f ort h ed ' pl u s ' ' p r on go fh ercl ai ms h eh as
su #i ci ent l y al l eged t wo i nt er es t s:herI i bedy i nt er esti n notbei ng ar r es t ed and her

bu si n es si n t er es ti n herI i v el i ho od. ( Res p. a t72) .
The El event h Ci r cui t ' s deci si on i n Rehber gi s squar el y on poi nt . Ther et he Cour t

hel dt h at t h ep r os e cu t i on i t s el f( t h ei n di c t me n tan dt h e ar r e s t )c oul d no tbe us ed ast h e

bas i sf orc on s t i t u t i on al i n j ur y . Rehb er g, 61 1 F. 3d a t853.Ci t i n gt h e Se ven t h Ci r c ui t ' s
deci si on i n Buckl ey, t he Cour tst at ed:$ ' a pl ai nt i l w ho uses a S st i gm a pl us'appr oach t o

avoi d Pauland Sei ger tm us ti dent i f ya' pl us'ot hert han t he i ndi ct ment ,t r i al ,and r el at ed
event sf orwhi ch t he def endan t s possess absol ut ei m m uni t yw ' ' Rehber g,682 F. 3d at

853 5 4( q uo t i n g Bu c k l e y, 20 F. 3d a t798 ) .
UnderFl or i da I aw,Ms.Spencelones' suspensi on by t he Gover norw oul d
const i t ut ea' ' r el at ed event . ' 'As has been not ed,suspensi on can onl y be based upon

i ndi ct mentori nf or m at i on. St at em ent st ot he m edi a oreven t ot he Gover norcannot t r i ggersuspensi on. The Pl ai nt i f fpr esen t s no aut hor i t yf ort he pr oposi t i on t hatel ect i ve oli ce i sa r i ght

ors t a t u s pr ot ec t ed bys t at el a w.See Snowde nB . Hu ghe s, 321 U. S.1 , 78( 1 9 44) . , Wi l s o nB . Bi r nbe r g, 667 F. 3 d 591, 5 98 ( 5 t h Ci r .2 01 2 )( ' d we c on t i nu et oh ol dt ha tpubl i c
of f i ce does notcons t i t ut e pr oper t ywi t hi nt he meani ng oft he Due Pr ocess Cl ausen ) .I n
any event ,M s.Spenc elones was neverr em oved f r om of f i ce. She was suspended and

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I at err ei nst at ed. The cases f i ndi ng a vi ol at i on ofa duepr ocess r i ghtt o engage i na
cal l i ng al ldealwi t hac om pl et e pr ohi bi t i on notsome f or m ofbr i efi nt er r upt i on. &ee

Co nnec t i c utB .Gab ber t ,5 26 U. S. 286, 291 9 2( 1 999 ) .Cy , pr es sl ns .Co.B .C/ ar k ,1 4 4

F. 3 d1 435 ( 11 t hCi r .1 99 8) ,Cl * emo ns B .Doug her t y Cnt y . ,Ga . , 68 4 F. 2d 13 65,1 371 ,
1 37 4( 11 t h Ci r .1 9 82) * , Mi ng + e/ L i uv .Bd. o fT r s. ofUn i v . of AI a. , 33 0 F. App' x775,

780 81( 11 t h Ci r . 20 09) . Ms. Spen c el on esha sn ev erb een d epr i ve do fh era bi l i t yt o
r un f orof f i ce. As she al l eges i n herCom pl ai nt ,even af t erherar r es tand suspensi on,

Ms.Spencelones r an agai nf orof f i ce t or ef i l lherown seatand ' ' w on by a 53%

ma j or i t yi nar a c e wi t h ni ne c an di d at es . ' ' ( Compl . $! 1 3 28 ,3 323 3) .
UnderFl or i da I aw,M s.Spencelones r em ai ned qual i f i ed t o hol d of f i ce dur i ng her t em por ar y suspensi on. Spencelones,118 So.2d at261. She onl y becam e i nel i gi bl e t o ser v e as a Com m i ssi onerbecause oft he c onsecut i ve t er m I i mi tpr ovi si on oft he
d. Herst i gm apl us cl ai mi s due t o be di sm i ssed. Mi am i Ci t y Char t er .I

nt h. Tent h.Thi deent h.and Foudeent h Cl ai m sf orRel i ef :Ci vi lRI CO . 1 . Ni RI CO Conspi r acv.@nd Fl or i d; RI CO

The Pl ai nt i f f ' s cl ai m sf orCi vi lRI CO ,RI CO Conspi r acy,and Fl or i da RI CO seta
hi ghwat erm ar kf orcr eat i ve pl eadi ng devoi d ofsubst ance. Essent i al l y, t he Com pl ai nt

al l eges t hatt he SAO Def endant s,St at e At t or ney Rundl e,M r .Scr uggs,and M r .Fi el der ,

per h ap sj oi n ed byMay orRegal ad o, 8f or med ani l l egal en t er pr i s et h r ou gh a pa t t er no f
ort he pur pose ofr em ovi ng Ms. r ack et eer i ng act i vi t yi nvol vi ng m ai l and w i r ef r aud9f

Sp en c e lon esd ' f r om el ec t ed o f f i c et hr ou gh f r audu l en tme ans , an dk e ep l i ng )h ero f f t h e Commi s s i on a sI ong a sp os s i bl e. ' ' ( Comp l . 1 1 673 ) .I naddi t i on t ot h ei r on yo fa t t emp t i ng

9( l d. , 1 66 976 ) .

8( com pl : 1 665 ) .
.

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t o use l aws wr i t t en t oc om bator gani zed cr i me and r ack et eer i ng agai ns ta pr osecut or ' s
of f i ce,t he Com pl ai ntf ai l st o pl ead a pl ausi bl e cl ai m.

Th e Compl ai n tcl ai ms a v i ol a t i on o f1 8 U. S. C. j1 96 2( c ) , wh i c hr e qui r est ha ta
pl ai nt i f fpr ove t hata def endantpadi ci pat ed i n an i l l egal ent er pr i se ' ' t hr ough a pat t er n of

r ac k e t e er i n ga c t i v i t y. '1 8 U. S. C. j1 96 2( c ) .' ' Rac k e t eer i n ga c t i vi t y ' ' i sd ef i n edt oi n cl ud e pr e di c a t e ac t ssu c ha s mai l an d wi r ef r au d.I d.j 1 961 ( 1 ) .' ' Mai l orwi r ef r au d oc cu r s wh en a per s on ( 1 )i n t en t i on al l yp ar t i c i p at esi nas c h eme t odef r au da no t hero fmon eyor

pr op edyand ( 2 )u s est h e mai l s orwi r e si nf udh er anc eo f t ha ts c he m e. ' 'Pe l l e t i erB .
Zk F &i f e l , 9 21 F. 2 d1 465,1 498 ( 1 1 t hCi r .1 98 9) . 1 0 To pr o v e ap a t t er nofr ac k et eer i n g,a
pl ai nt i f fm ustshow atI eastt wo r acket eer i ng pr edi cat es,t hatar er el at ed,and t hat am ountt o orpose a t hr eatofcont i nued cr i mi nal act i vi t y. H. J.I nc.k ' .New Bel lTel .Co. ,

492 U. S. 229, 2 40, ( 1 989 ) . Th e' ' t h r e ato fc on t i nue dc r i mi n al ac t i v i t y' ' ha sb een c al l ed
t he ' cont i nui t y' 'r equi r em ent .I d. ' d cont i nui t yi s bot h a cl osed and open ended concept ,

r ef er r i ng ei t hert o a cl osed per i od ofr epeat ed conduct ,ort o pastconduc tt hatby i t s

n a t ur e pr o j ec t si n t ot hef u t ur ewi t ha t hr ea to fr epe t i t i on . ' 'I d. ' ' A par t y al l egi ng a RI CO
vi ol at i on m ay dem ons t r at e cont i nui t y overa cl osed per i od by pr ovi ng a ser i es ofr el at ed
pr edi cat es ext endi ng overa subst ant i alper i od oft i m e. 'l d.

Si nce Pl ai nt i f rs cl ai m s ar e based on an al l eged pat t er n ofr acket eer i ng consi st i ng
ofpr edi cat e act s ofm ai l and w i r ef r aud,hersubst ant i ve RI CO al l egat i ons m us tcom pl y notonl yw i t ht he pl ausi bi l i t y cr i t er i ai n Twom bl y and I qbal tbutal so w i t h Feder alRul e of

Ci vi l Pr oc edu r e 9( b ) ' sh ei gh t en ed pl eadi ngs t an dar d whi ch r equi r est h at' ' I i l n al l egi ng

1 0 The m ai l f r aud and wi r ef r aud s t at ut es ar e' d gi ven a si mi l arconst r uct i on and ar e

sub j ec tt ot h es ame s ub s t an t i v e an al ys i s. ' Bel tv .Uni t ed St at es, 8 68 F. 3 d1 208,1 211 ( 11 t h Ci r .1 989 ) .
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f r aud orm i s t ake,a par t y m usts t at e wi t h par t i cul ar i t yt he ci r cumst ances cons t i t ut i ng
f r aud orm i s t ak e. ' 'Am .Dent al Ass' n. v .Ci g na Co r p. , 60 5 F. 3 d1 283,1 291( 11 t h Ci r .

201 0) .' ' Pur su an tt o 9( b) , ' a pl ai n t i f f mus ta l l eg e: ( 1 )t h e pr e ci s es t a t emen t s, d oc umen t s ,
ormi s r ep r es en t at i on s ma de;( 2)t h et i me,p l a c e,an dp er s on r es p on si b l ef ort h e s t a t ement , ' ( 3 )t h ec on t en tan d mann eri nwhi c ht h es t a t emen t smi s l e dt h ep l ai n t i f f ; and

( 4)wh at t h ed ef endan t sg ai n ed b yt h e al l e gedf r au d. ' ' ' I d. ( qu ot i n g Br oo k s7 . Bl ue Cr os s
& Bl ue Shi el d ofFI a. ,l nc. ,11 6F3 d1 3 64,1 38 081 ( 11 t h Ci r .1 99 7) ) .
.

The Com pl ai ntdoes notal l ege t hatt he Def endant s m ade any m i sr epr esent at i on t o M s.Spencelones ort hatshe was i n any way m i sl ed To t he cont r ar y,i n par agr aph
.

667 t he Com pl ai ntl i s t s si x t een act s,none ofwhi ch has anyt hi ng t o do wi t h m aki ng a m at er i al f al se s t at em entw i t ht he i nt entt o decei ve orcheatsom eone outofm oney or pr oper t y. I nst ead,i ti st he r epet i t i ous I i t any off abr i cat i on ofevi dence, f i l i ng a f al se
ar r estaf f i davi t ,t i mi ng t he ar r es t ,causi ng and expedi t i ng t he suspensi on, f i l i ng a f al se i nf or m at i on,r ef usi ng t o di sm i ss t he i ndi c t m ent am i ng M s.Spencelones,et c. , def

Pl ai nt i # seem s t o bel i eve t hat ,becaus e Mr .Fi el derand M r Scr uggs ' ' on i nf or m at i on and
.

bel i ef' al l egedl y used em ai l on an outofst at et r i p,t hei rac t i vi t i es ar e som ehow
t r ansf or med i nt o m ai lorwi r ef r aud. Dur i ng or alar gum ent ,Pl ai nt i f f ' s counselasser t ed t hatt he m at er i alf al se

r epr esent at i ons wer e m ade nott o Ms.Spencelones,butt o Dr . Car eyshul erand M r . Codi na f ort he pur pose ofel i ci t i ng f al se t es t i mony abou tMs Spencelones whi ch coul d
.

t hen be used t o char ge M s.Spenc elones wi t h a cr i me. W het herornotm i sl eadi ng a

wi t ness i s ac t i onabl e,i ti s cer t ai nl y notm ai lorwi r ef r aud.The f eder al m ai l f r aud s t at ut e

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i sI i mi t ed i n scope t ot he pr ot ec t i on ofpr oper t yr i ght s. See Cl evel and v. Uni t ed St at es,

5 31U. S.1 2( 200 6)( ad dr es s i n g' ' pr o per t y ' ' f orp ur po s eso fmai l f r au ds t a t u t e) .
I n addi t i on t of ai l i ng t o al l ege a pr edi cat e ac t , t he Pl ai nt i f fhas f ai l ed t o al l ege a

pat t er n ofi t . RI CO t ar get s or gani zed cr i mi nalac t i vi t y,r at hert han spor adi c, i sol at ed
cr i mi nalact s. Jackson F.Bel l sout h Tel ecom m s. ,372 F. 3d 1 250, 1 2 64 ( 11 t h Ci r . 20 04) .

A pat t er n ofr acket eer i ng act i vi t yr equi r es pr oofbeyond t he t wo pr edi cat e ac t s
t hem sel ves - cont i nut i t y- t hatsom et hi ng i st he t hr eatofcont i nui ng r acket eer i ng act i vi t y. I d.at1265.

The cont i nui t y el em entof a pat t er n ofr acket eer i ng act i vi t yi s cr uci alt oa val i d RI CO cl ai m i n or dert o ensur et hatt he cr i me al l eged i st he sor tof of f ense t hatRI CO i s desi gned t o addr ess . . . one t hati s pad ofa pat t er n ofongoi ng,cont i nui ng cr i mi nal i t y ort hati nvol ves cr i mi nal i t yt hatpr om i ses t o cont i nue i nt ot he f ut ur e.
I d. Thi s case i nvol ves t wo pr osecut i ons ofa si ngl ei ndi vi dualovera per i od ofl ess t han

t wo y ear s .As s umi n gt h a tanypr edi c a t ea c ti s al l e ged ( wh i c hI do n o tb el i e v et o be t h e
c as e) ,b ec au s eo ft h en ar r o ws c ope o ft h e al l eg ed ac t i v i t y an dt h eI i mi t e dt i mef r ame,
t he Pl ai nt i f ff ai l st o meett he cl os edi n cont i nui t yr equi r em entnecessar yt o sust ai na RI CO vi ol at i on. M or eover ,t he Pl ai nt i f ff ai l st o suli ci en t l y al l ege st andi ng and dam ages. The

RI CO s t at u t eI i mi t st h os ewh o maybr i n gc i vi lRI CO a c t i onst od ' I a l n yp er s on i n j ur e di n

bu s i ne s sorpr op er t y. ' '1 8 U. S. C. j1 964( c ) .Th e phr a s e' d i n j ur ed i nb us i n es sor
pr opedy' ' has been i nt er pr et ed bot h as a st andi ng r equi r em entand as an el em entoft he cause ofac t i on. See,e. g. ,Bi vens Gar den Of sce Bl dg. ,I nc.7.8ar nef fBanks ofFI a. ,

I nc . ,1 40 F. 3 d 898, 90 6( 11 t h Ci r .1 9 98 ) ,Gr * oga ne .Pl at t , 83 5 F. 2 d8 4 4( 1 1 t h Ci r .1 988 ) .

Th ec au s at i on c o mp on en tofSe c t i on 1 9 64( c ) , wh et h eran al l e ged RI CO i n j ur ywas
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caused ' s by r eason of ' 'a vi ol at i on oft he st at ut e has al so been consi der ed a com ponent

o fs t an di n g. See Be c kv . Pr u pi s, 5 29 U. S. 494 ( 20 00 ) , . Ev ansv .Ci t y ofCh i c ago, 43 4

F. 3 d 91 6, 92 4( 7t hCi r . 200 6) .
I n Gr ogan, t he El event h Ci r cui ts t at ed t hat' ' t he or di nar y m eani ng oft he phr ase

' i n j u r ed i n hi sbus i n es sorpr opedy ' e x cl u desper s on al i n j ur i es ,i nc l u di n gt h e pec u ni ar y
I osses t her ef r om . ' '835 F. 2d at847. The Coud hel dt hatpl ai nt i f f s cannotr ecoverunder

RI CO f ort hose pecuni ar yl osses,i ncl udi ng wages and l os tear ni ngs,whi ch ar e m os t

pr op er l y un der s t oo da spar tofa p er s on al i n j ur yc l ai m. / d.a t8 48.See a / s o Pi l ki ngt o nv .
Uni t e d Ai r l i nes ,11 2 F. 3d 1 53 2,1 53 6( 11 t h Ci r .1 9 97) , ' Ec hev e r r i ae ,BAC Ho me Loa ns Ser v i c i n g,LP, 523 F. App ' x67 5, 6 77 ( 1 1 t h Ci r . 201 3 ) , ' Ke/ / er? .St r au s s, 48 0 F. Ap p' x 55 2( 11 t h Ci r . 201 2) . The Pl a i n t i f f s ' cl ai ms i nt hi sc as e ar ef orp er s on al i n j ur y- t oh eri n di v i du al
const i t ut i onalr i ght s and t o herper sonalr eput at i on. She ar gues she was wr ongf ul l y ar r est ed,m al i ci ousl y pr osecut ed,and def am ed. Herdam ages ar e nott o her' d busi ness
orpr opedy. ' ' Ms.Spencelones'cl ai mt hathert em por ar y suspensi on f r om of f i ce,

t her eby S ' l osi ng wages, ' 'gi ves hers t andi ng f ora RI CO cl ai m i s m er i t l ess bot hl egal l y and
f act ual l y. As not ed above,El event h Ci r cui tpr ecedentbar sI ostwages anci l l ar yt o a cl ai m

f orp er s on al i n j ur y . Mo r eo v er , s h e wass us p end ed f r om of f i c eb yt h e Go v er n or ,n o tt h e
Def endant s. I ti s notenough t o ar gue she woul d nothave been suspended butf ort he
pr osecut i ons. UnderRI CO ,a pl ai nt i f fm us tshow t hata def endant ' s vi ol at i on i s notonl y

t h e' ' bu t f or ' ' c au s e ofi n j ur y, bu twa s al s ot he pr o x i ma t ec as e. SeeAnz a7 .I d eal St eel
Su p pl y Cor p. , 5 47 U. S. 451 , 457 ( 200 6) , . Ho l me sv .Sec .I nv es t orPr ot .Cor p. , 50 3 U. S.
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258, 26 6( 1 992 ) .d ' Wh en a c our te va l u at esa RI CO cl ai mf orpr o xi mat ec au s a t i o n, t he
c ent r alquest i on i tm us task i s whet hert he al l eged vi ol at i on l ed di r ec t l yt ot he pl ai nt i f f ' s

i n j u r i e s. ' 'An z a,5 47 U. S. a t461. Her et h e an s weri sn o.
And,as a m at t eroff act ,Ms.Spenc elones di d notI ose wages by r eason ofher
suspensi on. As t he s t at e coud ofappeal s poi nt ed outon Augus t24,2011,t he Gover norr es t or ed Com m i ssi onerSpencelones t o of f i ce f ol l owi ng heracqui t t al .' ' She
r ecei ved f ul lback pay and t he em ol um ent s and al l owances f ort he per i od ofher

suspensi on. ' ' Spencelones,118 So.2d at262. Iquest i on whet hert her ei s any basi s
f ort he f act ualcont ent i on ofbusi ness I oss cont ai ned i n par agr aphs 675 and 679 oft he Com pl ai nt . The Pl ai nt i # has al so f ai l ed t o st at e a cl ai mf orRI CO conspi r acy. To suppod a cl ai m ofRI CO conspi r acy,t he Pl ai nt i f fm ustal l ege an i l l egalagr eementt o vi ol at ea

subst ant i ve pr ovi si on oft he RI CO st at ut e. See Jackson,372 F. 3d at1269. Ihave
f ound t hatt he Com pl ai ntf ai l st o al l ege a pr edi cat e act , f ai l st o al l ege an i l l egal
agr eem entt o conductact s ofa suf f i ci ent l y cont i nuous nat ur et o const i t ut e a pat t er n of

r acket eer i ng act i vi t y,and f ai l st o al l ege f act s suf f i ci entt o conf erst andi ng ordam ages. Par agr aph 678' sc oncl usor yI anguage t hateach Def endant' ' knowi ngl y agr eed and
conspi r ed' ' t o vi ol at et he ac tadds not hi ng and t her ef or e,t he RI CO c onspi r acy counti s I i k ewi s e unabl et o sur vi ve t he Def endant s'M ot i ons t o Di sm i ss. Because Fl or i da cour t sI ookt o Feder alRI CO deci si ons i ni nt er pr et i ng and appl yi ng t he Fl or i da RI CO act ,t he anal ysi s appl i ed t ot he Pl ai nt i f rs f eder alRI CO cl ai m

i s, f ort he m ostpar t ,appl i cabl et o herst at e cl ai m .I d.at126364. See al so AI ICar e

Nu r s i ng Ser v i c e,I nc .B .Hi gh T ec h St af f i ng Se r v s. ,/ ? 1 c . ,1 35 F. 3 d 740, 7 45 ( 1 1 t h Ci r .
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1 99 8)( ' ' Fl or i d a' sRI CO s t a t u t esh av ec on si s t en t l yb een i n t er pr e t ed u si ngf ed er al RI CO
c l ai mc a s es. D ) .
Ther e ar et wo di f f er enc es bet ween t he f eder aland st at eI aws t hathave
r el evance her e.

Fi r st ,Fl or i da RI CO l i s t s numer ous Fl or i da cr i mi nals t at ut es as const i t ut i ng
cr i mi nalac t i vi t yf orpur poses oft he ac t . The Pl ai nt i f fci t es t ot wo oft he cr i mi nal st at ut es enum er at ed as pr edi cat e ac t s underFl or i da' s RI CO st at ut e: t am per i ng w i t h a wi t ness

an dc onc eal i n ge vi den c e,i nvi ol a t i onofFl or i da St a t u t esSec t i on s 91 4. 22( 1 ) ( 9 an d
918. 13,r 1 1 The Pl espect i vel y. ai nt i f fass eds t hati n ques t i oni ng Dr .Car eyshul erand

Mr .Codi na,t he Def endant s,appar ent l yt hr ough Mr .Scr uggs,engaged i ni s mi sl eadi ng conduct ' ' wi t ht he i nt entt o cause t hem t ot est i f y unt r ut hf ul l yi n an d ' o#i ci ali nves t i gat i on' '

o r' ' o f f i c i al pr o c eedi ng. ' ' ( Co mp l . I N 707 1 0) .Thet amp er i n g wi t h ph y si c al e vi den c ei s
t he al l eged conceal m entoft he dr af tofDr .Car eyshul er ' s Febr uar y 15t hI et t erwi t h' l t he

p ur po s et oi mpai ri t sv er i t y ora v ai l abi l i t y . ' ' ( I d. 1 1711 ) .
Unl i k e mai l orwi r ef r au d, t h es e al l eg at i onsar en o ts u b j ec tt ot h e par t i c ul ar i z ed pl eadi n gr equ i r emen tofRu l e 9( b ) .
lam unawar e ofany pr ec edentf orappl yi ng t he wi t ness t am per i ng s t at ut et oa pr osecut orquest i oni ng a w i t ness - padi cul ar l y a wi t ness r epr esent ed by counsel . The i dea t hatM r .Scr uggs conceal ed Dr .Car eyshul er ' sI et t erf r om her ,suspect i ng she woul df or geti t s exi st ence,i n or dert oI ur e heri nt o bl am i ng Ms.Spencelones f ort he

di v er s i on o ff un ds i sf an c i f ul . Nei t h ero ft h es ec l ai ms c o ul d sur v i v es ummar yj u dgmen t .

1 1See FL A ST A T. j 77 2. 1 02( 3 3) ,( 3 4) .
.

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However ,f orpur poses oft hese Mot i ons,lwi l l assum e t hatM s.Spencelones has st at ed a cl ai mf ort he exi st ence oft hese pr edi cat e of f enses.

Even assum i ng t hatques t i oni ng Dr .Car eyshul erand M r .Codi na orconc eal i ng t he Car eyshul erdr af tl et t ercoul d cons t i t u t e cr i mi nal vi ol at i ons ofwi t ness t am per i ng or conc eal i ng evi dence f orpur poses ofFl or i da RI CO ,however , t he cl ai m woul d st i l l f ai l f or f ai l ur et o est abl i sh cont i nui t y.These ' ' wr ongs' 'occur r ed bet ween Sept ember2009 and
Januar y 2010,maki ng t he r el evantt i me per i od f ourm ont hs. The not i on t hat quest i oni ng t wo w i t nesses abouta si ngl e def endantovera f ourm ont h per i od coul d const i t ut e a cont i nui ng pat t er n ofcr i mi nal ac t i vi t yf orpur poses ofFl or i da RI CO i s I udi cr ous and wi t houtsubst ant i al f ac torI egalsuppor t1 2
.

Fi nal l y,al t hough,t he El event h Ci r cui thas notdi r ec t l y addr essed t he i ssue of w het herabsol ut e orqual i f i ed i mm uni t y appl i es t o a RI CO cl ai m ,i t s appl i cat i on of i m m uni t y wi t hr espec tt o ot hers t at ut es,and i t s ci t at i on ofcases f r om ot herci r cui t s st r ongl y suggestt hati m m uni t y woul d be f ound t o be avai l abl e. I n Fap/ ey v .Col l i ns,211

F. 3d 1 21 0,1 21 6( 11 t h Ci r . 200 0) , whi l e hol di n gt ha tqual i f i ed i mmuni t ywasav ai l abl e as
a def ense t ot he Feder al Wi r et ap Ac t , t he Cour tst at ed t hat' t t he qual i f i ed i m m uni t y

de f en s ei ss owel l r oo t ed i no ur j ur i s pr u den c et h aton l yas pec i f i ca nd un equi v oc al
st at ementofCongr ess can abol i sh t he def ense. n j d. 1 3

1 2 Thi sr ai s es t he s econd di st i nc t i on bet ween s t at e and f eder alRI CO l aws. Pur suant

t o Fl or i da St a t u t esSec t i on772. 11, t ' I t l h e de f en dan ti s en t i t l ed t or ec o v err eas ona bl e
at t or ney' sf ees and coud cos t si nt he t r i al and appel l at e cour t s upon a f i ndi ng t hatt he cl ai m antr ai s ed a cl ai m wi t houtsubst ant i al f ac torI egalsuppor t .l n awar di ng at t or ney' s f ees and cost s undert hi s Sec t i on, t he c oud shal lnotconsi dert he abi l i t y oft he pady t o pay such f ees and cost s. ' ' The Def endan t s ar e ent i t l ed t or ecovert he f ees and c ost s i ncur r ed i n def endi ng t he Fl or i da RI CO cl ai m s. 1 3 The El event h Ci r cui tappl i ed t he r easoni ng oft he Supr eme Cour ti n Buckl ey, 509

U. S. a t26 8' ' )( ci t at i on s an di n t er n al qu ot a t i on somi t t ed)( ' ' cer t ai ni mmuni t i e s wer es o
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The Cour tr el i ed i n par ton i t s deci si on i n Gonza/ ez v.Lee Housi ng Aut hor i t y,161

F. 3d 1 2 90 ( 11 t h Ci r .1 998 ) , wh er ei tdec i de dt h atqu al i f i ed i mmun i t yappl i e dt ot h e Fai r
Housi ng Ac t . The Cour tst r ess ed t hatwhi l ei twas notdeci di ng t he i ssue w i t hr espec tt o st at ut es ot hert han t he Fai rHousi ng Act ,i tnot ed i t s hol di ng was ' l consi s t entwi t h var i ous
deci si ons i n whi ch t hi s cour tand ot her s have hel dt hatpubl i c ofi ci al s ar e ent i t l ed t o asser tt he def ense ofqual i f i ed i m m uni t y w hen sued undera f eder al st at ut e ot hert han Sec t i on 1983. '/ d.at1300.The Cour tci t ed t o el even f eder alappel l at e cour tdeci si ons

hol di ng t hatqual i f i ed i m m uni t y was avai l abl e as a def ens et o cl ai m s ar i si ng underei ght
f eder al st at ut es. I d.at1300 n. 34. See al so Tapl ey,211 F. 3d at1215 n. 9. Am ong t he

cas es ci t ed i n bot h Gonza/ ez and Fap/ ey i st he Si xt h Ci r cui tdeci si on i n Cul l i nan B.

Abr a ms on,1 28 F. 3d 301, 3 071 2( 6t hCi r .1 99 7) , whi c hh el dt ha tqu al i f i ed i mmuni t yi s

a v ai l abl ef oraf e der al RI CO c l ai m .See al s o Gl i c kv .Gut br o d, 78 2 F. 2 d7 5 4( 7 t h Ci r . 1 985 )( ap pl yi ng ab s ol u t ej udi ci al i mmuni t yt o RI CO cl ai ml ;Cha p pe / / 7 .Robb i ns , 73 F. 3d
91 8( 9 t h Ci r .1 99 6)( I e gi sl at i v ei mmun i t yt o RI CO c l ai ml ;T hi l l e ns ,I nc .B .Cmt y .Cu r r enc y

Exc h. As s' no fI l l i noi s ,I nc . , 729 F. 2 d1 1 28 ( 7 t h Ci r .1 98 4)( I egi sl a t i v ei mmu ni t y l ; Va n
Be ek v . A. G. cr edi t Bonu s Pa r t ne r s, 31 6 F. App ' x55 4, 55 55 6( 9 t h Ci r . 20 08)( a f f i r mi n g di s mi s sal ofRI CO c l ai m ag ai ns t j u dge an d pr o s ec u t oron b as i so fi mmuni t yl ; Pa r r et t eB .

Vi r di n,1 73 F. App' x5 3 4, 53 6( 8 t h Ci r . 200 6)( appl y i n g abs ol u t ei mmuni t ywh er ec i t y at t or n e ywas p er f or mi n g du t i e si n t egr a l t oj u di c i al p r oc es s l . l 4

wel lest abl i shed i n 1871 w hen Sec t i on 1983 w as enac t ed,t hatwe pr esume t hat Congr ess woul d have speci f i cal l y so pr ovi ded had i twi shed t o abol i sh t hem . 1 4 See al so ConnorB. Ci t y ofPh i l a del ph i a, 1 991W L 1 0 298 9( E. D.Pa. Jun e 11 ,1 991 )

( hol di n gt h a tS ' i n en ac t i ng RI CO,Con gr e s s di dn o ti n t en dt oI i mi ta p r o s ecu t or ' si mmuni t y f r om ci v i l sui t . ' ' ) .
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J. Fi f t eent ha Si xt eent h eent h,Ei nht eent h,and Ni net eent h . Sevent Cl ai m sf orRel i ef :St at e Com mon Law Cl ai ms
- -

Fl or i da I aw af f or ds s t at e at t or neys br oad i m m uni t yf r om sui t .The I eadi ng case i s

Of f i c e ofSt at eAt t o r ne y ,Fot g r t hJ ud i c i a lCi r c u i tv . Par r ot i n o, 628 So. 2d 1 0 97 ( Fl a.

1 9 93) .Th er et h e Fl or i d a Su pr e me Cour t c on s i d er ed c l ai msbr ou gh tb ya per s on al
r epr esent at i ve whose decedenthad been ki l l ed by an abusi ve boyf r i end. Pr i ort o her deat h, t he decedenthad ask ed t he st at e at t or ney' s of f i c ef orassi st ance,had r epodedl y
been assur ed t hatst eps woul d be t ak en,butt he of f i ce m i spl aced orm i sf i l ed t he pedi nentdocument s.The cour tr ef used t o di st ur b' ' a wel l f ounded and l ong st andi ng i m m uni t y accor ded t os t at e at t or neys. ' '/ d.at1100. The cour tst at ed t hata s t r i c t

guar ant ee ofi m m uni t y was necessar yt o pr eser ve t he ef f ec t i veness and i m par t i al i t y of
t he of f i ce. I d.at1098. A pr osecut or ' si m m uni t y,sai dt he cour t ,exi st ed apar tf r om

sover ei gn i m m uni t y,had an i ndependentbasi si nI aw and pol i cy,and has notbeen
wai ved. I d.at1099.W hi l e sym pat het i ct ot he ci r cumst ances t hathad I ed t ot he decedent ' s deat h,t he cour tconcl uded t hatany er osi on oft he i m m uni t y' ' w oul d al l ow st at e at t or neys t o be sued i n m any ot herdi spar at e cont ext s,r esul t i ng i n ser i ous

di sr upt i ons oft he of f i ce. ' 'I d.at1100. ' ' Such a sl i pper y sl ope m ustbe avoi ded bot h as a m at t erofI aw and f orr easons ofpubl i c pol i cy. ' 'I d. See al so 8er r y B.St at e,400 So.2d

8 0, 84 ( FI a. 4t h DCA 1 981 )( $ ' FJ he c on du c to fas t a t ea t t or n ey i nt h e ex er ci s e ofhi s
pr osecut or i al dut i es qual i f i es as a di scr et i onar y gover nm entf unct i on t he per f or m ance of

whi ch i sn ota f f ec t e db yt he s t a t u t e wai v i n gs ov er ei gn i mm u ni t y. ' ' l ;Wes t on F .Sf af e, 373
So. 2 d 701, 703 ( Fl a. 1 s tDCA 1 979 )( ' I ti sn ec e s s ar yt ot hej u di c i al pr oc es si nt h e
enf or cem entoft he cr i mi nalI aws oft he s t at et hatt he st at e at t or ney be f r ee f r om any

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a ppr eh en si on t ha the ors h e maysu b j ec tt h es t a t ef orI i a bi l i t yf orac t sp er f or med i nt he
e x er ci s eo ft h e di s c r e t i onar y du t i eso ft h e of f i c e. D l .
As a r esul tofpr osecut or i ali m m uni t y underFl or i da l aw,and absentwai verof

sover ei gn i m m uni t y,t he Fl or i da com m on l aw cl ai m s agai nstt he SAO Def endant s m ust
be di sm i ssed.1 5
V. Concl usi on

Thi s case,br oughtby a di sgr unt l ed cr i mi nal def endant ,I ack s m er i tand vi vi dl y
dem onst r at es t he r easons under l yi ng pr osecut or i ali m m uni t y. Publ i c cor r upt i on i s di f f i cul tt o pr osecut e. Def endant s of t en have a publ i cf ol l ow i ng,and char ges som et i m es have publ i c consequences apad f r om t he i ndi vi dual of f i ce hol der s. Par t i san pol i t i cs can

eng en derc h ar g es o ff av or i t i s m .I ti sof t en n e c es s ar yf oraj u r yt od ec i d e whe t he r
cr onyi sm ,pol i t i csas usual ,and i nf l uenc e peddl i ng hav e cr ossed t he l i ne bet ween unsavor y oret hi cal l y chal l enged behavi orand t hef torbr i ber y. Vi ct i ms ar eI oat ht o st ep f or war d when t hey m ustr egul ar l y seek f avorf r om el ect ed of f i ci al s. The shi f t i ng
t est i m ony and m ot i vat i ons ofwi t nesses i sf r equent l y pr obl em at i c. The deci si on whet herornott o br i ng char ges or ,as happened i nt hi s case,t o

di sm i ss char ges when a case cannotbe pr oven beyond a r easonabl e doubtm ustbe
m ade wi t houtr egar dt o per sonalI egal cons equences.And t he unseem l y conduct

i nvol ved i nt hi s case unquest i onabl y deser ved t he pr osecut or s'at t ent i on. Ator al
ar gum ent ,lasked how an el ect ed of f i ci alcoul d evert hi nk i tappr opr i at et o use ci t y st af f

t o sol i ci tcont r i bu t i ons t o a char i t yi n whi ch she had an i nt er estf r om t hose appear i ng

1 5 Fort he r easons pr evi ousl y st at ed, no pl ausi bl e cl ai mi s ass eded agai ns tM ayor Regal ado wi t hr espectt ot he Fl or i da st at eI aw cl ai mf ori nt ent i onali nf l i ct i on ofemot i onal di st r ess.
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t f r om t he I egalpr i nci pl es t hatgover n di sposi t i on of bef or e heron ci t y busi ness. Apar t hi s case,t he unavoi dabl et r ut hi st hatgi v en herown behavi or ,M s.Spencelones

c an no tr eas on ab l yc l ai mt o ha v e be ent r ea t ed un j u s t l y.
Fort he f or egoi ng r easons,i ti s her eby

ORDERED an d ADJUDGED t ha tt h e Mo t i o ns( DES60, 61, 62, 73, &7 4)a r e
G RANTED. The Am ended Com pl ai nti s DI SM I SSED W I TH PREJUDI CE,and al l
m ot i ons notr esol ved by t hi sO r derar e DENI ED AS M OO T. The Cl er k ofCour tshal l
CLO SE t hi s case.

DO NE and O RDERED i n Cham ber s atW es tPal m Beach,Fl or i da t hi s
Decem ber ,2013.

day of

NALD M .M I DDLEBROO KS UNI TED STATES DI STRI CT JUDGE Copi es t o: Couns el ofRecor d

64

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