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Viscometer Technical

Appendix

Group: Alessa Peterson, Kimberly Croteau, Julian Montoya-Zapata, Mike Hunter Section: W2-805

Date: September 27, 2013

Intro and Theory

Table of Contents

Objective

Table of Responsibilities

Variables and Units

Lab Apparatus

Measurement Devices

Apparatus Diagram

Safety and Operating Procedure

Start Up/ Shut Down

Safety Concerns

Experimental Procedure

Experimental Data

Raw Data Tables

Assumptions

Analysis Methods and Calculated Results

Sources of Error

Quantitative Results

Introduction and Theory:

Objective:

The objective of this experiment was to use the viscometer to calculate the viscosity of fluids of varying densities, at different speeds of the viscometer and see how the fluids react. Different fluids have different relationships between the amount they resist and the force applied to them. Newtonian fluids have a linear relationship between resistance and stress. The viscosity is always fixed. Shear thickening fluids resist more as stress is applied to them, making it more viscous. Shear thinning fluids have the opposite effect, as more stress is applied to them they resist less and become less viscous. Bingham plastics behave as a solid until the shear stress exceeds a certain point and then the fluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid 2 .

Table of Responsibilities:

Table 1: Table of Responsibilities

x

x

Lab Objectives & Theory

x

Experimental Data Collection

  • x x

  • x x

Analysis

  • x x

Results

x

x

Initials:

Responsibilites

Julian Montoya-Zapata

Alessa Peterson

Kimberly Croteau

Michael Hunter

Tables and Figures

  • x x

  • x x
    x

Lab Apparatus

x

Safety and Procedures

x

x

x

x

Experimental Data

x

x

x

Variables and Units:

 

o

o

o

= density (g/mL)

m= mass (g)

V= volume (mL)

Speed=rpm

o

o

f = Its unit of measurement is dynes per square centimeter (dynes/cm 2 ).

s = Its unit of measure is called the reciprocal second (sec- 1 )

Lab Apparatus:

Measurement Devices:

Brookfield DV-II+ Pro

Scale

Beaker

Graduated Cylinder

Apparatus Diagram 1 :

Lab Apparatus: Measurement Devices :  Brookfield DV-II+ Pro  Scale  Beaker  Graduated Cylinder

Figure 1: Controls of Viscometer 1

Lab Apparatus: Measurement Devices :  Brookfield DV-II+ Pro  Scale  Beaker  Graduated Cylinder

Figure 2: Brookfield Viscometer 1

Lab Apparatus: Measurement Devices :  Brookfield DV-II+ Pro  Scale  Beaker  Graduated Cylinder

Figure 3: Spindle set numbered based on numbers assigned by Brookfield 1

Safety and Operating Procedure:

Procedure:

  • 1. For taking the viscosity reading, the liquid of interest is poured into a beaker, then, the spindle is introduced into the fluid, in a tilted way. In this way, pockets of air will not be present under the spindle that would interfere with the accuracy of the measurements.

  • 2. On the bottom of the instrument, a spindle is attached to the viscometer by gently lifting the suspension system in the coupling part with one hand and screwing with the other (figure 2).

  • 3. The viscometer is adjusted to the desired high my moving up and down, using the gearing behind the instrument until the fluid is leveled with the spindle immersion mark.

  • 4. The viscometer is turned on by pressing the first bottom on the top left (Figure 1).

  • 5. To set the speed, we pressed the upper of lower arrow controls to the desired speed, then we pressed the ‘set speed’ bottom (figure 1) .

  • 6. To select the specific spindle used, press the ‘select spindle’ bottom. Then, use the arrows to select the desired spindle. Finally, press the ‘select spindle’ bottom again 1 (figure 1).

Safety:

Standard lab safety precautions used

o

Goggles worn

o

Feet and legs covered

Materials with no risk associated included: Karo Light Corn Syrup and Karo Corn Syrup

Lite 6 . Anti-Freeze requires cautious handling

o

May cause damage if in contact with eyes

o

o

o

Irritant if coming in contact with skin

Harmful when ingested

MSDS available 5

Glycerin has low risk of skin irritation

o

MSDS available 3

Data Sources and Gathering Methods:

Viscosity readings, and speed of spindle obtained from Brookfield DV-II+pro 1

Density obtained through calculations of volume (gradulated cylinder) and weight (scale)

Experimental Data:

Table 1: Viscosity Readings of Karo Corn Syrup

Trial #

Spindle used

Speed (rpm)

% Torque

Viscosity (cP)

1

7

  • 20 4.1

 

8200

2

7

  • 10 2.3

 

9200

3

7

  • 50 9.6

 

7680

4

7

100

19.3

7720

5

6

10

7.5

30000

6

6

20

14.6

29200

7

6

50

36.6

29200

8

6

100

73

32080.5

9

7

10

3.5

14000

10

7

20

8

16000

11

7

50

 
  • 21.6 17360

12

7

100

 
  • 39.5 16080

13

6

10

 
  • 16.5 8250

14

6

20

 
  • 16.5 8350

15

6

50

 
  • 42.4 8480

16

6

100

 
  • 84.4 8450

Table 2: Viscosity Readings of Anti-Freeze

Trial #

Spindle used

Speed (rpm)

% Torque

Viscosity (cP)

1

2

10

0.2

8

2

2

20

0.4

10

3

2

50

2.3

17.6

4

2

100

6.1

24

5

3

10

0

0

6

3

20

0

0

7

3

50

 
  • 4.8 0.6

8

3

100

 
  • 6.8 1.7

Table 3: Viscosity Readings of Glycerin

Trial #

Spindle used

Speed (rpm)

% Torque

Viscosity (cP)

1

5

  • 10 0.8

 

320

2

5

  • 20 2.5

 

500

3

5

  • 50 6.2

 

496

4

5

100

12.7

508

5

3

10

5.1

510

6

3

20

10.1

505

7

3

50

25.2

504

8

3

100

51.1

511

9

4

  • 10 2.1

 

420

10

4

  • 20 4.6

 

460

11

4

  • 50 12.1

 

496

12

4

100

24.8

500

Table 4: Viscosity Readings of Karo Lite Corn Syrup

Trial #

Spindle used

Speed (rpm)

% Torque

Viscosity (cP)

1

6

10

1.8

1800

2

6

20

2.3

1150

3

6

50

5.4

1060

4

6

100

9.4

940

5

5

10

3.2

1280

6

5

20

6.5

1320

7

5

50

13.4

1072

8

5

100

22.9

916

9

7

10

0.3

1600

10

7

20

0.8

1600

11

7

50

1.5

1200

12

7

100

3.6

1440

13

6

10

1

1000

14

6

20

2.7

1350

15

6

50

6.1

1220

16

6

100

10.5

1050

Table 5: Other Fluid Measurements

Liquid

Empty Beaker Mass (g)

Volume Liquid (mL)

Mass of Beaker+Liquid (g)

Karo light corn syrup

25.05

20

51.79

Karo light corn syrup

25.05

34

71.71

Karo lite corn syrup

41.82

40

93.18

Karo lite corn syrup

41.82

68

127.92

Water

41.7

40

81.9

Water

41.7

87

128.83

Antifreeze

25.17

27.5

54.01

Antifreeze

25.17

39

66.44

Glycerine

41.71

35

85.07

Glycerine

41.71

52

106.99

Assumptions:

Room Temperature = 20 o C (293 K)

Density of water at Room Temperature = 998 Kg/m 3

Assumed machine was correctly calibrated

Assumed all fluids tested are incompressible

Analysis Methods and Calculated Results:

Sources of Error:

Human Error

Could have created bubbles under the spindle

Misuse of Equipment/Device not calibrated

Prolonged stirring caused incorrect data, thicker fluids would build up around spindle

Not selecting correct spindle

Using the viscometer incorrectly, never having used the machine before

Quantitative Results:

Table 6: Calculated Density

Liquid

Calculated Density (g/mL)

Karo light corn syrup

1.337

Karo light corn syrup

1.372

Karo lite corn syrup

1.284

Karo lite corn syrup

1.266

Water

1.005

Water

1.001

Antifreeze

1.049

Antifreeze

1.058

Glycerine

1.239

Glycerine

1.255

Karo Light Corn Syrup

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Viscosity (cP) 0 20 100 120 40 80
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
Viscosity (cP)
0 20
100
120
40
80
60

Speed(rpm)

  • Spindle 7

  • Spindle 6

Figure 4: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Karo Light Corn Syrup

Karo lite syrup (33% fewer calories)

1200 60 80 40 100 120 0 20 Viscosity (cP) 1000 0 1400 1600 1800 2000
1200
60
80
40
100
120
0 20
Viscosity (cP)
1000
0
1400
1600
1800
2000
200
400
600
800

Speed (rpm)

  • Spindle 5

  • Spindle 6

  • Spindle 7

Figure 5: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Karo Lite Corn Syrup

Anti-Freeze

20 0 80 40 60 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Viscosity (cP)
20
0
80
40
60
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
Viscosity (cP)

Speed (rpm)

Spindle 2

Spindle 2

Spindle 3

Spindle 3

spindle 3

spindle 3

spindle 4

spindle 4

spindle 5

spindle 5

Figure 6: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Anti Freeze

Glycerine

550 500 450 400 350 300 Viscosity (cP) 100 40 80 60 20 0
550
500
450
400
350
300
Viscosity (cP)
100
40
80
60
20
0

Speed (rpm)

Figure 7: : Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Glycerin

Sources:

  • 1. Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Inc. (n.d.). BROOKFIELD DV-II+ Pro PROGRAMMABLE VISCOMETER. Retrieved from Broofield Engineering: http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/download/files/DV2Pro_Manual.pdf

  • 2. Cengel, ,. Y., & Cimbala, J. M. (2014). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • 3. Fisher Scientific. (n.d.). Material Safety Data Sheet Glycerin. Retrieved from http://personal.stevens.edu/~ebrennan/files/glycerin-msds.pdf

  • 4. BP (n.d.). Material Safety Data Sheet. Retrieved from