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# Date: September 27, 2013

Intro and Theory

  Objective  Table of Responsibilities  Variables and Units Lab Apparatus  Measurement Devices  Apparatus Diagram

Safety and Operating Procedure

  Start Up/ Shut Down  Safety Concerns  Experimental Procedure

Experimental Data

  Raw Data Tables  Assumptions

Analysis Methods and Calculated Results

  Sources of Error  Quantitative Results

Introduction and Theory:

Objective:

The objective of this experiment was to use the viscometer to calculate the viscosity of fluids of varying densities, at different speeds of the viscometer and see how the fluids react. Different fluids have different relationships between the amount they resist and the force applied to them. Newtonian fluids have a linear relationship between resistance and stress. The viscosity is always fixed. Shear thickening fluids resist more as stress is applied to them, making it more viscous. Shear thinning fluids have the opposite effect, as more stress is applied to them they resist less and become less viscous. Bingham plastics behave as a solid until the shear stress exceeds a certain point and then the fluid behaves as a Newtonian fluid 2 .

Table of Responsibilities:

Table 1: Table of Responsibilities

x

x

Lab Objectives & Theory

x

Experimental Data Collection

• x x

• x x

Analysis

• x x

Results

x

x

Initials:

Responsibilites

Julian Montoya-Zapata

Alessa Peterson

Kimberly Croteau

Michael Hunter

Tables and Figures

• x x

• x x
x

Lab Apparatus

x

Safety and Procedures

x

x

x

x

Experimental Data

x

x

x

Variables and Units:

  o o o = density (g/mL) m= mass (g) V= volume (mL)  Speed=rpm  o o f = Its unit of measurement is dynes per square centimeter (dynes/cm 2 ). s = Its unit of measure is called the reciprocal second (sec- 1 )

Lab Apparatus:

Measurement Devices:

  Brookfield DV-II+ Pro  Scale  Beaker  Graduated Cylinder

Apparatus Diagram 1 :

Figure 1: Controls of Viscometer 1

Figure 2: Brookfield Viscometer 1

Figure 3: Spindle set numbered based on numbers assigned by Brookfield 1

Safety and Operating Procedure:

Procedure:

• 1. For taking the viscosity reading, the liquid of interest is poured into a beaker, then, the spindle is introduced into the fluid, in a tilted way. In this way, pockets of air will not be present under the spindle that would interfere with the accuracy of the measurements.

• 2. On the bottom of the instrument, a spindle is attached to the viscometer by gently lifting the suspension system in the coupling part with one hand and screwing with the other (figure 2).

• 3. The viscometer is adjusted to the desired high my moving up and down, using the gearing behind the instrument until the fluid is leveled with the spindle immersion mark.

• 4. The viscometer is turned on by pressing the first bottom on the top left (Figure 1).

• 5. To set the speed, we pressed the upper of lower arrow controls to the desired speed, then we pressed the ‘set speed’ bottom (figure 1) .

• 6. To select the specific spindle used, press the ‘select spindle’ bottom. Then, use the arrows to select the desired spindle. Finally, press the ‘select spindle’ bottom again 1 (figure 1).

Safety:

  Standard lab safety precautions used o Goggles worn o Feet and legs covered  Materials with no risk associated included: Karo Light Corn Syrup and Karo Corn Syrup  Lite 6 . Anti-Freeze requires cautious handling o May cause damage if in contact with eyes o o o Irritant if coming in contact with skin Harmful when ingested MSDS available 5  Glycerin has low risk of skin irritation

o

MSDS available 3

Data Sources and Gathering Methods:

  Viscosity readings, and speed of spindle obtained from Brookfield DV-II+pro 1  Density obtained through calculations of volume (gradulated cylinder) and weight (scale)

Experimental Data:

Table 1: Viscosity Readings of Karo Corn Syrup

 Trial # Spindle used Speed (rpm) % Torque Viscosity (cP) 1 7 20 4.1 8200 2 7 10 2.3 9200 3 7 50 9.6 7680 4 7 100 19.3 7720 5 6 10 7.5 30000 6 6 20 14.6 29200 7 6 50 36.6 29200 8 6 100 73 32080.5 9 7 10 3.5 14000 10 7 20 8 16000 11 7 50 21.6 17360 12 7 100 39.5 16080 13 6 10 16.5 8250 14 6 20 16.5 8350 15 6 50 42.4 8480 16 6 100 84.4 8450

Table 2: Viscosity Readings of Anti-Freeze

 Trial # Spindle used Speed (rpm) % Torque Viscosity (cP) 1 2 10 0.2 8 2 2 20 0.4 10 3 2 50 2.3 17.6 4 2 100 6.1 24 5 3 10 0 0 6 3 20 0 0 7 3 50 4.8 0.6 8 3 100 6.8 1.7

Table 3: Viscosity Readings of Glycerin

 Trial # Spindle used Speed (rpm) % Torque Viscosity (cP) 1 5 10 0.8 320 2 5 20 2.5 500 3 5 50 6.2 496 4 5 100 12.7 508 5 3 10 5.1 510 6 3 20 10.1 505 7 3 50 25.2 504 8 3 100 51.1 511 9 4 10 2.1 420 10 4 20 4.6 460 11 4 50 12.1 496 12 4 100 24.8 500

Table 4: Viscosity Readings of Karo Lite Corn Syrup

 Trial # Spindle used Speed (rpm) % Torque Viscosity (cP) 1 6 10 1.8 1800 2 6 20 2.3 1150 3 6 50 5.4 1060 4 6 100 9.4 940 5 5 10 3.2 1280 6 5 20 6.5 1320 7 5 50 13.4 1072 8 5 100 22.9 916 9 7 10 0.3 1600 10 7 20 0.8 1600 11 7 50 1.5 1200 12 7 100 3.6 1440 13 6 10 1 1000 14 6 20 2.7 1350 15 6 50 6.1 1220 16 6 100 10.5 1050

Table 5: Other Fluid Measurements

 Liquid Empty Beaker Mass (g) Volume Liquid (mL) Mass of Beaker+Liquid (g) Karo light corn syrup 25.05 20 51.79 Karo light corn syrup 25.05 34 71.71 Karo lite corn syrup 41.82 40 93.18 Karo lite corn syrup 41.82 68 127.92 Water 41.7 40 81.9 Water 41.7 87 128.83 Antifreeze 25.17 27.5 54.01 Antifreeze 25.17 39 66.44 Glycerine 41.71 35 85.07 Glycerine 41.71 52 106.99

Assumptions:

  Room Temperature = 20 o C (293 K)  Density of water at Room Temperature = 998 Kg/m 3  Assumed machine was correctly calibrated  Assumed all fluids tested are incompressible

Analysis Methods and Calculated Results:

Sources of Error:

  Human Error  Could have created bubbles under the spindle  Misuse of Equipment/Device not calibrated
  Prolonged stirring caused incorrect data, thicker fluids would build up around spindle  Not selecting correct spindle  Using the viscometer incorrectly, never having used the machine before

Quantitative Results:

Table 6: Calculated Density

 Liquid Calculated Density (g/mL) Karo light corn syrup 1.337 Karo light corn syrup 1.372 Karo lite corn syrup 1.284 Karo lite corn syrup 1.266 Water 1.005 Water 1.001 Antifreeze 1.049 Antifreeze 1.058 Glycerine 1.239 Glycerine 1.255

## Karo Light Corn Syrup

35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
Viscosity (cP)
0 20
100
120
40
80
60

Speed(rpm)

• Spindle 7

• Spindle 6

Figure 4: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Karo Light Corn Syrup

## Karo lite syrup (33% fewer calories)

1200
60
80
40
100
120
0 20
Viscosity (cP)
1000
0
1400
1600
1800
2000
200
400
600
800

Speed (rpm)

• Spindle 5

• Spindle 6

• Spindle 7

Figure 5: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Karo Lite Corn Syrup

## Anti-Freeze

20
0
80
40
60
100
0
5
10
15
20
25
Viscosity (cP)

Speed (rpm)

 Spindle 2 Spindle 3 spindle 3 spindle 4 spindle 5

Figure 6: Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Anti Freeze

## Glycerine

550
500
450
400
350
300
Viscosity (cP)
100
40
80
60
20
0

Speed (rpm)

Figure 7: : Spindle Speed to Viscosity Reading of Glycerin

Sources: