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H A N D B O O K
© 2003 by CRC Press LLC
Baukal. PUBLISHED TITLES Computational Fluid Dynamics in Industrial Combustion Charles E. The John Zink Combustion Handbook Charles E. Jr. Jr. Baukal. The Industrial Combustion Handbook Charles E. Gershtein. Baukal. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion Charles E. Jr. Vladimir Y. and Xianming Li Heat Transfer in Industrial Combustion Charles E.. Baukal.INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION SERIES Edited by Charles E. Jr. Jr. Baukal. Jr. Baukal.
© 2003 by CRC Press LLC . CRC PR E S S Boca Raton London New York Washington.Industrial Burners H A N D B O O K E DI TE D BY Charles E. Baukal. D.C. Jr.
For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC.. provided that $1. 2000 N. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information. Reprinted material is quoted with permission.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Industrial burners handbook / edited by Charles E. manuals. for creating new works. 2. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC. 222 Rosewood Drive. without intent to infringe.S. Boca Raton. The fee is subject to change without notice.402¢3—dc21 2003051466 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Florida 33431. etc. or by any information storage or retrieval system.crcpress. Corporate Blvd. Jr. including photocopying. SpeciÞc permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use. MA 01923 USA.5. Combustion engineering—Handbook. or for resale. ISBN 0-8493-1386-4 (alk.I517 2003 621. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. Danvers. p. Baukal. Baukal. Heating—Equipment and supplies—Handbooks. and sources are indicated. Charles E. TJ254.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright clearance Center. manuals.50. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-1386-4/04/$0.com © 2004 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U. Includes bibliographical references and index. a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution. All rights reserved. for promotion. etc. microÞlming. I. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. paper) 1. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. and are used only for identiÞcation and explanation. A wide variety of references are listed. electronic or mechanical. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1386-4 Library of Congress Card Number 2003051466 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . without prior permission in writing from the publisher.00+$1. Visit the CRC Press Web site at www. and recording. may be granted by CRC Press LLC.W. cm. or the personal or internal use of speciÞc clients.
This includes burner designers. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . Because the vast majority of industrial applications use gaseous fuels. the design of most industrial burners continues to change and improve to reduce pollutant emissions. but speciÞcally focuses on natural gas applications. ßuid ßow. There are also generous discussions of many common industrial applications to help the reader better understand the requirements for different burner designs. IHEA. This book should be of interest to anyone working in or with the Þeld of industrial combustion. 1986. burner controls. minerals. hydrocarbon/ petrochemical. published by North American Manufacturing Co. 2. which is the predominant type used in industry. burner testing. This book concerns atmospheric-pressure combustion. industrial burner manufacturers. The book covers a wide range of burner designs used in a broad array of applications in the metals. 1994). As with any book of this type. natural-draft burners. edited by J. It includes Þve chapters on the topics of burner heat transfer. including burners. that is the focus of this book. As with any book of this type. The authors represent a number of prominent burner suppliers and have hundreds of years of combined experience with industrial burners. Particularly because of the increasing emphasis on the environment. combustion.). boiler burners for multi-burner applications. and power generation industries. It has two detailed and generously illustrated chapters on burners. end users. and funding agencies. but the coverage is fairly extensive and comprehensive. with limited discussion of liquid fuels and no discussion of solid fuels. incineration. These chapters are written from the narrow scope of how they apply to burners. there are some topics that are not covered and some that are not treated extensively. duct burners. There are very few books that consider burners used in industrial applications. The Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA) is comprised of most of the U. Section II concerns burner fundamentals. burner noise. it does not go into much detail on burners.K. boiler burners for single-burner applications. Conforth. air-oxy/fuel burners. Vol. Combustion textbooks contain little if anything on practical combustion equipment such as burners. E&FN Spon. which contains several brief chapters on industrial burners. the principles considered here are expected to be applicable well into the foreseeable future. Section III deals with 11 speciÞc burner designs. furnace designers.) has been the industry standard since the 1950s and discusses many aspects of practical combustion systems. particularly those intended for narrow and limited applications. 1997. there are sure to be author preferences and biases. However. There are several books that consider industrial burners in differing levels of detail. There are some burner designs that are not considered. government regulators. and oxy/fuel burners. The book is organized in three sections. and sponsored by British Gas in the U. 1. including chapters on high-velocity burners. radiant wall burners. and burner physical modeling. It includes Þve general chapters on heat transfer. The North American Combustion Handbook (two volumes: Vol. 3rd edition. thermal radiation burners.Preface This book focuses speciÞcally on industrial burners. radiant tube burners. regenerative burners. researchers.R. but considers industrial burners. It can also serve as a reference work for those teaching and studying combustion.S. Section I deals with the basics of combustion in industrial applications. nor does it cover the range of burner types that are considered here. is entitled Combustion Engineering and Gas Utilization (3rd edition. and computer modeling. The IHEA publishes a book entitled Combustion Technology Manual (5th edition. 1992. While industrial burner design and development is a dynamic area of continuing research. Another book that is longer in print. 3rd edition.
a certiÞed Diplomate Environmental Engineer (DEE). OK). the author of the book Heat Transfer in Industrial Combustion.About the Editor Charles E.B. the American Society of Safety Engineers. and The John Zink Combustion Handbook. He is the editor of the books Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion. He has more than 20 years of experience in the Þelds of industrial combustion. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in the state of Pennsylvania. and the general editor of the Industrial Combustion series. the John Zink Institute. is the Director of the R&D Test Center. (Allentown. Inc. and waste incineration industries. TX).A. and a QualiÞed Environmental Professional (QEP). and heat transfer and has authored more than 70 publications in those areas. PA) in the areas of oxygen-enhanced combustion and rapid gas quenching in the ferrous and nonferrous metals. PA) in the metals industry. LLC (Tulsa. patents.S.. and several honor societies. and power generation industries. the Combustion Institute. Ph. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . the Air and Waste Management Association. and textile industries and Selas Corp. and M. (Pennsauken. printing... P. a B. and is working on an M. and is a member of several Who’s Who compilations. FL). an M. He previously worked for 13 years at Air Products and Chemicals. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Industrial Combustion.E. petrochemical. pollution.S. is an expert witness in the Þeld of combustion. all with CRC Press (Boca Raton.D. He has also worked for Marsden. (Dresher. NJ) in the paper. He has a Ph. in Biblical Studies from Dallas Theological Studies (Dallas.A. and Burner and Flare R&D for the John Zink Co. Jr. Baukal. OK) which is a leading supplier of industrial combustion equipment in the chemical.S..D. in mechanical engineering from Drexel University (Philadelphia). He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. from the University of Tulsa (Tulsa. Inc. He has been an adjunct instructor at several colleges. minerals. has nine U. in mechanical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia). both in the area of industrial combustion equipment.
friends. and for his vocation as a mechanical engineer. he is thankful to his Lord and Savior. Garbanenko. he expresses deepest gratitude to his wife. Pomerantsev. Caitlyn. and his children. He would also like to thank the good Lord above.. He expresses his thanks to Dr. They have made life worth living! Rémi Tsiava thanks Olivier Charon. Joe Colannino dedicates his work to Jesus the Christ.B. Koznetsov.V. and A. support. F. N. for every good gift. Nathanael J.V. Also thanks to Bernard Zamuner and Bertrand Leroux for data collection. Tom Eldredge would like to express thanks to his wife Nancy. Jesus Christ. and associates for the part they have had in shaping his life. his former manager who was the Þrst contact for this work. Lev Tsirulnikov would like to dedicate his work to the memory of his teachers in low-NOx combustion and boiler Þelds — J. and encouragement. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC .º I owe to my angel mother. and their three children. Special thanks to Bernard Labegorre who is the major pusher to perform this work. Lastly.Acknowledgments Chuck Baukal would like to thank his wife Beth and his daughters Christine. without whom this would not have been possible. and Jamie D. Timothy Webster would like to thank his wife Sharon for all her love. and Courtney for their patience and help during the writing of this book. Zeldovich.D. and to the publisher for supporting this effort. Chuck Baukal for his encouragement and example in taking time to contribute to the scientiÞc literature. his wife Judy. V. Additionally. Abraham Lincoln once said “Everything I am. Eileen. Christian. who always encourages him to be the best he can be.” Joseph Smith would like to gratefully acknowledge his family.
He has received numerous awards for innovative control system designs throughout his career. and is involved in both computational and physical ßuid ßow modeling of burners and boiler components. He has worked on optimizing combustion on coal and natural gas Þred boilers over the past 9 years. LLC (Tulsa. He is well experienced in computational ßuids modeling as well as physical ßuids modeling. Ph.D. He has a B. LLC (Tulsa.Contributors Bruce B. where he has worked with combustion controls for 30 years in an engineering and sales/marketing capacity. He has a Ph. He previously worked for more than 5 years at the Lehigh University Energy Research Center. and combustion-generated emissions.E.D.. Wes Bussman.S.D. at the John Zink Company. Honors include Kappa Mu Epsilon Mathematical Society and Sigma Xi Research Society. He holds a Ph. in mechanical engineering from the University of Tennessee.D. Combustion Science and Technology. is the Director of Engineering and Design at the John Zink Company. Abe is a Combustion and Process Control Specialist at The North American Manufacturing Company. OH. His areas of expertise are ßuid dynamics. For many years he has conducted company training classes for control engineers and technicians. is the Acoustics Engineer of John Zink Company. Michael G. He has taught undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering at the University of Tulsa. Ltd. He is a frequent lecturer on combustion controls at North American Combustion and Controls Seminars and at the Industrial Heating Equipment Association’s annual Safety Standards Seminar for Industrial Furnaces and Ovens.. Claxton is a Senior Principal Engineer in the Burner Process Engineering Group of the John Zink Company. Cleveland. and The National Aviation and Space Exploration Wall of Honor.. Ph.. Who’s Who in Science and Engineering. He has more than 10 years of experience as a research and product development engineer for the company. LLC (Tulsa. He has co-authored a number papers and presentations covering combustion. P. He holds Þve U. He is listed in Who’s Who in Science and Engineering and Who’s Who in California. OK). in the Þeld of industrial burners and combustion equipment since 1974. He has a number of publications related to modeling of power plant components. Joe Gifford is a Senior Engineer. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Tulsa and has worked for the John Zink Co. He worked on a project team as a primary developer of software for combustion optimization of coal-Þred boilers. OK).S. LLC (Tulsa. currently works as a combustion and modeling engineer at the John Zink Company. Joseph is a member of the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the American Statistical Association (ASA).D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Tulsa. OK). OK) and a chemical engineer. Mahmoud FleiÞl. He is a member of the ASME and AIAA. and noise control. in physics.S. power plant emissions reductions. including the General Electric Nuclear Energy Division’s Outstanding Engineering Award. in mechanical engineering from a co-supervisory program between Ain Shams University and MIT. Instrumentation and Control Systems. He is listed in Who’s Who in America. Technical society memberships have included the PaciÞc Association of General © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . and has a Ph. and performance improvements. LLC (Tulsa. and Combustion and Flame journals. and is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. patents. and has authored several publications. Ph. He has worked in the Þeld of control and facilities design for 40 years and has a B. He has more than 20 publications on Active Control of Combustion Instability in IEEE. Joseph Colannino. Tom Eldredge. and is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and The Combustion Institute.D. combustion instability. He has more than 15 years of experience in the combustion arts and over 20 publications to his credit. OK).. is a Senior Development Engineer at the John Zink Company. Lexington Who’s Who. combustion equipment.
S. and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).Electric Scientists and Engineers (PAGESE).S. He gained experience in NOx reduction techniques.D. and other industries for 27 years. OH. During his time at Gaswaerme Institut. OH. he added the role of R&D Engineer to his portfolio. Clive Lucas is a product manager at The North American Manufacturing Company.. OK). the Instrument Society of America (ISA). is an account manager at the John Zink Company LLC (Tulsa. Russ Lang is a project manager at The North American Manufacturing Company. He has a Master’s degree in mechanical engineering from Oklahoma State University. R. Hisashi (Sho) Kobayashi. is a controls engineer at John Zink Company (Tulsa. petrochemicals. Michael Lorra. Ph. for 9 years. Ltd.S. He graduated from the University of Tulsa in 1992 and holds a B. John received both a bachelor’s and master’s degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Connecticut. in mechanical engineering from Cleveland State University and has worked for North American in the Þeld of industrial burners and combustion systems since 1994... degrees in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and other NOx reduction techniques for boilers. patents and over 50 technical papers. and engineering. P. in mechanical engineering from Texas Tech University. Jeff Lewallen.-Ing. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). (Danbury. and power for 17 years. He has a B.E. OK). Jaiwant D. At North American since 1978. In 1998. power plant. with regenerative burner systems as a specialty. he assumed the responsibility of heading up TODD’s physical modeling effort. petrochemical.. Cleveland. LLC as a CFD engineer in 1999 after Þnishing his Ph. In 1995. is a Corporate Fellow at Praxair. plant operations. ultralow emission burners.) at Ruhr-Universitaet (Bochum. He has developed oxygen combustion systems and processes for glass. Germany). while generating new opportunities for business and product development. and has authored or co-authored more than 40 U. focusing on streamlining the modeling process. steel. a well-known and established research facility. physical modeling. Cleveland. Guarco is the Combustion Specialist for the TODD Combustion Group of John Zink Company. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Tokyo and M.E. Zachary Kodesh. Before joining CD adapco. He joined John Zink in September of 1993 as a utility project engineer. Ltd. OK). He has authored several technical articles and papers. He has an associate’s degree in mechanical technology from Cuyahoga Community College.D. John has authored papers on several combustion topics. in mechanical engineering.S. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . Robert Hayes is a combustion engineer at the John Zink Company LLC (Tulsa. with responsibilities in R&D. OK). P. he developed his own CFD code for the calculation of turbulent reacting ßows including chemistry with the laminar ßamelet-libraries. John P. Inc. CT).. Hixson worked as a CFD engineer for the John Zink Company (Tulsa. Ph. He is the author or co-author of more than ten publications in the Þelds of combustion and heat transfer and two patents pending. Jay has an M. He holds a Master’s degree in mechanical engineering from Brigham Young University and has worked in the Þelds of combustion and thermal sciences for 7 years. Germany). Þeld results of gas-coal co-Þring. started working for John Zink Co. He is co-holder of several combustionrelated patents. as well as an MBA from the University of New Haven. a wholly owned subsidiary of adapco.. aluminum. especially reburning technology. He has more than 12 years of experience as a process design and controls engineer. he has worked in project and systems engineering and management. and Ph. He is also one of the contributing authors of The John Zink Combustion Handbook. (Dr. OK). Hixson joined the CD adapco group in January 2003 as an engineer of CDa-acces. He has worked in the Þelds of combustion. including Þeld results of low-NOx combustion in several utility boilers. He worked at Gaswaerme-Institut (Essen.D. Parts of his research have been presented at international conferences and are published in Gaswaerme-International.S. He has a B.S. and has several patents pending. Jayakaran (Jay Karan) is a director in the Technology & Commercial Development Group at the John Zink Company LLC (Tulsa.D. He has worked in the Þeld of combustion for 11 years. Eric M.
. and several others. He has also served as national chair of the Student Chapters Committee. He currently serves as an adjunct professor and teaches at Oklahoma State University and the University of Tulsa. waste incineration. Before joining CD adapco. Thomas M.S. in 1976 to manufacture and market worldwide the unique Marsden Infrared equipment. in the U. He formed Marsden. He has co-authored papers and taught classes in applied combustion technology at North American Manufacturing and the Center for Professional Advancement. and the University of Illinois–Urbana/Champaign. Ltd. He has a B. where he has worked in all major industrial areas of the world.S. Formerly the managing director of Hotwork Development Ltd. the University of Michigan. OH. He has co-authored papers and presentations for the Industrial Heating Equipment Association and is coholder of several combustion-related patents. Cleveland. He studied mechanical/industrial engineering at the Drexel Institute of Technology (Philadelphia. In 1976. Smith joined the CD adapco group in January 2003 as president of CDa-acces. and applications. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC .. He received B. and HRB Singer as an industrial engineer and senior industrial engineer over a 10-year period before joining a manufacturers representative Þrm as a sales engineer. His career spans over 35 years in the industrial combustion Þeld.D. zero-pollution gas thermal radiation emitters.S. He is an active member of AIChE and has served as chair of both the Tulsa and Mid-Michigan Sections of AIChE.. M. He worked at TRW. as the premier tool to help solve problems with turbulent reacting ßow systems unique to the hydrocarbon and chemical process industries. in England.S.S.S. OH. NJ). He is a graduate of Case Western Reserve University and has a B. He is also a member of Sigma-Xi and Tau Beta Pi. Joseph’s expertise includes CFD. all with a special emphasis on reaction engineering. Destec Energy Systems. for over 18 years. OH. adapco’s CFDbased engineering software. Cleveland. Mr. and Ph. Smith is the President and CEO of Marsden. Quinn is manager of market development at The North American Manufacturing Company.with speciÞc responsibility for the company’s direct-Þred regenerative burner line. fumed metal-oxides production. systems. in ßuid and thermal science. He is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. a leading manufacturer of highefÞciency. in mechanical engineering technology from Cleveland State University and has worked for North American on burner product design and development since 1983. Dennis E.. Inc.. For over 20 years he has worked in various development. until 1986 when he joined North American.. Tom Robertson is manager of research and development at The North American Manufacturing Company. in mechanical engineering and combustion application. He has taught at Tennessee Technological University. Joseph has also consulted for The Dow Chemical Company.S. He holds six patents. PA) and business management at Rutgers University (Camden. pulverized-coal combustion/gasiÞcation. He is co-holder of a patent for a diaphragm-actuated cycle valve. a wholly owned subsidiary of adapco. worked in the Þeld of fundamental and applied combustion.. Joseph D. Cleveland. and gas ßaring. Ltd. John Newby is Vice President for The North American Manufacturing Company. OH. Todd A. and is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. and design capacities with lead responsibilities for custom burner designs and their applications. He has authored and co-authored numerous papers and presentations on combustion equipment. Cleveland. he applied for the Þrst of over 50 granted U. He Þrst became a business owner when he purchased the manufacturers’ representative Þrm in 1972. and an M. Miller is a research and design engineer at The North American Manufacturing Company.S. and is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. he operated reGen Systems Inc. where he has. Southern Company Services. Inc. and foreign Letters Patent on various embodiments of gas thermal radiation emitters. and has authored more than 30 published articles and more than 40 conference papers. Smith has taught national TAPPI courses and has had articles published in various technical journals and magazines. Joseph worked as director of ßare technology and computational ßuid dynamics for the John Zink Company. He is a graduate of Cleveland State University’s Fenn College of Engineering and has a B. Philco-Ford. degrees in chemical engineering from Brigham Young University.A. CDa-acces’ main goal is to establish StarCD. Ltd. engineering. Ltd.
John Zink Company. Venizelos has conducted basic scientiÞc research work. in chemical engineering from the University of Oklahoma and a B. and has published papers on the use of oxy/fuel combustion in the glass and metals industries. and presentations. Waibel has been the Chairman of the American Flame Research Committee since 1995. is an engineer at Air Liquide (France) in the R&D Combustion Division and is responsible for burner conception. OK).S. and laser and optical combustion diagnostics. has been actively involved in the combustion Þeld for the last sixteen years. including four books.Stephen L.D. and other equipment for gas/oil Þred utility and industrial boilers. with the past 15 years in the application and design of duct burners for HRSG supplementary Þring. OK). Somers is a senior process engineer at the John Zink Company. and development. in chemical engineering from the University of Tulsa. He has expertise in combustion and industrial processes. He holds a B. Richard T. He received his Ph. design.S. LLC and Zeeco. Lev Tsirulnikov.D. He works in the Þeld of burner design and development and has a doctorate in fuel science from the Pennsylvania State University. He has published over 70 technical papers.. He has experience in premixed and lean-premixed combustion. Ph. He has a Ph. is a senior research engineer for the John Zink Company. LLC.D. He has an M.. He previously worked as an engineer in the Burner Division of the Stein Heurtey Company.D. CT). technical articles. France). © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . Demetris Venizelos. in mechanical engineering from Louisiana State University. Dr. Ph. He has worked in the Þeld of industrial combustion for 10 years and is a licensed professional mechanical engineer in California. Waibel. LLC (Tulsa. including working for two burner companies. He has developed low-emission combustion technologies.. lowNOx burners. industrial technology research and development. Rémi Tsiava. LLC (Tulsa. He has authored several peer-reviewed technical papers. publications. industrial combustion systems. Ph.D. Dr. He holds 49 patents in the combustion/boiler Þeld. Timothy Webster is the director of power systems at the John Zink Company. Inc..S. LLC/Todd Combustion Group (Shelton. government technical reports.D. Ph. from Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse. is a Senior Principal Engineer in the Burner Process Engineering Group at the John Zink Company. and patent applications. as well as numerical modeling. degree in mechanical engineering from San Jose State University and a Master of Engineering degree from the University of Wisconsin. He has authored more than 20 publications on combustion and emissions reduction. and combustion design engineering. He has over 30 years of experience in combustion and process design. He is also a contributing author to The John Zink Combustion Handbook. and has published more than 100 technical papers.
D. P. Eric M. Baukal..E. Ph.. Demetris Venizelos. Jr. Chapter 5 CFD in Burner Development Joseph D. Jr. Robert Hayes Chapter 4 Combustion Basics Joseph Colannino. Ph. and Charles E.D.. © 2003 by CRC Press LLC . Baukal.Table of Contents Section I Industrial Combustion Basics Chapter 1 Introduction Charles E. Ph. Jay Karan. and R. P..E.. Ph.E. Chapter 2 Heat Transfer Charles E. Baukal.E. P. Michael Lorra. Chapter 9 Burner Testing Jeffrey Lewallen.D. P.E.D. Ph.D.. Ph. Jr.. and Wes Bussman. Ph... Smith.D. Ph. Chapter 7 Burner Noise Mahmoud FleiÞl. P.D. Ph. Baukal. Jr. Section II Burner Fundamentals Chapter 6 Heat Transfer from Burners Charles E.. Ph. and Tom Eldredge. Hixson.. Chapter 3 Fluid Flow Wes Bussman. P. Chapter 8 Combustion Controls Joe Gifford and Zachary Kodesh..E.E.D. P.D.D.
© 2003 by CRC Press LLC ... Chapter 21 Oxy-Fuel Burners Hisashi Kobayashi.E. Jr. Guarco and Tom Eldredge. Jr. Ph.D. Ph. Smith and Charles E. Ph. Ph. P..D. Ph.. Baukal.. Ph. P.D. Section III Burner Designs Chapter 11 High-Velocity Burners Tom Robertson.D.. and Timothy Webster Chapter 19 Duct Burners Stephen L. Chapter 14 Radiant Tube Burners Dennis E.E. and Timothy Webster Chapter 18 Multi-Burner Boiler Applications Lev Tsirulnikov. Robert Hayes. Abe. Ph. Bruce B.D. R. Clive Lucas. Miller. Jr. Quinn and John Newby Chapter 15 Radiant Wall Burners Demetris Venizelos.D. Baukal. Chapter 16 Natural-Draft Burners Charles E. and Rémi Tsiava. and John Newby Chapter 13 Thermal Radiation Burners Thomas M.E. and Wes Bussman. Baukal.D. John Guarco. Somers Chapter 20 Air-Oxy/Fuel Burners Charles E. Ph. and John Newby Chapter12 Regenerative Burners Russ Lang. Todd A..D..Chapter 10 Burner Physical Modeling John P. Chapter 17 Burners for Industrial Boilers Lev Tsirulnikov. Ph.D. Ph.D. John Guarco. P..
Section IV Appendices Appendix A Common Conversions Appendix B Design Data Appendix C Material Properties © 2003 by CRC Press LLC .
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