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II. URINE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES A. Physical Properties – a group of extremely simple and useful observations 1. Importance a. b. Gives clues to subsequent findings Abnormal physical properties can dictate the need for additional tests not always included in routine UA
Volume - not usually recorded except for timed (24hr) quantitave tests. Volume depends on the body's state of dehydration. Influenced by fluid intake, loss by non renal sources (sweat, fever, vom iting, diarrhea), ADH secretion, increased need to secrete large amounts of glucose or salts.
Normal = 600-1600 ml/24 h our (produce 2 -3 tim es m ore during d ay th an nigh t) Polyuria – constant elimination of abnormally large amounts of urine
Diuresis – an y increa se in vo lume, eve n if tempora ry Oliguria – decrease in volume
Anuria – absence of urine formation
Nocturia – excretion of urine at night
g. Q NS - quantity not sufficient.
Color a. b. c. Varies with concentration Listed as: straw, light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and amber Ca use d by a m ixture of the following pigments 1) 2) Uro chrom e – yellow p igment (predominan t) Uroerythrin – red pigment
MLAB 1211 û1
Odor . Transparency a. No rmal – aro matic MLAB 1211 û2 . b.Urinalysis 3) d. ofte n asso ciated with hepatitis 4.possible bile or bilirubin. Clear – normal Cla ssifications: clear. very cloudy. c. Urobilin – orange-red pigment Abnorm al urine colors 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Ve ry pale Brow n – bile or b ilirubin Oran ge-red – increa sed urob ilin Cle ar red – hem oglobin or myoglobin Clo udy red – intact red cells Port wine – porphyrins Cola – m yoglobin and o thers Black – melanin and hom ogentisic a cid Bizarre – i.not normally reported out a. turbid Causes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mucin Amorphous crystalline material Pu s and bacteria Ce lls Other substances 5.e. hazy. g ree ns.. cloudy. blues can be due to drug s and chem icals Am ber . slightly hazy.
gr. gr. is a ratio and has no un its) Addition of solutes (electrolytes.1. etc. Amm onia – from bacterial breakdown of urea Others – sweet.001-1.015 . 3) 4) b. fruity.020 Kidneys are capable of 1. White foam – possible prote in Ye llow foam – m ay be due to bile/bilirubin 7.030 Isosthenuria . a. b. Definition: Relation of the weight of a solution to the weight of an equal volum e of w ater at a given tem pera ture 1) 2) A measure of the density of a solution Describes the weight of a solution as compared to the weight of an equal volum e of distilled w ater at the same tempera ture Water is used as the point of reference and is assigned the value of 1.not reported out a. gr. urea.) incre ase sp.000 (sp. c. mousy.m easure o f the kidney's ability to reabsorb water and che micals.010 c.025 First morning specimens – greater than 1. Clinical significance 1) Osm otic pressure – Sp. Normal value 1) 2) 3) 4) Overall – 1. etc. 6. map le syrup.Urinalysis b. Sp ecific Gravity (Concentration of D isso lved S olutes) .specific gravity is fixed at 1. Foam . is a means o f assessing kidne ys ability to regu late osmo tic pressure Kidney function State of hydration 2) 3) MLAB 1211 û3 .
003 higher than it is supposed to read. low specific gravity urine. increased amounts of glucose and prote in The following is a summ ary of the information concerning these calculations (1) Tem perature – most urinom eters are ca librated at 20°C (a) For every 3°C below the calibration temperature.001 to the reading c) d) e) (2) Protein – Every gram of protein will cause the urinom eter to read 0. vasopressin). Patien ts excrete very large volumes of dilute.Urinalysis 4) Oliguria severe dehydration acute rena l failure 5) Diabetes insipidus (not to be confused w ith diabetes m ellitus) Deficiency of ADH (antidiure tic hormone.rarely used a) b) Also called a hydrometer A floating device with a m ercury we ight in its bottom and an air bulb with a graduate stem a bove The float displaces a certain weight and the level to wh ich it sinks is a m easure of spe cific gra vity The pro blem with rou tinely using the urinometer for sp ecific gravity is that (in addition to the volume of urine it requires) it may require corrective calculations for temperature. you must subtract 0. Therefore. d.001 from the reading (b) For every 3°C above the calibration temperature.003 amount for each gm /dl of pro tein dem onstrated by the dipstick MLAB 1211 û4 . you must subtract the 0. you add 0. Measurement 1) Urinometer .
004) from the original rea ding to obtain a corrected specific gravity result 2) Refractom eter (total solids o r TS me ter) a) Measures den sity of solutions by their refractive index . Depends on the concentration of dissolved substance s. less interference 3) Osmometer a) Not routinely used b) c) Measurement is a function of the number of dissolved particles Two types (1) Vapor pressure depression (2) Freezing point depression . So aga in. b) Advantages .compares the velocity of light in air vs velocity of light in solution.Urinalysis (3) Glucose – Each gram of glucose causes the urinometer to read 0.004 higher than it is supposed to read.300 mO sm/kg Normal for urine = no set normals. you must subtract the amount (0.most common d) Values are reported in milliosmo les/kg Norm al for serum = 275 .small volume need ed. The polyelectrolytes in the reagent area con tain acid groups which dissociate according to the ionic concentration of the specimen. MLAB 1211 û5 . Bromthymol blue measures the pH change. The ratio of serum to urine is more important and sho uld b e 1:1 4) Urine dipstix with spe cific gravity – Mo st comm on m ethod used today.