# An Easy Introduction to

FACT OR FICTION? PRIMARY DIRECTIONS
Gauricus and the death of Henry II of France
By Deborah Houlding By Deborah Houlding
2009 Update:
In 2005, before we had Martin Gansten’s new book on Primary Directions, I circulated this tutorial to my students as an introduction to what primary directions are, and how they can be calculated using a system tool built into a computer running Windows. I am not an expert on the subject of primary directions myself and struggle along with the mathematics, getting very nervous around words like tan, sin and cosine. It was as much for my benefit as anyone else’s that I created a visual, step-by-step reminder of how to manually perform the calculation. Experts need not read further, but new students and astrologers who fear mathematical terms will hopefully find this tutorial to be of value. If you take your time, follow the reasoning, and recreate the example as you go along, any astrologer should be able to reproduce the extremely interesting example direction from the chart of King Henry II of France, which John Gadbury claimed was the cause of his death. [N.B. This tutorial was designed to accompany a presentation I gave regarding that particular direction, so if you have not already read my article Gauricus and the Warning of Death given to King Henry II of France, you should read that first and then return to this document].

Coming up: In this this tutorial: tutorial:
Introduction: About our working example – p.2 Key points regarding the featured example direction Primary Directions: Directions: What are they they? hey? – p.3 A very quick introduction Understanding Right Ascension (RA) – p.4 Explains the meaning and practical use of the terms ‘right ascension’, ‘oblique ascension’, and ‘ascensional difference’ Step-by-step calculation: Finding Finding Ascensional Difference & Oblique Oblique Ascension – p.6 p.6 Calculating Primary Directions on the Calculator built into Microsoft Windows – p.7 Demonstrating, with a visual guide, the step-by-step procedure for calculating primary directions on a calculator Using the Arc of Direction to find the the Age when the Direction becomes Exact – p.14 Demonstrating how to turn the resulting ‘arc of direction’ into the appropriate period of life Tables of Right Ascension – p.15 Necessary tables that are used in the calculation

© Deborah Houlding, Feb 2005. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www.skyscript.co.uk/easy-directions.html May be printed for personal, non-commercial use. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.

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co.co. Queen Catherine de Medici. 2 .uk/gauricus. the year which was to see him die from that activity. The reported warning claimed that engaging in duelling around that age could cause a head injury which might lead to blindness or death. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. urging him to avoid the sport of duelling (jousting) during the period around his 41st year. is available as a free download from his Medieval Astrology blog: http://www.18 40. To understand the importance of the direction.16 35. hours] ” * A digital reproduction. nor does he seem to have taken a fatalistic approach towards it – it is only reported that he offered a warning.skyscript.co.html May be printed for personal. read the story about the warning of mortal injury given to Henry II by the astrologer Lucas Gauricus www. the warning was delivered privately to the king by letter.uk/gauricus. Note that Gauricus is not said to have predicted the king’s death. 1661* 76.7 [deg. days. The astrologer appears to have been recommending that the king moderate his actions to avoid placing himself in precarious situations during the highlighted period of heightened risk. hosted by Paulo Alexandre Silva of Portugal. © Deborah Houlding.html).htm This tutorial will work towards manually manually calculating this primary direction using given tables and the calculator that is built into Windows software. Gauricus was employed by Henry’s wife.skyscript.html) From the top: Lucas Gauricus King Henry II of France John Gadbury Henry’s chart as published by Gadbury in the 17th century Modern reproduction based on Gadbury’s chart details According to the historical accounts detailed below.skyscript.astrologiamedieval. which fell in 1559.58 40.uk/easy-directions. Feb 2005.com/e-Books. Gauricus (at www. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. mins] [years. presumably hoping to avert danger during that astrologically sensitive time. 324.Our working working example: …if any shall question how Gauricus could hit “ so right to the exercise this prince should lose his life by… The direction which cut off his life was this: The Oblique Ascension of Mars The Oblique Ascension of the Ascendant The Arc of Direction Time of Direction according to Naibod’s Instruction: At which time this eminent prince expired From John Gadbury’s Collection of Nativities. non-commercial use.

non-commercial use. Unless otherwise stated. To understand primary directions you first need to have an understanding of what right ascension is. which is used in the recording of time.html May be printed for personal. or primary directions – so named because they direct the angles and planets to new positions using only diurnal motion. – Hence primary directions are time-based projections.co.uk/easy-directions. So first we identify the planets in the birth chart that signify danger or advancement. 3 . Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.skyscript. This is the apparent daily revolution of the sky which sees the heavenly sphere rise in the east.transits. solar returns and progressions – are based upon actual movements of planets.Primary Directions – What are they? Today’s popular predictive techniques . then we use their direction by primary motion to discover the age(s) in life when they become significant by exact contact with angles or other planets. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. traditional authors placed the greatest emphasis upon mundane directions. images are created by the author © Deborah Houlding. culminate on the midheaven and set in the west. Feb 2005. (known as primum mobile or ‘primary motion’). Primary motion is a constant and its frame of reference is right ascension. However. used to reveal the time when the expected promise of aspects in the birth chart come to maximum expression.

skyscript. In astrology we measure the distance in degrees of arc and then convert the result into time to obtain the age of the expected effect. = 4 minutes of time Whereas terrestrial longitude uses meridians of longitude. which is the celestial equivalent of terrestrial latitude (measuring positions north or south of the equator). hour circles cover about half a zodiac sign.html May be printed for personal. it is the celestial equivalent of terrestrial longitude (measuring positions east or west of the equator). right ascension uses hour circles which run between the north and south celestial poles. Any object on the same hour circle will have the same degree of right ascension. just as any place on earth on the same meridian of longitude has the same celestial longitude. which equates to a movement of 15° per hour.A = 20 minutes of time 1° of R.co. In 24 hours a fixed point in the celestial sphere will move 360° in right ascension.Understanding Right Ascension (RA) Right ascension (RA) measures the easterly distance of an object from the vernal point (0°~) along the plane of the celestial equator. 4 . Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. As a very rough and ready measure. Right ascension makes it easy to use the apparent diurnal rotation of the celestial sphere as a means of telling time.A. It is partnered with declination. Hence 15° of right ascension crosses the sky in 1 hour of time therefore therefore 5° of R. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. But this varies: measuring in RA allows us to be more precise. Right ascension can therefore be measured in degrees and minutes of arc. In this. or hours and minutes of time. non-commercial use. Feb 2005.uk/easy-directions. - © Deborah Houlding.

rise and set with a true alignment to right ascension. it is only on the equator that one hour of RA corresponds exactly to 15° of arc. However the ascendant is only due east at locations on the equator. When we factor the ascensional difference into RA we obtain what is called the measure of Oblique Ascension (OA).However.skyscript. At other latitudes one hour of RA may correspond to a greater or lesser distance than 15°. © Deborah Houlding.H. The midheaven.uk/easy-directions. 1661. ‘true’. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Image detail taken from plate 17 of Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius. Therefore we don’t have to worry about the factor of oblique ascension when directing the midheaven. meaning that at the equator the direction east is perfectly perpendicular to the horizon. so when we are directing planets beneath the horizon to the ascendant. we do need to factor in their oblique ascension.html May be printed for personal. It is this that is used to calculate the contacts in primary directions. which recognises the effect of latitude. 5 . This angle represents the Ascensional Difference (AD) between the time that the planet rises at that latitude. So it is only on the equator that all positions on the celestial sphere. When we use the term ‘right ascension’ we mean right as in ‘correct’. because it represents the point where the ecliptic cuts the equator due south. it forms an angle with that part of the equator which is rising at the same time. With thanks to R. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. to when it would have risen on the equator. van Gent for permission to reproduce (Parallels of declination correspond to terrestrial latitude in the same way that right ascension corresponds to terrestrial longitude) Where a planet rises in latitudes north or the south of the equator. or ‘properly aligned’. We need only measure the movement of the midheaven by right ascension. because of the flattening of the Earth’s sphere in the polar regions. and the way the lines of RA converge towards the pole. non-commercial use.co. Feb 2005. is always perpendicular to the cardinal directions east and west.

Sin ablong). However. or. for which we also need to know the formula: DD = ArcSin(Sin oe x Sin ablong) Where oe ablong = obliquity of the ecliptic (23°30) = absolute longitude of the planet NB: In mathematical formulas involving tan. six hours from the meridian passage. This is simply telling us that the sin value of the obliquity of the ecliptic is multiplied by the sin value of the absolute longitude of the planet. some people use ‘x’ to avoid confusion.skyscript. So more properly you would find the formula above written as: Arcsin = (Sin oe . Calculating Ascensional Difference (AD) Remember: the Ascensional Difference is the difference between the Right Ascension of any body and its Oblique Ascension: used chiefly as a way to express the difference in time between the rising or setting of a celestial body. cosine or sin. 6 . please do not panic – any term that you need to understand will be explained!] To find the Ascensional Difference we use the formula: AD = ArcSin (Tan declination of degree x Tan geographical latitude) The geographical latitude is simply the latitude of birth. © Deborah Houlding. and six o'clock. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. reverse the procedure so that OA = RA + AD We can refer to the table at the end to get the Right Ascension. as I have here.html May be printed for personal. Oblique Ascension (OA) is found by subtracting the Ascensional Difference (AD) from the Right Ascension (RA).TO FIND THE ASCENSIONAL DIFFERENCE & OBLIQUE ASCENSION OF A PLANET For charts drawn in the northern hemisphere. Feb 2005. non-commercial use.co. That is: OA = RA – AD For charts drawn in the southern hemisphere.uk/easy-directions. a point denotes multiplication. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. so the main part of the procedure is to obtain the Ascensional Difference. [When you look at the next piece of text. However. this formula requires calculation of the declination of the degree (DD).

html May be printed for personal.18 [deg. 7 . They are based on laws that allow us to calculate angles and replace the need for complex tables of logarithms. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www.16 35.uk/easy-directions. non-commercial use.days.co. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Feb 2005.7 [years. Note that in Gadbury’s account of this chart we are told: The direction which cut off his life was this: Oblique ascension of Mars Oblique ascension of ascendant The arc of direction: The time of the direction according to Naibod At which time this eminent prince expired. We will step through the procedure using the example of Henry II of France.skyscript. sin or cosine.Do not despair if you have never made calculations using tan. 324. 76.mins] 40. The calculator should look like this: Make sure that the righthand option is set to Degrees as circled in the diagram © Deborah Houlding.hours] STEPSTEP-BYBY-STEP PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING CALCULATING PRIMARY DIRECTIONS ON THE CALCULATOR BUILT INTO MICROSOFT WINDOWS Open up your system calculator by going to Start > Programs > Accessories > Calculator First change the calculator from Standard to Scientific mode under the View menu.58 40.

50 into your calculator and then click the dms [deg. because the purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate Gadbury’s calculation. sec] button: The result will be 0. Feb 2005. The only other thing we need to know is the latitude of the place of birth. 13° 03 Cancer for Mars). non-commercial use. it may help to use the calculator.In order to follow Gadbury’s example we need to know the longitude of the planets or points we are directing (3° Gemini for the ascendant. © Deborah Houlding. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.co. but the calculator loses the trailing zero. We’ll enter 103° 03’ – which will be required later as part of our example. It’s easy enough to work out that 0° 30’ in sexagisimal is 0. Of course we are used to seeing it as 0° 30’. not decimal format.html May be printed for personal. First we’ll see how to convert half a degree from 0.30’ in sexagisimal. you should realise that when we are working in degrees and minutes of arc. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. but where the calculation is not that simple.skyscript. calculation. Remember to first press clear ‘C’ on your calculator to clear the screen for the next calculation.uk/easy-directions. Gadbury used 48°N for the latitude and even though it is ‘rounded up’ we’ll stick to that.5 as a decimal fraction to 0. min. ▪ Henry was born at St Germaine on Laye in France. In order to perform the calculation. 8 . our figures are in sexagisimal. We need to be able to convert between sexagisimal and decimal format.5 as a decimal fraction. Next we will enter a new figure in degrees and minutes and use the calculator to obtain the decimal equivalent. First enter 0.3 – the equivalent of half a degree in sexagisimal.

which is 23½°. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Calculation for the oblique ascension of Henry II’s Mars: Longitude of Mars: Right Ascension of Mars: Latitude of birth place: 13°03 Cancer (absolute longitude: 103°03) 104°11 (read from table of RA) 48°N a) First calculate the declination of the degree (DD): DD = ArcSin (Sin oe x Sin ablong) - We’ll do the easy bit first and fill in all the parts of the equation that we can easily establish. That’s the hard part! Nothing you do next is more complicated than what you have already done. then [1] tick the inv (inverse) box. We know that oe is the obliquity of the ecliptic. The result is 103. So: DD = ArcSin (Sin 23°30’ x Sin 103°03’) © Deborah Houlding. You can understand what is happening when you consider that 3 minutes is 5% of a degree. Example 1.skyscript. but at Henry II’s time it was exactly 23°30’ and this figure will meet the needs of current calculations until the end of the next century.03 into your calculator. and then [2] click the dms button: By clicking the inv button we tell the calculator to perform the opposite of its normal function. non-commercial use. Feb 2005. Its normal function is to convert whole degrees and fractions into whole degrees and minutes. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www.co. a scientific calculator and the tables included. We also know the absolute longitude of Mars from its zodiacal position. 9 .05.First enter 103. tan.uk/easy-directions. This can vary slightly through the ages. so its inverse function is to convert from degrees and minutes to decimal fractions.html May be printed for personal. so relax – calculating oblique ascension is easy with sin.

Enter 23.5 and 103. Follow the steps as demonstrated below: To obtain Sin 23. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Our answer is 0.skyscript. non-commercial use. We demonstrated these two examples above so we can simply insert the answers here.3987. Feb 2005.5: First press C to clear the screen. then press the sin button: The result is a huge number: Round the result to the first 4 figures after the decimal point. rounded to 4 figures after the decimal point will be 0.html May be printed for personal.05. Our equation now reads: DD = ArcSin (Sin 23. we perform the calculation inside the brackets before the calculation outside of it.co. Now clear the screen and repeat the procedure for 103.5 into the calculator.- Next we need to convert any figures that are in degrees of arc to decimal fractions. 10 . So the next step is to find the sin of 23.05 The result.05) - As per usual. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www.uk/easy-directions.5 x Sin 103.9741 © Deborah Houlding.

9741) - We perform the calculation inside the brackets (simple multiplication) to simplify our equation to: DD = ArcSin 0.skyscript.85 (rounded to 2 figures after the decimal point) The result of our calculation then. Enter 0. Next click the inv button.3884 into the calculator input area. fraction Converted to degrees and minutes of arc this would be 22°51’ but it’s the decimal fraction that we need for the next part of the calculation (to find the ascensional difference) so we only need to calculate that.05) - Entering our calculated figures into the equation it now reads: DD = ArcSin (0.3884 - ArcSin is also known as inverse sin. This is another example of telling the calculator to reverse its normal function so that we can obtain the decimal fraction that is equivalent to Sin 0.3884: First press C to clear the screen. Feb 2005. to find the declination of the degree of Mars is 22. That may seem a lot of work the first time you do this.3987 x 0. but it’s actually a very quick and simple procedure once you get familiar with it! © Deborah Houlding.co.85 as a decimal fraction.html May be printed for personal.5 x Sin 103.uk/easy-directions.DD Our equation was: = ArcSin (Sin 23. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. non-commercial use.3884 To obtain the the ArcSin of 0. 11 . Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Now press the sin button: The answer is 22.

rounded to 4 figures after the decimal point is 0. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. the calculation to obtain the AD is: AD = ArcSin (Tan declination of degree x Tan geographical latitude) - We already know the declination of the degree and the latitude of the place of birth so we can enter them straight into the equation: AD = ArcSin (Tan 22. 12 .b) Now that we know the declination of the degree.90 [as a fraction.4213 x 1.1106) = ArcSin 0.4213.85: First press C to clear the screen. non-commercial use.skyscript.uk/easy-directions. Enter 22.85 x Tan 48) - Finding Tan is as easy as finding Sin: To obtain the Tan of 22. rounded to 2 figures after the decimal point] = 27°54’ [converted to degrees and minutes] © Deborah Houlding. The answer is 1. Now clear the screen and repeat the procedure to obtain Tan 48. Now press the tan button: The answer.85 into the calculator input area. we can calculate the Ascensional Difference (AD) of Mars: As previously noted. Feb 2005.1106 - We can now simplify the equation and complete it as per the previous instruction: AD = ArcSin (0.co.html May be printed for personal.4679 = 27.

uk/easy-directions. Example 2.skyscript.80 x Tan 48) ArcSin (0.3552 20.50 x Sin 63)* converted to decimal ArcSin (0.8910) ArcSin 0. the formula to calculate oblique ascension is OA = Right ascension – Ascensional Difference* RA has been established as AD has been established as Result of AD subtracted from RA = 104°11’ 27°54’ 76°17 Gadbury calculates the oblique ascension of Mars as 76°16. Since he used tables instead of a calculator this minor difference need not trouble us. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www.c) Now that we have the ascensional difference we can complete the calculation of the the oblique ascension of Mars in King Henry’s chart: (* For southern hemisphere charts the formula is reversed to OA = RA + AD) Remember.1106) ArcSin 0. Feb 2005.co.html May be printed for personal.3987 x 0.80 *as a decimal fraction b) Now calculate the Ascensional Difference of the asc: AD = = = = = = ArcSin (Tan DD x Tan latitude) ArcSin (Tan 20. non-commercial use. Calculation for the oblique ascension of Henry II’s ascendant: Longitude of asc: Right Ascension of Asc: Latitude of birth place: 3° Gemini (absolute longitude: 63°) 60°57 (read from table of RA) 48°N a) Calculate the declination of the degree of the asc: DD = = = = = ArcSin (Sin oe x Sin ablong) ArcSin (Sin 23. 13 . All we now need to do is work out how many degrees separate the oblique ascension of the ascendant and Mars to work out the arc of direction between them: Oblique ascension of Mars Oblique ascension of Asc Arc of direction = 76°17 = 36°00 = 40° 17 [Gadbury obtains 40° 18] © Deborah Houlding. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.AD = 60°57’ – 24°57’ = 36° Gadbury calculates the oblique ascension of the ascendant as 35°58.3799 x 1.4219 24.95 * as a decimal fraction 24°57’ c) Now calculate the Oblique Ascension of the asc: OA = RA .

a rough measure would be to say that 1° of movement along the equator relates to one year of life.16) Note – the first two columns convert degrees of arc. 14 .23-24. Since there are 365 days in the year. the last two columns convert minutes of arc into time © Deborah Houlding. Feb 2005.24 gives an angular measure of 0°59’08” (equivalent to 0. The 16th century astrologer Valentine Naibod argued that to get the correct mean measure for the Sun’s daily movement we must divide the day into as many parts as there are days in the year. pp. Astrologers such as Lilly and Gadbury simply referred to Naibod’s Table of the Measure of Time. The solar day is 24hr. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. 03 min and 57 seconds in sidereal time – dividing that by 365.meaning ‘The Time of Direction according to Naibod’s Instruction’ The philosophy of primary directions recognises a symbolic link between the Sun’s movement in a day and a year of life.uk/easy-directions. this is not an exact rate of direction.htm A larger copy of Naibod’s table can be found on the final page (p.985 as a decimal fraction).USING THE ARC OF DIRECTION TO FIND THE AGE WHEN THE DIRECTION BECOMES EXACT: Underneath the calculation of his arc of direction Gadbury writes “Temp Directionis Secundum Naybode Institutum” .astrologiamedieval. 1662.html May be printed for personal. However.com/e-Books. available online on Paulo Alexandre Silva of Portugal’s ‘Medieval Astrology’ blog: www. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction. Thus to find the age when the direction becomes exact we must divide the arc of direction by the Sun’s mean motion of 0°59’08”. non-commercial use.co.skyscript. This is generally no longer available but a copy of the table is preserved in Alan Leo’s Progressed Horoscope (1905) Gadbury’s arc of direction between the ascendant and Mars in King Henry’s chart was 40°18’ 40° = 40 yrs + 213 days 18’ =111 days + 4 hrs The total gives: 40 yrs 324 days + 4hrs Gadbury worked it out as: 40 yrs 324 days + 7hrs We need not worry about the 3hrs difference! For Gadbury’s account of King Henry’s chart see: A Collection of Nativities. and the Sun travels through 360° in a year.

Deg. Deg. Min 332 06 333 03 334 00 334 57 335 54 336 51 337 48 338 45 339 41 340 37 341 33 342 29 343 25 344 21 345 17 346 12 347 08 348 03 348 59 349 54 350 50 351 45 352 45 353 35 354 30 355 25 356 20 357 15 358 10 359 05 360 00 © Deborah Houlding. Min 207 54 208 51 209 49 210 46 211 44 212 42 213 40 214 39 215 37 216 36 217 35 218 34 219 33 220 32 221 31 222 31 223 31 224 31 225 31 226 32 227 33 228 33 229 34 230 35 231 36 232 38 233 40 234 42 235 44 236 46 237 48 Deg. Feb 2005. Min 180 00 180 55 181 50 182 45 183 40 184 35 185 30 186 25 187 20 188 15 189 11 190 06 191 01 191 57 192 52 193 48 194 43 195 39 196 35 197 31 198 27 199 23 200 19 201 15 202 12 203 09 204 06 205 03 206 00 206 57 207 54 Deg. 15 . Min 302 12 303 14 304 16 305 18 306 20 307 22 308 24 309 25 310 26 311 27 312 27 313 28 314 29 315 29 316 29 317 29 318 29 319 28 320 27 321 26 322 25 323 24 324 23 325 21 326 20 327 18 328 16 329 14 330 11 331 08 332 06 Deg. Deg. Min. Min. Deg. Deg. non-commercial use.co. Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. Min 237 48 238 51 239 54 240 57 242 00 243 03 244 06 245 09 246 13 247 17 248 21 249 25 250 29 251 33 252 38 253 43 254 47 255 52 256 57 258 02 259 07 260 12 261 17 262 22 263 27 264 33 265 38 266 44 267 49 268 54 270 00 Deg.uk/easy-directions. Min.html May be printed for personal.skyscript. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Deg.Tables to convert degrees of zodiacal longitude to their equivalent right ascension TABLES OF RIGHT ASCENSION Deg. Min 270 00 271 06 272 12 273 17 274 22 275 27 276 33 277 38 278 43 279 48 280 53 281 58 283 03 284 08 285 13 286 17 287 22 288 27 289 31 290 35 291 39 292 43 293 45 294 51 295 54 296 57 298 00 299 03 300 06 301 09 302 12 Deg. Min. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 27 00 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 11 06 01 57 52 48 43 39 35 31 27 23 19 15 12 09 06 03 00 55 54 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 54 51 49 46 44 42 40 39 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 31 31 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 57 58 59 60 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 90 48 51 54 57 00 03 06 09 13 17 21 25 29 33 38 43 47 52 57 02 07 12 17 22 27 33 38 43 48 53 00 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 118 119 120 121 122 00 05 12 17 22 27 33 38 43 48 53 58 03 08 13 17 22 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 54 57 00 03 06 09 12 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 12 14 16 18 20 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29 29 29 29 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 21 20 18 16 14 11 09 06 152 153 154 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 06 06 00 57 54 51 48 45 41 37 33 39 25 21 17 12 08 03 59 54 49 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 05 00 Deg. Min. Min. Deg. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.

co.14) © Deborah Houlding. non-commercial use. Permission must be sought for any other form of reproduction.uk/easy-directions. 16 . Updated & published online Sept 2009: www. the last two columns convert minutes of arc into time (see example on p.html May be printed for personal.Reproduced from Alan Leo’s Progressed Horoscope (1905) Note – the first two columns convert degrees of arc. Feb 2005.skyscript.