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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Sensing Element Signal Conditioning Element Signal Processing Element Data Presentation Element
level. or relays. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries.• Instrumentation is defined as technologies of measurement and part of control process variables within a production or manufacturing area. valves. Instrumentation: . temperature. • An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as flow. factories. angle. or pressure. distance. These devices control a desired output variable. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. pressure transmitter. and vehicles • Simple Example: Direct reading thermometers Complex Example: Process analyzers (Flame detectors. flow transmitter. and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. circuit breakers. regulators. smoke detector & etc) • Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate solenoids.
Introduction The General Measurement System • The purpose of a measurement system is to present an observer with a numerical value corresponding to the variable being measured.1. eg. In general this numerical value or measured value does not equal the true value of the variable. The measured speed of an engine as indicated on a digital display may be 3140 rpm whereas the true speed may be 3133 rpm. .
although in a given system one type of element may be missing of may occur more than once.Measurement System Process. Machine or system being measured Input Measurement System True Value Measured Value Output • The Measurement System consists of several elements or blocks. • It is possible to identify four types of elements. .
General Structure of Measurement System Input True Value Sensing Element Signal Conditioning Element Signal Processing Element Data Presentation Element Output Measured Value .
Sensing Element • This is in contact with the process and gives an output which depends in some way the variable to be measured. eg.1. Thermocouple where milivolt emf depends on temperature Strain gauge where resistance depends on mechanical strain Orifice plate where pressure drop depends on flow rate .
usually a DC voltage. Deflection bridge which converts an impedance change into a voltage change Amplifier which amplifies milivolts to volts Oscillator which converts an impedance change into variable frequency voltage .2. DC current of frequency signal. Signal Conditioning Element • This takes the output of the sensing element and converts it into a form more suitable for further processing. Eg.
3. Analogue-to-Digital converter which converts a voltage into a digital form for input to a computer A microcomputer which calculates the measured value of the variable from the incoming digital data . Signal Processing Element • This takes the output of conditioning element and converts it into a form more suitable for presentation. Eg.
• Typical Calculations are the computational of total mass of product gas from flow rate and density data the integration of chromatograph peaks to give the composition of a gas stream correction for sensing element non-linearity .
Eg. A simple pointer-scale indicator Chart recorder Alphanumeric display Visual display unit . Data Presentation Element • This presents the measured value in a form which can be easily recognised by the observer.4.
Example Resistance Input Pillar load Strain Strain cell Gauge True Weight Primary Secondary Sensing Output Measured Weight Visual display unit Data Presentation Micro computer (Linearization) Deflection Bridge mV V Amplifier Signal Conditioning A/D converter Signal Processing .
In the most general sense. Thus by measuring the RTD’s resistance. mechanical. • The devices that changes the signal into the desired quantity (be it electrical. the signal may not be amenable to direct measurement. the local temperature can be determined. This requires that the signal be changed into a more appropriate form. such as a voltage or current. in almost all circumstances. Usually. a temperature sensor) that is located in the gas. This is because the resistance of the RTD sensor (typically a fine platinum wire) is proportional to the change in temperature from a reference temperature. however. optical. In some situation. the transducer’s output is an electrical signal. is electrical. or another form) is the transducer. Most of the sensors in our bodies have electrical outputs. a transducer transforms energy from one form to another. . which.• The temperature of a gas (the physical stimulus) results in an electrical resistance (the signal) of a resistance temperature device (RTD.
Example True Temperature Milivolts Thermocouple Sensing Auto reference junction compensation Milivolts Volts Measured Temperature Amplifier ADC Computer VDU Data Presentation Signal Processing Signal Conditioning True Speed Frequency Frequency Measured Speed Tachogenerator Sensing Schmitt Trigger Signal Conditioning Counter Computer Digital Display Data Presentation Signal Processing True Flow Rate Differential Pressure Orifice Plate Sensing Differential Pressure Transmitter Sensing + Signal Conditioning Current Measured Flow Rate ADC Computer Chart Recorder Data Presentation Signal Processing True Weight Strain Resistance Millivolts Volts Measured Weight Cantilever Primary Strain Gauge Secondary Deflection Bridge Amplifier ADC Computer Digital Display Data Presentation Sensing Signal Conditioning Signal Processing .
strain. range and magnitude Analog signal sampled and converted to digital signal with proper resolution. linearizers. Digital signal stored and possibly analyzed. pressure. filters. Signal Processor (A/D converter.Measurement System Physical Variable Temperature. and so forth) Signal typically a voltage Signal filtered and gained to proper frequency. length. and so forth Temperature Temperature >> Resistance R = R0 (1+α [ T-T0 ]) Resistance Sensor Transducer Resistance >> Voltage (using Wheatstone Bridge) Signal Conditioner (amplifiers. computer) .
Control of processes and operations.Classification of Types of Measurement Applications 1. Input energy and/or material Process Controlled Variable Final Control Element Controller Measuring Instrument Desired value of controlled variable . Monitoring of processes and operations. 2. Experimental engineering analysis. 3.
1. Monitoring of processes and operations • Refers to situations where the measuring device is being used to keep track of some quantity. radars. . and anemometers used by the weather bureau fit this definition. barometers. They simply indicate the condition of the environment. and their readings do not serve any control functions in the ordinary sense. The thermometers.
compare it with its desired value. and then based on the “error” between the two. • The design principle of all feedback control system says that we should measure the variable which we want to control. Control of processes and operations • One of the most important classes of measurement application to control some “process”. manipulate the final control element in such a way as to drive the controlled variable closer to its desired value.2. .
Experimental engineering analysis • A part of engineering design. theory and experimentation. • Some problems can be adequately solved using theory alone. . • Two basic ways of solving engineering problems.3. and research that relies on laboratory testing of one kind or another to answer questions. Most problems require a thoughtfully blend of theory and experiment. development.
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