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Production and Operations Management

Unit 13

Unit 13

Operations Scheduling

Structure: 13.1 Introduction Objectives 13.2 Purpose of Operations Scheduling 13.3 Factors Considered while Scheduling 13.4 Scheduling Activity under PPC 13.5 Scheduling Strategies Detailed scheduling Cumulative scheduling Cumulative-detailed combination Priority decision rules 13.6 Scheduling Guidelines 13.7 Approaches to Scheduling Forward scheduling Backward scheduling 13.8 Scheduling Methodology [Quantitative] Charts and boards Priority Decision Rules 13.9 Scheduling in Services 13.10 Summary 13.11 Glossary 13.12 Terminal Questions 13.13 Answers

13.1 Introduction
In the previous unit, we have dealt with the concepts of supply chain management, domain applications, views on supply chain, bullwhip effect in SCM, collaborative supply chain, inventory management in supply chain, and financial supply chain. In this unit, we will deal with the purpose of operations scheduling, factors considered while scheduling, scheduling activity under PPC, scheduling strategies, scheduling guidelines, approaches to scheduling, scheduling methodology, and scheduling in services.

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Production is the transformation of inputs to the desired outputs. The highest efficiency of the production is obtained by manufacturing the required quantity, to the required quality, at the required time, and with the best processes. To achieve these, the production management employs Production Planning and Control department, known as PPC, whose function is to coordinate all the production activities. As the name of PPC represents, planning activity is the choice from several alternatives of utilising the existing resources to achieve the desired objectives and the control is monitoring of performance through the feedback by comparing the results accomplished against the target and taking corrective actions to improve the performance. Operations are the processes performed on machines to achieve the desired results. Hence, PPC is a tool for directing all manufacturing operations, coordinating and ensuring the end results of desired quantity, quality, time, and cost of production. PPC functions are wide spread in planning and control of materials, methods, machines, manpower, routing, estimating, scheduling, dispatching, expediting, and evaluating the output. Scheduling is the assignment of work to the production units with detailed specifications of the times and the sequence of manufacturing until the end product is rolled out and ready for dispatch. It also provides the performance yardsticks on the time required to perform each operation and for the entire series of activities as routed. Scheduling refers to firming up processing times so that all the jobs/tasks are completed by the time they are due for delivery to customers. Objectives: After studying this unit, you should be able to: describe how scheduling aims at achieving the required output with minimum of delay and disruption in processing explain how it provides the means to maximise utilisation of men, machines, and materials by maintaining free flow of materials along the production lines and units identify how it helps to prevent the unbalanced allocation of time among work centres with the view to eliminate idle capacity recognise how it keeps the production cost to minimum

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describe how it achieves the rate of output and maintain the finished goods inventory to levels predetermined and meet the marketing requirements.

13.2 Purpose of Operations Scheduling


Scheduling is basically a day-to-day planning of operations with details of a) which work centre will do which Job, b) When should an operation/job be started and ended, c) On which equipment should it be done and by whom, and d) What is the sequence in which job operations need to be handled through a set of machines or work centres? Scheduling basically assigns different jobs to different facilities called shop loading, sequencing the jobs and operations, and then monitoring and revising the schedules through controlling.

13.3 Factors Considered While Scheduling


Scheduling is governed by the following factors: External factors: o Customer demand o Customer delivery dates o Dealer and retailer inventories Internal factors: o Finished Goods Inventory (FIG) o Process intervals o Availability of equipment o Availability of materials o Manufacturing facilities o Economic production runs

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13.4 Scheduling Activity under PPC


Table No 13.1: Terminologies

Routing

Routing is the planning activity undertaken to determine the best route for manufacturing a product. It lays down the flow of work in the plant and determines what work is to be done, where, and how. Routing considers plant layout, storage space for inventory, and material handling. Route sheets are developed for each job. Determines the order of processing jobs at each work centre and establish their start and finish times (Discussed in detail below) Allow production to commence through supply of materials and work orders Monitor progress and take corrective actions to minimise deviations

Scheduling

Dispatch Follow up

13.5 Scheduling Strategies


Scheduling strategy differs from organisation to organisation as it depends on the quantum of production, size and type of production, companys policy, priorities, etc. Most of these strategies are concerned with job shop production since the problems encountered is more when more than one product is produced in the same plant. Following are the classifications: Detailed scheduling Cumulative scheduling Cumulative-detailed scheduling Priority decision rules Let us now discuss these classifications in detail. 13.5.1 Detailed scheduling All job orders from customers are scheduled to the last details. This may not be practical in case disruptions are there in production line like machine breakdown, absenteeism, etc. (Possible in airlines, hotels, etc)

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13.5.2 Cumulative scheduling The customer orders are pooled to form a cumulative work load and then matched with the capacity. The work load is then allocated in such a way that immediate periods get allocated to maximum capacity. 13.5.3 Cumulative-detailed combination This combines both the earlier strategies of firm and flexible nature of work load. Cumulative work load projections can be used to plan for capacity as needed. As changes happen during the week, the materials and capacity requirements are updated. The actual time allocated to the specified job at each work centre is as per the standard hours needed. This is tuned further with the requirements of the master schedule. 13.5.4 Priority decision rules When a set of orders are to be executed, the question of prioritising arises. These priority decision rules are scheduling guidelines used independently or in conjunction with any one of the above three strategies. These are discussed later in section 13.8.2.

13.6 Scheduling Guidelines


1) Provide a realistic schedule A schedule should be realistic rather than idealistic considering all the practical possibilities. 2) Allow adequate time for operations Enough time should be allowed for production. 3) Allow adequate time before, between, and after operations Enough time should be allowed to queuing and transit of Work in Progress or FIG. 4) Dont release all available jobs to the shop Releasing all the available jobs as and when they are received overloads the capacity. It also increases the lead time and excess workin-process inventory. 5) Dont schedule all available capacity in the shop Some excess capacity should be available to handle emergencies and sudden alteration in jobs or to accommodate a totally new but profitable order.
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6) Load only selected work centres Only those work centres which are fit are selected for operations. 7) Allow for necessary changes Schedules should be open to necessary changes and alterations in the products. 8) Gear up the entire shop to be responsible for the schedule It is the workers responsibility to cooperate and meet the schedule.

13.7 Approaches to Scheduling


There are two types of approaches to scheduling. They are forward scheduling and backward scheduling. These are used to ensure that the lead time for manufacture is kept to a minimum and the products are supplied to the customers as quickly as possible. 13.7.1 Forward scheduling Forward scheduling is an approach where the customer orders are immediately processed as soon as they come in even if their due dates are far away. With forward scheduling, the scheduler selects a planned order release date and schedules all the activities from this point forward and ready within time. 13.7.2 Backward scheduling With backward scheduling, the scheduler begins with a planned receipt date or due date and moves backward in time according to the required processing times. It is an approach where the customer orders are processed as late as possible so that they are finished and delivered exactly on their due dates. Here the starting time of the processing job is determined by setting back the number of days required for its processing, from finish date. Illustration 1: Suppose all processes required for a component takes 20 days, then forward and backward scheduling can be executed as follows:

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Forward scheduling
End of operations Work forward Opns Days: 01 2 02 5 03 6 04 9 05 06 11 07 13 08 15 17 (Finished Goods Inventory (three days left for delivery) Delivery due date

Backward Scheduling:
Start of Operations (start late by three days) Delivery due date End of operations 06 11 07 08 FGI

Operations Days:

01 2

02 5

03 6

04 9

05

13 15 17 Work backward

Fig. 13.1: Forward and backward scheduling

13.8 Scheduling Methodology [Quantitative]


There are many types of scheduling and the methodologies used in production. Specific methods used depend on the type of industry, organisation, products, and level of sophistication in the production. However the scheduling methodology can be classified as (i) charts and boards and (ii) priority decision rules. 13.8.1 Charts and boards a) Gantt load chart b) Gantt progress chart c) Schedule boards d) Computer graphics Let us now discuss these methodologies in brief. a) Gantt load chart A Gantt load chart shows the amount of cumulative workload that each work centre has in a manufacturing unit. It is a graph showing individual and total estimated workloads of each work centre on a time scale. Uses of Gantt chart Total workload shown graphically is simple, clear, and easy to understand.
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It indicates the need for more resources or for reassigning or resources when the load at one work centre becomes too large. In case some work centres are overloaded, employees from a low-load work centre may be temporarily shifted to high load centres.

Limitations of Gantt chart Gantt load chart does not account for delays and disruptions at the work centres It does not give information regarding the due date requirements of each job Chart must be updated periodically for new jobs Illustration 2
Work Centre Sheet Metal Sheering Bending Painting 0 Brazing 0 C(8) 8 Cumulative Work Loads A (5) 0 A(4) 0 A(5) 5 E(16) 16 4 B(7) 5 B(12) B(16) 21 D(24) 16 C(12) 12 D(4) 24 28 E(6) 34 40 C(14) D(9) 35 E(11) 44 55

Fig. 13.2: Work centres & the cumulative work load

In a production facility where five jobs to be processed through one or more of the four work centres, the cumulative work load can be shown in the chart given above (Fig 13.2). The work centre Sheet Metal has cumulative work load of 55 days to complete all the five jobs (A to E). Similarly the cumulative load for completion of three jobs in work centre Shearing and Bending is 40 days. The painting section having 5 jobs will take 34 days and brazing section for only two jobs will have cumulative work load of 16 days. This chart will indicate only the cumulative workloads for each job and to what extent the work centres are to be scheduled. b) Gantt schedule and progress chart A Gantt schedule and progress chart indicates the scheduled starting and completion dates for each job as well as the current status of each job. The
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chart shows an immediate comparison between the schedule and reality with respect to each job at work centres. Illustration 3 There are five machines with four jobs to be finished. The work schedule for sheet metal work and soldering on job X is 4 and 4 days. The schedule for braze on Y job is 5 days, Z job is scheduled for sheet metal wok for 6 days and a finishing job of soldering a job F is of 3 days. (See Fig 13.3) Job Machine X(4) X(4) Y(5) Z(6) F(3) Sheet work-1 Solder Braze Sheet work-2 Solder
Fig. 13.3: Progress chart

7 8

10

11

Jobs are shown in Column one and the work completed on a particular days in the progress chart above, is shown As against 4 days of sheet metal work-1 of X component, the operation has completed up to 3.5 days, and hence there is half a day work pending on that day. a) Job X requires half day of change over on 5th day-shown as Black square and then, soldering operation is continued for next four days. b) Job Y Brazing continued for five days and as on this day it is as per schedule, i.e., it has taken 5 days to complete as scheduled. c) Since component X requires half day for completion before component Z starts its operation on the sheet metal machine, six days required for this Z will take completion date to 10.5 days.

d) Soldering operation on component F has already taken half a day extra for completion (3.5 days instead of 3 days).

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This is how the progress charts shows the present day status of the job on hand, jobs completion, jobs within the schedules, and jobs outside the schedule. c) Schedule boards Shop floor personnel need to know the information as to how they are processing components in production and this can be reflected in a simple schedule board inside the production shops. Content of these boards are updated daily by the progress department. The boards contain simple bar graphs to represent the actual status of components/products. d) Computer graphics Computer graphics and reports have replaced the mechanical boards and charts. With the help of computers, PPC keep track of hundreds of items and can revise the schedules. 13.8.2 Priority decision rules A priority decision rules shown below are the systematic procedures for assigning priorities to waiting jobs, and determining the sequence in which jobs are required to be processed. The major criteria for applying rules are set up costs, idle time of machine and labor, in-process inventory, percentage of jobs that are late, average number of jobs waiting in queue, average time to complete job, and standard deviation of time to complete job. Classifications of priority decision rules A. Single-criteria rules B. Combined criteria rules (Johnsons rule) C. Critical ratio scheduling D. Index method of scheduling E. Critical path method Let us now discuss these classifications in detail. A) Single-criteria rules Here the jobs are assigned to the production division by considering single and important criteria. These criterias are: First come first served (the job that comes first is served by scheduling first) Earliest due date (here the job with the earliest due date is processed)
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Least slack available for production (here priority is given to the waiting job whose slack time is least. Slack time is calculated as the difference of the length of time remaining until the job is due and the length of its operation time. For example, if a job requires 6 days and time left is 8 days, then the slack for that job is 2 days.) Shortest processing time (job requires least of shortest time is processed first) Longest processing time (job that requires the longest time is processed first) Preferred customer order (priority to orders coming from favorite customers) Random selection (Jobs are selected at random and purely a chance for any job)

Illustration - 4 The illustration below details how the above said priority rules are applied while scheduling. It also explains the different methods available for PPC department. Five jobs are to be processed at a Fabricating unit. The processing time in days and the due date in days are given below.
Table 13.1: Data for illustration 4

Job Processing time in days Due date in days

A 8 10

B 21 24

C 18 22

D 13 16

E 15 16

Determine: a) The sequence of job according to the shortest processing time b) Calculate total completion time c) Calculate mean flow time or average completion time d) Calculate average number of jobs in the system each day e) Calculate average lateness Solution a) The sequence as is ABCDE, where as the sequence with the shortest flow time is ADECB

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Table 13.2: Computation of flow time days and late days

Job Sequence A B C D E Total

Processing Time in days 8 21 18 13 15 75

Total Flow Due days Late time days from now (days) 8 29 (8+21) 47 (29+18) 60 (47+13) 75 (60+15) 219 10 24 22 16 16 -2 5 25 44 59

b) Total completion time = Total process days = 75 days c) Average number of jobs running at a time = Total cumulative flow time in sequence at a time/total process days required. Here when the first job is processed other four jobs are waiting. Similarly when the first job is delivered, the second job is processed and the other three jobs are waiting. This type of elimination goes ahead until all the five jobs are completed. Therefore, the average number of jobs in the system each day: Avg No. of Jobs = [ (5x8) + (4x21) + (3x18) + (1x15) ] / (75)

= 2.92 jobs in the system/day d) Sequencing jobs using short processing time (SPT) This can be can be evolved by rearranging the above table as ascending order of the processing time. This ascending order will be ADECB, as shown below:
Table 13.3: Computation of flow time days and due days

Waiting Job -SPT A D E C B Total


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Processing time 8 21 18 13 15 75

Flow days 8

time

in Due Date 10 24 22 16 16

29 (8+21) 47 (29+18) 60 (47+13) 75 (60+15) 219

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Average/Mean Flow time days/number of sequences

Total

cumulative

flow

time

in

= 219/5 = 43.8 days. This means the average job in the production line is 43.8 days. e) Average job lateness = Cumulative late in days/no of sequences = [0+5+25+44+59] / 5 = 26.6 days. Here for A the lateness is (-2), i.e., produced 2 days earlier, hence lateness is zero. B) Combined criteria rules (Johnsons rule) Johnsons rule is used to determine the sequence of order for a series of jobs to be processed on a fixed number of machines. The basis for the sequencing is that the total time required to complete all the jobs should be minimum thereby reducing the idle time of all machines. Johnsons rule is a procedure that minimises the total cycle time in scheduling a group of jobs on two workstations and the sequence of the jobs at the two work stations should be identical and hence priority assigned to a job should be the same at both. This type of production sequence for a group of jobs to minimise the time has two advantages: 1) The group of jobs is completed in minimum time 2) Utilisation of two station flow shop is maximised Steps used to adopt Johnsons rule Step - 1: Step - 2: List the processing/operation times from n jobs on the two work centres/machines. Scan all the processing/operation times for the n jobs on both machines and select the shortest processing/operation time in either work centre. If the shortest processing/operation time happens to be for a job on the first work centre/machine, place that job first in the sequence. If it is at the second work centre/machine, then place the job last in the sequence.

Step - 3:

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Step - 4:

Remove the job assigned to the sequence in step 3 from further consideration (i.e. cross off both times for the assigned job). Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 until all the jobs are assigned into the sequence.

Step - 5:

Note: In case of a tie (i.e. a job having the same operation time on both the machines or two jobs having the same operation time on either of the machines), choose the job with the smallest subscript first for assigning into sequence (i.e. when job A and job B has the same time on either machine M1 and M2, choose job A first as compared to job B). On the other hand if any job has the same processing/operation time on machines M1 and M2, then give preference to the processing time/operation time on M1 to be considered first for assigning that job into the sequence. The above rules are known as Thumb Rule to be followed in case of tie between two jobs or between two machines. Illustration - 5 Two machines working for six jobs to be produced whose time for two operations are given below. Sequence them for scheduling by adopting Johnsons rule and find the minimum elapsed time and idle time on each machine.
Table 13.4: Data for illustration 5

Job 1 2 3 4 5 6

Machine A Time in hours 7 16 9 6 13 15

Machine B Time in hrs 12 14 13 10 7 5

Applying the Johnsons rule for the above machines: 1) Among all the processing time, irrespective of which machine, the shortest processing time is selected. In the given table, the shortest time is for job 6 on machine B, and hence place this job as late as possible, i.e., last.
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6 2) The next shortest time is for job 4 on machine A. So place job as early as possible. 4 6

3) The next shortest time is a tie between 1 and 5 (both 5 hours). Select any one. Place job 1 as early as possible among the remaining jobs. 4 4) 1 6

The next shortest time from the tie above is 5; therefore place it as late as possible among the remaining slots. 4 1 5 6

5) The next shortest time for job 3 on machine A (7 hours), place it as early as possible among the remaining slots. 4 1 3 5 6

6) The last remaining job is 2 goes to the vacant slot. 4 1 3 2 5 6

Hence the best sequence for scheduling jobs is 4, 1, 3, 2, 5, 6. C) Critical ratio scheduling This establishes and maintains priority among jobs.

Critical ratio greater than one means the job can be completed ahead of schedule, equal to unity means the job needs close watch, and less than unity means special measures are to be taken to complete the job on due date. Here, a quantity called as the critical ratio is calculated for each job and the jobs with lower critical ratios are given priority to be processed first. Critical Ratio = Time remaining for due date of the job/Time needed to complete the job.

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Illustration - 6 In the following table, four jobs are shown with its operation time, due dates, number of operations remaining, and shop remaining time. Calculate the CR sequence schedule.
Table 13.5: Data for illustration 6

Job Operating time (hrs) 1 2 3 4 5 10 8 14

Time remaining due days 14 11 20 8

Number of operations remaining 8 2 10 6

Shop time Answer remaining CR 9 10 17 11 1.55 1.1 1.176 0.72

Answer: Using CR to schedule, CR = [time remaining to due date]/shop time remaining CR for first reading =14/9 = 1.55. Similar calculation and readings are filled in the CR column. Arranging sequence is the lowest CR first and then ascending order and hence sequence of job loading is 4, 2, 3, 1. D) Index method of scheduling This assigns job to the best machine until its capacity is exhausted and then remaining jobs are assigned to the next best machine, etc. Here, the jobs are assigned to the best work centre till it is fully loaded to capacity and the remaining jobs are assigned to the next best if processing time is the criterion. If the jobs can be processed in different work centres, indices are calculated for the different likely process time with the lowest index time of 1.0. Illustration - 7 Solve the following shop loading problem by using index method.
Table 13.6: Data for illustration 7 Job A B C D E No. of days available Sikkim Manipal University WC-1 10 3 25 7 18 20 WC-2 9 4 20 9 14 20 WC-3 8 5 14 10 16 20 WC-4 12 2 16 9 25 20 Page No. 324

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The following table 13.6 shows the indices. The days corresponding to a job assigned is with bold letter and underlined. Bold number and underlined is the minimum number of days in each centre.
Table 13.7: Indices for illustration 7 WC1 Days A B C D E No of Days Days assign 10 3 25 7 18 20 7 Index 1.25 1.5 1.78 1.00 1.28 WC2 Days 9 4 20 9 14 20 14 Index 1.13 2.00 1.42 1.28 1.00 WC3 Days 8 5 14 10 16 20 22 Index 1.00 2.5 1.00 1.42 1.14 WC4 Days 12 2 16 9 25 20 2 Index 1.5 1.00 1.14 1.28 1.78

Indices are decided as: Job A has a minimum processing time of 8 days at centre 3, and hence, this index is 1.00, i. e., the processing times of 10, 9, and 12 at centres at 1, 2, and 4 are divided by 8 to find out the indices. This procedure is followed for all jobs and their indices are indicated in the column. Assignment of the jobs to work centres based on the index equal to 1 is as follows:
Table 13.8: Assignment of the jobs to work centres for illustration 7

Jobs Work centre assigned

A 1

B 4

C 3

D 1

E 2

[Additional Job of C can be assigned to work centre 4 as sufficient time available] E) Critical path method It is used for scheduling large and unique projects in which the relationship between the activities is quite intricate. The method overcomes the deficiencies of Gantt chart. Here a network of work centres and processing routes of each job is drawn graphically. PERT/CPM charts are made to identify the critical path.
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13.9. Scheduling in Services


There are distinctive difference between the scheduling followed for manufacturing and services. All these differences have a direct impact on scheduling. These differences are: Service operations cannot create inventories to provide buffer for demand uncertainties Demand in service operations cannot be predicted accurately Demand for service are initiated mostly as unplanned event and hence, there may be certain distortions in scheduling Providing the required manpower and skills for the sudden demand in scheduling a service activity is challenging and sometimes becomes crucial Scheduling customer demand Normally the service centre capacity is fixed, but the demand will be varying. Forecasting the demand in advance for service activities is difficult and scheduling such variable demand poses certain problems. In order to provide timely service and utilise the capacity to the maximum extent, the scheduler has to adopt certain systems/methodologies. There are three methods normally used by the scheduler in services. They are Backlogs Reservations Appointments Let us now discuss these methods in brief. Backlogs Service centres allow backlogs to develop so that they can plan their capacity better. Priority rules can be applied to determine which order to process next. The usual rule is first come first served. Industry customs and previous experience often changes the priority. For example, servicing of cars, two wheelers, etc. Reservations Services provided by hospitals, travels, trades, etc. The reservation for the services in advance is the norm. This system is used when the customer uses service facilities based on their requirements.
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Appointments Here the customer is specified with the time of services. The advantage is that the service is customised and utilisation of the capacity will be high. The individual customer needs are satisfied. Service activities are determined and planned for the customer. For example, surgery in hospitals. Self Assessment Questions 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of forward scheduling? a) Production starts after the job order is received b) Start and finish time is found by the earliest time slot available at a work centre c) Jobs starts in advance as per the latest available time slot in work centre 2. In which of the following, the Gantt chart application is not there? a) Used to track performance of shop floor employees b) Used to reflect work load levels for machines and workstations c) Can adopt change in scheduling each work centre 3. While job sequencing, _________ the critical ratio, __________ the priority is given. a) higher, higher b) higher, lower c) lower, higher 4. Which of the following is not a priority rule? a) Shortest processing time rule b) Allow longest slack time b) Earliest due date processing rule c) Critical ratio rule 5. Which one of these is not a scheduling activity? a) Dispatch b) Routing c) Scheduling d) Facility planning 6. Fill up the blanks with appropriate word/words a) A priority decision rule is a systematic procedure for _________ _________ to waiting jobs, and determining the sequence in which jobs are required to be processed.
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b) __________ rule is used to determine the sequence of order for a series of jobs to be processed on a fixed number of machines. c) Critical ratio = [Time remaining for due date] / [ ________________ ]

13.10 Summary
Let us summarise the key learnings of this unit: PPC focus on operation control through the process of scheduling. Scheduling helps in operational controls in manufacturing and service systems. The factors that greatly influence scheduling are the number of jobs, the number of machines as well as the complexity of the machining operations in the line. There are two types of approaches to scheduling. They are forward scheduling and backward scheduling. These are used to ensure that the lead time for manufacture is kept to a minimum and the products are supplied to the customers as quickly as possible. The scheduling methodology adopted as well as its complexity differ from production shop to shop and also in the systems like job shops, process shops, mass production lines, fully automated plants, etc. There are many types of scheduling and the methodologies used in production. Specific methods used depend on the type of industry, organisation, products, and level of sophistication required in the production. The scheduling methodology can be classified as charts and boards (Gantt load and progress chart, scheduled boards, and computer graphics) and priority decision rules like single and double criteria rules, critical ratio scheduling, index method, and critical path method. Each one of these has its own specific applications and PPC will decide based on the type of scheduling required to accomplish the job with the minimum time possible, thus saving costly machine hours. Workforce scheduling reflects the staffing plan into a specific work schedule for each employee. Scheduling should ensure proper loading of jobs based on the skills available within the workforce.

13.11 Glossary
Critical path: The critical path is the path which has the largest amount of time associated with the activities and this represents the minimum time
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required to be considered while scheduling. This critical path time, which is the minimum required time, has to be included while calculating the lead time for delivery of products. Queuing system: Just like queuing for a railway ticket in front of the counter, the customer waiting in line for the supplies to be made is considered while preparing an optimal scheduling model in order to ensure minimum queuing of the customers.

13.12 Terminal Questions


1. 2. 3. 4. What are the factors to be considered by PPC while scheduling? Explain briefly the four classification of scheduling strategies? Distinguish between forward scheduling and backward scheduling? Explain in brief the uses and limitations of Gantt charts used in Scheduling? 5. Distinguish between Gantt load charts and Gantt scheduling chart? 6. What is priority sequencing and what are the various criteria used in it?

13.13 Answers
Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (c) (a) (c) (b) (d) a. Assigning priorities b. Johnsons c. Time needed to completed the job

Terminal Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Refer 13.3 Refer 13.5 Refer 13.7 Refer 13.8.1 Refer 13.8.1 Refer 13.8.2
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Reference:

Frazier, G., & Gaither, N. (2002). Operations Management. SouthWestern/Thomson Learning. Ronald, E. J., & Everett, A. E. (2009). Production And Operations Management: Concepts, Models And Behavior. Phi Learning

E-Reference:

www.enotes.com www.som.umass.edu

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