#29 What’s Next?

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foam magazine # 29 what's next?

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In these supplements. A simple question. The method used to create introduction . for us? Promises. the digitalization of the medium brought about fundamental changes that have redetermined our entire visual culture. photographers and a photography museum. but so hard to answer.What’s next? What’s next after I have finished what I am doing right now? What’s next for me tomorrow. feel or behave. the way a photographer organizes his or her professional practice. It’s a difficult question. However. For Foam. What’s Next for Foam? Regular readers of Foam Magazine will already be acquainted with the investi­ gation that we started at the beginning of this year in a series of special supplements. just looking back and congratulating ourselves on what has been achieved over the past decade doesn’t fit the mindset that is characteristic of our staff. a new photography museum opened its doors in Amsterdam – Foam was born. at the beginning of a brand new day? What’s next for you. distribute and share photos. And so the What’s Next? theme arose naturally for our jubilee year. hopes and ideas about what is in the pipeline are often very influential on the way we think. At the same time. they varied from reflective articles and provocative position statements to intriguing visual contributions. conserving and presenting? How does an organization remain relevant and significant? An investigation into the future of photography is inescapably also an investigation into our own future. Leading photographers. a new photography magazine was launched: Foam Magazine started out as a catalogue accompanying the first exhibition. This year marks the tenth anniversary of both Foam and Foam Magazine – a memorable event that deserves to be celebrated. but immediately became an independent platform for photography. Our curiosity about new developments is simply stronger than our desire to look back. utterly transforming what we consider to be a photo. The results were often surprising. expectations. how photo editors work and how countless amateurs make. Because who knows what will be next? Who dares to look into the crystal ball and tell us what the future might bring. It’s a question that Foam has asked for the past year in an effort to define the next step for photography. In recent years. The fact that we found this a fitting theme to reaffirm our ten-year anniversary indicates a validation of the current position of photography. What’s next? It’s a simple question that can be asked at any given moment. 5 Ten years ago In December 2001. but a truly fascinating one. another significant issue was the way a photographic institution such as ours functions: how should a photography museum operate within a rapidly changing visual culture that has called into question classic museum duties such as collecting. It’s a question asked with good reason. a number of experts from the photographic community presented their vision concerning What’s Next?. researchers and curators were given space to express their ideas on the future of photography.

The journey is more important than the destination. Foam on its own has neither the ambition nor the pretention to answer questions concerning the future of photography. the editors repeatedly realised that filters are extremely important and are becoming more significant all the time to distinguish value and meaning within the profusion of information that we receive daily in a great variety of ways. as well as artists’ studio space. photographers. engaging them in discussions at special meetings and inviting them to make a contribution to the What’s Next? website. foam magazine # 29 what's next? What’s Next? in Arles This issue carries also accounts of conversations that took place every day in our What’s Next? project space in the first week of the prestigious photography festival Les Recontres d’Arles in the south of France. in the section: ‘Next Generation’. But. more than any answers that arise. what developments have we witnessed. The meeting set the tone and direction for the discussion that has been going on for a year now. authorship. Foam created a specially designed project room which functioned as an exhibition space. Conversely. well-balanced magazine that is just what our readers look for. offering them pages in the supplements. the company gathered in small groups to discuss subjects such as the value of copyright. Anyone interested. often surrounded by visitors. researchers. Students from both academies made concerted efforts to create work together ‘in situ’. To offer our visitors and readers opportunities to contribute to the discussion we launched the project website at the start of the celebration of our tenth year. can react to the themes and comment on specific questions and positions. and produced a daily zine in which they responded to both influential photographic themes and the festival which they had suddenly become part of. We believe it is essential in an investigation into the future of photography to give a voice to those who will soon be a decisive part of that future – those currently studying photography. Fifteen curators. meeting room and discussion centre.these What’s Next? supplements gave shape to our year of investigation. It would however be inaccurate to consider this What’s Next? issue of Foam Magazine as a conclusion or a full account of all the activities undertaken throughout this anniversary year. from professionals to amateurs. Curating the Future During the process of compiling this special issue. just as you would expect from our editors. we are interested in everyone’s opinion on the question of how the medium can best develop itself and which aspects are most relevant. trend-watchers. education. museum architecture and the latest technological developments. discussions and conversations which took place in the last twelve months. In between the individual presentations. But because artists. The site has seen a lot of traffic since its launch. This also explains the overall title Curating the Future: each of us is called upon to be our own filter or curator. Some of these discussions are covered in this What’s Next? issue of Foam Magazine. the future of magazines and tablet computers. The content has been organised into chapters that touch on themes the editors feel add up to a fascinating. the great majority of the content has been specifically created for this issue by a large array of contributors. To try to obtain answers we seek the opinions of experts from all parts of the cultural sector. writers. Expert meeting One important moment this year was the meeting of experts we organized in March in our museum in Amsterdam. A portion of its contents can of course be traced to interviews. internet art. editors and curators have 6 . Foam strives to offer something for everyone interested in photography. to raise key points and to pose critical questions. These students again emerge in this magazine. editors and bloggers from all over the world presented their vision of the future of photography to a room full of professionals from the Dutch cultural sector. where is it all leading? It is the discussion that determines the significance and the strength of the project. A major component of our presence in Arles was the cooperation between two famed art academies: the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam and the École Nationale Supérieure de la Photographie in Arles. Where do we stand. making this issue a unique and independent contribution to the ongoing investigation. For Foam the value of our tenth anniversary project is primarily the opportunity to engage in discussions with all those who can be conceived as representing the photographic community.

creative director of KesselsKramer. translators. the Editor-in-Chief of Aperture magazine. From their lists we chose one representative from each continent and selected an artist from Europe. Six portfolios This issue also showcases six different portfolios with exceptional work by Lieko Shiga. Cape Town-based journalist and writer Sean O’Toole and Lesley Martin. we asked curators and editors to propose each five emerging photographers or artists involved in photography on their continent. based in Brazil as curator and lecturer. I would therefore like to sincerely thank all who have contributed to this exceptional issue. Andrew Best. singular. New York) focused on multi-media work and the circulation of images. colleagues. each of them based on a clear viewpoint that differs sharply from the rest. Future Magazines The contribution by Fred Ritchin on the stand-alone exhibition project What Matters Now? Proposals for a New Front Page is particular relevant for us. London) compiled a presentation based on the concept of ‘photography as pure image’. The interplay between them all and the shared belief in creating something that is challenging. and Jefferson Hack (Dazed&Confused. intriguing. Jordan Tate. Japanese photography critic and curator Mariko Takeuchi. and Lauren Cornell (New Museum. publisher of Aperture Foundation’s book programme in New York. necessary. a news desk was established in the form of a virtual cafe in the Aperture Gallery. about information and inspiration. They have been able to transform their skills and knowledge into propositions that will undoubtedly lead to further discussions. Foam invited four guest curators to realise four radical exhibition proposals. printers and sponsors. Stemming from the idea that the authority of filters that select and interpret significant news for us has been undermined and that collective discussions of socially conscious news exist only online. Erik Kessels (independent collector/curator. Paulien Oltheten. This project and exhibition was without a doubt unique. In addition to the sections ‘Next Generation’ and 'Magazines'. Especially our friends. The panel included: Anne Marsh who has recently published her book on contemporary Australian photography. Amsterdam) translated his viewpoint ‘photography in abundance’ into a presentation that is both spectacular and intriguing. Alison Nordström (George Eastman House. Fred Ritchin’s afterthoughts on What Matters Now? conclude the special section with contributions from the editors of four allied and respected magazines – literally making each on eight pages a magazinewithin-a-magazine. editors. fine and unusual have made this an impressive endeavour where the entire creative process is as much a part of the total project as the end product. photographers. In the section ‘Curating the Space’ is ample attention for an exhibition taking place in our own museum in Amsterdam during the month of November. As part of the search for our own future. Thank you all. this issue also contains the chapters ‘From Here On(line)’ on photography within an online environment. about starting a conversation with each other and keeping the contact going. they can offer us a reference point in our own selection processes. and see you next time!  • Marloes Krijnen Director Foam introduction 7 . What Matters Now? took place at the Aperture Gallery in New York in September and resulted from Ritchin’s close collaboration with Melissa Harris. and ‘Technology Matters’ in which experts in the latest visual technology present insights into the subject matter and themes they work with daily. Such an extraordinary issue could only have been produced with the skills. Many thanks are due to the editors of OUTLOOK. photographers and the many other valued contacts across the world that contributed to making Foam the institution it is today. It is about the process. Eder Chiodetto.already established a filtering view of their environment. ‘Independent’ on the desire not to conform to larger structures as artists. Rochester) is responsible for a presentation which focuses on ‘photography as object’. Waterfall magazine and Fantom for their enthusiasm and willingness to contribute in this rather unusual way to Foam Magazine. SeeSaw magazine. Foam is extremely proud that these four guest curators have been bold enough to work with Foam on this investigation into new exhibition forms. talent and enthusiasm of many exceptional authors. To make our selection. Hasan & Husein Essop and Cia de Foto. designers.

Politics and Philosophy of the Online Image by Laurel Ptak & David Horvitz 93 Future Museum Visions The Photographers’ Gallery (London) Musée de l’Elysée (Lausanne) Three Shadows (Beijing) by RongRong & inri by Sam Stourdzé by Brett Rogers 83 4 Curators 4 Visions 4 Presentations 1 Museum interviews with Erik Kessels.0 by Nicholas Mirzoeff 59 Postinternet Art After the Internet by Marisa Olson 72 CURATING ThE SPAcE 75 Portfolio Andy Best Fall Series selected by Anne Marsh 64 Towards a History.4 Curating the Future by Marloes Krijnen foam magazine # 29 what's next? 10 INDEPENDENT 12 Outside the Box Interview with JR by Stefano Stoll 27 Portfolio Lieko Shiga Kitakama selected by Mariko Takeuchi 35 Audience Participation Via PanAm & The Sochi Project by Max Houghton 17 Re-Re-Re-Mediating the Ex-Ex-Extended by Anne de Vries 23 I Publish by Bruno Ceschel 40 FROM HERE ON(LINE) 42 Manifesto of the exhibition From Here On 43 Inside Out Photography 2. Alison Nordström. Jefferson Hack & Lauren Cornell by Marcel Feil & Kim Knoppers 47 Marcel Feil in conversation with Clément Cheroux Fred Ritchin Penelope Umbrico 51 Portfolio Jordan Tate New Work selected by Lesley Martin 70 Dialogue during What’s Next? Expert Meeting The Wide Web of the Photographic World 92 Foam Mug by Foam Lab 96 Dialogues during What’s Next? Expert Meeting The Ideal Institution & Archiving into the Future 8 .

Jones by Jörg Colberg 9 . ENSP École Nationale Supérieure de la Photograhie Arles (F) and Foam 155 Manifesto on Future Education by Timm Rautert 147 Portfolio Hasan & Husain Essop Halaal Art selected by Sean O’Toole 156 Dialogue during What’s Next? Expert Meeting Next Generation Photographers 158 Manifesto on Future Education by Eder Chiodetto 159 Someone’s Watching Afterthoughts on the exhibition Showroom Girls by Willem Popelier by Colette Olof 163 Portfolio Paulien Oltheten Photos from Japan and my Archive selected by Caroline von Courten index 174 TEchNOlOGY MATTERs 176 Total Vision Camera Culture at the MIT Media Lab by Arthur Ou 171 Manifesto on Future Education by Charlotte Cotton 189 How to See 1.000.98 MAGAZINEs 99 Curated by Waterfall 107 Curated by SeeSaw 115 Curated by Outlook 123 Curated by Fantom 131 Of White Walls and Six Tables What Matters Now? Proposals for a new frontpage by Fred Ritchin 136 NEXT GENERATION 138 Holding Up a Mirror A Project by the Gerrit Rietveld Academie Amsterdam (NL).000 Images? by Lev Manovich 172 Manifesto on Future Education by Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin 181 The Rebirth and Future of Analog Instant Photography by The Impossible Project 195 Portfolio Cia de Foto Caixa de Sapato selected by Eder Chiodetto 203 Joan Fontcuberta Statement on What’s Next? 206 Contributors List 209 Foam Amsterdam Exhibition programme 218 Colophon 185 A Googled Future Interview with Michael T.

foam magazine # 29 what's next? 10 .

and that is what we’d like to dedicate this first chapter to. which starts with an extensive interview with the young French artist JR. This concerns both the financing and the presentation of projects in an independent and unconstrained way. Upon our invitation. and has been criticised as well as prized. Crowdfunding is a concept that has been much talked about over the past two years.The passion. introduction independent . Two exceptional projects by the Dutch documentary photographers Rob Hornstra and Kadir van Lohuizen bear witness to their commitment to both the subject and their audience. whom they rely upon for support. The phenomenon of selfpublishing is a widely used practice and an ode to the love of printed matter in digital times. Bruno Ceschel introduces 11 us to three artists who have taken (printed) matters into their own hands. the Dutch artist Anne de Vries introduces a group of artists to us who explore and investigate the medium of photography without necessarily using photography itself. the idealism and the engagement that radiate from some artists who create their own platforms to realise their work is both infectious and remarkable. This calls for vision and courage.

Light slows him down. march 2007 ­ © JR / Agence VU 12 . He knows no limits but his own. In the street. Palestinian side. curiosity and generosity. Bethlehem. He runs over the rooftops. The street is his media. Searching for the right cause. Security Fence. the gallery. 2008 © Christopher Shay → 28 Millimetres. JR is energetic. The shadows are a resource. Jerusalem. And yet. Independence is his fuel. And then in the museums. By love.JR was born in the street and raised with the need for freedom. He runs around the world. Rio. JR is a gang. Face 2 Face. he exposes himself to danger. the museum. independent ↗ Portrait JR. He jumps the turnstiles. From virtual networks online to the brick walls of Shanghai. Whether in the banlieues of Paris. He shakes off the police. floating like a super-hero. By play. Nairobi or New Delhi. JR avoids the sun. With his close companions. Pasting on the Separation wall. he plots his route. JR moves about disguised. the largest gallery on earth is at his disposal. Selftaught. to the media. He is at once the artist. worldwide. the curator. His exhibition is global. he surrounds himself with passion.

Outside Interview with the JR by Stefano Stoll interview with JR 13 Box .

Unframed was the occasion to say that I’m not a photographer. Financing my projects from the sales of my work is the basis of my artistic freedom. In this sense. I’ve already refused a lot of contracts that would have made me very comfortable financially. The museum guarantees my legitimacy as an artist. For an artist like JR whose work is so singular and socially engaged. whether it’s in Kibera. films. I’ve chosen to not have money be what drives my work. I don’t want to spend my time selling. I wasn’t looking to distance myself from the street. They’re installations accompanying the books and films that I provide for free on the Internet. Perrotin arrived ten years after I got started. and I’ve never accepted donations. I refuse any and all sponsoring. The piece has its full meaning when it’s in its location. I’ve never submitted portfolios to get government grants or prizes. First. Our structure is adapted to our projects. and never put us in danger. Why did you change your mind? I haven’t changed my mind. But the institution also allows me to do outrageous things. independent You started out in the street. because I’ve always worked within my means and not from ­ some potential financing. the galleries help me get greater recognition from the art world. I think I’ve failed completely. when I was already working with the Lazarides gallery in London and my self-finance system was already in place. The bottom line is that being represented by a gallery frees up time for me to produce. because you knew how to do without a gallery or a museum. This was the first time that you worked with a public collection of historic photographs rather than with your own images. Is this the end of your freedom of action? (Laughs). The message. films and museum exhibitions? Of course! Properly speaking. Museum exhibitions are part of this decryption. I have to look out for speculation around my works as much as I can. where they have maximum impact. And ultimately my choice turned out to be the right one. the artwork. my rules are very clear: I’m radical. So you make a distinction between artistic work on site. New York In 2010 you were invited by Festival IMAGES in Vevey. even though the money it generates finances my work. although what I do is widely reported in the ­ media and familiar to a wider public. But my actions only touch the community of people right there. They’re the only ones who truly experi- 14 . Was this your first step away from the street and towards the museum? The objective with Unframed wasn’t to get away from the street and go towards the museum. The museum has a neutrality which is the best environment for retranscribing my actions. in the cities where you’re pasting it up. I install the pictures on the street. you signed a contract with one of Europe’s most important contemporary art galleries (Emmanuel Perrotin/Paris) in 2011. even if it’s not my objective. for explaining these images and generating thoughts free of any political message. and doesn’t put any unnecessary pressure on us. my work is still unrecognized in the contemporary art world. Festival des Arts Visuels de Vevey. Our fixed costs are low. ­ The meaning of my work is primary. as it is for any artist. Switzerland to present a new project entitled Unframed. But since I started. is the collage on public walls. like having put up the faces of the favela women on a national monument in the centre of Rio. Because strangely enough. The real change with Unframed was to get away from the photo credit. my artistic process is the action of collage on location. For the moment. I never sign exclusive contracts. I had already worked with Foam photography museum in Amsterdam and the Tate Modern in London. Publishing. conferences and museums allow me to recreate the context in which I installed my images. even though the director had to leave afterwards. Now you’re showing your work in museums. The important thing for me is not to know who took the photo but how it’s been recontextualized in the public space. books. Of course that will get away from me one day. I know that recognition from the museums legitimizes my artistic process. Rio or Vevey. bordering on political instrumentalization.↖ Part of the project Unframed at Images. So the museums are only one part of the mechanism allowing me to bypass performance ‘in situ’. on the contrary. Also. Then I give people the keys to contextualize them. to provide elements for understanding my actions. but to reinforce the message of collage in the street. This installation generated a lot of controversy. ence the work for what it is. from the distribution of your work through the media. But the commissioning museum assured neutrality. I’ve never lacked money. No museum can ever compete with that kind of visibility. isn’t there a risk that institutionalizing goes along with instrumentalizing? This is a real fear for me. Au contraire. and I don’t make any compromises with money. 2010 © Sébastien Devrient ©JR © Estate of ­ Helen Levitt/Courtesy Laurence Miller
Gallery. The street will always provide me with the biggest gallery in the world. What is your relationship to money? If my aim was to earn a lot. but that I use the photo as a medium. I don’t get any salary from my galleries and I alone decide which works I put on the market. and this is the only way I’ve ever financed my projects. To everyone’s surprise.

a masked man intervening where there is injustice? (Laughs). I think that we can change the world by the way we show it and regard it. With Inside Out. For Inside Out you’re no longer the artist but rather the coordinator of an exhibition that is infiltrating the streets of the entire world. To have impact on a community. What does the word ‘artist’ mean to you? For me. But this remains an art project. 2 February 2009 © JR / Agence VU . I’ve become a medium. It’s the quality of the ties between my team members that has generated our way of working. This happenstance propelled me towards a confrontation with the media and the clichés they promulgate. To what ends? I don’t think I use the media. not a humanitarian one. everyone can make use of this prize with their own photos. but who gives everyone a large margin for interpretation. An enterprise gives rise to expectations. With that. The artist owes nothing to anyone. I often consider the prime injustice to be how we regard someone else. they’re under my artistic direction. an artist is someone who thinks ‘outside the box’. you’ve sought interaction with current events. you went to the Middle East and you put Israelis next to Palestinians. Kenya. in the media or on the Internet I make sure that the only photos of me you can find are in a hat and sunglasses. I can be their publisher. I wasn’t working in that neighbourhood because of the injustices. How do you respond to those who say you’re like Zorro. and how does it serve you today? I’ve been anonymous since I was 13 (laughs). whether people 15 ↖ Women are heroes. For the Face2Face project. Seriousness can rub shoulders with mockery. outside established boundaries. but not in a given direction. it’s only my work that should be visible and revealed. JR is like an orchestral conductor. Your first project – 28mm. Even in 2004. in all freedom. to do something that makes sense to them. Action in the Kibera slum. Nairobi. This is why I decided to be ­ an artist. Too often. It’s true that I’m concerned with the notion of injustice. like in the shantytowns. and this trust is my source of inspiration. I understood that I have to withdraw from the equation. against the current or not. we form an opinion of a place without ever having been there – the wall separating Israel and Palestine is an excellent example. there was a point where I told myself I couldn’t go everywhere I’d been invited. So in accepting the TED Prize. the artist can allow himself to go beyond certain limits. I was receiving hundreds of e-mails from people asking me to intervene near their homes to change their situation. do you consider yourself an artist. I believe we can change the world by fighting clichés. Then I started to paste up portraits of people. however. when I took the photo of Ladj holding the camera like a gun. How has your anonymity served you in the past. Portraits of a Generation – took you to the heart ­ of the troubled Paris suburbs. interview with JR What relationship do you have with the media? On the one hand you avoid them. Today. I dialogue with them. My feeling of freedom depends on my trust in my entourage. entrepreneur or activist? 100% Artist. and they’re part of the means at my disposal for publicizing the meaning of my projects. How do you explain this sharp turn from artist to curator? After my last projects were finished.You started out alone in the street. ­ financial and legal staff. The most extreme case is Inside Out. With the money you received from the TED Prize ($100. I think for myself. I had to stay masked for the project Expo2Rue. I couldn’t honour all this positive energy. Without hesitation. They allow me to explain the other side of the picture. Ever since you started. I have to be the facilitator and not the author. I often refuse interviews but try to direct the journalists to the people who participated in my projects. I transmitted it to all the people of the world.000). on the other you use them. With the Inside Out project it’s the people on the ground who give the interviews and explain what they’re doing. that’s what I protect above all. transcending any framework. Today you direct what’s almost a small business that employs or commissions technical. with a microproject pasting small-scale photographs up around Paris. which involves the participation of thousands of people all over the world. you’ve begun a spectacular global project. Doing graffiti. on the world. but I’m not their spokesman. A collective implies an associative operation which isn’t conducive to rapid decision-making and the freedom of action that I need. I couldn’t reveal my name. The artist has the right to make mistakes. Inside Out is a mirror of society. who is nothing without the musicians. Is JR an individual or a collective? ­ Obviously many people are involved in my projects. through the media’s simplifications. It’s this freedom that people are fascinated by. Generally. I’ve grown up in this spirit. It wasn’t until a year later that my pasted photos found themselves turned up in the background of items broadcast by the media during the riots of 2005. ­ Certain projects are definitely an experience of the media reacting to these themes. Wait: in the beginning my interventions had nothing to do with the media or current events.

I have to avoid falling into the trap of the image as a vector of spectacle. the paper. But I have to be careful about this. We don’t get passionate about the left-right divisions any more. The context is more important to me than sheer size. The power relations have changed. the ladders. and rightly. On the other hand it evokes an aspect of the DIY tinkering that goes along with all my installations: the glue. It is incumbent on the artist to take it farther. I don’t want to add my features to the faces I paste up. that my generation doesn’t know political engagement any more. On the other hand I’ve never sought out provocation. Is JR worried about being ‘politically correct’? Not at all. Does JR want to change the world? Into what? It’s not the job of art to change the world. for the Festival Images. That said. one misses the point of the work. My objective is artistic and not political. not even five years from now. Above all. since it will always be a strong testimony with a memory function. Is the size of the images important in your process? The monumental size of my interventions is a common denominator among my most conspicuous interventions. your actions ask questions. The street has become both the gallery and the workshop. Photography in my eyes is above all a vector. I’m anonymous under my own name. glue and paper are certainly not the usual instruments of change. But of course. I don’t pass judgement on the Israeli-Palestine wall or on shantytowns. Even the definition of the word political escapes us. Really. Street art marks the rediscovered independence of artists. My projects are done with a few strips of paper and sometimes have a lot of impact. That fascinates me. Ink. because it has become a commercial label. That’s why in the Unframed project I was able to easily unframe and reframe the photos that marked history. Paradoxically. while I have differentiated between my work ­ on-site and the works meant for the market. is a good example. the scissors … And lastly it’s a good motto for the mentality that animates my team: to show resourcefulness. When I saw one of the pictures I shot in the favela in Rio published in the celebrity magazine Gala. I reveal things. Maybe I’ll have a pair of ‘Nike JRs’ on my feet. it’s probably the virtual world that will be the new space for expression to replace the street. and thus to my guarantee of freedom and independence. The artist has a real responsibility to know what his or her photos are becoming. I haven’t got any idea where I’ll be or what I’ll be like in ten years. the favela in Rio was becoming peaceful. Two years after my intervention. I understood that this wasn’t helping the project. I’d say that most graffiti doesn’t make sense except on the walls of the neighbourhood where they are. I live from day to day. How do you see the artist JR 30 years from now? Oh! I can’t see it at all. in order to recontextualize them. The real question for me is what we do with all these images produced every day. In this sense. for me Do It Yourself could be a statement about the self-financing of my projects. Anonymity protects me from trouble with the police. Basically. How do you see photography evolving in the next few years? I’ve never been a photographic purist. You devote yourself to society’s great themes. Photography is becoming hugely democratic and today everybody is a photographer. where they are going and what they illustrate. I want it to become meaningful. What I think is funny is that when I feel really anonymous is when I’m travelling and I show the officer my passport. What relationship do you have with street art? Like graffiti. What does the notion of Do It Yourself inspire in you? On the one hand. I’m like a tagger who tags with other people’s faces. but I’m not an activist. What’s striking to me is that the explosion of street art symbolizes the reversal of the traditional relationships between artists and galleries. on the contrary it was hindering it. I may have gone bourgeois. Is your art engaged? The director of the festival Les Rencontres d’Arles once said about this. No more 10 years ago than now. Add to that the fact that most of my interventions are done without authorization. a medium. and work with what we have and not with what we could have. Your installations are generally monumental. I’m looking for a good fit between the photographs and the place. a way of saying ‘ I was there’.  • independent 16 . a photograph is a trace. but if the spectacular aspect dominates. My actions have no goal or political message. I may have changed my prejudices about brands. I’m not a militant activist. I want to stay in the shadow of the anonymous people that I put on display. these portraits have become my graffiti. to major social issues. when I’m famous in my anonymity. The monumental size of my projects helps to raise awareness and get people to wonder about the subject. detached from any message and from its context. with a vague kind of caption under it. I watch out for the name ‘street art’.close to me or strangers. I want to raise questions. But to change how you regard the world is to change the world. But in the future. Above all. to know that mixing toner on a piece of paper and placing a collage in a particular place can have impact on our view of the world. The installation of the minaret in Vevey. the benches.

these works seem to be precise in their stimulation of a more complex reading of the intentions and linguistics behind the information cycles as we find in the media spheres. RE-RE-RE MEDIATING THE EX-EX-EXTENDED RE-RE-RE MEDIATING THE EX-EX-EXTENDED Instead of simplifying the topics. being re-inserted in specific ways into reality. using new media technology presented in material and sculptural ways in the actual world. 17 . tilted and tweaked forms of media presentations.CURATED BY ANNE DE VRIES The artworks I want to present seem to share a curiosity for the enhanced.

Of course. the latest. content-aware filters and 3D. • 18 . edit content to maximize the impact on audiences and continually keep them engaged. not just to adjust the photograph. including news reports. all media. ‘Extended’ version of Photoshop. In fact. immediately enhances images. this can affect the resulting reality of the actual (offline) world.Once celebrated for its mechanical objectivity. using algorithms. Camera software such as the High Dynamic Range function in iPhones. In this way. the truth seems more susceptible to manipulation than ever now that we are actively occupied with its interpretation and dissemination through new and social media. features multiple extra functions. photography has become increasingly removed from its objective origins due to technological developments. improving snapshots directly to get more ‘realistic-looking’ photos. but also to add new information ‘as if’ it was part of the original image. the shopped and cropped image has virtually become the standard. photography finds itself at a crucial crossroad between the actual and a manipulated reality. Once a certain critical mass of supporters is involved. it is not only photography that gets ‘adjusted’. iNDEPENDENT Similarly. In modern professional photography.

Then he photographs them. In fact they result in effective reflections on the in-visibility of the different layers of the contemporary environment and on our memory of it. It is a complex project that reflects on the developments of technology and trends but also on the events. Her works explore how media technology changes and transforms itself following social changes. Slovenia. and vice-versa. He is an artist who investigates the urban environment and our perception of it. obtaining unnaturally natural images that at first sight seem digitally altered. In the series called Western Imports he covers existing objects in various environments with inkjet prints showing the background of the object itself.ALeKsaNdra DoMaNoViĆ → Aleksandra Domanović was born in 1981 in Novi Sad. and passed them onto techno DJs who sampled them and turned them into tracks. 19 . One of her recent projects is named 13. RE-RE-RE MEDIATING THE EX-EX-EXTENDED CaYeTaNo Ferrer ← Cayetano Ferrer was born in 1981. Honolulu. and moreover on the way these events were presented. as a two-channel video installation and as a freely downloadable archive. It is presented in form of parties. This is an open-end project for which Domanović took musical themes (named ‘indents’ in news lingo) from the first televised Yugoslav news broadcast in 1958 up to the present. referring to the time when the TV news used to be broadcast in former Yugoslavia. usually not visible behind it. where the tracks are played by Domanović as a VJ. Hawaii.30. along the history of former Yugoslavia’s component countries. Aleksandra Domanović lives and works in Berlin.

SaMara GoLdeN
← Samara Golden was born in ­Michigan in 1973. She uses a wide range of media including found images from the Internet, hand­ made objects, mirrors, and re-­ photographing, to create sculptures. The ­ sculptures are incorporated into live video installations where the viewer is involved through the use of surveillance cameras that reverse the gaze, and oblige the ­ watcher to be watched. Often the live video feeds are combined with dvd's via a video mixer. These complex, maximal installations often address issues of identity and internal conflict, juxtaposing the self to the public, spectacle society and mass media. Samara Golden is currently based in Los Angeles.

iNDEPENDENT

oLiVer Laric
→ Oliver Laric was born in 1981 in Innsbruck, Austria. He is a multidisciplinary artist and curator working with new media and found materials. He investigates the re-appropriation and manipulation of images in our culture, often juxtaposing them with the past. The project Kopienkritik reflects on the process of analyzing gypsum copies of classic sculptures to gain a greater understanding and comprehension of the originals. Laric reinstalled and rearranged the elements of the Skulpturhalle Basel collection, interspersing his own sculptures and videos within the display throughout the museum. He grouped the sculptures according to criteria of appearance and posture, making visible the spread and evolution of aesthetic and functional ideas in art practice. The project was completed by the projection of the video essay Versions, in which Laric addresses and stimulates the debate about the notions of authorship, authenticity and multiplication of images in and out of the Web context. Oliver Laric lives and works in Berlin.

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SiMoN DeNNY
← Simon Denny was born in 1982 in Auckland, New Zealand. He is a multi-disciplinary artist working with installation, exhibition design and sculpture. He explores the juxtaposition of reality and filtered reality by media, and how we exist in relation to this. In the installation Deep Sea Vaudeo he built a reef of screens decreasing in physical and pictorial ‘depth’, rom CRT to LCD, showing appropriated footage from an underwater ambient video. The presentation resembled sales displays which often use underwater images of marine life. The viewer was able to wonder around the faux reef, where nature and media, depiction and representation are all swirled together, hinting at the passing of a video format (CRT) and with it the ‘fishbowl’ screen, once a standard building block of video sculpture. Simon Denny lives and works between Auckland and Berlin.

RE-RE-RE MEDIATING THE EX-EX-EXTENDED

KaTja NoViTsKoVa
→ Katja Novitskova was born in 1984 in Tallinn, Estonia. She is an artist, curator and media expert. Her work investigates and pushes the limits of the internet and new media art, relating them to issues of identity, social reality and image ecology. The project Expo 2020 Gbadolite is a speculative research developed together with Femke Herregraven, Matthias Schreiber, Chris Lee, Henrik van Leeuwen and Mikko Oustamanolakis. Looking into the relationship between global capitalist investment strategies and contemporary power structures they created their own global event, World Expo 2020, taking place in Gbadolite, a town in the Democratic Republic of Congo. To analyse the processes behind a world expo they created collages of heavily Photoshopped found images related to Africa and new technologies and mixed them up with documentary footage. Katja Notiskova currently lives and works in Amsterdam.

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NicoLas CeccaLdi
← Nicolas Ceccaldi was born in 1983 in Montreal, Canada. The works presented here consist of custommade prototypes of security cameras, essentially made of optical equipment and children's toys intricately melted together. These mutant devices keep a watchful eye on their environment, feeding a continuous live signal into closed-circuit video displays. Nicolas Ceccaldi lives and works in Berlin.

iNDEPENDENT

TiMUr Si-QiN
→ Timur Si-Qin was born in 1984 in Berlin. In his work Si-Qin uses commercial imagery to explore the attractors of social and economic systems. For his contribution to Based-in-Berlin, a 1:1 scale football field LED banner system was proposed in Berlin's Monbijou Park, financed by real advertisement rented out by a London based ad-agency. The project was unfortunately shelved at the last minute due to city bureaucracy. Another project, Axe-Effect, consists of sculptures that pay a tongue-incheek tribute to the two primary drives of evolution: competition and sexual selection.

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İ PUBLiSH
BY BRUNO CeScHeL

i publish

İ AM AN ARTİST, İ PUBLİSH
The German artist Joachim Schmid has been working with vernacular photography and bookmaking for years. He started collecting photographs he found in public places and, profiting from the widespread custom of sharing digital images, more recently pursued his search online. In 2009 he published a book entitled Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations, Every Building on the Sunset Strip, Thirty-Four Parking Lots, Nine Swimming Pools, A Few Palm Trees, No Small Fires. The publication is essentially a remake of some of the books Ed Ruscha self-published between 1963 and 1972, including Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations,

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The zines were given away for free to friends and family or sold cheaply at £3. Jamie Hawkesworth. This first publication gave both the collective and the imprint its name: PPP . potentially forever. In 2010 PPP moved on to making photozines. available online directly from the printer. in a slightly tongue-in-cheek gesture. or a selection of quirky family photos found in the local charity shops. with copies neither signed nor numbered and printed at various times to keep them cheap and available. Distributing the publication in this way might be seen per se as a statement. Schmid questions the function of the art photographer in the days of the digital democratization of the medium. but art reflecting on itself. occasionally joined by another former Preston student 24 . By using found images. if applied to books: big expensive books in limited editions offered for a small elite of collectors. Murray.Preston is my Paris Publishing. a poor post-industrial town in the North of England. an iconic precursor and major influence on contemporary artists’ book culture. be it a fake fashion shoot with local teenagers. in a interesting conceptual rhyme to the idea of imagery found online. İ PUBLİSH In June 2009 two British photographers. was treated. a newsprint publication called Preston Bus Station. published Preston Is My Paris. photographing its architecture as well the community that ≈ independent Schmid’s book is not merely an homage. And. as a substitute for the Paris of Atget and Boiffard. mundane stories about the town they lived in and its community. In choosing to print the book on-demand. more recently. Parkinson and Hawkesworth decided to spend several weeks in the station. Schmid did not take the pictures of the places and objects listed in the title. have published numerous others. Unlike Ruscha. always sticking to their original format. Schmid’s publication is theoretically an ‘infinite’ edition. a significant conceptual update on some of the issues Ruscha raised in the 1960s. but instead used images he found online. The bus station in Preston is a beautiful modernist building that seems to encapsulate the doomed optimism of post-war England. Murray once said his original reason for making the zines was to do something interesting in a place where there was little going on. Each zine was conceived as a mini-project. whose books were an open edition. Or. Preston. a response to a decade in photography governed by the principle: big prints in big white walled galleries for (supposedly) big money.∆ widely considered to be the first modern artist’s book. a 12-page zine of Xeroxed photographs printed at home. When it was scheduled for demolition to provide space for a more profitable housing development. a young lecturer Adam Murray and one of his former students Robert Parkinson. he works in another reference to Ruscha. Since that first zine Adam and Robert. telling everyday. Along similar lines. however. İ AM A STORYTeLLeR. The series of publications was conceived as pieces of a puzzle. full-bleed black-and-white photostories printed digi­ tally in a professional print-shop.

It’s a story that we share with our loved ones. a political act or an intimate diary. The hardback cover photobook presented a series of self-portraits Jong took while peeing. Its sexually graphic content becomes a tender ode to love – and a twist on the ‘male gaze’ paradigm. its irrational mechanics. İ AM. PPP and Jong all felt the need to leave a trace of their ideas. mostly young disadvantaged teenagers. The campaign to save the building eventually succeeded.gravitated to the place. selfpublished this time. ◊ İ AM İN LOVe. i publish In 2010 Jong produced another photobook. produced on a shoestring. who started collecting the publication. The effect is strangely un-arousing. Getting To Know My Husband’s Cock has a lot in common with family albums: that act of collecting intimate visual traces of one’s life and patiently gluing them together into a story. It is a shameless documentation of her boyfriend’s cock. photographed at different moments of their intimate life. Schmid. is touching. The project succeeded in engaging the local community and Preston Bus Station became a tool in the campaign against demolition. and upon which the narrative of our life is constructed. At the same time. mixing fashionista portraits with architecture and documentary photographs in a beautifully offbeat manner. its burning life-consuming nature. The compulsion with which Ellen documents what it means to fall in love. entitled Getting To Know My Husband’s Cock. Each of these artists has succumbed to the drive . was in fact given away for free. İ PUBLİSH 25 Be it an artistic gesture. Oddly. Preston Bus Station also charmed the art photography crowd. often in public spaces during the drunken and debauched nights of her youth in NYC’s Lower East Side. İ PUBLİSH In 2006 Powerhouse published a book entitled Pees On Earth by American photographer Ellen Jong. life. world. The gesture of turning the camera away from one’s own genitalia to those of the loved one makes incarnate that all-important moment when we move from juvenile self-obsession and gratification to the outward look necessary to share our life with somebody else. The publication.

150 colour pages. self published monograph with photographs and text. A well-informed international audience interested in books clearly exists – a further justification for this (r)evolution. The three DIY publishers have been doing it themselves not because there is money to be made from publishing – on the contrary. Printingon-demand and digital printing improvements in general. New York: 2010.to manifest him. as Ellen Jong said.or herself in something as tangible. Blurb: 2009. They have created a book so intimate that. Thirtyfour Parking Lots. Schmid. Preston is my Paris Publishing: 2010. most photo­ graphy publications are condemned to lose money – but because there is something empowering. ≈ ◊  Ellen Jong.  reston Bus Station. palpable and long-lasting as only a book can be. she would have never felt comfortable about having it published traditionally and seeing it appear in random bookstores around the world. No Small Fires. They ultimately believe photography can be a tool. PPP has made more then 20 publications so far. fascinating and exciting about creating a book. looking outwards at society and looking inwards at oneself. are only some of the astonishing recent technological advancements available to artists. Every Building on the Sunset Strip. Getting To Know My Husband’s Cock. the wider and cheaper availability of off-set printing and the amazing platform to showcase and sell books offered by internet. To openly challenge the modus operandi in publishing — Schmid has made printing on demand a central element of his own artistic practice and actively nurtured that approach via a collective he founded. Nine Swimming Pools. So they can interact with a social and political landscape cheaply and instantly. Artists making books is not by any means a novelty. These three recent publications epitomise and update three artistic urges that have always existed: challenging art. • independent ∆  Joachim Schmid. A Few Palm Trees. especially if it is a home for your own pictures. none of them costing more than £10. rather what has changed is the context in which their books are published. that they can use to interact/interfere with the world and possibly with themselves. PPP and Jong have decided to publish their books themselves. 26 . Twentysix Gasoline Stations. New technologies have recently furnished new tools to pursue missions of this sort. They made that decision for different reasons. Photography by Jamie Hawkesworth / P Adam Murray / Robert Parkinson. ABC The Artists’ Books Cooperative. Tabloid Size Newspaper. Essay by Aidan Turner-Bishop.

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 • selected by Mariko Takeuchi . dedicates her continual song from the darkness in our world. the only thing we can grasp at in despair of being unable to evade the death that must come to us all. in other words to bodies that are supposed to be dead. To her photography is life. Coal miners used to take canaries down into the mines with them. These actions have only one meaning: giving life to reality. Lieko Shiga. like a canary. anonymous lives and loves that are fated to be forgotten and universally ignored. The canary is sensitive to methane fumes and in its death saved the lives of many miners’ lives. Her work is therefore neither an interpretation of her own world nor a documentary about the real world.Lieko Shiga Kitakama All images © Lieko Shiga. returned seawater to the sea that weighed the same as a stranded whale and collected many flowers from graves before ­ burying them in the ground. as if Medusa’s eye penetrates a vibrant body to turn it to stone. This seems to be her vocation: to save numerous. 2011 Photography is usually linked to death rather than life. to photography as life. She made a dead plum tree bloom with paper flowers. A reversal of values occurs in Lieko Shiga’s photography.

his description of the project Crisis in Afghanistan was perceived as woolly and ill-conceived. and sometimes their art. in order to survive. Over the last few years. The trickledown effect of the nosedive in sales of most news­ papers. facilitated by electronic media. yet it also left him and others like him open to the criticism that this was lifestyle funding – allowing the already privileged to tour the world at someone else’s expense. Kickstarter. Such are the risks of going public when an idea is still at the formative stage. Crowdfunding was born. work without insurance. Both concepts have the idea of community at their heart. the sudden gathering of likeminded people to watch or take part in an activity. a term that when I first heard it. it seems the internet is both the cause of and the answer to the demise of traditional media.007). as already suggested. Larry Towell was on the receiving end of much opprobrium for asking his supporters to fund his latest trip to Afghanistan. Although his bid on one of the two most successful crowdfunding websites. surpassed its goal of $12. the crisis of print has reached its apogee. this exchange often takes the form of a blog. photographers have been asked to submit their pictures for no fee. a new business model appeared that looked like salvation.’ Because. and pay to publish their own books. connected in my mind to the relatively recent concept of ‘flashmobs’. A cover of the US satirical magazine The Onion in 2009 depicted a mournful young boy. photographers pursuing this route have to maintain an open and sometimes intimate dialogue with their audiences. as ‘crowd’ carries with it a connotation of anonymity – On the concept and practice of crowdfunding: Via PanAm (Kadir van Lohuizen) and The Sochi Project (Rob Hornstra & Arnold van Bruggen) audience participation became the buzzword. Photographers who made a living from photojournalism or documentary photography have had to renegotiate their industry. As the work progresses. with the strapline ‘For only $5 per month you can help continue photographing this child. chewing on the abundant flesh of free content before spitting it out half-eaten. The thoughtful blog can provide an answer 35 . magazines and books has been that editorial budgets have shrivelled. crowdfunded work depends on the idea of ‘community’. and it is on this premise that crowdfunding will thrive or falter. Towell’s status as a Magnum photo­ grapher must have played a huge part in convincing people to back him.e c n e i d Au Part icipa tion by Max Houghton Like the old joke about alcohol and life.000 (143 backers pledged $14. As the vultures circled. Crowdfunding – an ugly and somewhat inaccurate term. Everyone from Magnum photo­ graphers to under­ graduate photography students saw it as a lifeline to making new work.

but this is changing quite rapidly. The thinking started a long time ago. Yet for Kadir van Lohuizen. which differs from Kickstarter in that it controls which projects can access funding on its site via an independent editorial board. He admits he found the transition from lone traveller to constant communicator a difficult one. If you built a website some years ago. I would have said you were crazy. ‘I don’t like holidays! I am addicted to my work. read directly by the people who are paying for the work. and. and went on to publish Roots in 2006 and then Billionaires in 2008. As vast sums of money are pumped into making the region appear perfect to visitors. taking the subject of migration as his theme.’ 36 . building on the success of Hornstra’s earlier projects. I find it awkward. yet in fact only 10% of the total cost was funded through the website. it cost a crazy amount of money if you wanted to do it right. always a favourite category of ‘Crowdfunding could be a way to regain our independence. Their model of crowdfunding was entirely self-generated. perhaps most remarkably. among others. Ironically. where his responses to criticism came across as remote and out of sync. The blog. which we were losing big time. more traditional funding opportunities. the need for the photo­ grapher to examine the validity of his or her efforts has become paramount. geographical and political rivalries.’ ↖ Via PanAm App for iPad independent Another big success story of the crowdfunding era is Rob Hornstra’s The Sochi Project. I am not under the illusion that I could sell enough apps to do without funding.to the postmodern question of where to locate the self in the work. ethnic. presales of which sold out in a couple of hours. ‘It is not my instinct to make myself the story. After a bartender friend offered to buy a copy for €30 Hornstra wondered if he could sell a further hundred in the same way.’ Van Lohuizen used the other dominant crowdfunding website Emphas. one reason the project has been such a successful recipient of other. co-founder of the agency NooR. such as from the Foundation of the Arts in Holland. I love that people are interested in my stories. It focuses specifically on photographic ventures. He retains his youthful verve and optimism. it’s my only goal. because there are simply not enough people who have an iPad. which we were losing big time. and find different ways to approach projects. Currently half way through a year-long journey across South America. is an excellent example of a successfully funded project. the sense of community necessitated by his own foray into crowdfunding has been a revelation. But one of the reasons we started NooR was that we realized the industry was changing very quickly and we had to unite. Van Lohuizen’s Via PanAm. The app could be a new source of income. It required a certain drawing out of himself. such as 101 Billionaires. he simply says he thought self-published books were common.’ funders.is. But I have had to learn to like it. in a mode of photography that can no longer uphold objectivity as one of its principles. I hope this [the Via PanAm app] will be something we can all profit from. Now there are all these templates and it can be done easily. Larry Towell’s very private and eccentric nature (he is delightful in person) did not find its natural habitat in the blogosphere. can offer a crucial site for this endeavour. That Van Lohuizen and his producers Paradox are investing in new technology by making an app of this complexity has also brought its rewards. his university graduation project. saying he is not interested in making money from his work. Van Lohuizen now has Facebook friends across the eight countries in which he has travelled so far. While this makes him sound like a entrepreneurial prodigy. is its engagement with non-traditional crowdfunding and inherent audience participation. As the nature of witnessing has changed. Cowgirls and Communism. Says Van Lohuizen: ‘If you’d told me a few years ago that I’d be pioneering an iPad app or diving into multimedia. Hornstra wanted to look at real life in a region tense with religious. Now crowdfunding could be a way to regain our independence. He worked closely with writer and filmmaker Arnold van Bruggen and his fiveyear project focuses on the site of the Winter Olympic Games in 2014.

Van Lohuizen visualizes the stories of the communities. NL). Through Facebook and Twitter he keeps in direct touch with his audience. Simultaneously.000. In 2009 there were 11. In the center of Neiva is the reception center for the displaced (refugees). Travelling 28. audience participation ↘ © Kadir van Lohuizen/ NOOR Images. in 2011 this number has gone up to 38. Via PanAm engages the audience through a variety of platforms. the struggles and successes.000 refugees registered. On average around 400 people register every month. as well as intimate moments and personal stories. a phenomenon which is as old as humanity but is increasingly portrayed as a new threat to the Western world. While on the road. and soon National Geographic. His photo stories reflect the complexity of migration – the diverse motivations for coming and going. regions and societies he encounters. using both traditional and new media. the economic. Newsweek and L’Espresso). 37 . Kadir van Lohuizen investigates the roots of migration in the Americas. LIFE China. GEO. Sunday Times Magazine. The Via PanAm website and iApp provide contextual background information and directly update readers and viewers on the journey’s progress. Van Lohuizen can be followed through weekly radio reports (VPRO radio. from March 2011 to February 2012. bi-weekly newspaper articles (NRC Handelsblad. political. Paradox and Van Lohuizen are working on a fourth platform: a travelling exhibition capable of bringing the project back to the people and regions that relate to it. NL) and magazine publications (IS Magazine.000 km along the Pan-American Highway and crossing 15 countries. Via PanAm follows Van Lohuizen’s footsteps from the southern tip of Chile to the northernmost parts of Alaska. social and environmental contexts.  Via PanAm – a 40-week journey exploring migration in the Americas In Via PanAm.

Promised Land (2010). film and reportage about a world in flux. which is why they are doing it themselves. Over a period of five years. from the multi-billion-dollar investments in the Olympic venues to the conflict-ridden territories of the Northern Caucasus and Georgia. a world full of different realities within a small but extraordinary geographic area.independent ↗ © Rob Hornstra/INSTITUTE. in-depth and costly project. Hornstra and Van Bruggen think it is important that independent. The Sochi Project is a unique. 38 . Sanatorium (2009). posters or Christmas cards (with prices ranging from € 6 to € 1. Rob Hornstra and Arnold van Bruggen have since 2009 been documenting the changes in and around Olympic Sochi. like Empty Land.000). the Annual C-Print Collectors Box. documentary journalism continues to exist. The Sochi Project will become an atlas of this volatile region. The Sochi Project is a dynamic mix of documentary photography. financed by their donor system and by selling special edition prints and publications. Russia. Dutch newspapers and magazines are unable to undertake or afford a project on this scale. Courtesy Flatland Gallery The Sochi Project In The Sochi Project.

This deepening relationship with words in longer term projects is a step in the right direction for photojournalism. Van Bruggen’s writing carries the same weight as Hornstra’s pictures. and this kind of limited access. iPad. There is no tangible difference between an oldfashioned subscription. audio. a new-media paywall. or the photographs of Lewis Hine remains to be seen. Only donors can view all the stories on the Sochi website.org . for example). and Van Lohuizen of working ‘experimentally’. Though Hornstra spoke of a great sense of creative freedom. Photo­ graphy has never been a simple transaction.  • audience participation 39 ← webshop on www. video and storytelling. One of Hornstra’s books from the Sochi venture costs a prohibitive €99. unless photographers address these questions too. Whether the Via PanAm app. not a grainy. will have the same resonance or longevity as The Grapes of Wrath. their photo­ graphy is not in itself pushing boundaries. it seems. Now we have found a way to make the work. he does not photograph only the disenfranchised).Van Lohuizen writes himself and works with a text editor. the bar is set pretty high for post-Soviet aesthetics. What has changed. This generation of photographers does not want to be seen as heroic or aloof (or at the very least. The business of looking at a photograph has always been triangulated – a three-way relation between photographer. new funding strategies could have the added effect that photographers are no longer implicated in such a negative way in the stories they pursue. subject and viewer. though there are cheaper ways to get a piece of it (Christmas cards at €6. the indepth reports can be viewed only by purchasers of the iPad app (1600 to date). and indeed for migration. but many of the criticisms – of exoticism. providing crucial context to his pictures. a tacit understanding that the work would not even be possible without the viewer.Hornstra. in terms of photographs. of grand narratives – that have attached themselves to traditionally funded work of an engaged nature will stand. gritty. like Van Lohuizen. however. That the page may now have morphed into a computer screen. or take part in the workshops he holds locally. is each photographer’s relationship with words. or even a gallery wall brings considerations of its own. Historically. While Van Lohuizen’s photographic subjects in Nicaragua or Honduras may not own iPads (of course some do. dramatic style of photography. many will be able to visit the exhibition he is hosting in each of the fifteen countries. controls access to a certain proportion of his work. is simply pictures on a page with text. the luxury of time spent with their subject has not. By inviting the viewer – and in theory it is also possible that the invitation extends to the subject (though that would bring its own problems) – to participate financially in the project. we must keep searching for ways of making the work. power relations shift. it is in fact quite ‘traditional’. with its rich tapestry of stills. Such consideration must also be applied to the subject.thesochiproject. Crowdfunding is undoubtedly a breakthrough. In the best-case scenario. which in its proper definition. Aesthetically. altered the photography of either artist (though Van Lohuizen is now photographing in colour as well as his habitual black-and-white). With Via PanAm. This reveals the paradox of the crowdfunding enterprise: the very openness of the interaction is immediately undermined by its exclusivity. does not want to admit it) and is actively pursuing a method of working that is more inclusive and less hierarchical.

foam magazine #29 what's next? 40 .

In the process of making this special issue. ventured to continue with the theme in the essay titled Postinternet. we. two years later. curator. Key moments. editor.0’. All of which could indicate the directions to take from here on(line). Point of departure for this chapter is From Here On: one of the leading exhibitions. which is part of one of our favourite publications Words Without Pictures. discussed things that stood out for us over the past year. ­ Nicholas Mirzoeff contrasts the engaging work of the artist JR with the topics addressed by the exhibition From Here On 41 in his in-depth essay ‘Photography 2. artistic affairs) invited Clément Chéroux (one of the five curators). etc. the editorial team. Fred Ritchin and Penelope Umbrico (whose work was seen in From Here On) for a conversation open to the public in Foam's What's Next? project space in Arles. Marcel Feil (Foam Deputy Director. developments and exhibitions that stimulated talks on the state of affairs and called for a critical position for and within one’s own practice (as artist. Inspired by the essay ‘Lost Not Found’.). in the sense of being the most discussed. Transcriptions are included here. ­ Laurel Ptak spoke with artist David Horvitz on the history and politics of the online image in the context of his work. the author Marisa Olson has now. during Les Rencontres d’Arles photo­ graphy festival. With the exhibition's manifesto at the beginning of this chapter it continues with different contributions on the use and abuse of the online image in an artistic context. introduction from here on(line) .

curator in the Cabinet de la Photographie. . photographer of the Magnum agency and Joachim Schmid (D). Martin Parr (UK). Centre Pompidou. founding member and artistic director of KesselsKramer. France. Arles. artist. Erik Kessels (NL). Joan Fontcuberta (ES). 4 July – 18 September 2011. The exhibition was part of Les Rencontres d'Arles. artist.The manifesto is written by the five curators of the exhibition From Here On: Clément Chéroux (F).

No wonder Foam is asking What’s Next? while Les Rencontres d’Arles in 2011 offered a manifesto entitled From Here On and the International Center of Photography’s Fourth Triennial in 2012 has been named simply ‘Chaos’. by Nicholas Mirzoeff inside out photography 2.0 . It is inside out. unlike the execution of Saddam Hussein: the image has proved to be a dubious weapon. Despite the fears so widely expressed in the 1990s. photography did not die. However. the era in which such gatekeepers determined cultural direction is over. With the killing of Osama bin Laden in May 2011 coming after the dramatic transformations of the Arab Spring.0 Photography  43 2.0. For a decade after the 9/11 attacks.Inside Out Photography is not what it was. and the scandals of Abu Ghraib and the Danish cartoons. It has interfaced with the Internet and morphed into Photography 2. No photograph of bin Laden’s corpse appeared. it feels as if that period is now over. we have endured the image wars from Shock and Awe assaults on Iraq.

Twitpic. online and in various magazines. there was an ­ almost complete absence of political or documentary subject matter. allowing the subject to pose themselves and do what they want with the resulting posters and digital images. compare a recent project by Martin Parr. who had previously pursued the ‘lulz’ [laughs]. Further. which are part of the common sense of digital practice. These claims are significant and are certainly part of what’s next. there was nothing particularly remarkable about these assertions.’ a mark made for and by the self as a claim to personhood.Photography has become a ‘killer app’ for the Web 2. one of the curators of ­ From Here On. while a deliberately obvious Photoshop manipulation produced jokey ‘photo­ g raphs’ of the artist as if in a Hawai’ian volcano.0 era. beyond its first democratization of the means of mechanical visual reproduction. whose signature gesture is the young woman photographing herself using her phone at arm’s length. unmarked (white. The personal is. one might say belated. so that the ruins of the Reichstag were seen with­ out the Soviet soldier hoisting the Red Flag. political. It is an extension of the body. web-based projects like LulzSec and Anonymous. The biological metaphor suggests that photography is not now – if it ever was – a disembodied. such as one accompanying the Paris Delhi exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. Noticeably. ­ we all recycle. the choices made by the curators seemed to veer in the direction of whimsy and a certain punning sense of humour. Photographs are taken. By contrast. There were classic ­ Magnum photos with the 44 . Photobucket. posted and circulated via Flickr. discovery of online visual rhetoric. JR understands his role to be that of facilitator. the From Here On exhibition was expensive. From Here On seemed a promising place to start. displayed at the entrance to the exhibition and reproduced on posters.  The interface between social networking and the social is the selfimage. Arles was festooned with the flyposted results. The curators issued a manifesto. It begins: ‘Now we’re a species of editors. ­ Amongst all this somewhat outdated. surrounded by a three-metre-high wire-mesh fence and festooned with widely ignored ‘photos are not allowed’ signs. which I call ‘photografitti. it has moved decisively into the era that Internet theorist Clay Shirky has called ‘publish then filter’. in the Goutte d’Or district of Paris with These remarks are themselves a snapshot. together with other Inside Out projects. once again. For all the rhetoric of openness. aiding Tunisians and Egyptians to get online and avoid security services.’  a mark made for and by the self as a claim to personhood. which I call ‘photografitti. Photographs of chickens seemed to evoke the LOL cat genre online. a trajectory of observations made in pursuit of a photography that might be adequate to the Arab Spring. With an estimated 500 billion photographs taken each year. Facebook and other social networks and then certain images go viral. turned serious in 2011. Rather all are ‘photographers’ who use the seemingly endless expanse of the Internet as source of their imagery by editing and remixing. it felt more like the abandoning of a project. There were multiple overlays of tourist photographs of monuments such as the Eiffel Tower. It was as if content must be removed from photography in the name of a certain digitality but after Tahrir and the Arab Spring. remix and upload. to a democracy of the self (image). while all the images were archived online. To take this comparison a little further. male) machinemediated observation. clip and cut. from here on(line) key content removed. Yet for those of us who have been involved with digital culture for some time. Whereas From Here On had a literal gate visitors were required to climb over (so much for disabled access). none of whom are photographers in the sense that they use cameras. which rendered the sitter with a bindi mark in the centre of her/his forehead.’ Their exhibition displayed the work of some thirty-five artists. The interface between social networking and the social is the self-image. the street artist JR had an open photo booth for his Inside Out project in which sitters could have a largescale poster-size photograph taken and printed within minutes. Photography is becoming democratic.

male) photographer taking pictures in the street (Robert Frank) or in scenes of crisis (anyone at Magnum). have no such right. that French Muslims are ‘much more similar to other French people than French people are to Britons. the goal was to create a series of one hundred portraits of people who had participated in the revolution. Street prayer has been highly controversial in Paris with the Sarkozy administration ordering worshippers into a disused warehouse in September 2011 as part of its attempt to appropriate the racialized resentment that motivates National Front voters. As late as 1951.’ As a British citizen I can assure you that the affect of superiority here is entirely intentional. Why only a hundred? was the common refrain. Such looking was held to be both violent and sexualized in and of itself. including startling examples in the former secret police commissariat. the racially segregated and their modern descendants. In Cairo. ‘reckless eyeballing.0 Today’s inside-out photographic archetype is the self-portrait. Parr photographed the subsection of the 10th arrondissement most known for its Islamic population. Even after the abolition of slavery in the United States in 1863.K. But Ganzeer had only accomplished three of these portraits as of last summer. was forbidden those classified as colored under Jim Crow. they were flyposted across four cities in Tunisia. However. ­ making it unlikely that his martyrology will ever be accomplished. is now attempting the marathon project of street portraits of all 847 people who died in the revolution.JR’s Artocraty in Tunisia. especially a white woman or person in authority. No-one wants to replace autocracy with artocracy. timers or simply by holding the camera/phone at arm’s length and checking the results until a ‘good’ one is obtained. persist in painting over these memorials so Ganzeer and his fellow street artists like Keizer are using the Internet as an archive of their work (http://cairostreetart. and in place of the former dictator’s face on posters.com). As the documentary posted on JR’s own website indicates. the imprisoned. Parr indulged in his own nationalism by observing in the Independent newspaper in the U. The enslaved. Working in conjunction with Tunisian bloggers and using all local interlocutors. There’s a winking play with Orientalism here that uses its very awareness of the trope to replicate it beneath a protective layer of wit. the self-portrait is the counter to the ubiquitous surveillance of the age of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). which is now too carefully under surveillance. If the Internet and photography are turning inside out.’ a simple looking at a white person. the martyrs. With his self-proclaimed British irony. who are running Egypt. then. inside out photography 2. Whether taken by web-cams. a street-art engagement that immediately followed the January 2011 revolution. Printed as 90x120cm posters. the contingency artist Ganzeer. even this open access project was subject to intense criticism in Tunisia. If the archetype of modern photography was the unmarked (white. today’s insideout photographic archetype is the self-portrait. Perhaps his most remarked photo­ graph depicted men praying in the street on Friday in front of a shop window labelled ‘Produits ­ Exotiques’ [Exotic Products]. from which can be derived the right to be seen and the right to look. a farmer named Matt Ingram was convicted of the assault of a white woman in North 45 . Users are invited to ‘like’ the link on Twitpic and Flickr but not Facebook. even as a joke. JR imagined his project in Tunisia as being without conditions and open to the future. By contrast. who had produced a widely-used pamphlet on how to conduct a protest during the revolution. the Supreme ­ Council of the Armed Forces. It asserts a presence and autonomy. that involution does not solve the contradictions and problematics of photography but it has extended the photographic field and transformed the scene of photography. For the revolution is widely held to have been the work of the people. not a sub-set of heroes. A Google maps mash-up indicates where and when the work was posted. on the façade of one of Ben Ali’s former houses. The photographs were the large-scale head-and-shoulder close-ups in black-and-white that have become JR’s signature style. a further intensification of the policing of visuality.

implying at the same time that each individual is a person with rights. this photograffiti is the demand of a people to be recognized as ‘the people’ with attendant sovereignty. Photo­ graffiti on the individual scale exists in an expanded present. food and other normally private concerns rendered the public square – a key term of political ­ discourse – into a domestic or vernacular space.  • 46 . In its collective form. that involution does not The photographic selfsolve the contradictions image eyeballs the self and asserts its right to be and problematics of seen and its right to look.’ the name of a Facebook page liked over 400. for example.000 times. This vernacular secrecy creates a certain space to be seen. the new the scene of mark of identification is becoming the iris.’ as the police will say. then. I would call the genre photography but it has ‘photograffiti. there’s nothing to see here.’ photograffiti is humanfield and made. individuals staged themselves as the people. Watch this space: more follows.0 moves.. Ironically. This projection takes food and environmental security to be equal or superior in priority to security from random acts of politicized violence because so many more people are affected by them over the long term. In key public spaces. In creating this domestic public. remaining literally in camera. detainees in the Abu Ghraib phase of the war in Iraq (2003-4) were forcefully told ‘don’t eyeball me!’ If the Internet and photography are turning inside out. from the individual experience of the expanded present to project the future. failed biometrics of the face. but instead to claim the existence of the present as the site of the right to look. Their arrangements for cleaning.from here on(line) Carolina because she had not liked the way he looked at her from a distance of 65 feet. Techniques such as slow-motion replay and the ability to pause and rewind live digital television broadcasts have accustomed us to this new present. This monitoring of the look has been retained in the notoriously racialized US prison system. requiring constant CCTV surveillance. medical care. For face-recognition software is still poor at best. the placing of bodies in the street as an index of the desire for change was a photography of the people. The photograffiti artist knows that the first task is to refuse to ‘move on. Above and beyond the particular instances of identification of this kind. the square or other space becomes in effect a technique of projection: it projects the coming together of individuals as the people into a different future. one that intrudes briefly into the past but is experienced as a continuum. then. It indexes and ­ updates the claim made by the Civil Rights movement in the U. S. Photography 2. namely ‘I am a man. replacing the nineteenth century fingerprint and bypassing the photography. such as Tahrir Square in Cairo. It creates a mark that is not necessarily transformed knowable to the human and machine intelligences trying to contain the global populace. because they are never posted anywhere. so that.’ By this I extended the mean that unlike the ‘photograph’ with its claim to photographic be a ‘pencil of nature. while many such photographs cannot be crawled by whatever bots Google and others might devise. The everyday of the vernacular public refuses to accept that we are in a permanent state of emergency.’ into such forms as ‘We are all Khaled Said.

But it means that from here on some major questions.C. making choices and not always creating the images themselves. Usually when you pose the question in terms of novelty you lose a lot in terms of complexity. so there isn’t just one question or one answer in the exhibition. like an advertising slogan. M. First I have to say C.F. How did you deal with the tension between the internet and the traditional threedimensional exhibition space? M. Some works. 5 July 2011 Can you please tell us something about the origin of the From Here On exhibition.. they see themselves more as artists.F. the death of the author. That is not a conventional way of curating an exhibition. Artists working with images today are increasingly likely to be editors. Yes. and then we met three times in Paris where we discussed those artists and chose those we wanted to that the fact we found it on the internet doesn’t mean the internet is necessarily the final point of an artist’s project. L FEIL.F. It is more of a way to diffuse. for three or four months we sent each other links to artists’ websites. It’s an .C. So the internet is more or less an archive. or to show something. we are all aware that something is happening in the photographic world. I see that the natural habitat of the works is the internet. is only really valuable if it’s used in a proper way to tell a story or a narrative. a possibility. That is a variant presentation form: another way of presenting the work and a different way for the audience to look at the works. They commonly make prints. C. or an idea. No. . a large part of it was a display of possibilities digital imagery offers. I notice. Each artist has his own answer to your question. a reservoir where artists find imagery and select to edit or work with it. but notI only in WITH terms of images. From Here On. Can you talk a little about it? Is there a schism in history before the exhibition and from here on? M.F. are now beautifully framed. NVE RSAT �N inspiration. <…> What about the title. which is a very important word in the manifesto. Each artist does his own work. I would say to 47 find images. like the question of the author. The people in the exhibition are no longer really photographers.C. For me. These aren’t just peripheral questions.C. but also to find ideas. And the fact it’s on the internet doesn’t mean the best way of presenting it is as it’s presented on the internet.E MARc . and the internet is just a way to disseminate the images. or as editors. or posters and the like. The origin of this project was an idea of Joan Fontcuberta. M. So the internet is not the final destination. There are different questions and different answers. But of course a concept. It’s an exhibition about images. another on the position of the author. M. of quality and of appropriation. One of them is working on the question of intimacy..C. CLÉMENT CHÉROUX Foam What's Next? in Arles. to disseminate the work. le point d’achèvement. This is not an exhibition about what happens on the screen. which is important. frames. with these new tools and a new vocabulary. C. He was aware that something was happening. though now it has been transformed by the five of you into an exhibition. C. nor the place where the work is presented as an achievement. to find concepts. so obviously the title turns out to be a bit too easy. I felt it could have been brought to another level by telling something about the possibilities the internet offers. they’re much more important than they used to be. C. but he was interested in bringing together five people from different fields to try to put their fingers on what is happening today. but the important thing for me is what the artist has to say with this new equipment.F. as if they are traditional artworks. IN C � include in the exhibition.. Why this exhibition at this moment? MARcEL FEIL IN cONVERSATION WITH.. Another point is that the project was an experimental curating of experimental photography. Most of the artists now in the exhibition hold exhibitions in museums and gallery spaces. I cannot answer that question in general terms.

F.. Now we have more tools of production than at any time in history. Is this a comment on our diminished place in the world. And if you are a medical doctor and you are given new tools. to use the technological instrument in a successful way. What did you mean by that and how did you reach that conclusion? M. we can build our own websites and so on. The reader has no power. It is a closed system.R. what one might call a fast-food equivalent of slow food – all those rectangles and circles (Euclidean geometry) with so little texture. Well. There’s inequality in this power relationship – someone can take other people’s imagery and be called an artist.. FRED RITcHIN Foam What's Next? in Arles. But you only have to look at the Barnack Awards to see that what we consider strong social documentary work has not changed much. unfortunately. We’ve had. Hemingway would probably not win the award today. we’d be successful. Then we started talking about the rights of the authors. Twenty or thirty years ago photographers used to complain that no one would publish their work. the viewer is powerless. collaboration with the viewer.R. They were waiting for some gatekeeper to recognise them and publish their work. no authorship. Now we have massive software packages. Sometimes at least FROM HERE ON(LINE) credit for coming up with a very specific characterization of the From Here On show: ‘It’s the McDonald’s of typology’. and that we have to start to answer. A major promise of the digital is interactivity. If you look at film – Hitchcock. F. or the Farm Security Administration. Robert Capa could still win the award.F.F. we can distribute everywhere. you try to use them to be helpful to people. Filmmakers don’t think like that. We can do whatever we want with trash. nobody else thinks that.MAR cEL made by the proletarians. there is an issue of privacy: you are putting prostitutes from Madrid on walls at the exhibition. drawing with the light. We tend to focus on the legal and the financial but that is only a small part of it. than a legal right? humanity be going? Can this be helpful to people in any way? Or are we just spreading more trash? To me these are the questions that we really have to ask. the sun without any sunlight. If you look at novelists. But in social photography – particularly about matters of international importance – the reference points are still too often work that was done three-quarters of a century ago. and other such archives. One of the curators said yesterday that the photographers in the exhibition have no justifiable copyright because they have no vision. The root of the word photography means writing with the light. F. But what do you do with all these additional images? Is there a vision? Where should 48 NW � I T A S VER N � C IN . Tarantino and so on – there is a progression towards new ways of using film. while the initial imagery is called trash. in your opinion? FEIL . M.R. there are many things going on. or on our status at the photography festival? Someone said to me that ‘It’s as if the bourgeoisie is taking advantages of images M. but what of the rights of the subject? Because in Google Street View. Are there examples of attempts. or question it? What if they were looking at us? So there is perhaps more of a moral right.’ I think there are various power imbalances. Is it right for them? Would you want to be seen that way? Is surveillance the way that we want to go? Do we want to celebrate watching other people. It is essentially writing with rather simple algorithms. novelists don’t think that. in a sense. and there is nothing interactive in the exhibition at all. and it’s really trash. even as a kind of medical doctor for humanity in distress. and everything would be much better. I have to give you the some photographers think of their roles as that of witnesses. 7 July 2011

 F. perhaps successful attempts. talking about power. or Dorothea Lange. as explorers. The social kind of photography that people practice is the only field that I know that has reached its highpoint in the 1930s – if we could only photograph like Robert Capa. And to me there is really no light in this show – we have.

if you look at the Iraq war the only arresting images that affect many people (although I am exaggerating somewhat) are the pictures of Abu Ghraib. But a typology in itself. On exhibition there’s hardly one artist presenting a single work: series.U. why so many have died. In Afghanistan there are also very few images that relate to. I sense that what we are doing. is not my interest . both jailers and prisoners. is symptomatic of our imprisonment.. somewhat unconsciously.U.. those subjects. grids… they’re all typologies.there is a 49 . We are coming to a point where the image culture reflects itself but increasingly loses the world. should be more widely disseminated as a collection of voices amplifying each other rather than as fragments. is building an image planet that we want to inhabit while we are leaving the world that we used to be part of. instead of recycling so much of what has been done before? So now. There are representations of some subjects that can fit quite naturally into a grid and often these are typologies. Tim Hetherington and Simon Norfolk. select and edit the subject matter? There are a lot of dissimilar works. 7 July 2011
 MARcEL FEIL IN cONVERSATION WITH. M. P..very few ideas since – most of the new ideas are coming from social media and the cellphone culture. whatever the subject matter. or a grid. and PENEL�pE UMbRIcO Foam What's Next? in Arles. non-hierarchical arrangement of images. installation shots © Anne Fourès / Rencontres d’Arles 2011 M.my fascination is with the subjects I explore and the grid or the typology is just the most expedient way to say something with. or clouds. How do you find. or whatever shape you choose? The grid for me is really an expedient way to talk about a non-narrative.F. We have to escape the prison. or have much sense of the Afghan people. WITH. can you tell us a little bit about your fascination for selecting works and putting them in some sort of typological grid. like Basetrack. and we are imprisoned by images – we allow them to imprison us – rather than using the images to free ourselves from misconceptions. where it is going. We live for images. on encouraging them. What are the new ideas coming from the photographic community? Why don’t we concentrate on finding them. ↑ From Here On. Lynsey Addario. and the work of people like Reza Zalmai. which were taken by soldiers. as image producers. And I think that too much of what we see.F.. that help explain the dynamics of the last ten years of a devastating conflict – although projects Afghanistan too few people understand what the conflict is about. to help us to live. In the From Here P. or Nina Berman’s pictures of seriously wounded soldiers who have come home to the United States. but also a common denominator in the images you use. or about. Ten years after the post-9/11 invasion of make the images work for us. in the photo industry. You work with typologies as well. Yes . Otherwise we become.

That’s a very good example. gives us energy. physical object in our world. down to earth. And the more inside the subject you get. I think it’s important that the photo­ graphy world is embracing the kind of work that is in this show. so that starts to help you move towards a place in the physical world that is interesting to you. in a M. Take the tile that might be very straightforward. together with the Mirrors (from Home Décor Websites). If you are a documentary photographer you might have a subject that you are interested in. immateriality. but it’s only in the last couple years that I have been invited to photo festivals. And I could say that way. low culture. one of the most universally photographed subjects . One interesting thing to me about the exhibition is that some of the works presented there finally overcome the aesthetics inherited from a painterly tradition. It’s bigger than life. installation shots © Anne Fourès / Rencontres d’Arles 2011 P. where it becomes infinitely multiple and ultimately just a code.U. the disappearance of the subject. It’s a conscious choice. The mirrors are sourced from commercial websites where they have been staged to be seductive. M. it makes us happy. The way you present your grids is aesthetic.U. unless mentioned differently 50 . as though they are in front of the sunset themselves. dysfunction within technology. It’s P. I presume. which has to do with dematerialization.U. What is your reaction to seeing your work surrounded by all those other works? I am actually used to seeing my work in this context. case for example the sun is the ultimate material. I think there’s an underlying and important connection between all the work in this show and the inherent conventions we associate with traditional photography. It’s something that perhaps needed to be done. the further you move into a context – into the physical. Why didn’t you present that project digitally as in the website? The materiality of it is really important to me. And everybody loves a sunset. technology. Both are derived from contexts where the original images propose the ultimate promise of beauty.F. Somebody asked me how I choose what I use of all the possible images on the internet. If you take a camera outside onto the street. It’s interesting to take something that goes from being a big physical presence to being an ephemeral. P. but in these more than 9 million pictures it is subsumed into the electronic space of the internet. material space. I have started to find pictures online of people taking photographs of themselves in front of an installation. I’ve begun to call myself a photographer because an insistence on a separation between photography and the kind of work I make is as superficial to me as privileging ‘medium’ and ‘technique’ in the definition of photography. All photos © Karin Bareman / Foam. It’s an incredible singular physical presence. you are confronted with countless possibilities. to begin with. also in the exhibition. I am a documentary photo­ grapher looking for specific types of subject matter. something we haven’t seen before.common denominator conceptually. In this M. back to being a physical presence. it’s always there for us. ↑ From Here On. How does it feel to see your work in a very new environment. presence. but you turn it into sometimes very traditional aesthetics. You could make any kind of image.F. material.on Flickr there are more than 9 million images tagged ‘sunset’. nonmaterial.F. I do the same thing on the internet. like the Suns from Flickr project.

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Tate adopts a mode of working in which the traditional idea of a coherent style or artist series is dismissed. Martin . In other words: How do we see? What are suitable subjects for photo­ graphy? And what are viable means of imagemaking? Tate’s work belongs to a growing group of photo­ graphers indebted to predecessors Christopher Williams and James Welling. All of these have become part of the familiar lingua franca of contemporary image making and image sharing. For example. Here they are transformed into the image’s raison d’être. it’s interesting because it offers a compelling and quirky exploration of the work involved in new photography. a web browser in the midst of download. but usually they are kept behind the scenes. animated gifs. • selected by Lesley A. In an appropriately deadpan manner this series is entitled New Work. and 3-D anaglyphs. Boldly. making room for seemingly disparate image-making modes to coexist within a single body of work. In another über-contemporary nod. the marching ants – familiar to anyone with working knowledge of Photoshop – become embedded in his final image. These animated selection lines are usually a momentary visual reference or the trace of an artist’s working process. Tate places these elements front and centre. But it’s not that the work is interesting just because it’s new. His images frequently focus on indicators of an image in the making – a photograph of a Polaroid that could easily be an exposure/lighting test for a studio shoot. But Tate pushes the conversation beyond nostalgia and squarely into the present by indulging in screen-based images and nontraditional output methods like lenticular screens. the depiction of an iPhone screen filled with what appears to be a colour bar.Jordan Tate New Work All images © Jordan Tate. 2010 – 2011 Jordan Tate’s latest work wrestles with one of the key contemporary preoccupations of our field: photo­ graphy qua photography.

the original ‘pro surfer’ blog. and one important term I still have yet to elucidate: Postinternet. and Guthrie Lonergan. 59 the . along with artists John Michael Boling. primarily in their posts to a number of group ‘surf blogs. the lengthy title of which was. ‘Lost Not Found: The Circulation of Images in Digital Visual Culture. Nonetheless. of which I am a co-founder.’ including Nasty Nets.Art After POSTERINTERNET: art after the internet r by Ma P OS TiNT son l O a s i The forehistory of the article you are now reading is that Foam asked me to write an update to an essay I wrote in 2008 for LACMA’s Words Without Pictures book (Aperture/Thames & Hudson).’ One of my aims with that piece was to bring to the attention of a wider art audience the existence of a thriving group ERN ET Internet of artists whose work employed the internet self-reflexively – to both celebrate and critique the internet. there were many important artists I did not have the space to highlight. Joel Holmberg.

’ While there has now been a fair amount of writing about the term. like the shiny bars locked up in Fort Knox. As I said there.’ Nonetheless. medi a n d a. there were many important artists I did not have the space to highlight. and scholars have clung to it. This will be that essay. a t is a mo m n p t fact. from here on(line) The p a con ostintern e quali dition. When appointed Editor & Curator at Rhizome. often dismissive diagnosis of pro-surfer work as a mutant digital strain of that genre silhouetted by the phrase ‘found photography.’ Pressed for an explanation. and curators Michael Connor and Caitlin Jones as respondents. Guthrie ­ Lonergan spoke in a 2008 Rhizome interview with curator Thomas Beard of ‘internet aware art. and the ways in which the images are appropriated distinguishes this practice from one of quotation by taking them out of circulation and reinscribing them with new meaning and authority. and a fair number of artists. at the panel. they are ascribed with new value. images that add up to portraits of the web.’ and hold this work up against other notions about the ways in which quotidian content circulates within the space of flows we know as the net.’ The theoretical ‘money shot’ of the essay resided in my statement that ‘the work of pro-surfers transcends the art of found photography insofar as the act of finding is elevated to a performance in its own right. In both the article and live discussion. ­ and this can be done well on networks but can and should also exist offline. to pry existing conversation about this work away from the oversimplified. and Wolfgang Staehle. in 2005. They present us with constellations of uncannily decisive moments.’ Interestingly. 2011). I have yet to publish a statement of my own outlining what I meant in ­ coining the term ‘Postinternet Art.’ This is a point that I’d been trying to hammer-home to anyone who cared to listen for the previous 3-4 years. most widely encountered in a 2008 interview conducted through the website We Make Money Not Art. what I want is to give you a historiography that t. images made perfect by their imperfections. I referred to the concept of postmodernity coming not at the end of modernity. Michael Bell-Smith. my first agenda was to change the organization’s mission statement to assert its support of not only internet-based art. Rhizome Executive Director Lauren Cornell invited me to join her on a net art ­ panel at Electronic Arts Intermix (EAI) that also included artists Cory Arcangel.’ and how I’ve seen it ­ develop in the five years since I did so. Taken out of circulation and repurposed. ‘Within Post-Internet’ (pooool. can be identified as any type of art that is in some way influenced by the internet and digital media. but rather. but all art that engages with the internet. eIn is aware and cend comp present you with an image philosophy of a s new asses simultaneously art influenced by the internet. Régine Debatty was that ‘I think it’s important to address the impacts of the internet on culture at large. and one important term I still have yet to elucidate: Postinternet.In his recent essay.’ which he de­ scribed as a way ‘to take the emphasis off the internet and technology. of the conditions of its own production. info. I said that both my online and offline work was after the internet in the sense that ‘after’ can mean both ‘in the style of’ and ‘following. these Pro Surfers are ‘engaged in an enterprise distinct from the mere appropriation of found photography. but keep my ideas [about them] intact. diaristic photo essays on the part of the surfer. curators. My original statement to We Make Money Not Art’s I tried. Louis Doulas sets the scene: ‘While Post-Internet is a term still awkwardly vague to many. Shortly afterwards. in the essay ‘Lost Not Found’. but after (and with a critical awareness of) modernity. as I trans y that en roperty.’ For illustration. I made the point that I felt what I was making was ‘art after the internet. Indeed. and images that certainly add up to something greater than the sum of their parts. The panel was preceded by Time Out-NY’s [2006] publication of a roundtable discussion among us artists about the state of net art practice. this compelled him to make what ­ 60 . Her definition acknowledges that internet art can no longer be distinguished as strictly computer/internet based. I’m not the only person to have discussed concepts similar to the postinternet. it ­ was first conceived by artist Marisa Olson.

not a vast remove. But the final. To call a thing a post-thing is to say that the thing is itself precisely because of the thing. if not the most obvious reason to be metaenunciative in sketching this historiography is that no observer of a post-epoch can tell you precisely when they arrived there. when we pop a ‘post’ on the front end of a thing. I lay out the history of this discussion in this way for several reasons. long live altermodernity! Far more interesting than the life and death of this nomenclature are the changes to which they bear witness. Because of the modern conditions of which my sweatshirt transports a critical awareness.’ whose own salient definition of the term calls it ‘a result of the contemporary moment: inherently informed by ubiquitous authorship. I also feel that postinternet artistic practices (as opposed to everyday postinternet material culture) have not only a special kind of relevance or currency. there is no degree-zero for this or any other post-epoch. but that they are also part and parcel of an as-yet unspoken. et n r e t tin s o p r ts o e p h s t f an ical o r t n o d i ot an rit n s c e e r t i h e a T to th sul s d p a n a r c a fa s en n o . totalizing. We could quite exhaustively consider the ways in which my postmodern sweatshirt is postmodern (beginning at the very least with the conditions of its production and not ending before irony). The notion of the postinternet encapsulates and transports network conditions and their critical awareness as such. but the ‘post-’ says it all. If it weren’t so stale to speak of paradigm change. which took my term and Lonergan’s as points of departure in critiquing and historically-contextualizing contemporary work that might be considered postinternet. With the exception of 9/11. one would here invoke Thomas Kuhn… Certainly. and the infinite reproducibility and mutability of digital materials.e. I feel that it is important to be selfaware and transparent while one plows forward with the work of articulating a set of practices and communities greater than herself. The expectation of ‘afterness’ preempts the root of the post- POSTERINTERNET: art after the internet 61 . and others began writing about their own take on the term. near-universal set of conditions that applies to all art as much as it implicates all art in transporting the network conditions under which we live. looking at a histogram of the forms and ideas that have influenced art practice and its discourses.he called ‘Objects that aren’t objects. We’ve managed to solder this recursive prefix onto a number of names for movements and practices within the field at large. we place a priority on priorness. though many artists will undoubtedly fail or elect not to recognize and exercise it. until it becomes stale and the air smells of another mode. This is a brisk responsibility ripe with opportunity. This essay is an open work and I can only aspire to be what Rancière might call an Ignorant Historiographer. Afterall.’ i. continuum-synthesizing definition of the postinternet is itself exemplary of postinternet thought. a t-shirt or a book whose primary purpose is to be the vehicle of internet content. postmodernity may now sit much closer to modernity than it does to us today. art history is not without its Posts. only a categorical here-and-now that will persist until it doesn’t. In 2009. e the inte k r o netw eness as anscend r tr Meanwhile. this historically-aware. only where they arrived. or what shoes they were wearing when the big news dropped. insofar as it reflects this awareness. Propter hoc ergo post hoc.’ These are all tell-tale network conditions that have both pre-internet precursors and contemporary offline manifestations. the collapse of physical space in networked culture. curator Gene McHugh was awarded a Warhol Foundation Arts Writers Grant to keep an ambitious blog (recently published in paperback format by LINK Editions) called Post Internet. even so far as to transcend the internet. as in Artie Vierkant’s ‘The Image Object Post-Internet. McHugh sees the postinternet situation as one in which ‘the internet is less a novelty and more a banality. a generally less phenomenal phenomenon. But the time-delay between the conjoined terms should be measured in the context of the near-future. the development of attention as currency. artists like Harm van den Dorpel wabegan a identifying themselves in their bios as postinternet artists. No one can tell you what they ate for lunch on the day that ‘postinternetism’ struck. Just ask Bourriaud: postmodernity is dead. o s t i e t n i n e d r v con such.’ a presence that is now a given. my sweatshirt is postmodern. furthermore. Whether we speak of the postmodern or the postphotographic.

and flagellates the notion of original research. so we can also obsess about how we arrived at this frozen position! Afterall. however hegemonic it may be. academies are slow to discover. both steps filtered-out women. we scurry to invent epistemological trajectories – drawing lines between charted points in a constellation and soundingout echoes in the space of contemporary practice. as a sort of simultaneously taxonomic/ taxidermic lacquer is poured over ‘the modern.Yet these character flaws in the artworld’s online manifestations are not reasons to dismiss the internet or deny the postinternet.’ from philosophy to astronomy. par excellence. Just as easily as it writes itself. one that just so happens to be internet-obsessed. yes. art history so often leaves out the women or ethnic minorities or lesscool-kids that were left out in previous iterations. which halts progress. entitled ‘Art History According to the Internet. in this postinternet moment. the descriptor postinternet encapsulates an image philosophy. For now. near-sighted life cycle. Arcangel and Mugaas performed art history. to be critically aware of the o u p o u ic problems historically reenacted with each new strata p s n o of historiographic sediment. In the postinternet era this phenomenon often manifests in the difference between critics who blog and bloggers who style themselves [self-appointed] critics. even as they bring themselves into resolution for the first time. Afterall. themselves (perhaps because they are all extensions of other media – and of ourselves – as McLuhan taught us) perform a sort of evolutionary ring cycle. and they celebrate its writers not as scribes delicately lifting and reproducing from extant discourses. Understanding that media. They are simply online reflections of a broader culture.. Meanwhile. (Cf.thing. but as demigods they don’t realize are barely alit and carefully kindled by their own greasy self-anointment. In fact. too. and begin churning-out so-called ­ seminal texts on by-then-dated artwork. even as it traditionally purports to call for it. all a piece of writing in this genre must do is simply regurgitate the historiographic origin myths that preceded it. self-congratulatory. pre-canonized) artists. one very unfunny thing about it was that only one woman was included in their list: Tracey Emin.. but if it could come to arrive at performte n i t s sc ing posthistorically – that is. there are other realist media to which new media could easily be compared rather than contrasted. Her YouTube incarnation was a poorly-shot camcorder video of a superfan waiting in line at the Tate Modern for Emin to sign a copy of her newest book. even on ­ their own terms. Christiane Paul.’ The couple presented their ­ audience with an answer to the question.” What Oliver Laric called “Versions”. we could call it a post-ekphrastic image philosophy – one that comes after the understanding that images are capable of not only illustrating and describing. ‘The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives. they were channelling ­ the concepts McHugh recalls: ‘What Seth Price called “Dispersion. but rather that they let a widely-accepted primer determine the list of names for which they searched. As funny as the lecture was. stunts egos. Such is the universality of the postinternet. In its all-too-often restrictive. 62 . and perhaps embellish itself with a new exemplary kernel or two. the pervasiveness of network conditions is such that the postinternet (as a conceptual vehicle) drives and spills across planes of practice and territories of discourse in just as rapidly seering a way as Richard Dawkins meant to imply when he argued that the concept of evolution was such a totalizing theory as to sizzle through all fields like a ‘universal acid. they are also among the savviest internet users. as a defense mechanism to this prohibition on contemporary thinking. and more simply beastly. Take as a more specific example the performative lecture given a few years ago by artist Cory Arcan­ from here on(line) gel and curator Hanne Mugaas. If we want to split hairs about it.’) e p x e se ht n e s The we mig t it has no rnet e The postinternet may be ahistorical insofar aas h t degree-zero. from theology to zoology. Art history is less the peculiar beast it looks like.e. and then they showed only those for which they found results. and its readers all too often accept these new narratives as dogma. by reenacting its cycles of filtration and info-trickling. ­ As I initially conceived it.’ The results were mostly short sound bites like Andy Warhol answering that. In this sense.’ stopping it dead in its tracks. They also demonstrated the internet’s systemic tendency to model the logic of its creators. In this sense. but also theorizing themselves. then we c might really get somewhere. he likes Jasper Johns because he makes good lunches. What would you know about art history if all you knew about its major artists was what YouTube videos came up as a result of querying their names. Despicable as the latter may be. they often flip-flop their flippant love-it/hate-it take on an artist’s work as ­ frequently as they refresh their homepage.’ or ‘the photo. pour some on the tracks. they replied simply that it was not an intentional choice. The terribly good news (or wonderfully awful news) is that the academy as we know it is plunging into a state of unsustainability – not leastly because of its inability to respond to the socio-economic conditions concomitant with network culture. sociallycontract to accept. When I asked Arcangel and Mugaas about the absence of women. I believe it is as much this defense mechanism as it is an overlapping set of aesthetic concerns or formal traits that has landed us the photo → film → new media storyline most widely recited today. Scholars forbid or aggressively dissuade their pupils from writing about hitherto unknown (i. as Alpha and Omega – outside of which there must be nothing worth noting. as history is wont to do.

While ­ art is not exclusive of such things. whether or not they were hip to it. amongst other voices. No longer is the content of this activity strapped with the heavy burden of represent- 63 .’ in this case. In a word. • POSTERINTERNET: art after the internet Doulas is the founder of Pool (pooool. ‘only the extra­ ordinary is presented to us as a possible object of our admiration. a reason to celebrate such work. there has been a vigorous movement (perhaps even more so since the 2008 interview) to self-publish. Under this rubric. is an art of conspicuous consumption (Cf. to all of the exigencies and banalities of life in network culture. It seems almost trite to point this out. mirroring globalization as reflected in the tone of online collaboration. or interesting postinternet work. libidinal.rt a f o e cIn he aforementioned essay. the project of these enterprises may be ­ described as quite postinternet. or as weak because of its (however mythical) origin in the everyday. ing the medium itself (the self-imposed burden of all nascent media struggling to move beyond ‘mere representations. as seemingly-excess. stumble with me now upon this scenario in which we are already prefigured: the postinternet. Just as there was once an epoch in which cultural producers and consumers were ­ informed that they were in the postmodern. in the Beard Rhizome interview. we can now say that all works are postinternet (albeit to a lesser or greater degree of ­ reflexivity) because all works produced now are ­ produced in the postinternet era. economic. and rhetorical functions. ­ and even the next websites you visit or billboards you next see serve as illustrations of the universality of this condition. but also at the increasing fusion of these seemingly disparate realities. mass-distribute..’ while I might argue that this relatability is. from the surf blog to the online journal to the offline reading groups now devoted to looking not only at these interrelations. but we might say that the World Wide Web is. representations about working at a distance). this author has surpassed her wordcount just as she is prepared to serve-up examples of recent.’ Afterall. the impact of the internet reaches far cons internet?’ beyond such art.’ Nonetheless. we’re ready to move on and say something more with the internet. One is always prone to making such claims.’ This is one place in which the arc from photography to the internet holds. in which the self-described t say ista n s artist asks.’ he ­ highlights f a 2011 tweet from arto t r a Harm van den Dorpel. These may or may not have the look and feel of Lonergan’s ‘objects that aren’t objects. provocative. ‘Lost Not Found’). and memetically-infiltrate the world at large with one’s commentary in contemporary digital visual culture. the books positioned near this volume. let the images and portfolios on the adjacent pages.. Artistic practice within the two media are not the only practices possible under these scopic regimes. By sheer virtue of making things. political. But given the ubiquitous nature of network culture and the increasing level of critical internet-awareness on the part of users of all demographics. that is made and distributed within the postinternet. because it makes me think of Punk. a property. given that Walter Benjamin schooled us on the collapse of auratic distance. Marisa Olson. We are now in a postinternet era. and political impact on one another. In a sense. the media ecologies under scrutiny here are also the site of a vast array of commercial. On that note. i postinternet t internet ­ on arts reach far beyond art that deals with the p um Indeed. ‘Within Louis Doulas’s t erien is f o Post-Internet. ‘We need to understand how photo­ graphy works within everyday life in advanced industrial societies  : the problem is one of materialist cultural history rather than art history.’ 2002). art made within these spheres sadly continues to be dismissed as merely vernacular. but generally to make a much larger argument. we should say of the internet what Allan Sekula said of photography. But the postinternet is a moment. in mechanical reproduction.’ As so often happens in such articles. and the web is so mild and boring. but I’ll say that. and a quality that encompasses and transcends new media.’ It is one of many DIY spaces cropping up. the critically self-aware internet user makes postinternet art. Vierkant quite astutely pointed-out that ‘Post-Internet objects and images are developed with concern to their particular materiality as well as their vast variety of methods of presentation and dissemination. We’ve entered the more mature ‘something more’ phase in which it may be a given that two artists are working simultaneously in different spaces. ‘Doesn’t the impact of the n o i era. If ‘Lost Not Found’ was about an artistic scene. the aesthetician might ask? The sense-experience of art that is postinternet. societal. or that we might say is of the postinternet era. that is. in fact. and far beyond art itself.info). so long ago. by the same token. So what does postinternet art taste like. As Boris Groys laments (‘On the New. that ‘I think it’s hilarious to hear that phrase – ‘DIY’ – all the time now. now more than ever. ‘a platform dedicated to expanding and improving the discourse between online and offline realities and their cultural. in Reading an Archive. this recalls Lonergan’s jest. it is very tempting to wipe one’s hands of this wordcount issue not only by calling for the conver­ sation to continue in other places. Everything is alwaysalready postinternet. a condition. not just talk about it.

Politics and Philosophy of the Online Image by Laurel Ptak & David Horvitz from here on(line) 64 .Towards a History.

theorists negotiating the new meanings and implications of the photograph inside network culture? How do we make sense of the image’s new forms of hybridity. that have not yet been well articulated or understood. for many years now. stretching across hundreds of countries over six continents. addressing his unique artistic practice as one possible vantage point to contextualize and consider the specificity of the online image. What follows is a conversation between myself and artist David Horvitz.. which then materialized in 65 . it seemed to me that the conditions of online culture would soon need to confront a new reality and ontology of the online image. ownership and authenticity and its privileging of pathways of circulation and distribution over the act of creation or production. Envisioned as a five-year inquiry I hope to engage many artists. journalists. The question is: how do you work with this? Your projects find compelling ways of negotiating this. That it can be constantly in flux. in December 2011. theorists. institutions and publics along the way. Laurel Ptak towards a history.. This project addressed context and the circulation of images as reconfigured by network culture rather interestingly. politics and philosophy of the online image. Obviously. and conditions of sociality? Beyond undoing photography’s prior relationship to the real. it had to get to where it is. Over the span of this project it has often occurred to me that the online image in and of itself has some unique characteristics. Does the online image really have the potential to disturb established notions of visual culture. But so far I only had questions. curators. politics and philosophy of the online image Laurel Ptak: What do you think is distinct about the online image? A lot of your work seems to approach this question. not answers: How were artists. The online image is always re-contextualized. or materiality does the online image define itself on new terms – through its flexibility. critically attended to new possibilities and cultural implications of online space for art. For almost five years now I have presented my view of contemporary photography inside this context. sparking a vibrant discourse about the medium of photography. economies of attention. disregard for traditional ideas of authorship. There is something about its timeless character. For now I’ve decided to start right here in the pages of Foam. Interestingly the project for which I am best known is not an exhibition in any traditional sense.online. an analogue photograph circulates. historians. but rather a blog.My work as a curator has. modes of authorship. and consequences. Like digital photography had earlier negotiated a new theorization of the medium. David Horvitz: The online image is something that can’t exist outside of its condition of circulation. But the online image is. It was a photo project that distributed images as digital files to drugstores around the world. For a Brief Time Only at a Location Near You is a perfect example. putting countless images into public circulation and sharing them with a daily community of several thousand viewers. I’ve often thought the real medium of your work might be distribution in and of itself. I did this with Mylinh Nguyen. journalism or artistic practice in profound ways? To attend to such questions. I’m launching a new research initiative that works towards articulating a yet unwritten history. It is in the middle of net- works and movements and acceleration. indexicality.

.

38% Asian. El Segundo High School has been featured in many films and television shows. Where's My Car? was filmed in El Segundo. Joe Dirt. File:26 pelican.67. though.736 for females. German-. they are properly licensed images that could be useful. which seems. and which could be discussed at commons. 20 January 2011 (UTC) Part 3/12 Part 1/12 In popular culture In the original Gone in 60 Seconds.6% under the age of 18. and 4. Some promotional T-shirts sold in El Segundo claim that El Segundo High School has appeared in more films and TV shows than any other high school. 9.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them. "90210". 20 January 2011 (UTC) . For every 100 females there were 100.. The file was uploaded to Commons today. but the issue is the same: deliberately adding images posed to feature this one individual without clearly identifying him in many articles on California beaches." He also references El Segundo after he tells a soldier about remembering "crashing into the Pacific during WWII.JPG is one of a series of not very good images of a man on a beach and I would not use it to illustrate any subject. Terminal Island is part of a "sacrifice zone". The median income for a household in the city was $47.as far as Commons would be concerned.38.1% of families and 10.2% from 18 to 24. I downloaded it and blew it up and he's not identifiable. a "parcel of land whose clean-up cost exceeds their total future economic value". Joan of Arcadia. Evil found work as the night manager of a Big Boy restaurant in El Segundo. Delicious carbuncle (talk) 01:51. I uploaded cropped versions of the previous uploader's images. in another episode. An episode of Bones was filmed at the Hyperion sewage treatment plant. Adjacent to the Heim Bridge is the Henry Ford Bridge that carries rail traffic. 30.14. Ryan Phillippe plays a Los Angeles police officer who lives in El Segundo. Amtrak's El Segundo Bus Stop (ESG) is located at the Los Angeles County Metro Green Line Douglas Station and is serviced by Thruway Motorcoach. WarGames.40% White. 75. 18.C.190 (talk • contribs • info • WHOIS).37% from two or more races. The O. I disagree that Commons is the place to discuss this .5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.09% from other races. Even Stevens. "You were shot down by a Japanese Zero?" Fred says: "Nope.563." he says he was "having a religious picture painted on his ceiling next week. Geographically unrelated IPs have been adding the image to various articles. Evil's Bob's Big Boy rocket. 22. 0.8 males. but it is a much smaller one. The racial makeup of articles the city was rate many here with the what is rec73. In the Neal Stephenson science fiction novel Snow Crash. Fred G. In one episode. and 33. — Gavia immer (talk) 02:53. there were 97. which was included on their 1990 album People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm.252. though one does not nor ever did once exist in the city. Males had a median income of $35. If anyone wants to do some digging.82 and the average family size was 3. Carpinteria hosts an annual Avocado Festival.50% of the population.5% had a female householder with no husband present.4/km²). Room 222. Epic Movie. but I'm not going to have free time to do that for these for a while. In the film Death Race. including 12. For every 100 females age 18 and over. British Columbia at Lost in the 50's Drive In. passengers can also connect with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner route at the Van Nuys Amtrak Station. While it's true there's a guy in the photo. he refers to his Ripple wine as coming from "the vineyards of El Segundo. The per capita income for the city was $21. In the city the population was spread out with 25. a bigot threw me off the pier in El Segundo!" In another episode .989 households out of which 33.1% from 45 to 64. 16 January 2011 Gavia immer (talk | contribs) (8.143. Notable residents Maxwell Caulfield Kevin Costner Chris Gocong.849. well. The Hot Chick. It's going to be Moses partin' an oil spill in El Segundo. Boston Public.titled "The Reverend Sanford. when Lamont says the cologne Discussion amongst various Wikipedia editors from Pages is called "Days In Paris. CSI: Miami is filmed in parts of El Segundo. which lies on El Segundo's western border.Although it was actually shot in Burnaby. I will end up doing that.129 (talk • contribs • info • WHOIS). in front of the ice cream parlor formerly known as Scoops. Sanford (Redd Foxx) often referred to El Segundo on the 1970s hit TV show Sanford and Son."Medium" and many others. (cur | prev) 04:32. Author John Fante makes extensive mention of the island in the novels Ask the Dust and Dreams from Bunker Hill.679 versus $30. 10.18% Pacific the same person. 0.7% of those age 65 or over. with a history extending back to 1986. the police chase goes across both the Gerald Desmond Bridge and the Vincent Thomas Bridge. the image is also used on the French-. Many years ago a Ripley's Believe It Or Not newspaper item suggested that El Segundo was one of the few U.162 (talk • contribs • info • WHOIS) and 205.7% from 25 to 44.23 Discussion amongst various Wikipedia editors from Talk Pages Thread title: Something fishy on Pelican beach Terminal Island with the Los Angeles neighborhood of Wilmington to the north. Mine and Ours." Finally. Over 80.59% African American. The singer Robbie Williams sings a reference to "I left my wallet in El Segundo" in his song Me & my monkey. About 7. Bridget Fonda's character says the line "And I gotta go all the way to EI Segundo" 36 37 Discussion amongst various Wikipedia editors from Talk Pages Thread title: Something fishy on Pelican beach Wikipedia:Village pump (policy) #Photographs of places which contain a person as a prominent subject is a related discussion. The festival offers avocado products and locally made goods.4% of the population were below the poverty line. However. 51. Gone in 60 Seconds. 25. The median age was 36 years.99% Native ognizably American." The alternative ending of Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery states that subsequent to the crash-landing of Dr. The beginning of the Blink 182 video of their song "First Date" lists El Segundo. Hispanic or Latino of any (talk) 02:42.6% were married couples living together. The average household size was 2. The hip hop group A Tribe Called Quest wrote the song "I Left My Wallet in El Segundo". The issue is that they have been uploaded precisely to satu(781. including Superbad. The stop is on Amtrak's 1c bus route that runs four times a day between Amtrak's Torrance Bus Stop (Alpine Village) and the Bakersfield Amtrak Station where passengers transfer to and from trains on Amtrak's San Joaquin route.5% of those under age 18 and 7. 24. The movie Dude. the biggest issue is the saturationbombing of one person's appearance in a large number of articles. Baseball Bugs What's up. and the median income for a family was $54. The elderly landlady (Irma P.4% who were 65 years of age or older.000 persons attend the three-day festival which takes place during the first weekend of October on Linden Avenue.212. Doc? carrots 02:45. The remake.178. Bugs. 2. cities where every street had a hill. The IPs that I've noted so far are 75. race were 43. Shredderman Rules.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. now Cleveland Browns linebacker To me. Besides mentioning Watts. The middling quality of the images is also an issue. and 12.S." Fred says: he isTalk wearing Thread title: Something fishy on Pelican beach "Smells more like "Nights In El Segundo. Hall as Marva Munson) in The Ladykillers repeatedly complained about the inanity of this lyric. In the movie Point of No Return. In popular culture El Segundo is home to the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Kings practice facility. has the climatic Eleanor jump on the Vincent Thomas Bridge.729. odd. Without intending to be insulting to the uploader." The soldier asks. like Michelangelo. 20 January 2011 (UTC) immediately to the north of El Segundo.88.250 (talk • contribs • info • WHOIS). eventually.2% were non-families. 20 January 2011 (UTC) Part 4/12 There were 4.002 bytes) (Not really a useful image of the article subject) (undo) 40 41 I thought it was the quality of the photo that was at issue. In the movie Crash. 80.8 males. The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. A couple of episodes of Medium were filmed at El Segundo Middle School. — Gavia immer Islander. and Spanish-language Wikipedia. Blackboard Jungle. the island is the home of the prison in which most of the film takes place. that is only true of the western residential area of the city. 0. David Spade mentioned El Segundo on The Showbiz Show with David Spade. The city is referenced in post-hardcore band Glassjaw's song Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Silence from their debut album of the same name.87. 1974 as its location . Yours. Dr. The uploader in that case is different.

or they lived in Alaska. This exhibition was right there. And it feels that these moments of waiting are lost maybe. I read in a book how humans are orientated spatially. bringing them through contexts that span the online and the offline. in analogue photography. I loved sitting in the dark room and watching images appear. That it is impossible to represent a moment. go in the store. The information for this ‘exhibition’ was announced online. We can trace a history from the telegraph to the internet. this is just constructed. Yes. With a newspaper things were ‘updated’ daily. Twenty-four artists were asked to produce an image file that was 4 inches by 6 inches – the standard size of an American consumer/ amateur photograph. I’d like to discuss your recent Public Access project. maybe we can call them poetic moments now. It’s the same sense that a photograph is a likeness of a thing in the real world – that our image culture is a likeness of a right now. waiting for the photograph to surface while sitting in the tray of fixer? WOW.. When the idea of a ‘now’ can be published. The online image does seem to have a distinct temporality. and see the exhibition. Different paper. in each instance of its materialization. The space of waiting is replaced by the space of always being updated.. There are these moments. It was the whole experience. can you say more about that? It is speed. Continuous. There are drugstores EVERYWHERE. The person who sent the email could then walk down the street. The image files were uploaded to the photo developer at the drugstore (many places now use internet uploading to send your photos to a printer) and the prints were printed within the hour. sometimes they didn’t print all the images! Your projects are often circulating images in all kinds of ways. Instantaneity. The telegraph.and yes. Explain. You just gave me a flashback. It was both global and local. We take a lot of things for granted today. it had its own peculiarities. of always not being up to date. And.. If someone wanted to ‘view’ it they would email me their address. In this instance you from here here on(line) from on(line) 68 . Is it a space of the image. and too much information. What happens to the image when it travels between these states? I’m not sure what the space between it is. Even though there is always a delay (even the delay in our own phenom- enological experience of seeing).. Maybe too fast. It was happening in their own town. With the internet. I am curious about the moment when photographs were able to be sent using telegraph wires. When it was possible to publish a photo a few hours from when it was taken. It was 24 because of the number of shots on a standard roll of 35mm film. I would then look up their address in Google Maps and find the nearest drugstore to them. or weekly.people’s specific localities. Simultaneity even. it was more than just seeing. But also. regardless of where it was taken.. Obviously. whether they lived in the middle of New York City. so many had ones only a few minutes from their house. And possibly. I think it must have been a pretty radical moment when you were able to see things almost simultaneously from around the world. the brevity of messages has a history. it is constant.maybe the printer would crop something or edit something out.. and further. but recently our culture has been shifting to the temporal. When space is overcome as an obstacle. or is it a mental space of the viewer? Any relationship this space might have to those moments in the darkroom.

Reading through the way the editors talk about and treat your pictures. Some images were deleted. I sometimes wonder what would have happened if I did…  • towards a history. the images aren’t that good. it’s really fascinating. So it wasn’t just a ‘Wikipedia’ project. used Wikipedia as a site to circulate your photographs and by chance ended up testing the limits of how an image can be understood as objective information online. Can you describe what their discussion about your images was like? This is going to be done from memory.The online image does seem to have a distinct temporality. whose task is to monitor changes made to the website. people were like. But what rules did you possibly break? That’s the thing. became suspicious of your uploaded photographs. my proposal was to drive up the entire California Coast. lets say. but sometimes I was large in the photograph. but it used Wikipedia as a place for ‘releasing’ an image into a space of circulation. how all of California’s beaches are public property (except for the military bases). or Palos Verdes. No one questioned it at the beginning. and then the photo re-uploaded. Many of my images were taken down because editors noticed similar activity coming from the same IP address. ‘this is OK!’ I had no idea any of these conversations would emerge. Eventually you included their debates in the book you made about this project. the same person. Instantaneity. and were intended to circulate as a kind of meta-data for the actual locations. and if there is. it gives a kind of standard. One funny thing was that someone said I was not identifiable because they had downloaded the photo. There’s obviously someone trying to trick us. Wikipedia remains invested in an aesthetic of objectivity that an encyclopedia presupposes and you threatened that with your images? I made them question it. you’ll see the image there. It is speed. There is a double play on ‘public’ here: the internet as a public space.’ I loved this part. and noticed how all my images had someone in it. Can you explain? Public Access was first exhibited (and commissioned) by SF Camerawork in California. You chose a popular. But quickly Wikipedia’s editors. politics and and philosophy of the online image towards a history. I wanted to be an anonymous person who just happened to be there. this is bad. and thought. But why is this bad? Well. this image might come up in the image results. along the highway closest to the Pacific Ocean. At each beach I made photographs of the beach with my body standing somewhere in the image: usually looking out at sea somewhere. one of my photographs would be used to illustrate an article on. Or. Mostly I was hidden. that’s my concern. I actually like the images. ‘What’s going on? Do these images break any rules? Is there some game going on. or obscured in a shadow. Can you say more about it? I uploaded these images of specific geographic places to Wikipedia articles about the beaches. and also. So. But after a few images went up. I drove from the Mexican-American border to Oregon. saw that they couldn’t see my face. when they judged my photos themselves! I never entered any of the conversations. blew it up in Photoshop. Bodega Head. collaborative. It reveals some cracks and contradictions in Wikipedia’s utopian idea for what an online encyclopedia ‘editable by anyone’ is. so it’s not all direct quotes – ‘It’s good to have the same person in all of these photos. Simultaneity even. no one was sure. web-based encyclopedia that anyone is allowed to edit to also anonymously circulate these images. My favorite was when I was edited out of my own photograph. Basically. when you go on the Wikipedia page. They noticed that the same anonymous figure appeared in each of the beach images. This gesture is essential to the project. The images went online. is that wrong?’ And so conversations emerged as to what is the ethical thing to do for Wikipedia. Let’s say you were to look up Palos Verde in an online search. politics philosophy of the online image 69 . a reference.

The ease of copying plus the fact that we don’t connect them to the real world makes us wary of every image that meets the eye. Facebook uses its archive to link users’ pictures to corporate sponsors. Ritchin compares this to a footprint that you read and register. it’s important to realize that what we still want from images is that they are credible and reliable. online and through social media. but we in fact value their availability and abundance.DIALOGUE: THE WIdE WEB OF THE PHOTO GRAPHIC WORLd FREd RITCHIN & CONSTANT DULLAART Experts: FROm HERE ON(LINE) Moderated by J�rg Colberg Foam Amsterdam 19 March 2011 makes it impossible to trust images. cheap and easy to distribute to a lot of people at the same time. How can we judge and give value to these images? These questions touch the subjects that we deal with on a daily basis and add value to the imagery that surrounds us. Online images are more like a cloud: abstract. Ritchin stresses that the future is now. The questions that arise revolve around this sense of a dysfunctional future. Not many people realize that when storing their holiday pictures on Facebook. Moderator Jörg Colberg mentions Facebook as an example. the question remains of how we could change it. So much for credibility. a piece of paper that gives a clear connection to what we consider to be real. before we even experienced it. Though many people reject such scepticism. We complain about being surrounded by technology and about the glut of images that come to us. Is there a better system for allocating value to the images enveloping us? Both Ritchin and Dullaart draw the conclusion that we need to find new systems that are on a par with modern ways of experiencing pictures and let us confidently navigate through images. They can only be conceived of as relating to objects that we cannot touch nor feel. and can only be seen via the interface of a screen. So why feel guilty about doing so? You can use the current systems around you but be conscious of their interests and refuse to rely on them completely. living in a digitalized world When trying to answer the question What’s Next?. Right from the start. A dialogue with these two men provides insight into the many ways we deal with huge volume of pictures shown in the media. Call all the images on Facebook meaningless and the company is left with nothing. Let’s not worry too much. But what makes an online image credible. we considered a photographic print to be real. The current systems we use are either obsolete or created to generate income. what makes it ‘real’? Before the computer. an archive of over 16 billion pictures. They are just one click away. jelly and chocolate-sprinkles sandwich: unexpected.  • Summary by Eva Bremer Foam Education Department EX PE N I T E E M 70 . We forget we are actually having fun! We concentrate on trying to do the right thing. elusive and disconnected from the real. Being a commercial company. the Internet and Photoshop. we want images to be reliable. Viewing an online image is significantly different from holding a print in your hand. Taking this as a starting point. The search for possible answers must begin with a general notion of what we expect from images. Both Ritchin and Dullaart claim that’s the way they deal with the current systems. Discussing the photographic world on the wide web with Fred Ritchin and Constant Dullaart is like a peanut butter. As Ritchin says. This is why Ritchin would like to propose a 2012 event: What’s Next? – The fun part. unusual and fascinating all in one. Nowadays an image has lost its credibility before we even see it. Both Fred Ritchin and Constant Dullaart are downto-earth and inspiring in many ways. while there is vast potential we overlook.

D. Because it could and should be all those things. But there is such an extraordinary potential. In the past we made the big mistake of assuming that anything on a photographic print was somehow real. I think of trees. It’s also a matter of power. There is a completely different set of messages. and we call it nature.R. When I read a book on paper. It is not connected to what we can call real in terms of physical reality. Google frames the world more than photography ever did. When I’m in the digital world and I look at something. What I find interesting is to add layers of meanings to photographs to show the complexity of the experience of the depiction. It is not a photograph. F. We have to work out how to resist Google. we have a huge archive of images in the hands of other people whose purpose is to make a profit. if you consider the medium as a message.D. so we’re looking at a Google view on the world. People have started to see disasters as movies or video games. C. and the question is how to push it. dIALOGUE EXPERTmEETING who is behind the system. Now we know that’s not true. If you see a person suffering you want the image to be credible. That would be a level of scepticism that would satisfy me if people were aware that corporations stand in the background.ER T In a funny way I do not consider a photograph on the web to be an image. We cannot consider it a footprint from the digital world. The only question is how to find new systems to deal with it. and that is what we should try to resist. I would like to suggest that I could do this conference again. For me one of the arguments is that becoming code-based is the end of Nature with a capital N. In practice I’m not particularly interested in the authenticity of the image.R. We are doing 71 . It is important that people know G N The number of images.D. In both cases we are wrong. many of which are or could be interesting means this is something that’s happening anyway. What does that mean? C. Google is not the world. We all use Google but we don’t know who initiated what we see there. something now that is both necessary and very danger­ ous. Is there a system which is useful to tell us what has a greater or lesser proportion of reality to it? F. I have no connection to what we call the natural world.R. I have the luxury of being an artist. We have to be skeptical about almost anything on the internet. calling it What’s Next? – the Fun Part! F. How do you provide a level of credibility and authenticity such that people will think about what could be done. It is something much more ephemeral. F. So. C. We have a different approach. to realize how amazing and fun and useful it can be. if anything. <…> On Facebook we store so many images but the company can change the rules any time it wants to.R. which means I can be crude or light-hearted at the same time about heavy subjects. for lots of reasons.

foam magazine # 29 # 29 what's next? foam magazine what's next? 72 72 .

How does a photography museum need to function if it is to remain relevant within a field that is constantly and rapidly changing? Some changes within photography happen so quickly that it is initially difficult to judge what the long-term effects will be. the ­ introduction curating the space chapter .A photography museum that researches the future of photography will inevitably be researching its own future. which can be fulfilled in a modern. the underlying digital structure on the ­ internet so abstract and the circulation and availability of images of such importance. up-to-date manner. from artists and curators to museum directors and architects. instead taking time to interpret interesting changes and place them in context? Throughout the year that Foam spent researching the future of photography. using purposeful presentations to attribute significance to images and to developments. A museum ought more than ever to act as a mechanism for sorting the wheat from the chaff. Now that the quantity of photo­ graphy is so overwhelming. there’s a danger that the value and significance of images will too often ­ fail to count. we spoke to very 73 73 many people about these issues. Is it the task of a museum to be as up-to­ date as possible and to anticipate developments that are in many cases still taking shape? Or is it better for a museum to maintain a certain critical distance and deliberately avoid being carried along by the concerns of the day. A subject that came up time and again was the increasing need for an effective filter. There were some who argued that alongside this relatively traditional function.

Swim with the tide or against it: those were the two extremes around which ­ the debate took place. but the museum should never be afraid to respond to current events and reserve a specific place for them. 74 .foam magazine # 29 what's next? museum should as far as possible be a reflection of its own time. of interpreting and referring to historical contexts. There was no attempt to deny the importance of slow­ ing down.

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Adelaide First page: Fall Series (Knox) VI (detail) Andy Best’s Fall Series has captured the attention of the art world and secured his position as an exciting young artist. in which the artist jumped out of a window into the street. realistic. as if they’ve slipped from one reality into another. subsequently his work has been exhibited internationally. and appears in collections in the UK.  • selected by Anne Marsh . Best often draws on art history. As we focus on the faces of the fallers we realise that they seem to be in a dream-like space. comes to mind when we look at Best’s series. The life/death paradox of photography – where life is frozen and time is stopped – also recurs. Klein fell into a safety net but the photograph was altered and cropped so the artist appeared to be in imminent danger. film and television. Sweden and the US. Best presents young people caught in deathly moments and we are not sure whether to laugh at the trick or to be troubled by the various narratives that the series engenders. Fall is an important series because of the ways in which it transmits a social message and at the same time engages with the medium of photography. Fall is a compelling and amusing series which captures the imagination. Yves Klein’s Leap into the Void (1960). 2006 courtesy Greenaway Art Gallery. blissfully unaware of the grimy urban sites that they inhabit and some viewers may wonder if drugs have induced this trance-like state or whether we are watching a fantasy.Andy Best Fall Series All images © Andy Best. Although the images appear as straight. Norway. photographs they have a surreal and uncanny edge as young adults appear to free-fall out of buildings. The series opens up these narratives without closing down on a particular theme. Best plays with a similar idea and addresses the medium because for an instant we believe these people actually jumped or were pushed. video games.

83 study or for experiences. Each specific presentation has a fairly circumscribed point of departure. The following interviews with the guest curators Erik Kessels. for 4 curators.Foam invited four guest curators to come up with each a proposal as to what a photo­ graphy exhibition might look like in the near future. the four presentations pose questions about the value of photography. Jefferson Hack and Lauren Cornell and the accompanying QR codes give an insight in What’s Next? – the exhibition part. 4 presentations. Alison Nordström. 1 museum 4 Curators 4 Visions 4 Presentations 1 Museum a core activity of a museum. to bring to a head the debate about what a photo­ graphy exhibition can be. Mounting exhibitions will remain Taken together. . 4 visions. But what kind of exhibitions will be possible and desirable? The guest curators were therefore allowed to be quite radical and provocative. about the significance of the photography exhibition and about how an institution such as Foam can offer a platform for the presentation of work.

Which is precisely why I chose it.“Because Flickr or other similar sites are amateur forums.” curating the space Erik Kessels www.foam.” 84 .org/foam-amsterdam/ exhibitions/whatsnext/kessels
 “I can honestly tell you that this is the first time I have flooded a room with images. literally. most institutions would be hard pressed to exhibit the work.

I am not showing anything you have not seen before. 4 presentations. I feel my work – be it the books I publish. Is a museum even necessary? Especially now that there are so many successful blogs which react so quickly to the latest developments. but then you would look at them in a completely different way. As far as that’s concerned. From one visitor to the next. I hope the viewer goes back to their computer with a new or different impression the next time they look at a blog or upload a photo to Flickr. most institutions would be hard pressed to exhibit the work. The images are the main elements that the installation pulls together for the desired effect. Which is precisely why I chose it. You pick up a photo and you isolate it for a moment. A chance to isolate these images and take them out of their intended context. It has to do with the tension between online photos and offline photos. It is composed of hundreds and thousands of anonymous photographers.Why does your exhibition look the way it does? I wanted to illustrate the sheer vastness of the digital era we live in now. They ultimately become a kind of virtual litter that you don’t really look at. but in most cases the photos appearing every day on the internet never have a physical existence. The intention is to dislocate the everyday. it physically shows how much gets added in a 24hour period and it’s in fact too much to deal with. apart from a million others. you pick up another one. The main thing you see from your exhibition is the great flood of digital images. images of this period will disappear. the museum is a platform. I also love that everyone will see it differently. In those instances you’ve acted as a filter between viewer and photo. I am just showing how you have never seen it before. How should I view this exhibition in relation to your other exhibitions? I can honestly tell you that this is the first time I have flooded a room with images. In the classic sense of photography. that you. I think in a few decades there will be more to show from the 1970s and 1980s than from the current period due to the nature of the digital wasteland of the internet. the photographs they pick up will determine how they choose to navigate through the room. However. photography has become an everyday part of life. I could have hung up a monitor or 10 monitors and shown those millions of images in a loop. literally. I’ve practically filled up the entire space and used it like a container. Aesthetics is in the entirety of what you see. I choose the size of the files and a format. this is not your traditional photography exhibition. Now you are made to. There are a thousand times more photos taken now than there were in the past. cheap drugstore prints and no frames. I think that’s an exciting experience. almost like eating and drinking. Photography is no longer something precious as it once was and because of this. Absolutely. but this experience is physical. so that hopefully you see something new and inspiring. Anyone can hang beautiful pictures on the wall. and store millions of pictures every year. the experience is no longer in the separate images. That’s also the fun part. Is it a statement about a development or is it a critical approach because you think there are too many images? That’s something I’ll leave up to the viewer to decide. And I look through everything. It is also specifically intended to separate those digital photos from their context. Where is it going?  • 4 curators. collect. My work has many common threads and maybe the most recurring theme is the amateur. I call it 24 Hrs In Photos. Interview by Kim Knoppers. Do aesthetics also have a place in the exhibition you’re showing at Foam? I find it aesthetic. and then you look at it for a while. but instead of living on Facebook or Flickr. 4 visions. your books and exhibitions have provided a platform for photos which would otherwise have been overlooked. Because Flickr or other similar sites are amateur forums. as museum visitor. Of course you still wouldn’t be conscious of the enormous number of them. but the amateur is not burdened by the why and how. That’s actually the same as opening a digital photo on a computer. The photos you see now have been printed. but aesthetics is objective. We take. Would you consider your exhibition a monument to digital photography on an average day in the autumn of 2011? Yes. When you walk through the space. receive. the exhibitions I curate or my daily life as commercial art director – is not so different. walk through it: you make your own selection. the sincerity. but of course I can’t really see it all. the stories they tell or really the stories I interpret. I am attracted to the spontaneity. . Because of your exceptional way of seeing. they just do it. What is your role as curator? I choose a time span. After that. Foam Curator. you could almost feel like you’re drowning in a sea of images. I wanted to show one day. I wanted to give them a physical space as opposed to a cyber one. I want to give the viewer something to think about. However. 1 museum 85 Erik Kessels is founder and creative director of KesselsKramer. I have a great deal of respect for the professional photographer. One day of photos uploaded on the internet. and so you make up your own story.

It is as objects that they move through space and time.org/foam-amsterdam/ exhibitions/whatsnext/nordstrom The first question is of course: What will we see when we enter the first room of the exhibition The Future of The Photography Museum? What you will see is: things. You will see things that are for the most part not simply flat pieces of photographic paper. with mats and frames.foam. You are looking at things in such a way that you won’t confuse the image and the object. They will have been altered in some way or presented in some way that emphasizes their materiality. But there will also be one large photographic collage hanging in the middle of the room and a contemporary daguerreotype in a case. the way we usually present photographs.” curating the space Alison Nordström www. This is my hope for this little show. Most of them will be presented conventionally.“The image content is usually what we pay attention to in a photograph but photographs are objects too. 86 .

’ Sometimes the physical changes a photograph accumulates change meaning with time and take on a curious aesthetic. 4 presentations. Alison Nordström is Senior Curator of Photographs and Director of Exhibitions at George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester. on our computers there is no reason to talk about pages and files and folders but we do because this is the only intellectual construct that we have for understanding what we do with a computer. Of course the image content is usually what we pay attention to in a photograph but photographs are objects too.Why do you think it is so important to emphasize the objectness of the photographs? I think that one of the reasons photographs are so seductive is that the images look like truth and it is really easy to forget that they are not. the vocabulary that we use to talk about it is anachronistic. We appreciate the pleasures of ruins. in this way even an image that is made digitally. We have chosen to show only the backs of the prints. • 4 curators. but. The thingness of these photographs is something we can all delight in. In the case of photojournalism these pictures had a very specific use. And that is really beautiful. We simply cannot do that in the same way with digital images. an object does. These are obvious marks of their use and an interesting example of a technology we don’t use anymore. we send out pdfs or tiffs. Even though we are surrounded by images without materiality. Foam Curator. What you actually see is a rhythm of black and white or colored shapes and lines on a piece of paper – something 3D rendered into 2D. the marks are beautiful. they literally move from hand to hand. Sometimes the entire publication history of a particular image is carried on the object. consumed digitally and preserved digitally is affected by paper photographs and so understanding these things is the way we understand not just photography’s past but its present and the future. Marshall McLuhan makes the observation that even when technology changes something’s nature. Photographs are usually made of paper and one of the things we do with paper is to write on it. the shatter marks in the glass are evident in the print. That tells you that at one point it was kept in an album and we know how people used albums. since the digital turn we send out scans. You would not do that with a digital object. It is as objects that they move through space and time. you simply make the changes and send the corrected file. George Eastman House collects. This informs the meaning of the photograph. If you know where it’s been you can often tell what it has meant to people. But there can also be a lot of information in the material qualities of the photograph. Maybe this is more important now. but the act of physically connecting to a paper object by writing something on it is special in its very mundanity. Will the object become more important in the digital age? I hope so. Interview by Kim Knoppers. And I actually think now that we are completely surrounded by virtual reality it may be that contemplation of the real thing will become more special. Looking at a real thing is different from looking at a representation of that thing on a computer monitor. You write: ‘Here is my baby on her second birthday’ or ‘I love you forever. They get used and kept in different ways and this is important in how they are understood. since now we live in a world of disembodied images. But the marks of the broken plate. For example. as it happens. One of the reasons why we have asked you as one of our guest curators is because you are a senior curator of photography at George Eastman House. Nowadays. Very often the material nature of the photograph will change over time as it is used. the oldest museum of photography. I also think there is something about the physical relationship between the object and the viewer that is a radically different experience from looking at something on a monitor or even being bombarded by projections. A photograph that has been folded in half to fit into an envelope tells you that someone cared about it enough to send it to someone. There are examples in the show of artists who choose to write or have others write on their photographs but it is certainly something which is done every day in an ordinary world. It may be hitting people over the head with this idea but the important thing is that an image doesn’t have a front and a back. The Steichen photographs that are in this show have instructions for the retoucher on them. What kind of information do you mean? It can be almost anything. 1 museum 87 . For example. enjoy and appreciate. You are very used to working with objects. Before the digital turn a picture agency like Magnum would send out 8x10 glossies for publication purposes and every time they went out they would be stamped to show where they have been. Magnum photographer George Rodgers took remarkable photographs of Africa but the pictures we have sent to Amsterdam are not those. The marks themselves really have an aesthetic quality that no one would have recognized when they were made but that we appreciate. Obviously there is the metadata. 4 visions. the way we think about photographs comes from the way photographs used to be. I chose the Julia Margaret Cameron photograph for this exhibition because it is printed from a broken plate and of course it reminds you she was working with glass negatives. acquires and cares for born digital objects that have no materiality as well but the core of our collection is the pieces of paper glass and metal that carried photographic images when that was the only way photographs could be. in a flea market you will often find a photograph that on the back has black fuzzy circles on the corners. If we want to understand what photographs meant in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries we can’t confuse the image and the object.

please tell us something about the origin of your proposal. In your proposal there is clear distinction between what you call the Mother Sculpture and the Rise Sculpture. The idea for the Mother Sculpture was to work with what I like to call the Dazed & Confused family of photographers. “It’s about the relationship between the viewer and the photograph via the screen. Can you explain the first piece the audience encounters.” 88 . I wanted to explore this new paradigm.curating the space Jefferson Hack www. These photographers are all part of the current group of photographers who represent the visual language of the magazine across different genres. the Mother Sculpture? Yes. I wanted to do something that was respectful to some of the traditional notions of photography that was about looking at the work of established photo­ graphers. especially compared to the times when photo­ graphy was primarily seen as a print-based medium.foam. In this new digital era screens are omnipresent and this has changed our relationship with photography dramatically.org/foam-amsterdam/ exhibitions/whatsnext/hack Jefferson. I am very interested in the relationship between the viewer and photography through the screen. portraiture and reportage to art photography. These genres may vary from fashion.

and this third room is about the relationship with photography via the self-portrait. New submissions will continually be added to the screens that will build from an initial 150 images to perhaps more than 300 or 400 images towards the end of the show. 4 visions. social media and other new media to allow young and semi-professional photographers who maybe aren’t shooting for D&C yet. Therefore the overall impression I wanted to convey is a kind of minimal feeling. She said she remembered wiping the glass of all the images everyday and telling the curator that the Eggleston images had more spit on them than all other images. Totally. concentrated way of looking. growing exhibition that’s never the same thing from day to day. so the audience can choose their position and look at the picture as an image of itself in respect to everything else that is going on in the space. in that people are looking at the entire as a single form of entertainment. I spoke with Ingrid Sischy about this just recently and she told me a story about the first show of William Eggleston’s colour images at the MoMA. The Rise Sculpture has many more and larger screens and is about a different question. This is really interesting because this is about interactive digital art. based on the movement of the public picked up by sensors. the second room is of the viewer with photography via technology. It is a submissions project about the future. It is a living. It is not so much about the relationship with the screen. So it would become about a personal relationship with the image. artistic affairs The Rise Sculpture requires a less meditative relationship. Foam Deputy Director. How do you see the relationship between the viewer and the screen? That’s the thing I really wanted to explore. Interview by Marcel Feil. So it is also about the current visual language of the magazine as it is on the shelves now. It made me rethink how big I wanted the screens to be. with a real sense of engagement. The idea is that the photographer will send us the work and we choose and edit based on the Dazed & Confused spirit. Hack is co-founder and editor-in-chief of Dazed & Confused. There is a third part as well. 4 curators. but it is not real-time and it is not a free-for-all. It´s about the relationship between the viewer and the photograph via the screen. the over-accessibility which results in a kind of visual junkyard. 1 museum Jefferson W. interaction and fun. as multiple screens simply bombarding you with images. but are developing their own work in their own way. I want people to get close and see their spit on the screen. That’s not what I wanted the audience to experience. the images will be manipulated in real time. It is much more of an experimental room. reediting or even reinterpreting their work. All images are shot within our current time and therefore the photographer is influenced by the contemporary time we are living in. What happens then is a more meditative experience. The idea for that is much more about drawing people into the image. comparable with an average laptop. a room with a work by Hellicar & Lewis. That requires a really focused. They have made incredible work with different musicians and different exhibition spaces involving the public in real-time manipulations of recorded images. They are not photographs taken ten or twenty years ago. That is the exact opposite of what I am trying to do with the Mother Sculpture. The image that catches the eye should have a certain focal point. It’s quite interesting. If the first room is about the relationship of the viewer with photography via screens. The best work will be put into the Rise Sculpture. In a way it is about looking for technology that allows different curatorial schemes to be employed by me on a whim. For the Rise Sculpturewe are using the internet. wherever I am in the world.All those different genres will be mixed in the presentation? I think we have to use the word mixed quite carefully. They are also living in this digital.  • 89 . It was a sensational show for many reasons but also because the images were very. It is about presenting it onto a screen and having the viewer presenting themselves to photography that is in a digital format. I thought it to be really nice if the screens were something like 19 or 20 inches. I have briefed all the photographers to supply images that are either unpublished but have been taken recently or new work made in the last four months. It’s like a postphotographic meltdown of the idea of the portrait. The presentation shouldn’t be a step-back experience. I have purposely tried not to show too much archive. One of the interesting aspects of this method was to have an exhibition that builds over time. to submit work to the show. The other thing we are looking at is to create generative groupings of images by employing specific software. Also because most of the images in the Mother Sculpture were perhaps originally analogue and meant to be published as prints? No. I mean. to establish a lean-forward experience. in a digital culture there is already the over-bombardment of images we are all subject to. screen-based era in which photography is presented primarily on screens. Hellicar & Lewis are long-time collaborators and friends of Dazed & Confused. Obviously the audience has a comparable visual framework. It should feel edited and curated. 4 presentations. So in that sense the main question was how am I going to do that and still be respectful to the photography. What I am not interested in doing with the established photographers is remixing. She ended by saying that sometimes the small bombs are the most powerful bombs. very small. The idea is that portraits of the public will be taken by video cameras and then. It is about using technology and about our relationship with photography via technology. more meditative and personal.

” curating the space Lauren Cornell www. Can you explain the reasons behind it? I was invited to curate this exhibition for the 10th anniversary of Foam.org/foam-amsterdam/ exhibitions/whatsnext/cornell Lauren.“I wanted to consider how a culture. was playing into the nature of photography as a discipline. Your presentation is entitled Circulate. Because I am an art curator and non-profit director involved with technology.foam. an institution I admire for the way it has consistently presented photography in a contemporary and expansive way throughout its history. that has recently been broadened and diversified by the internet. was playing into the nature of photography as a discipline. 90 . let’s start with beginning: the title. Instead I wanted to consider how a culture. I thought an expected response from me might be to project into the future of photographic tools or apparatus. The specific assignment was to consider the future of photography. that has recently been broadened and diversified by the internet.

1 museum Lauren Cornell is Executive Director at Rhizome and Adjunct Curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York. artists both deeply involved with conceptualism and media appropriation. their suspension evokes the ways objects are frozen and intermingled in our memories. in others casually – in front of landmarks from the Taj Mahal to the Great Wall of China. His sculptures in Circulate recall the Protestant Reformation (15171648) in which statues and images were consistently under physical attack for being idolatrous. virtual casts that meld the original with its wider perceptions and associations into an uncanny new form. With only text engraved or spraypainted onto a cylindrical form. degraded. chimes. The origin of the works was a mistaken Facebook friend request made by teenager named Andrew to Tonsfeldt – a simple mistake that opened up a connection between strangers that the artist chose to explore. Liz Deschenes. and a VHS cassette tape for the movie Cyborg. streaked with marks that result from a technically incorrect process. and painted sticks in a work that pulls images out of legibility and abstracts them into new forms and stories. as suggested by the title. Geometric Abstraction. Steyerl exhibits a short single-screen video entitled Strike (2010) in which the artist literally strikes a video monitor. pausing and abstracting their life as images. apprehend and analyze everything or all the information and possibilities available. Laric worked with 3D modellers to create a silicon mould from which a number of identical casts were made. The sculptures produced by Matt Keegan and Jim Richards.’ a study abroad program for American teenagers that involves travelling by boat to tourist destinations. and all we are left with is modifications or new versions. or rather compares it with the way that today. here imbued with levity. sometimes stolen ‘poor image. but rather the afterlife of a photograph or. among them. 4 presentations. conjuring psychological or cultural memory of images in video works that have an affect of spatial or temporal dislocation. or the breakdown between an original and its copies – a highly relevant notion for the circulation of images because when images travels digitally they are consistently being copied. sometimes hopeless feeling. the way a teenager mugs for the camera in 2011. as if forcibly exposing its materiality. a process that carries the Reformation-era iconoclasm forward into history. taking them out of the slipstream of Facebook. that there is no way to take in. appropriation. there is a more universal dimension to them: an American abroad. all casually centred around a craggy conch shell placed atop a plinth whose walls appear to be bricked. which nods to the movement and circulation of culture. Oliver Laric and Takeshi Murata both involve 3D modelling in their work to different ends. Having just returned from a ‘Semester at Sea. an empty bottle and can. objects are deprived or aura and image hierarchies are flattened by constant copying and re-purposing. the idea of being at-sea. causing its screen to shatter. Happens Mostly WithoutYou. is a series of scripted actions involving objects such as an arrow.’ from the practice of appropriation as it’s traditionally understood. The origin of these objects is intentionally unclear: some seem as if they’ve been ripped out of our world. the work distils the theme down into essential human feelings. Oliver Laric has explored the idea of versioning. by its technical deterioration as it changes platforms. They seem to say that today the original is lost. I wanted to look at this notion of circulation as it relates to major discourses associated with this medium. an important aspect of digital image circulation that is sometimes forgotten. who often works with what critic Chris Wiley describes as ‘lensless photography’ in which ‘photographic processes are pared down to their barest essence. This process is key because it differentiates their projects. are emblazoned with the phrase: Don’t Worry. Andrew’s personal photographs featured images of him posing – in some cases exultantly. Erika Vogt is interested in examining photography outside the frame. How is that expressed in your chosen works? What kind of different strategies do the artists use? All of the featured works relate to this theme of circulation in a slightly different way. What Happens. others out of a video game or film. these pictures evince his own personality and humour. like process-based inquiry. and so forth. • 4 curators. so that the original becomes abstracted. to a stranger. both personal and collective. artistic affairs 91 .’ here presents a single mirrored work that reflects visitors’ movements throughout the gallery. its path of circulation. in a highly visual era. in both literal and metaphoric terms. Murata’s works are digital still-lifes: carefully arranged collections of diverse 3D-rendered objects. The exhibition includes three works by Josh Tonsfeldt in which images have been printed on the back-side of photographic paper. How is its meaning altered or newly understood by different contexts. 4 visions. Your statement is about our visual economy in which the meaning of images is not only related to their subject matter but it is also dictated by global circulation.What I decided to focus on was not tools or subject matter. Several featured works approach the topic from a more sidelong poetic stance. which feature ‘found images. Interview by Marcel Feil. These low-resolution images were what Tonsfeldt blew up and printed on the back of the photographic paper.’ In Circulate. somehow memorializing what otherwise might be throwaway images. In previous works. or the realistic portrayal of objects and situations. and to the melancholic. The objects and figures that appear in their works are recreations. Hito Steyerl’s work and writings were an inspiration for the exhibition. such as Cyborg (2011). by its continual discovery and re-discovery. which presents a handful of lemons. To Andrew’s friends. Furthermore. particularly her essay ‘In Defence of the Poor Image’ which reflects on the relative cultural value of images and makes a case for the radical potential of the low-res. Foam Deputy Director.

This ties in with the opening of the exhibition ‘The Future of the Photography Museum’ and is part of the ongoing ‘What’s Next?’ project. Foam Lab is launching a new product as the ultimate souvenir: ‘The Foam Mug’. for a period of four weeks.foam. a group of ambitious youngsters kicked off the third edition of Foam Lab. the Guggenheim and the Louvre.curating the space www. Foam Lab is offering its own. Heading towards a career in the creative industry they will develop different photography-based projects and events for Foam.org/foam-amsterdam/ exhibitions/whatsnext/foamlab Nowadays museums increasingly function as cultural entrepreneurs. limited-edition mug. Foam Lab In February 2011. 92 . The question arises: how far can you take a brand like Foam? To stretch this idea of the museum as brand. Following the lead of museums like the Rijksmuseum.

our programmes will strive to provide a platform for current debates. While the realities of undertaking a Capital Building project during a time of economic turmoil inevitably focuses our minds on reality over speculation.000+ annual visitors to enjoy. particularly in the UK. Three new exhibition galleries will enable us to continue exhibiting work by emerging and established photographers based in the UK and internationally. London 93 N future MuseuM VIsI�n . Our building will create a vibrant social and intellectual hub in the heart of London’s Soho for people with all levels of specialism and engagement. whose Glucksman Gallery Cork and Lyric Theatre Belfast have won many plaudits. Designed by the Irish architects O’Donnell & Tuomey. shared and experienced by most people today. Due to reopen in early 2012. through the printed page or new technology. with the emergence of the internet. audiences and the context of our new location in central London. new ideas and creative collaborations as well as excellent art. understand and engage with photography in ways that are both relevant and surprising to them. photography’s ubiquitous position in what some define as a postphotographic age. The Photographers’ Gallery has undoubtedly played a significant role in this transformation. and building critically-engaged audiences for a wide range of photographic practices. by exhibiting relevant and timely work by some of the world’s most celebrated photographers. Alongside other institutions.E R U T FU THe  PH�to grApHers’ GAllerY M US EU M The four decades since the Gallery was founded in 1971 have seen photography evolve from the margins of institutional recognition to one of the most influential art forms of the 21st century. via events. study room and resource space. the new Photographers’ Gallery will build upon its unique position as London’s principal organisation dedicated to championing photography’s role at the heart of visual culture. digital cameras and the phenomenon of social networking over the past decade. the new building will provide the facilities and spaces to ensure we can continue to inspire our 500. In this way. our aspiration is to ensure that the qualities and ethos which have been so long embedded in The Photographers’ Gallery – its welcoming. and continues to be. By Brett Rogers Director of The Photographers’ Gallery. At the same time. informed as much by evolving debates around the future of photography as the changing needs of artists. poses new challenges for what a ‘photographers’ gallery’ might now mean. accessible and challenging character – can sit alongside a new set of principles and programmes which reflect the radically different way in which photography is understood. Whether on the gallery walls. our new vision has been. workshops and educational projects. This will include a digital installation in the entrance lobby reflecting our wider commitment to digital programmes and a dedicated education floor – incorporating a permanent camera obscura.

as well as help the world discover talented Chinese photographers. in China and abroad. The exhibition provides unknown and emerging Chinese photographers with exposure to a large and diverse audience and grants the winner 80. Beijing We think it’s important for photographers. . What we hope Three Shadows can provide them with in the future is formal instruction on the concepts behind photography and its uses beyond the purely commercial. even in the digital age. Since 2009 we’ve received hundreds of submissions each year for the annual Three Shadows Photography Award. The future of photography in China lies with these young practitioners. Three Shadows has established itself as the country’s most professional platform for discovering old and new Chinese photography. The future of photography in China looks very promising and we hope that Three Shadows will continue to play an important role in expanding knowledge and awareness among both artists and viewers.000 RMB. By RongRong & inri Founders of Three Shadows.FU TU RE THree SHadows PHoto grapHY Art Centre 94 curAtINg tHe spAce We founded the Three Shadows Photography Art Centre in 2007 in Caochangdi. a northeastern corner of Beijing. which culminates in an exhibition for the 20 finalists reviewed by an international panel of judges. We’ve had the pleasure of working together with some of the best organizations in photography to bring excellent exhibitions to China. as well as promoting crosscultural exchange between photographic communities all over the world. We see a very urgent need for this kind of art education in China and would like to explore the possibility of expanding Three Shadows’ capacity as a learning center. because we wanted to give photography a space where it could receive the recognition it deserves as a powerful medium of art and expression. who are strong in number and have a thirst for new ideas and methods. MU SEU An important component to the process of promoting photography in China is continuing Three Shadows’ exchange with the outside world. to be in a darkroom and learn the basics of light and chemistry through a hands-on approach. As China’s first art space solely dedicated to photography.

we’ll concentrate our resources around three axes: 1 Purchases. among them some master­ pieces which can be seen at Paris Photo in November 2011. It’s part of our mission of public service. From now on. For others. as part of our aim to fill out our mission as an institution embedded in this territory. 3 A presence in new contemporary national and international photo­ graphy. By taking in donations of thousands of photo­ graphs. they guaranteed the continuity of a heritage that was being neglected at the time. In this way the Musée de l’Elysée has a collection of about 100. price. Although we may have trouble competing on the photography market. Its popularity isn’t limited to the plushy auction houses. UM future MuseuM VIsI�n In less than thirty years. since we have to acknowledge that our acquisition budgets have never had the same exponential growth as the price of photographs. It has its market. their answers turn out to be complex and perfectly relevant. like a road map for the decades to come. On this last point. times have changed. For some. exhibitions. study. the acquisition will be accompanied by a major exhibition and a publication. And nobody today would dare to imagine where those photographs would have ended up if the museum hadn’t been there to accommodate them. we have brought together collections scattered over archives. Because of inflation. the photograph has managed to attain the status of an object of desire. which is increasing sharply. Now. We took a gamble that modernising our re- serves and reinforcing our collections team will be sound arguments that draw photographers. or can we be a temporary guardian? Would it be better to guarantee good conservation conditions. and at a good By Sam Stourdzé Director of Musée de l’Elysée. our duty to conserve. These questions may seem trivial. gallery owners and collectors. libraries. the museums were the saving grace of photography. In this age of budget cuts. ‘live’ and grow. given what it allows us to buy – or rather. taking into account the opportunities that allow us to complete or reinforce certain aspects of the collection. However. For the last year. institutions or in individual homes. Our stated ambition is to make our collections department a real benchmark of excellence. Today this gamble has paid off.000 items. it’s essential that the collections in our institutions continue to be enriched. institutions have lost their purchasing power! A few years ago. government offices. a choice that even questions the notion of ownership. At the time more photographs came to us as donations or trusts than what we purchased. comprising some 10. 2 Particular interest in sometimes forgotten figures in Swiss photography. working with the artist. in a pragmatic way. But if you think about it. one that takes into account where the artist is in their career and offers the means to give it a boost. Seeing how the prices have skyrocketed makes you dizzy. guaranteed over several years. In just a few years. what it no longer allows us to buy! – the alternatives we’re faced with have largely reduced our sphere of action: we can regret the good times. study and disseminate this larger photographic heritage. as well as what’s at stake strategically and what challenges will emerge. rather than spreading ourselves too thin. Along with these acquisition procedures. So we’ll be inventive. as well as the means to insure its conservation and promotion.MusÉe de  l’ElYsÉe The Musée de l’Elysée has collected photography ever since it was founded in 1985. For example. in trust. In becoming a collectable object. These acquisitions go along with a commitment from the museum. development and promotion with the holders of the photographic heritage. Photography is now trading at the whim of supply – which is getting rarer all the time – and demand. It may be that there’s nothing to complain about. the Musée de l’Elysée has been reviewing its acquisition strategies and re-evaluating its priorities. but looking at how the collections of numerous institutions have been managed in the past. publications. or to own it without being able to care for it? To what point should we conserve something if know we’re not in a position to promote it? The jury’s still out. we consider ourselves lucky to even have an acquisition budget. the Musée de l’Elysée is outlining its new acquisition policy. we negotiated a long-term guardianship. in the form of targeted support allowing us to play our role ­ of promoting young talent. we’ve chosen to concentrate on a few photo­ graphers and give them solid and concerted support. it will take the form of assistance in production. or decide to be inventive. estates and collectors to choose the Musée de l’Elysée as the place for their collections. It’s the choice for competence.000 photographs. the individual photo­ graph is what sells. The age of pioneers has come and gone. and it’s in danger of becoming unattainable. promotion and dissemination over a negotiated period of time. However. Do we have to own a work or collection for it to be in our collections. The announcement of this exceptional collection’s arrival allowed us to find the financing for a new conservator position. the Musée de l’Elysée would never have been able to acquire the Chaplin collection at its market value. the Musée de l’Elysée has decided to capitalise on its added value. This effort is vital because it allows us to identify the form that the museum’s contribution will take. we do have something to complain about. It benefits from museums. we do know how to exploit our expertise in conservation. Lausanne 95 N � sI I V . In creating new landmarks. enabling the artist to work on his or her new project with some security. In 2011 the Chaplin family gave us its Charles Chaplin photography collection.

CHARL�TTE C�TT�N & JoACHIm SCHmId such a possibility. resourceful and critical play with the ambiguities of both photography and the archive. but of working with it through curatorial and collection approaches that take collaborative. moderated by Frits Gierstberg (Head of Exhibitions. it strikes me that the productive future of archiving photography and of photographic archives is not so much a matter of hi-tech (in the sense of bigger.DIALoGUE: ARCHIVInG InTo THE fUTURE Experts: EXPE RT put it. Reflecting on this dialogue. Schmid praised Flickr for making it possible to ‘borrow other people’s eyes to look at anything you want. without a definition of the archive. medium and subject. At once humorously and in deadly earnest. Schmid’s analogy of a quarry could describe the essence of an archive. at Gierstberg’s request. which may otherwise remain mute. Cotton reminded us of photography’s fabulously confusing nature. to negotiate and draw meaning from vast expanses of material. It is not a place from which one can easily extract intact meanings. There is a hope that this will have exciting implications for the structures. access and interpretation. but as a source quarry. relevance and interactivity of archives in the future. From photographic accumulations he retrieves and reconstitutes the accidental aesthetics of vernacular photography.’ It may well be that the future of archives is not a matter of resolving that confusion. Faced with an audience member’s expressed desire for museums to ‘keep everything. better. as Cotton As for the photographic images themselves. not to mention scholars. but rather a matter of creative. faster. along with the practices of many other artists. Rather. When asked for his thoughts about the internet and archives. curators and managers of archives may have much to learn from the practices of artists. rather than authoritative stances towards the material. Within the territory of an archive such ambiguities affect conservation. points to the secondary function of an archive. Schmid and Cotton suggested that the European urge to preserve might be distracting us from the present. using practices and ideas from both artists and the public. Starting. On a deeper level. one that is perhaps even more relevant than its storage function: its use. Nederlands Fotomuseum). not only is it difficult to maintain durable digital files in a time of relentless technological development. It is simultaneously vehicle and tool. ‘There is a confusion between the physicality of the objects and the meaning of the subjects. It is easy to think about both photography and the archive in relationship to the past.' but he also made clear that he sees the internet itself not as an archive. there would simply never be enough time or manpower to work with everything. Schmid asked. information and object. because we can’. the conversation ultimately gravitated towards the art world and issues raised by artists working with archives and the archiving of artists’ works. it is a site in which. As Cotton summed up. In this sense. using the materials of the past. His practice. accessibility. more). Schmid creates artworks through collection. Practically speaking. both speakers expressed their aversion to 96 N I T E E M . ‘How much space are we leaving open for the future?’ In my view. it is possible to discover and/or construct something entirely new. It has lately become quite common for artists to be asked to work with archives. selection and re-presentation of archival and found photography. • Summary by Asmara Pelupessy CURATING THE SPACE Moderated by Frits Gierstberg Foam Amsterdam 19 March 2011 One of photography’s many possible functions and guises is as an archival medium. but what about the future? This was the topic of the Dialogue between curator Charlotte Cotton (UK) and artist Joachim Schmid (DE).

When such institutions shift from presenting classic art photography to include new media and contemporary reflections on a mediated society. when used under the heading of a Photography museum or institution. a meaningful context for the exhibition of artifacts and images.’ Institutions such as Foam are there both to look critically at the foundations of a medium and to question what that medium needs. While critically reflecting on the role of photography. similar to the word ‘contemporary’ in the title of any Contemporary art museum. Oppenheim would claim the role of the photography institution is to create. Similarly. art academies still hang onto the unnecessary division into separate departments of film. Institutions have always to wonder what the most appropriate curatorial workforce is at any given moment. Charlotte Cotton. describes herself as a revolution-fetishist. in questioning their motives and connecting with contemporary initiatives to avoid becoming the equivalent of big ocean liners.  Appropriate curatorial workforce For both Oppenheim and Cotton. curators are crucial to the ideal of the critical institution that stays in flux. photography and art. and even control. design) in separate departments. during the What’s Next? expert meeting in Foam. Analogously. she emphasizes the degree to which institutions need to stay active in programming. is a historical and distinct term. Throughout the conversation. if Flickr indeed enters the stage. thereby needlessly sustaining an artificial separation between entwined histories.  • Summary by Flora Lysen dIaLoGUES EXPERTmEETInG 97 .DIALoGUE: THE IdEAL InSTITUTIon CHARL�TTE C�TT�N & LISa OPPEnHEIm Moderated by Michiel van Iersel Foam Amsterdam 19 March 2011 Experts: G N Institutions are usually far from ideal. the institution should always critically reflect on its own position too. New York-based artist Lisa Oppenheim aligns the role of institutions with that of the contemporary art photographer. there is a certain historiography and understanding attached to the word ‘photography’. Photography. Creative Director of the National Media Museum. The conventional museum curator is probably the least likely to know what’s really happening in the media. Cotton points to the need for curators to go beyond the institution’s inherent mechanism of picking highs and lows and validating the few from amongst the mass. Museums act as heritage keepers of specific media (photography. which we can use to depart from and to examine new developments in the world of images and image making. ‘It’s not worth my time to go to exhibitions to see things turned into an institutional context by intellectualist professionals. We should be particularly aware of such mechanisms at a time when the emphasis is on the mass. Well versed in the world of contemporary art and media. ‘I wouldn’t want any curator to do a show on Flickr. Although the use of the word might seem anachronistic. I’d rather ask a 14-year-old about it.’ Photography: a useful anachronism Finally. Bradford.  Avoid becoming big ocean liners The desire to dissolve disciplinary and institutional boundaries is not surprising in light of the panel members’ backgrounds. according to the panel members of The Ideal Institution. members of the panel felt that institutions do not need to convert entirely into media institutions or museums. a recurring note of critique was the apparent desire of various art institutions to solidify the boundaries between artistic media. this does not imply an exit for the photography institution.

foam magazine # 29 what's next? What’s next from a magazine’s point of view? The editors of Waterfall. The special project What Matters Now? Proposals for a New Front Page (at Aperture. 98 . New York) sheds light on how collective discussions can lead to an appropriate way of filtering and showcasing accurate news. Outlook and Fantom liter-ally made a short magazine within Foam Magazine compiling their future visions on eight pages each. SeeSaw.

A Slice of Time .

since long time ago. I was frozen by its appearance and the long history behind it. was stuck. The magazine has been par ticipated in ar t/photo book fairs internationally. during the stream of time. It seems that you can breath the air of 19th century out of it or you can feel the light in that room where photograph was taken. taken by Etienne Carjat. 2011. And that is it. 2011). Though I could recognize it as a way to help us memorising things. Here I present the works from two artists and also the interviews. Shauba Chang Born in 1985 in Taipei. It is true. the photograph. at Victor and Albert Museum in London. The Magazine expands its activity to exhibitions and events such as WATERFALL # 3 POCKET LONDON LAUNCH (The Other Space.a specific period of time. Currently lives and works between Taipei and London. Taipei). the magic of photography. London) and Seitai Denki . the writer was there. both of their works are finding their own ways to trap a particular moment .or instead we can say . When I saw the original print of the portrait of Baudelaire at first sight. . to print things in the times.It has been al wa y s A Slice of Time w hen w e t a lk a b o u t i t I can never say that I know what is about photography. in this piece of work. Off Print (Paris. Whether they’re presenting in the form of still image or in moving image. That particular moment was saved. Founder and Editor in Chief of Waterfall Magazine. I consider them as a way we pass through the magic of photography in the new times. 2010) and London ar t book fair (London.an photography exhibition (URS21 Chung Shan Creative Hub / N2. 2010. It is a face I’ve seen thousand times somewhere else before but nothing like this time. including Magazine Librar y(Tokyo 2010). Graduated MFA Fine Ar t Media at The Slade School of Fine Ar t in London.

Because of this passion. . . What fascinated me was the experience of taking pictures in this space – watching the way that everything moved and behaved in a very different way and particularly my own experience of being a part of this world. a collapse of time. as this feels more appropriate or relevant to the idea. looking at the underwater environment as a space where the breath is denied.From printed photograph to loop video. I think that photography and video still operate differently as they create different ways for the viewer to engage with the work. why you started to photograph people(portraits) underwater? I think this came from the initial interest of my own experience of being in water and wanting to explore this with others. Freemantle. I love the stillness of photography and the way this allows a certain engagement with the work. the threshold state when immersed underwater. Fotofreo. Although there is an obvious connection between the two. I raised money to go on a marine conservation project to Indonesia between my first and second year at university. Her award winning work has been exhibited internationally. The water can stir feelings of absolute terror or be used in a meditative way. the distortion of movement. in galleries and festivals including The Australian Centre of Photography.When did you start your practice as a photographer? I would say that my practice as a photographer started whilst I was doing my photography degree at the University of Brighton in 2001. why? The shift to working with moving image was quite a natural one. Emma Critchley She has worked as an underwater image-maker for over 8 years and recently graduated from The Royal College of Ar t. I sometimes start work thinking about it photographically. a figure suspended in space. Le Mois de la Photo. Over the last few years I have focussed on the breath and duration. The National Por trait Galler y and the Photographers Galler y. I t h i n k m y photographs have become more focused on capturing and making permanent that which is otherwise transitory. . . but then end up shooting it as a video. to capture what I am looking for. although I have the idea of what I want to shoot in my mind beforehand. When shooting. you can encounter it in different ways. Canada. which silently resonates. second-hand underwater camera to take with me and as I went diving 3 times a day. what did you dig out from them? Why these underwater portraits that keeps your interests? What I find fascinating is different people’s responses to being in the water.. . as my work became more temporal. repeated action.Do you take photography now from a different point of view since you've been making the video? The making of my video work is quite a slow process and it often takes a number of shoots. or perhaps attuned to the way in which the photograph allows you to spend time with one particular singular moment and how through looking and re-visiting an image. as a place to escape from the everyday. The National Media Museum and The Photographers Galler y... It is a space that evokes an extreme range of emotions in people. what makes you change the way youʼre doing it? What ʼs the motive for you to make videos? Will you consider your video works as photography? If so. Over the last few years Emma has worked on projects and commissions that have been funded by organisations such as The Ar ts Council. I’m not sure whether I see my video work as photography.What ʼs the reason you get interested in underwater photography? I actually learnt to dive before I starting taking pictures.Emma Critchley ". I bought a cheap.Through these practices. spent hours underwater playing with it. There is often a real sense of presence. even though the final works are often only a minute or so long.And instead of the view from underwater. I am interested in the physical and mental realignment that occurs when our senses shift in the water and the breath becomes suspended. a collapse of time. ." . but there is a definite symbiosis between the still and moving image work due to the locked-off framing and single. it is through the process of making and seeing the idea as an image that the work really starts to develop and I begin to understand it more fully. I’m interested in this place. I think I have become more aware. Through her practice Emma explores the human relationship with the underwater environment. working with a few different people. where as humans we don’t belong.What are the accounts/elements for you to recognize it is photography? For me. Si n c e w o r k i n g w i t h v i d e o s . . particularly with the physicality of the photographic print.

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Single Shared Breath Emma Chritchley Loop Video 2011 .

But not only the different TVs affect the result. you discover things almost every day. one finger on the release of the camera and one finger on the on/ off switch of the TV. I then had to get out my camera right away and tried to capture these structures of light. That’s why I am working with digital cameras here. More precisely with the relationship of the abstract and concrete in photopraphy. Later I started to experiment with video also. And I am capturing moving light with a pretty “long” exposure time. . It takes a lot of time and patience to find the right setup for sharp and crisp results.. When everything is clean and dark I am between the TV and the camera with one finger on the on/ off switch and one finger on the release. . but two of the key elements of this work are light and time. That’s why you can get lots of different images out of just one TV. Stephan Tillmans Born in 1982 in Westerstede 2006-2010 Communication design study at Berliner Technische Kunsthochschule (BTK-FH) 2010/2011 "gute aussichten – new german photography" award Living and working in Berlin/Germany . So since I began shooting Luminant Point Arrays . So one of the main reasons I am photographing this series is out of curiosity. I can’t walk by any old television without switching it on and off anymore. But also all the reactions I am getting online through blogs. why youʼre fascinated by these television images? What makes you interest in it? Since I discovered that every TV has it’s own character. I am abstracting the TV picture. . though some televisions give better results than others. So in the very beginning there was the visual Idea. I never know if the next shot is THE perfect one or just another black photo. I got really excited. The fine structure of the motifs causes heavy moiré effects and it took a lot of proofs and experiments to achieve the quality I am having now. And I love the reactions when I reveal the origin of the motives. That’s what I later wrote my Bachelor thesis about. That’s because the moment is pretty short and I am taking the pictures by hand. This is how I achieve the wide range of motifs. In the beginning it took about 800 pictures to get THE picture. This is also necessary to avoid dust and hair on the screen..are light and time. By pushing the switch of the TV. My work has been spread all over the world within days.Rather than taking photographs of other objects.In the very beginning. . Gottfried Jäger and Lambert Wiesing. what ʼs the initial reason for you to do this project? It all started with my girlfriend’s TV. So it is photography referring to the major elements of photography. The whole process of production has been very challenging for instance." . Somehow the breakdown of the picture seemed to be very bright and I started switching it on and off again and again. One night we turned it off as usual. Also shutter speed. But it still takes hours and sometimes days. . I took all the photos in my apartment. timing and the time the TV has been running before I take the photo have an influence on the image we see later on. And sometimes it takes hundreds of attempts to get a good picture. Most people think of computer graphics. I also really had a hard time printing Luminant Point Arrays. formal and beautiful results.g. In order to have complete darkness and to avoid reflections I set everything up in a kind of tent. (In most cases it’s longer than 1/50s because of the 50Hz refresh rate of the TV). But I never got as clear.What did you choose this form to present the condition of the television? I chose photography intuitionally. which is very old.Stephan Tillmans "the key elements. Not only when taking the photos. Now think I have a pretty good setup and a good feeling to find the right moment to release the camera. twitter and facebook have been a discovery. The question is whether the medium itself is the only existing reference. While collecting more and more old TVs. When I realized later on that every old TV has its own variety of this effect. The TVs I photograph are of different models and all sizes. I started to deal with the science of the image and the theories of e. it’s almost like being addicted. I mean when doing a project like this.What are the discoveries you have through out this project? I don’t know where to start. and almost every time I take a photo the result is very different.What are the accounts/elements for you to recognize it is photography? And how would you consider your work “Luminant Point Arrays” as photography? Not only that it technically is photography.What is the process? Since I don’t have a studio. So only very few of the photos are as crisp and sharp as the ones I chose for the final series. The external reference vanishes as the TV picture breaks down. I like to ask people in the exhibitions what they think the Luminant Point Arrays are. So for the viewers the Luminant Point Arrays are not necessarily photography until they discover what the photo shows by reading the description.

Luminant Point Arrays Stephan Tillmans 100x100cm | 40x40cm lambda prints 2010 .

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net .peng-chen.Be There By Peng & Chen www.

Osama bin Laden’s hideout compound in northern Pakistan where he was killed. .

The New York World Trade Center site after 9/11 attacks. .

. Ariz. called aircraft graveyard.The Davis-Monthan Air Force Base outside Tuscon. is where more than 4000 old military planes go to die. .

home to more than 350.000. . northern Kenya.The world’s biggest refugee camp in Dadaab.

US Nevada nuclear test site used for both above and below ground nuclear explosions, home of 928 atomic detonations which made the world's biggest man-made craters.

Two million people amassed on the National Mall to witness Barack Obama's inauguration as the 44th U.S. president.

cover: Truck crash in Bismarck, North Dakota. back cover: 400 meters long “Long live chairman Mao” ideograms on a mountain, near the city of Hami, Xinjiang, China, used as a point of reference for flights.

PHOTOGRAPHIC QUARTERLY WHAT’S NEXT - FOR FOAM - AUTUMN 2011

Bianchi.FANTOM FOR FOAM Previous page Rafel G. cm 162 x 130. 2009. From the series Searching for Paradise Vol.3 © and courtesy the artist. From the series The Flag on the Top. Barcelona. cm 117 x 82 © the artist. Opposite Shuichi Nakano. Here Cobalt violet. 2008. .1. oil on canvas. oil on canvas. Aureoline. Chill at 5:25. 2008. courtesy Nogueras Blanchard gallery.

Photography is a virus inoculated in society, culture and the arts. Since its birth it integrated the functions of various pre-existing tools, such as people’s memory, the soldier’s telescope, the scientist’s rule and the painter’s brush. It developed around an endless research for its own autonomy, but its growing diffusion and the increasing number of its applications make this objective more and more unreasonable. The evolutionary model of photography is based on the principle of contamination, which involves both its own system, so that the typical features of traditional genres (reportage, portrait, landscape, architecture, still-life...) are mixed together in order to form a magmatic new vocabulary,

as well as the other representation techniques, inevitably influencing the preparation of drawings, paintings, installations and so on. This is a process which affects not only the language of photography, but also the physical device itself. Today pictures are not taken with a simple camera only, but also by using phones, computers and Playstations... Photography attacks different instruments and sneaks inside them. Photography will be everywhere.

The images in these pages are taken from past and future editions of Picture Perfect, one of Fantom’s most distinctive sections; where we explore the interconnections between photography and other media and artistic practices.

FANTOM FOR FOAM

Duncan Wylie, Cabin Fever, 2009, oil on canvas, cm 207 x 300 © the artist, courtesy Grenoble Museum of Fine Arts Collection.

Milan. 2008. Top right Burn Breathe Penelope 3. Courtesy the artist and Koplin Del Rio Gallery. Bottom left Burn Breathe Alisha 2. Center right Burn Breathe Marina 5. cm 127 x 96. Courtesy Michael Steinberg Fine Art. cm 91 x 91. 2008. cm 51 x 51. 2009.5. cm 51 x 51. cm 51 x 51. conte and charcoal on hand dyed paper. 2008. cm 51 x 51. Center left Burn Breathe Nan 3. New York. . 2011. cm 51 x 51. Bottom right Burn Breathe Marco 1.FANTOM FOR FOAM Robert Pruitt. 2009. Culver City (CA) Opposite Marina Berio top left Burn Breathe Penelope 2. Fantastic Garveyite. 2007. Courtesy Otto Zoo Gallery.

Lantern State. www. courtesy of the artist and Marc Jancou Contemporary.FANTOM FOR FOAM Ross Chisholm. New York Fantom .com . 2011. © the artist. cm 28 x 18. Editors Selva Barni and Cay Sophie Rabinowitz Associate Editor Francesco Zanot Art Director Fabrizio Radaelli Editorial Office Didier Falzone and Arianne Di Nardo (assistant) Publisher Massimo Torrigiani for Boiler Corporation Milan. oil on canvas.fantomeditions.Photographic Quarterly.

The walls would gradually be filled with pictures and texts that emanated from discussions taking place at the tables over a ten-day period in September. WHAT SHOULD BE ON THE fRONT PAGE? DO wE NEED A NEw fRONT PAGE? And most importantly for many: HOw CAn wE CREAtE mEDIA tHAt IS BELIEVABLE? of white wALLS and six tABLES FRED RITCHIN .Of White WALLS and  by  Six  TABLES 131 WHAt MAttERS NOw? PROpOSALS FOR A NEw FROnt PAGE was an inside-out exhibition that began at New York’s Aperture Gallery with white walls and six tables.

historian. long-time editor-in-chief of Aperture magazine. and myself. magazines WHAT NEw StRAtEGIES fOR TELLING STORIES SHOULD BE UTILIZED? CAN wE DEPEND ON THE ALGORITHMS USED BY SEARCH ENGINES? A sixth table and wall were reserved for visitors both physical and virtual – many submitted work online which was then printed and hung by Aperture staff. most posing subjects that we should know more about. head of the VII photographic agency. Participants at each table were asked to think about what would go on the wall adjacent to them as if it were a kind of a front page. curator. Iraqi-born digital and performance artist. At A tImE wHEn AnYOnE CAn COnStRUCt tHEIR OwN FROnt pAGE USInG A VARIETY OF SOURCES wHY DO wE nEED OnE In COmmOn? 132 . Stephen Mayes.At the heart of the exhibition were the conversations among a combination of invited specialists and people visiting the gallery that were led by various hosts – Wafaa Bilal. Deborah Willis. Melissa Harris. artist.

if one responds at all. have the media. as of 2009 only 400 people had the equivalent wealth of 50% of Americans – an extraordinary shift that no one seemed to know much about. What that means is that only 38 out of 136 countries have a less equitable distribution of income than the United States. actually disconnected without even knowing it? As one participating student pointed out. and what (if anything) can we do about it? 133 . These were some of the themes of our discussions. the list of countries with a more equitable income distribution includes Iran.’ Brian Montopoli reported this for CBS News on September 7. Occupy Wall Street. How can people push for change if they do not know what is wrong? For example. the United States now ranks 39th in the world when it comes to income inequality. reflect the uncertain status of both knowledge and citizenship – what do we (or do we not) know. coincidentally the same day that the emerging nation-wide protest movement. in the age of ultimate connectedness. like the ones at our tables. Belatedly we seem to be finding out how bad the inequality has become: ‘According to the CIA’s World Factbook. abandoned their readers? Have we. which ended on September 17. the question is not wHAT MATTERS NOw? but DOES ANYTHING AT ALL MATTER? The frequent refrain at my table was that what we are shown about the world is so often one-sided and manipulated that it merits only a cynical response. The engaging discussions on the street. the very day that WHAT MATTERS NOw? opened to the public. began. of white wALLS and six tABLES WHAT SHOULD BE  THE ROLE Of THE MEDIA IN FOCUSInG OUR ATTENTION UPON ISSUES SUCH AS THIS ONE AS THEY EVOLVE? Does the movement from a community-based front page (with all its many faults) to a personal front page filled with Google and Facebook results have anything to do with our lack of focus? Or. desperate for advertising. Russia. Turkmenistan and Yemen.But there were also concerns as to how a democracy can function if citizens do not have sufficient shared knowledge of what is actually going on.

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conflict resolution specialist Marieke von Woerkom. themed around issues of photography. whether philosophy or history or whatever else they might know of life. need to move forward. see www. and many others – decided that we will try to construct something useful. the current media environment makes explicit what was always problematic about media: ‘Our current cultural anxiety stems from the loss of these fixed reference points and we’re reaching out to replace them with new certainties. in effect. Our hope is that we can make our findings widely available and continue to engage in discussion about the best ways to provide the kinds of information that societies. For example. we should embrace the plurality and each take responsibility for our own management of the information that flows around us. similarly revealed in harrowing detail the environmental and social consequences of this aggressive pillaging of the land for an energy-starved world – and the current discussions to build a pipeline to carry the corrosive crude oil across the United States. We are now just beginning to discuss concrete strategies for a new front page. for reporters (should the subject be asked to comment on the photograph?) and for readers (how does one read a hypertext?). Garth Lenz. enables diverse points of view (including those of the subjects). Simon Norfolk. to find a new cultural consensus.DEMOCRACY SURVIVE ALL Of  THIS? HAS IT ALREADY EXPIRED? At Aperture we were both informed and shocked by several fascinating talks given by guests – topics that had either not appeared on our personal front pages or had not been sufficiently documented. We also want to write new guides for teachers.net prize for his work on Canada’s Tar Sands. But rather than looking for new conventions to replace the old. technology. photographer and media innovator Jonathan Worth. Ω CAN of white wALLS and six tABLES 135 . Some in attendance commented that it was the building of community that was the most important outcome of WHAT MATTERS NOw? Some found that what was important was that they could finally share their own personal front pages – stories from their own countries. and community. their own backgrounds – or their knowledge of their own specialties. author most recently of Burke + Norfolk. and is more sensitive to differing cultural perspectives.org/whatmattersnow and #whatmattersnow. and individuals. including reporting that provides more context. discussed the limitations of photojournalism in depicting more than simple actions. recent graduates Ariel Ritchin and Alison Wynn. filmmaker and former CNN reporter Brian Palmer. and talked about specifics such as the emerging field of narcotecture – deluxe residences called ‘poppy palaces’ built with enormous amounts of drug money. including a more comprehensive list of participants. Photographs from the War in Afghanistan. Those at Stephen Mayes’s table responded with a conclusion that. He was adamant about the need to understand the history of Afghanistan’s long struggle with colonialism (including the 19th-century massacre of thousands of withdrawing British troops).’ Where to we go from here? Participants from my table – including photographer. including what it is to be young in today’s society. And for a larger sense of what happened.aperture. while also coming up with a transparent code of ethics. Aperture will continue its WHAT MATTERS NOw? program with a series of talks and discussions beginning in late January. winner of the Social Documentary.

foam magazine # 29 what's next? 136 .

Foam asked photography students from the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam and from the École Nationale Supérieure de la Photographie in Arles for their answers as well as to position their questions in specially produced work. Eder Chiodetto. Popelier’s project touches on the topical issue of young people living with and for their public image when sharing these online. They are able to gauge for themselves within which framework photography still fits and where traditional notions get in the way and thus need to be broadened. Showroom Girls by Willem Popelier. introduction next generation Followed by one-page manifestos on Future Education by Timm Rautert. activities and a daily zine during the opening week of Les Rencontres d’Arles – the international photography festival in Southern France. Charlotte Cotton and Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin. Another contribution in this context is Colette Olof’s reflections on the special exhibition project at Foam. artist as well as one of the three coaches in this cooperative project.The most straightforward answer when posing the question ‘What’s Next?’ is to be expected from those who are directly concerned: the next generation of young artists and photographers. Therefore. 137 . A selection of these visual statements which were exhibited in the What’s Next? exhibition space in Arles have been here translated onto paper with an accompanying text by Nickel van Duijvenboden.

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HOLDING a prOjeCt bY GERRIT RIETVELD AcADEMIE & E. low resolution. Although on the surface the two schools take a very different approach. The question is whether this is just a phase or if it is more deeply rooted. leftovers of French cheese. The students from the two art academies – Arles and Amsterdam – first met during the What’s Next? Expert Meeting at Foam in March 2011. The context was all that 139 MIRROR ← CATEGORY #1: STILL LIFE We constructed a still life in a studio according to strict instructions based ­ on formal similarities of photographic artworks that surround us. The celebration has drawn quite a crowd – festival visitors. It was as if the experts were overlooking something… For the students the question of ‘What’s Next?’ is quite concrete. the opening week of the festival. even overtly cynical. The zine is ready. the École Nationale Supérieure de la Photographie (ENSP) and Foam.S. The sheets are hastily folded and furnished with a wrapper. are huddled together in the corner. technical skill. USB sticks. It is the beginning of July. Nowadays it seems that every photography student goes through a phase of questioning the medium to the point of being skeptical and. in any case this trend was carried to the extreme. cables and baguette crumbs. They feel it is their turn. Then the first go down to hand them out to the public. the students recognize an admired artist or a leading curator. In the main exhibition of Les Rencontres d’Arles. though.P. What remained was the unpretentious image. the first prints roll out of the machine. authorship. stripped of meaning.n. Photography has lost its status as a self-evident medium and has become subordinate to the primacy of the image. In some of them. reducing the work to a simple click of the button. anonymous. at times. slumbering laptops. In the square in front of the building Foam is celebrating its tenth anniversary with music and wine. yet at the same time they struggle with the question: ‘What can we still do with photography?’ A certain despair can be detected here. They relate it less to photography than to themselves. poring over a computer screen on which the latest edition of What’s Next? Daily Zine is being put together – the photozine distributed every day to visitors to the international photography festival Les Rencontres d’Arles. Here and there a tired photography student stares blankly into space. The tables – pushed together for the occasion – are strewn with objects: stacked up slide projectors. Authenticity. just about the most awkward place. In my role as college lecturer I have noticed that students in recent years increasingly insist that photography is merely a ‘tool’ in their image making practice – they are wary of the label photographer. The students sense – perhaps for the first time in their budding careers – that a large group of people is looking forward to what they are making. By Gerrit Rietveld Academie students A teXt BY NiCKel Van DuijVenbODen hoLdInG UP A MIRROR . participants. ARLES & fOam UP A cluttered room above the exhibition space in La Bourse du Travail in Arles teems with feverish activity. museum contacts. From Here On. People are surprised at the feel of the paper. social awareness – everything the medium ever stood for was declared an illusion. It is an initiative of the Gerrit Rietveld Academie. ‘Latest edition. the students went home with much the same feeling about the day. Most of them. surfeited by the day’s impressions. beer cans and cameras. It is still warm. To get an idea of their public they only need to look out of the window. and the editing of the Daily Zine – hundreds of sheets of which will shortly be spewing from the photocopier – is entirely in the hands of the students. All seven students operated the same medium ­ format camera.’ they mumble with half-concealed pride.

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Take the Rietveld students’ Collage Generator: every few seconds a ready-made collage was projected on the wall. ‘Now we are a species of editors. and then made adjustments to the presentation. TO DIscOVER WhEThER ThERE Is A FORMULA WE DEVIsED A sET OF INsTRUcTIONs FOR EAch cATEGORY AND FOLLOWED ThEM. Foam’s exhibition space in Arles presented a cacophony of images in its very own way. In the microcosm of the petite Bourse du Travail. By Gerrit Rietveld Academie students .HOW cAN ONE ANsWER ThE QUEsTION WhAT’s NEXT? BY ONLY LOOKING INTO ThE FUTURE? STATEMENT BY ELMER DRIEssEN SARA GLAhN LENA HEssE OLA LANKO WOLF MULDER BEREND OTTO KAMILA STEhLIK STUDENTs OF ThE GERRIT RIETVELD AcADEMIE AMsTERDAM sUpERVIsION: NIcKEL VAN DUIJVENBODEN WE. hoLdInG UP A MIRROR mattered. WhIch sEEM chARAcTERIsTIc AND sUccEssFUL TODAY. A more cynical climate in which to ask students ‘What’s Next?’ is hardly conceivable. WE cONsIDER ThEM TO BE ThE NEW cONVENTIONs. IT Is A WAY OF LIBERATING O U R s E LV E s F ROM cONVENTIONs ONcE AND FOR ALL. randomly compiled from over a hundred visual elements and generated live as the viewer watched. Every day the students reviewed whether the setup of the previous day had been successful. BUT pERhAps MORE IMpORTANTLY. COULD ThIs METhOD LEAD TO AN AUThENTIc REsULT? AND WhAT hAppENs WhEN A FORMULA hAs NO cLEARLY DEFINED AUThOR? OUR cATEGORY pROJEcT Is A REFLEcTION ON ThE phOTOGRAphIc TRENDs ThAT sURROUND Us. works of established artists entered into dialogue with the images the ENSP and Rietveld students had developed in the months leading up to the festival. the students took the liberty of disrupting the regular exhibition. The final days of the experiment projected the strongest image: instead of confining themselves to a dark corner. There was no author 141 ← CATEGORY #2: PORTRAITs Each of us found her or his own model and adopted the same set of conventions of a blank expression and subdued colors and adhered to uniform technical specifications. OR cATEGORIEs.’ was the opening sentence of the curators’ manifesto. A GROUp OF sEVEN sTUDENTs FROM ThE GERRIT RIETVELD AcADEMIE IN AMsTERDAM hAVE INVEsTIGATED ThE sITUATION OF cONTEMpORARY phOTOGRAphY AND LOcATED sIX TRENDs. and even went so far as to parasitize other artists’ work. written among others by Martin Parr and Joachim Schmid.

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to investigate how that would influence our perception and to challenge us to doubt more. By Gerrit Rietveld Academie students . questioning the position of the author. What remains is a machine of suggested meaning. We set the parameters by choosing a large number of found images to draw from. We replaced all the fullstops in that book with question marks as a commentary on that tendency. We are reacting at a theoretical level in photography that has become more familiar today. a book of great importance to many photographers. By Gerrit Rietveld Academie students ↖ CATEGORY #6: TEXT On photography? corresponds with On photography by Susan Sontag.← CATEGORY #4: COLLAGE Each collage was randomly generated by a computer at the moment of display (originally presented as a projection).

each vote is a symbolic act. We made an installation that allows the spectator to stand back from the role he plays while interacting in environments such as Chatroulette. the visitors are about to delete them. we incite the viewer to question the way his image and persona are shown. The public is asked to vote for a face and to sign the print.com is a social website that defines itself as a way of meeting new people that involves your image and draws a line between real and virtual persona. Chatroulette. By École Nationale Supérieure de la Photo­ graphie students . By École Nationale Supérieure de la Photo­ graphie students → SoURcE Five self-portraits and five markers. shared and perceived through this kind of social network. Without being too didactic.↗ F9 The Chat Booth Installation by Adrien Pezennec and Benjamin Mouly questions the consumption of self-representation when confronted by others. The visitors seize the image and become the author. Arbitrary and without stake. Turning the portraits into unique pieces.

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The collage was brazenly projected between a group of works by Anne de Vries. The Rietveld students had opted for a collective study of mannerism in contemporary fine art photography. tAKEn. ARLES SUPERVISIon: FLoREncE MAILLE nEXt GEnERAtIon 146 . That hope lay in the students’ capacity to see the irony of their situation. The process was like an abjuration: by using their work to hold up a mirror to the present status quo in photography. • TodAY YoU cAn’t thInK ABoUt IMAGE wIthoUt conSIdERInG ItS cIRcULAtIon And USES on thE IntERnEt. Both groups of students were clearly preoccupied with the positioning of their work. while at the same time calling into question the position of the author. They seemed to want to bring about a change: instead of allowing the positioning of their work to be dictated by their environment. It IS GoInG to BE foUnd. StAtEMEnt BY AnnE-CAMILLE ALLUEVA LISE DUA BEnJAMIn MoULY AdRIEn PEzEnnEc OLIVIER SARRAzIn StUdEntS fRoM thE ÉcoLE NAtIonALE SUPéRIEURE dE LA PhotoGRAPhIE. EVERY IMAGE IS REMoVEd fRoM ItS oRIGInAL contEXt to BE tRAnSPoSEd Into AnothER thAt cAn BE coMPLEtELY dIffEREnt. On another wall a series of self-portraits Source by ENSP students lured a response from the viewer. From this chaotic and experimental image one thing clearly emerges: the youngest generation of photographers experiences at first-hand how the authorship of the individual. MAKInG It IncREASInGLY dIffIcULt to REAd An IMAGE. SoMEtIMES ARchIVEd oR coLLEctEd BUt ALwAYS conSUMEd. who carefully composes his collages. GIVEn thE conStAnt fLow of IMAGES PRESEnt on thE wEB. they shed their dead weight and were able to say: well. time now to re-invent ourselves. working as a single author as opposed to seven individuals. PUBLIc And PRIVAtE SPAcES coLLIdE And SoMEtIMES REAch oBScURItY to BEcoME thE SoURcE of thE PhotoGRAPhIc woRKS MAdE foR thIS occASIon. Visitors were invited to write their signature on the glossy prints – a ‘desecration’ that countered our tendency to view art at a respectful distance. But through their collaboration their initially despairing response to the question ‘What’s Next?’ evolved into something far more hopeful.involved. they looked for a way of taking control. ThAt’S whY wE hAVE choSEn thAt MEdIUM AS MAtERIAL foR oUR RESEARch. They copied trends they had identified (‘categories’). wE dEcIdEd to QUEStIon thE IMAGES’ PURPoSES. we have done this. autonomous photographer increasingly yields to the importance of context and positioning. In thIS PERSPEctIVE. Next. The students of the ENSP concentrated on the influence of the internet – themes such as voyeurism and the ‘make-ability’ of history in our mediatized society. ThE IMAGE LooSES ItS VALUE tILL It BEcoMES JUSt AnothER IMAGE. After a few days the portraits were covered in scribbles and effectively rendered invisible. Who MAKES thE IMAGE? FoR whoM? WhAt doES An IMAGE Show? ThE t R A n S M I S S I on of IMAGES IMPLIES A conStAnt REnEwAL thAt GEnERAtES AccUMULAtIon.

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was impressed.’ he later told me. started working with collage. His strategy was simple: juxtapose magazine pictures of super­ stars in off-key landscapes. Respectful rather than critical of Islamic theology. these early photos established the template for their subsequent practice. which is why Hasan asked a university friend to make some staged portraits of himself that he could use in his collages. each brimful with collaged portraits of the twins doing various Muslim and nonMuslim things – washing. Let me clarify. a printmaking major. he suggested that Hasan would move out of the studio and pose himself in the everyday world of Cape Town – Husain wanted his brother’s collages to appear more real. Husain. Husain floated a thought: ‘We told him about our idea to collaborate. attending a dogfight. Shot in a variety of non-descript locations in their native Cape Town. viewers asked lots of questions. the city where Mohamed Atta and other key protagonists in the 9/11 attacks lived for a while. losing the jerky cut ‘n paste feel and overfull compositional frame of their early work. ‘We spent more time speaking about our religion than art. a stable view on the working class lives of many South African Muslims. offers a sincere and engaged response to this damaging image.’ Following an exhibition in the German port city. When last I met the brothers for a chat. came the response. Photo­ graphically trained. as he would later put it to me. the younger of the twin Essop brothers. praying.  • selected by Sean O’Toole . Hasan Essop. ‘Germans had this impression that Islam was strictly a terrorist religion. because they didn’t know anything about the beauty of Islam. Exhibited at the Michaelis School of Fine Art.’ Go for it.Hasan & Husain Essop Halaal Art All images © Goodman Gallery and the artists. 2009 In his final year of art school. Watching from a near distance. The Essop brothers’ photographic work. The brothers worked on five photographs. sombreness. that there is another side.’ offered Husain. ‘I found it so difficult. they told me about visiting Hamburg. which has matured. The Essop brothers’ ongoing photographic project of self-representation refuses a lot of things: the monochrome sobriety of documentary. ‘Everybody we confronted only knew Osama bin Laden – they didn’t know the prophet Mohamed. He was interested. Husain’s crude photographic collages prompted Goodman Gallery cura­ tor Storm Janse van Rensburg to call. you could argue that their work is marked by a subtle activist agenda.’ offered Husain.

Aymeric Fouquez (1974. In my opinion digital photography is an anachronism that does not do justice to the new image. Germany). Education must take a completely different approach here. will prepare plates of raw vegetables and drink white wine. It will become increasingly more difficult to preserve such terms as part of the ‘photographic’. young photography will have no market value and contemporary art is out for those that can afford it. Bergen/Rügen. Germany). For example: Adrian Sauer (1976. with his work Bilder aus Berechnung (Calculated Images). They give something back to photography that is very personal and unique. Moscow. however. Dresden.777. Björn Siebert (1978. instead of photography. The next generation of artists could show new potential directions. be irrelevant whether I am speaking about algorithmically generated pictures or analogue photographs. Russia) with World of Details. or even themselves express these new required teaching contents. the traditional content of the teaching at art academies is dwindling. Germany).216 Farben (Colours). Berlin. With the decline of analogue photography. Hamburg. Germany). in artistic. Sven Johne (1976. MANiFeSt� �n Future educAtioN MANiFeSto �N Future educAtioN bY TIMm RAUTERT E R U T N O FU UCATI 155 A few clever people who have more affinity to good artistic work than a plate of raw vegetables will turn their attention to work by young artists such as Tobias Zielony (1973. In times of the global financial crisis. Here we can observe claims being made of the new medium that could form a new school of thought. or Viktoria Binschtok (1972.16. Wuppertal. It cannot. with his Remakes. philosophical and technical terms. Chateau-Thierry. Germany). A different name must be found for this technically new aspect. 2011 © Adrian Sauer original: 476 cm x 125 cm. Ricarda Roggan (1972. France). the few megarich will buy a Picasso or a Richter for the umpteenth time. digital C-Print � t S e F i N A M �N What’s next? I sometimes ask myself that and come to very different conclusions: The urban parents will continue to eat their wholemeal bread and butter. something that reflects documentary terminology and is also a reference to . the fictional character of the medium.

T R E P X E NEXT GENERATION by malaise. Ruff advises. in Chanarin’s words: ‘Education doesn’t stop’. who nonetheless has to position himself. as articulation creates consciousness. that the Swiss students produce confirm photography’s abstraction or its conceptual ground. or lack thereof. The contemporary art industry rewards discipline. Ptak wonders what kind of work results from such a decidedly theoretical method. strangely enough. concludes Jaeger. But adds that compared with how teaching was 30 years ago. ‘Within photography we are confronted with many practices and methods. as Ptak’s highly personal blog testifies. Commercialization and professionalization do not mean one has to create a brand to be successful. You have to dig your way out to where you want to go to. the art world has professionalized. THOmAS RUFF & LAUREL PTAK Moderated by Anne-Celine Jaeger Foam Amsterdam 19 March 2011 Experts: Jaeger opened the afternoon dialogue entitled Next Generation Photographers with the provocative question ‘Do we still need to teach photography?’ alluding to the enormous number of photographs and their drastically changed character.’ says a member of the audience. who fears institutionalization. which led to an animated discussion. Teachers now mainly teach their students how to filter information. it is positioned within the world. Or. The promise that photography can be fully learnt. as witnessed at the educational level by the gradual disappearance of the German Fachhochschule. that it is a discipline which can be mastered is a fiction. an opinion fervently backed by Ptak. Members of the panel shared their experiences of photography education with the audience. adds Chanarin: Let’s forget about photo­ graphy. one is left wondering. Within this general change in educational approach national experiences differ. according to Chanarin. ‘The discipline of photography doesn’t exist anymore.’ Still. how to initiate the student. is to just do the work. in the face of protest from the students present. the student photographer expects to earn a living from taking pictures. where the ‘kraft’ was taught. he reasons. and Laurel Ptak gets emails every day from students and teachers from all over the world telling her how her blog influences their practices. do research and tell a story. Thomas Ruff quit teaching when he was struck ME ETIN 156 . But the student’s awareness should concern the world rather than photography. quoting Alec Soth. the question of how its very intangibility can be taught remains unsatisfactorily solved for many members of the discussion group. photography is taught through theory. The only way to find your own voice in this complex contemporary state of photographic affairs. Oliver Chanarin said that. And while the images. ‘I need a school to discuss and develop my work. that question their own existence. Galleries and musea give bad signals he insists. status and meaning. Photography is not a means to an end. An audience member suggests that dialogue is important. At the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam the teaching is highly individual.  • Summary by Ilse van Rijn DIALOGUE: NEXT GENERATION PHOTO GRAPHERS OLIVER CHANARIN. For an increasing number of photographers the darkroom has become obsolete. if it ever did.’ says a student. In Switzerland. The overall experience of recent decades has been that the teaching of photography has become more abstract. Ruff agrees. Photography isn’t about the world. into this heterogeneous universe. ‘Students have to verbalize what they are doing’. ‘We teach students to say ‘no’ say speakers from the audience. a safe place to make mistakes and a teacher to kick my ass.

P.C.’ They need advice. NG their ideas have to come to their lips. to decide which way to go. that things were probably much clearer thirty years ago. to give some insight and stimulating appropriate research. Research is becoming more and more important. some are very intuitive.much at the moment. I like the idea of creating a platform where knowledge can be shared on a global level. It’s so conservative! And reflected by the art world. I don’t teach that v�IcE FROm THE AUdIENcE Five years ago it was all about the search for information. 157 . But its hard not to interfere… to impose ones own ideas. But not all students can talk. people tend to narrow down their interests very quickly. has to do with the words ‘photography’ and ‘photographer’. but one interesting thing I find about the blog is that I get so many emails. Are they good signals? Are they healthy? Are they productive? I’m sceptical. All they have in mind is: ‘I want to become a photographer. They have no idea. because the art world rewards that. T. L. and I cannot advise them because I don’t know what they want. such diversity among professionals. I want to study photography. I’m probably the worst kind of teacher. from faraway places. Students have to talk.R. We try to be encouraging. Maybe this sounds pessimistic but artists are gradually pushed towards developing themselves as a brand. How can I find the information I need to be a good student or to develop my own language? And now there is so much information that it becomes more about filtering.R. others are insecure. There is such a wide range of practices in photography. And they have that big word ‘photography’ in front of them. telling me how much it influences their practice and in general how they see photography. It’s difficult for young people to filter. O. Being an artist has become so professionalized… it’s shameful.C. T. The big problem dIALOGUE EXPERTmEETING O. often from teachers. Even if we try to give students a much broader framework than just photography. Fresh strategies have to come up. It took me a long time to realize that. It’s something that is picked up in the education system.

. which aims to produce in documental. EDUCAT ION 158 © Cássio Vasconcellos TecHnoLoGY maKeS uS aLL eQuaL. MANiFeSto �N Future educAtioN bY Eder CHi�dett� NeXt GeNerAtioN The formation of a future professional photographer. in this context. As a Brazilian photographer Miguel Rio Branco would say.MAN iFeSt� �N E R U T U F The most important issues generated by the technological revolution of the recent decades. is the fact that it makes us all equal when it comes to imaging. THe diFFerence iS tHe man. to learn about photography you have to forget photography. ­ should be focused on understanding man. Technology has democratized production. experimental or artistic area. study of human sciences and in the use of photography.

It even seems like some of them solely live with and for their public image. someone’s watching Someone’s Watching Afterthoughts on the exhibition Showroom Girls by Willem Popelier in Foam 3h by Colette Olof Foam Curator 159 .How differently young girls nowadays experiment with images of themselves compared to my generation: they no longer react defensively to images but they act to produce images to brand themselves. branding themselves daily on their Facebook / Twitter pages.

Popelier was doing research into the phenomenon of pictures taken by visitors on webcams in showrooms. He found out that many people take their portraits on these public computers and often forget to take them off. Instead of deleting all of them. their images are sent out all over the digital horizon. available for everyone to look at. Looking back at these pictures. Free of charge. Dismissing a democratic and traditional distinction between private and public. I see a very insecure little girl looking for an attitude. branding themselves daily on their Facebook / Twitter pages.old. they had only deleted some and kept others. having fun together in front of the webcam.When I was a thirteen-year. my only relation with a representation of myself was during the annual portrait made by the school photographer (Horror! What to wear? How to hide my braces? Make up or not?) or during other annual get-togethers like my birthday party. But then Popelier found a series of almost 100 photos of two young girls. I was immediately intrigued. or Christmas. But do they understand what this could mean in the next generation long run? Is their innocent ethic towards their public image the next step in dissolving the borders between public and private spheres or will they be confronted one day by the dangers of this exposure? When photographer Willem Popelier approached me with his idea of investigating the value of images in the context of constructing a self-image through public publication. 160 . ­ Thousands of these orphan portraits are living anonymous lives in the digital universe. It even seems like some of them solely live with and for their public image. How differently young girls nowadays experiment with images of themselves compared to my generation: they no longer react defensively to images but they act to produce images to brand themselves. Without interpretations.

It is not about her specifically. he googled her name together with an image and before he knew it he had found a great many details of her life. Since this is such a new topic for lawyers. We had several long discussions to investigate the possibilities of showing the work in the context of a ­ museum. intense. We. We decided to concentrate the exhibition on the images and the Tweets of one of the girls. They don’t know what they are doing. and at the same time it is about nothing but her. But then I started discussing this exhibition proposal with other people. She is sharing her private world in and through the public domain without realising this. no legal precedents have been set. We could show the work. Not many laws are yet written on it.This fact intrigued Popelier and when he discovered that one of the girls was wearing a necklace with her name. What could be the consequences for the girl if she and her surroundings found out? The general feeling was that it was an important topic to discuss. had to protect the teenagers. Popelier was clear about the fact that he ­ wanted to show the work without telling the girls beforehand that they were protagonists in a form of modern storytelling. With staff members of Foam. with friends. colleagues. as a museum. without being afraid of too many difficult aspects. but without using one underage girl 161 . not many things about it have been clarified yet. She is not aware of anything. which in a way is the point. She is just one example of many. how these images can follow them for the rest of their lives. to put it mildly. the rights on the internet. The reactions were. the adults. someone’s watching Popelier explained to me all the different aspects he had discussed with a lawyer on the rights of the girls.

It wasn’t about her as a person. 2011 © Willem Popelier Article published in NRC Handelsblad. The girls were surprised. In return for the images used by Popelier. including the deleted ones. a bit overwhelmed. The girls’ identities were covered by playful pink dots which became a visual play in itself. they asked for a lunch in Foam café. When the show was installed. In the middle of the room a printer connected directly to the Twitterfeed of one of the girls was spitting out every tweet she was sending.jpg 11-08-09 14:44. 2011 © Willem Popelier Tweets of 1 year (01-05-2010 to 01-05-2011). but they did realise a bit more what their behaviour could actually mean. was translated into print for the exhibition and continues to live on in newspapers and digitally outside the walls of the museum. 15 July 2011. page 30-31 162 162 . It didn’t scare them off. No single conclusion can ­ be drawn. it generated a lot of discussion about the ethics. When journalist Rosan Hollack from the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad retraced one of the two girls by Twitter she invited the girls for a discussion in the museum. but amused as well. but it was all about the stories and interpretations surrounding it. NRC Handelsblad photo-143.as a showcase. It is interesting to see that the museum can still host a topical discussion that continues on several levels: it started naively online. • next generation Credits of photographs in order of appearance: Visit of the girls in the exhibition © Rosan Hollack. 2011 © Willem Popelier photo-108.jpg 11-08-09 14:49. The exhibition showed all images the girls took. but also with pink lines through her messages so only the date and hour of the tweet would be visible.

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Then keep the camera still and focus on his forehead. Through the motion of the subway but also through the natural trembling of the man’s hand and arm. Show the resemblance between pages and thoughts: fi rst fi lm the loose pages and then move the camera up to his head. .The loosely held pages tremble and move up and down.

She keeps on looking that way for a long time. Then she goes on reading. . each in their own world. right into the camera. page 63 Reading people.sketchbook 1. A reading woman suddenly looks up.

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.sketchbook 6. page 132 Curled up like a thought Curling thought Uncurling thought Curl thought Thought curl Curled up tightly Curled up loosely Nice to show on the outside what’s going on inside the head.

Make portraits on the street of employees during their lunchtime. See if the expressions on the faces resemble the pattern of the strings around their neck. People follow the movements of the kites. sketchbook 6. . which makes their heads move up and down in an even slower tempo (nice dynamics). page 73 Kites with paper-thin transparent strings move slowly up and down.

sketchbook 6. The noise startled the man. deep in thought. It worked. but unfortunately his thoughts were gone. I wanted to photograph him quickly and rummaged in my bag. . Too late! I tried to get him in the same position. page 74 He was resting with his head against the wooden post.

a Gesamtbild of humanity/humaneness. 2005 – 2010 from the book Photos from Japan and my Archive (NAi Publishers). but never condemning. in Japan). Paulien Oltheten builds on a continually growing archive. experience and behaviour – and to call it all into question. generate new visual information. Her storytelling departs from the photographic registrations of small observations which capture her and which she captures on film while wandering through the streets of a city (e. We are provoked to stop taking for granted the photographic omnipresence. if there is ever one. She extends her snapshots of city life with commenting sketches or words. restages certain patters of behaviour herself or asks passers-by to do so. The minor motions and behavioural pat­ terns that Paulien Oltheten distinguishes. as her first publication also was called. these different layers arrange themselves at random. each act as a part for the whole to represent one and the same image. thus preventing the observer from taking a quick-andeasy conclusion. without disturbing the overall picture. mapping and wondering about human life.g.  • selected by Caroline von Courten . Paulien Oltheten makes us more aware of the way we relate to the material world and to each other on a daily basis. 2011 When we look at Paulien Oltheten’s work capturing and examining the gestures of people in the street. of our patterns of perception. if possible.Paulien Oltheten Photos from Japan and my Archive All images © Paulien Oltheten. Neither her work nor her way of presenting it seems to know any limits without ever falling into repetition. In the final stage. Stimulating our reflections on the status quo of the photographical universe in which we live is one of the aims of photography as an art form. transforms itself into an all-round metaphor for human existence. Its objective is to break through the multiplicity of images and. we’re prompted to keep an eye on our own behaviour. Sometimes recognizable. The automatism of how we read in public. Her visual theory doesn’t seem to require a particular argumentative arrangement to be valid. Her ‘theory of the street’. sometimes surprising. it is revealing anyway. followed by the minor detail of strings around the neck of business man during their lunchtime or the moving heads of men looking at their kites up in the air – every single observation is autonomous.

for example. curating. design. Of course we didn't just suddenly arrive at this moment of change. In retrospect. I write as a curator who has spent most of her working life in cultural institutions founded by those ambitious. press and educational philosophies. every region has its own 30-year history of photographic practice and education. Gradually over the past fifteen years. photographic higher education has been shaped by the tough decisions that photographic educators have made about abandoning schools’ increasingly empty and ignored wet dark rooms for the air-conditioned banks of calibrated computer screens and the large. politics. effects the definition of photography education. socially enterprising Victorians who mapped creativity and societal improvement onto the fluid expanse of scientific and artistic innovation. Equally. college and universities have only just reached the starting blocks on a course of unexpected roundabout turns. MANIfeSt� �n future educAtIoN MANIfeSto �N future educAtIoN BY CHArL�tte C�tt�N FUTU RE N O I T A C U 171 At the same time. At the same time.� t S fe I N A M �N Across the world in the past five years. One option for photography education is to become an even more rarefied and specific form of education – rather like what I imagine training to be a ceramicist in the early 20th century might have been! I am only half joking here – and the serious side of my fantasy scenario is questioning what photographic education could be if you centred on photography as a subject and a discipline rather than a rarefied area within the increasing. mitigated by its markets. I’m excited for the coexistence rather than the differentiation of categories of creativity and what photographic education can be if we think of it as combined with that of. No country’s cultural history or its particular battle to legitimise photographic practice as art seems now to guarantee a more or less resonant position in these global industries of art and image-making. and computer science within higher education. given what photographic education faces in the next five years. Photography will remain as an accelerated and relevant human creative endeavour if it stays as a relevant way of seeing and communicating. the notion of photography as contemporary art and what it therefore means to be a photographer has cast its seductive web over photographic education. coloursaturated-pigment printers. • . intellectually greedy. ever-changing expanse of creative technologies to which photographic education does not necessarily or even meaningfully have a relationship. the increasing polarisation of both the techniques and ambitions of artist-photographers on one side and all of us quotidian image-makers and image-users on the other.

� t S fe I N A M �N MANIfeSto �N future educAtIoN BY AdaM BrooMBerg & OLIVER CHANARIN NeXt geNeratIoN FUTURE N O I T A C U D E 172 .

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foam magazine# 29 # 29 what's next? foam magazine what's next? 174 174 .

Joan Fontcuberta’s personal statement in reply to What’s Next? could be seen as a possible visionary framework to be applied to our (photographic) practice. shows that camera technology is already light-years ahead of the cameras we currently work with. How to deal with the enormous and evergrowing archive of images that circulate online is also central to Lev Manovich’s visualization methods. we realise the impact they have had and by extension can have on the artistic practice of photography. as well as set into motion an entire series of spinoffs that result in a new image aesthetic. which has given instant analogue photo-graphy a new creative life. This contrasts with the vision behind The Impossible Project. As epilogue. examines in his interview the implications of Google literally representing the world and shares what steps can be expected next.In the period that follows technological innovations. An article on the research activities of the Media Lab. Google’s Chief Technology Advocate. New technologies introduce other ways of creating images. introduction technology matters chapter 175 175 . Michael T. Jones. Some of the technical innovations in store for us and the visionary behind these innovations are addressed in this section. led by Ramesh Raskar. who is also the director of the Center for Future Storytelling and coinventor of a camera that can photograph around corners.

and of course to the count­ less number of photographers thereafter. scientists. And what was revealed through their experiments baffled and astonished them. inventors. That was some 30. the photographers – or more accurately. after many millennia. finally leading to the first arrested photographic images. Prior to their breakthroughs. For those earliest of photo­ graphs. They had a great im­ pulse to transform vision into a per­ manent record. the proto-photographic discoveries of the camera obscura gave hints of the many possibilities of photo­ graphic seeing.at re ab tu L ul ia C ed a er IT M am M C e th technology matters To ta l The compulsion to replicate our perceptual experiences is likely much older than the first prehistoric cave paintings – these first pictures gave the viewer an alternate version of the experience of seeing animals that were not actually there.000 years ago. and physicists – such as Henry Fox Talbot and Nicéphore Niépce had no way of knowing on certain terms what the subjects and the selections of the world placed in Vi sio n front of their prototypical cameras were going to look like. by Ar ur th O u 176 . From then on. the transformed universe in the photo­ graphic realm could only have existed in their imaginations. and they also became a means to share the experience of seeing with others.

our photo­ graphic compulsion still burns incessantly.In the present realm. desiring to go beyond direct optical recordings. as evi­ denced by the rapidly expanding definition of the photo­ graphic image and the camera. a photograph is no longer a mere transcription of the light registered or recorded. an associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Media Lab. to the geographic tracking data ascribed to image files. Photography. has been instrumental in advancing these paradigm shifts. cameras capable of su­ perbly rendering our perceptual reality are now commonplace in contemporary life. as it is being considered and explored by the Camera Culture research group lead by Ramesh Raskar. charting unprecedented territories of photo­ graphic seeing in the entirety of its past history. but per­ haps gets closer to the original com­ pulsion – to replicate our perceptual experience in the fullest extent pos­ sible in all of the nuanced facets. many made by built-in cameras on mobile phones. Yet. from the pervasive networked archive of on­ line images.  › total vision 177 . with the advances of digital imaging tech­ nologies. and exceeding the limitations of human sight.

How simply do you want to photographically capture the essence of an experience? When cameras were in- 178 . aperture. Once camera makers can realize the users’ ambitions. and then we have a detector that mimics the retina – and that’s the end of the story. and if we want to understand the world and do something additional with the photos. or very wide perspectives. I think that we are still locked into a world of film-like photography. The art of photo­ graphy has not changed at all with digital photography. allowing the viewer to experience the ­ shows whenever and wherever he or she wanted. was basically a 35mm film camera outfitted with a digital sensor and a processing unit – it even had the film cartridge compartment if you open it up. as the photographer wants to tell. I think that limited use of the possibilities is the same with digital photography – it is still doing what film photography was capable of doing. We’re going to see if we can push the envelope of what we can dream. For almost the entirety of its history photo­ ­ graphy has taken the human eye as a model. The very first digital camera. It’s very similar to the beginning of television. even though cameras are mostly digital now. or extreme angles. the DCS-100 developed in 1991/92. But if we want to manipulate that. The most striking photographs show what the human eye does not see. the way we have solved the problem of capturing and sharing visual information is to make the photograph compatible with what the human eye sees. Ramesh Raskar: From the beginning. for example. coded photography and essence photography. etc. emphasizing things. Right now they are just stuck on the idea that a camera should have something similar to the human eye – that they should have a lens. It has always been about creating a meaningful abstraction of the world. But in reality photography is very much about finding ways to see differently. etc. We need to go beyond just mimicking what the human eye can see. So far. making the scene hyper-realistic. the motivation has been to make cameras that can see as well as the human eye can see. Can you talk about the ways that the Camera Culture group has tried to break from these existing conventions of photography? In the future of photography and digital imaging I think that there are three distinct stages: epsilon photo­ graphy. but you and your research team are trying to break from those conventions to find new ways of seeing and rendering the world. film or a sensor. Photographers always choose amazing zooms. Camera Culture is working within these three realms. But clearly the medium of TV has evolved into a completely different storytelling medium. I think photographers are always trying to surpass their own experiences. this model simply doesn’t work. to go beyond the human eye. But beyond that they are not fundamentally different. which was a joint venture by Kodak and Nikon. except for the fact that it’s much faster and cheaper. We have solved this problem by reproducing what the eye sees. It’s just become easier and more efficient. when the first televised broadcasts were replays of theatre shows. Camera ­ Culture? I know that one of the main goals of ­ your research is to reinvent the camera. This has been photography as we have known it for the most part. or convey to the viewer. that’s our image. exposure time. they will start providing completely new functionalities to their cameras. We try to mimic a lens that behaves like the cornea. This is great for a direct view.Interview with Associate Professor Ramesh Raskar by Arthur Ou technology matters Arthur Ou: Could you please talk about the philosophy of your research group.

I think that this becomes one of our main challenges. The way my voice echoes in this room is different with the door open than if it’s closed. By doing an analysis of that echo. software. Right now the camera seems to be doing both: it’s recording and seeing at the same time. where we are using lasers that have a duration of a few femto­ seconds -15 – that’s 10  seconds (nano. we get an emotive artistic rendering? One of the many research projects in the ­ Camera Culture group is developing technologies to ‘see around corners. which is also working in the picoseconds range. The camera would record all information and ­ ynthesize a new picture based on the ten minutes I s spent with you rather than the singular moment from a conventional photograph. we don’t really see with our eyes – we sense with our eyes but we see with our brains. Even with our eyes. Because the only things that cameras capture is photons. We have developed femto photography. I think that very soon we are going to reach a saturation point in terms of photography that will lead to the invention of a new form of visual art that will make today’s cameras obsolete. Let’s say I create a picture of you with a regular ­ camera and also a thermo-light camera. we are not breaking any laws of physics – so far. With the thermal camera I can see the blood veins. they immediately made photorealistic painting obsolete. we can tell what’s just around the door. and it’s very promising. there is simply no camera that can record that.vented. and how much blood ­ there is in different parts of your face. We have done some initial experiments. When we can see beyond the line of sight. If there is an extremely accurate synchronization between the flash and a very fast sensor. Because there was no longer a need to draw or paint something that can be photographed. › total vision 179 . femto). we can analyze and compute what’s around the corner. and techniques that respond to this array of experiences. instead of a photo. but it seems we’re able to see beyond line of sight. So our aim is to create completely new forms of devices. they don’t really capture the essence of the scene. The question becomes: can we create cameras and software so that. based on echo. pico.’ can you talk about that project? We have been taught a photo is taken within the line of sight. For example if I want to record experience of having an amazing meal or being at the beach or taking a rollercoaster ride. With that data I can then figure out whether you are smiling or smirking.

So all I want is the data that ignores most of the pixels and only focuses on pixels I care about. it will be computed. Lots of smart people around the world are thinking about it. it is going to be much better than any image I can take.  We don’t know how many of these wishes will come true. All that information is already available. with no lenses. Lastly. with a few minutes of operation. I probably have a much better picture of my daughter and my wife somewhere in my photo collection. and my daughter doesn’t have to smile at the right moment. but we can be sure computational photography will be there. and no flashes. If I’m standing in front of the Eiffel Tower and I take a picture. and so on. I go online and trawl Flickr and retrieve an image taken in the right direction at about the right time of day and season. I don’t need a camera that captures the tower well. a person has to make the decision whether it’s worth investing money and time to take that photo.The photograph of tomorrow will not just be recorded. If I am in Times Square or at the Eiffel Tower. The photograph of tomorrow will not just be recorded. no sensors. The only important data is the people we care about – how they look that day. I can  guarantee. it’s really debatable whether I should take that picture.  • technology matters 180 . We’ll see many of these technologies in the next five to ten years. We might be  approaching the time when we have completely saturated the space of all the photos we ­ can take. So all I want is when I release the shutter. There are so many good pictures out there of so many great places. because it’s never going to look like that photo on Flickr. So they don’t have to be dressed the best and be in the best mood. Even then. it will be computed. because lots of people before me have taken that ­ picture. what do you envision the camera of the future to be like? Maybe all a consumer wants is a big black box with a big button. All I really care about is if my kid or my wife looks right in that picture. I don’t really care about how the Eiffel Tower looks.

Land. took the photographic world by storm from the first public presentation of analogue instant photography in 1947. Despite the fateful decision of the huge Polaroid corporation Land founded to discontinue production of its analogue instant film materials in 2008.” — Edwin H. the inventor and founder of Polaroid. despite the unavailability 181 .The Rebirth and Future of Analogue Instant Photography “Don’t undertake a project ­ unless it is manifestly important and nearly impossible. Land The bold visions of Edwin H. Sixty-one years after his first public presentation the ideas and visions of this mastermind were still strong enough to inspire the founders of The Impossible Project.

too messy. tireless work started in October 2008. Dr. refused to accept that analogue instant photography had become obsolete: too complicated. Florian Kaps.technology matters of many components of the original Polaroid film formula and despite many people shaking their head in bewilderment when learning about The Impossible Project’s ambition to make new instant materials. But these maverick characteristics are precisely the unique 182 . too expensive. the founder of Impossible. to keep one of the most legendary photographic inventions alive by reinventing instant film and propelling it into the 21st century. The concrete aim was to save analogue instant photography from extinction. too cumbersome compared to digital photography.

which can be returned to Impossible and will be re-used). a select team of former Polaroid employees started to develop an instant film formula for the 21st century. Impossible had to bake a cake without flour and eggs. Despite the digital revolution. The one makes you mourn the absence of the other. the rebirth and future of analogue instant photography 183 .features that make analogue instant photography irreplaceable. The 29-yearold Polaroid recipe required components that were mostly no longer available or whose sale had been banned. there will always be space for analogue instant photography. or indeed because of it. Bursting with enthusiasm and with a huge wealth of knowhow. new manufacturers for the negative and positive of the film had to be contacted and commissioned (Impossible found excellent partners in Ilford Photo and InovisCoat). so the basis for inspirational c ­ oexistence is guaranteed. a new battery to power each film cassette had to be developed and manufactured (the first few thousand Impossible films were powered by original Polaroid batteries. Finally. Impossible film cartridges now contain an improved and highly sophisticated battery developed and produced by HCB SuperPower. Various chemicals in the film paste had to be substituted.

Brandon Long. Ritchard Ton. Berlin and Arles. Chloe Aftel. ∞ All images are part of the project & exhibition Outside the Lines (on show at Impossible Project Space NYC. The tangible. In a digitalized world. Stefanie Schneider. Andrea Jenkins. Benjamin Shuster. International artists including Nobuyoshi Araki. Dustin Yager. Max Wanger.this small team of experts came up with new solutions for replacing and upgrading problematic or unavailable components. Toby Hancock. Rommel Pecson. In the art world.31 January 2012). Parker Fitzgerald. acquire more value than ever. Impossible changes the world of photography and keeps variety. Together with them. Tokyo. fresh features and unprecedented results. the smelly and quirky tools that allow us to touch and comprehend the world. an instant image represents an irreplaceable piece of work. Leah Reich. appreciated by artists and photographers worldwide. EJ Camp. in which things are becoming more and more virtual and unreal. Mary Ellen Mark. contributing the results to several global exhibitions in New York. These Impossible instant films produce originals of outstanding. Sol Allen. David Levinthal and Ryan McGinley have already used the new Impossible Silver Shade and Color Shade film materials. Impossible films offer a new. John Reuter. radiant in its unique glory. Unlike the highly standardized traditional Polaroid film. broad range of possibilities. The photographers involved are Adam Goldberg. real things regain a special value. Manchester. tangibility as well as analogue creativity alive in the 21st century. 184 . 29 September 2011 . Sol Exposure. The Impossible Project challenged 14 outstanding photographers to technology matters create images on PX 680 Color Shade FF film expressing their personal interpretation of the phrase 'Outside The Lines'. unique and irreplaceable. unique and never-beforeseen characteristics. pushing analogue instant photography beyond all traditional limits. and started production of new instant films for vintage Polaroid cameras in early 2010.

A
Interview with

GOOgLED

Michael
Google’s Chief Technology Advocate

A GOOGLED FUTURE

T. Jones
by Jörg Colberg

FUTURE
185

First, the sources of people’s images are becoming location aware. If you take an image with the camera ­ in your mobile phone, the phone knows where you are and can tag the image with a location. Not all mobiles do that, but the ability to do so automatically is quickly becoming common. That’s really different than trying to go back and find where Ansel Adams took a particular picture. He didn’t write down longitude and latitude. Probably it wasn’t important to him what valley he was in. Now we think of ‘picture at a place.’ We’ve done a lot of work to put pictures at places, but we’re starting to get pictures that are already at places. That’s a trend. Pictures are going to be inherently geo-coded. The other development is that many online photographs are already located. For example Google Street View pictures are geo-located very carefully. If we see a Trevi Fountain image we know where it is because we know the orientation of it compared to the path of the Street View vehicle. And we know this from several different pictures of the Street View vehicle. So we know where the Trevi Fountain is very accurately, within millimeters. What that means is that any new picture that has the Trevi Fountain in it can be matched with our pictures of the Trevi Fountain, and we can compute where the photographer must have been, lens focal length, distortions, and so on. That’s interesting because the more of our planet you have encoded, the more likely the next picture somebody takes can be matched. So not only can we show it on a map, have you search for it, or things like that, it also means that the camera can be used as a location device. Thus, a camera could tell you where you were if you were lost and you didn’t have a GPS device. It could take a picture, send it to Google, and we would find the location as, let’s say, 123 Main Street just from the world of images. If you think of the kind of photography someone might do on a vacation, where they walk down a Venetian alley and take a picture, could they find it again? Those few

TECHNOLOGY MATTERS

People probably don’t think of Google as a company heavily involved in photography, but ­ actually it is. There is Google Earth and there are various ways you can search for images, including matching existing images. How did you get so deep into this? What was the reason for that? Images are powerful. They are a powerful part of the world’s information and a natural focus for Google and our customers. We have had Google Image Search from early days. Google Earth has been about images from the start because it is a photograph of the Earth, a mosaic of airplane and satellite imagery. We also introduced vertical, oblique, and street-level lateral images into Google Maps. We soon realized that when a person takes a picture of the Eiffel Tower, the right place to find that picture is in Paris on a map. We bought Panoramio – a website of geo-located pictures. We’ve placed those pictures in Google Maps and Earth. Now, when you click on a place, you see the pictures taken there. We started Google Street View, which are images taken robotically from moving cars, bicycles and even push carts for use inside museums. The pictures at Panoramio are also in Street View. We find their orientation by matching the images to Street View photography. In these ways we’ve come to embrace photography to communicate genus loci, the sense of place, so that everyone can know new places with confidence before they travel. I find the idea of taking these images and mapping them very interesting because there ­ are literally billions of photographs on the web now, and finding images and matching them to something is really, really hard. I’m intrigued by all these different ideas that Google had to make working with images and having images relate to other images and to our locations useful. Where is this going? I don’t know how much you can disclose but what do you see as the future of Google and images/photography?

The curator is THE ARTIST when they add THEIR JUDGMENT to our images.

186

EVERY PIXEL IN EVERY IMAGE people share adds permanently TO HUMAN KNOWLEDGE IN A WAY that will span generations.
What this means is that we’re living in an increasingly recorded world. But there are growing concerns about privacy and about the amount of recording we’re doing or that is being done. Maybe we don’t even really know that our phone has a GPS device and that we record where we are. Maybe we don’t want that information to be distributed. I’m sure Google is thinking about privacy issues, too. What’s your take on this? Privacy is important. Historically, it’s an issue tied to photography. Think about taking a picture of people kissing. It’s a private moment but your photograph makes it a permanent public moment. As a photo­ grapher, a street photographer or a photojournalist, there’s a lot of psychological drama around things like that. It is an old issue changed by the internet, where things make it online easily but cannot easily be forgotten. This issue is bigger than Google and bigger than photography. If you post something as an eight-year-old or a twelveyear-old on Facebook and then later on, you want to be ­ Chancellor of Germany or a US Supreme Court judge it might happen that you said something when you were eight that you’ll regret when you’re fifty-eight. Our embarrassing childhoods have been forgotten. But for children of today, when they’re our age, their mistakes will still be on YouTube and Facebook. This is like living somewhere small. There are a few hundred people and everybody knows everybody’s business. You can’t escape it. Everybody knows everybody. It’s not that they’re spying on you, its just that everything you do in a small town is remembered. That little-village feeling is coming to the whole world because our lives are being recorded, remembered, and indexed. I like to think of privacy this way: What kind of society does the world want? What rules or behaviors create and protect that society or defend transgressions against it? Certainly, Google and presumably every other company will obey whatever those rules are, but now there are few rules and societies have yet to really know what they aspire to.  ›

flowers in a courtyard in a shadowy alley... But we’re getting close to the point where we have enough pictures that we can instantly geo-locate that picture and say ‘You were exactly at this location, looking that way.’ We have an image-understanding product called Google­Goggles. It runs on mobile phones. It lets you take a picture, and then it tries to recognize what’s going on in the picture. If you take a picture of words it ­ runs optical character recognition to understand those words and then it can offer to translate; if it is a Sudoku puzzle, it can solve it for you. As a traveler who doesn’t speak every language, that is really helpful. Geo-coded pictures make Google Goggles smarter.You take a picture and we can tell you where it is: that’s this particular church, and we know from, say, looking up in Wikipedia when it was built, or we know when it was damaged, how it was rebuilt, the names of the different people involved. You can search the world by taking a picture of it. That is important. Another possibility will be to reconstruct in the computer the physical 3D geometry of the world. There may be millions of photographs of the Eiffel Tower. Photographs of every part – if not by tourists in front then by a maintenance worker inside or from a news helicopter up above. From those pictures it is possible to infer the exact shape of the Eiffel Tower. The result is an accurate computer model of Earth where everything is built by the activity of people going about their business and taking pictures. People on vacation, taking a picture, might not know they’re completing the Eiffel Tower or guess that every pixel in every image they share adds permanently to human knowledge in a way that will span generations. Of course, the building changes with time so that tells us when the picture was taken. If the picture matches 1934 Warsaw, Poland, then it was a pre-war photograph. You know this just because of the picture, not from any other information. This is happening more and more. Soon it will be ordinary.

A GOOGLED FUTURE

187

I just arrived from London, and I know that while I was there I was photographed the whole time by London police. I didn’t mind that exactly, but I know that’s true. That’s a change. Millions of people are being photo­ graphed constantly by the police or by security cameras wherever they go. The reason might be very good and might make for a better society, but it ­ certainly creates one with a different level of privacy – none outside your house.

TECHNOLOGY MATTERS

A camera COULD TELL YOU where you were IF YOU WERE LOST and you didn’t have A GPS DEVICE.

Let me ask you a question that’s completely unrelated. I want to go back to Google Street ­ View a little bit. I’m sure you’ve seen artists ­ using Google Street View to create bodies of art. One of those even got a World Press Photography nod. What are your – or Google’s – thoughts about this kind of art? It’s a pleasure. It’s wonderful when people respond to our work. We build products and pursue technologies with the hope that people will enjoy and benefit from them. Whenever we see our projects used beyond what we expected, we know we have succeeded. A question we talked about at the New School of Photography in New York was: Is it art? Which is more a philosophical question than a practical one. But to me, a robotic camera taking pictures isn’t art. Those few images that capture fantastic moments in human lives become art when they are curated. The curator is the artist when they add their judgment to our images and produce a result that is inspiring, evocative, emotional, and memorable. •

Speed relates to the privacy issue. If you think about the rapid pace of people adopting the internet, of ­ people coming online and refusing to be isolated again, and the quality of little cameras growing, another obvious and natural step is that people won’t carry cameras any more but video cameras instead. You’ll have a video camera in your glasses or in your hat or somewhere else that takes pictures all the time all around you. If something interesting ever happens you can scroll back and see what that was. I am certain that most people will do that; it’s not even a question to me. It already happens in stores with security cameras or with CCTV cameras. It will become the norm to wear a video camera and record our lives. Maybe they will be super-password protected or biologically keyed. I’m not saying that people will share with the police or Google, but people will record their lives. As soon as it costs little to do that all cars will have high-speed recording of all events in case of an accident. Once you’re doing that for cars then everybody in the street also gets recorded all the time by all the cars. So basically, you could track all the people. These privacy issues are already happening or technically emerging in such a way that it’s not the hypothetical question of ‘What about privacy?’ I think it’s more about ‘Are there any areas of life where we need to recreate the privacy we’ve already lost?’ That is the real question.

188

How can we efficiently explore massive digital image collections like the 167. by Lev Manovich 189 .000 images on Flickr’s Art Now group to ask interesting questions? HOW TO SEE how to see 1.000 images? 1.000. and interpret them – no longer works.000 IMAGEs? The basic method used by media researchers when the amounts of media being relatively small – see all images or video.000. notice patterns.

technology matters 190 .

record players. libraries. It does not allow you to see the shape of the haystack. the adoption of the web as media distribution platform. four million pages of digitized U. This went hand in hand with the organization of media distribution: record and video stores. its deep assumption (which we may be able to trace back to its origins in 1950s ‘information retrieval’) is that you know beforehand something about the ­ collection worth exploring further. it does not show how particular data objects or subsets are related to the complete data. Game recording and visualization: William Huber (with Lev Manovich) access single media items at a time at a limited range of speeds. image gallery. these distribution and classification systems encouraged 20th century media researchers to decide beforehand what media items to study. and image strip do not allow us to see the contents of a whole collection. The hypertext paradigm which defines the World Wide Web is also limited: it allows navigation around the web of pages according to the links defined by others. television and radio broadcasters all only make available a few items at a time. ↗ Frames taken from the Japanese videogame Kingdom Hearts II every 6 seconds from the sequence of gameplay sessions. and trillions of videos on YouTube and photographs on Facebook and numerous other media sources are waiting to be ‘digged’ into. This is consistent with the original vision of hypertext as articulated by Vannevar Bush in 1945: a way for a researcher to create how to see 1. it would give your ideas of what else there is worth seeking.  How to Work with Massive Image Collections? ­ Early 21st century humanities scholars.000 images?  Against Search: How to Look without Knowing What You Want to Find? The popular media access technologies of the 19th and 20th century – slide lanterns. Unfortunately.e. Before you click on the search button you have to decide what keywords and phrases to search for. and globalization which increased the number of agents and institutions producing media around the world – led to an exponential increase in the quantity of media while simultaneously making it much easier to find. How can we work with such image sets? The basic method used by media researchers when the amounts of media being relatively small – see all images or video. or physically walked from shelf to shelf. the current standard in media access – computer search – does not take us out of this paradigm. So while the search brings a dramatic increase in speed of access. simply seeing what’s inside them is impossible even before we begin formulating questions and hypotheses and selecting samples for closer analysis. without being able to zoom out to see the shapes. notice patterns of change over time.) In doing that. Search interface is an empty box waiting for you to type something. the larger structures in which books and other media objects were organized did not. archive.000. If you could. Search also does not reveal where all different needles in the haystack are situated. which constitute a full traversal of the game from beginning to end. or 176. Because we are not able to see a collection as a whole.) or a particular subject category (for example. the rise of user-generated content and social media. and research. hierarchical classification systems used in library catalogues and rooms encouraged the users to access a collection in ways defined by classification schemes. or even search. Thus. How can we efficiently explore massive digital image collections to ask interesting questions? The ­ examples of such collections are 167. VCR.gov). let alone simply watch. newspaper pages from 1836 to 1922 (chroniclingamerica. regardless of whether you are in a browsing mode.4999 frames). ‘1960s experimental American films’. Millions of hours of television programs already digitized by various national libraries and media museums. These interfaces usually only display a few items at a time. audio and video tape recorders. with books organized by author names inside each subject category. A number of interconnected developments which took place be­ tween 1990 and 2010 – digitization of many analogue media collections. you were following a classification based on subjects. etc. 150 billion snapshots of web pages captured from 1996 (www. Given the size of typical contemporary digital media collections.000 images on ­ Art Now Flickr gallery. although a single book itself supported random access. film projectors. most were satisfied with contributing individual leaves (articles and books). or understand parts of the collection in relation to the whole.5 hours of gameplay (22. etc. as opposed to moving in any direction. and interpret them – no longer works. Popular interfaces for accessing digital media collections such as list. as opposed to browsing at random. To put this another way: search assumes that you want to find a needle in a haystack of information. teach with. DVD players. – were designed to 191 . Using search is like looking at a pointillist painting at a close range and only seeing colour dots.org).S. critics and curators have access to unprecedented amounts of ­ visual media – more than they can possibly study. or in a search mode. we can’t compare sets of images or videos to each other. Together.000 Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information photographs ­ taken between 1935 and 1944 and digitized by Library of Congress. a researcher could be said to move down the hierarchy of information in a catalogue and then select a particular level as the subject of her project: cinema > American cinema > American experimental film > American experimental film of the 1960s. Moviola and Steenbeck. This visualization represents 62. i.loc. At the same time. When you looked through a card catalogue. Although it may appear that the reasons for this are the limitations of human vision and human information processing. I think that it is actually the fault of current interface designs. notice patterns. share. The more adventurous would add new branches to the categorical tree. A researcher usually started with a particular person (a filmmaker. a photographer. beside the needle you originally had in mind.

she can only move along a fixed number of trajectories defined by the taxonomy of the collection and types of metadata used in describing the data. or use information visualization techniques to explore patterns across image sets. and searching using metadata recorded for media objects. in the case of images and video it becomes a serious problem.org. and image sharing sites such as Flickr and Photobucket can only show images in a few fixed formats – typically a two-dimensional grid. 2010. however. advertising.074. store displays. trees. for example. Images are usually sorted by upload dates. archive. is quite limited. cataloguing.000 x 44. Graphing and visualization tools that are available in Google Docs. We need similar techniques which would allow us to observe vast ‘media universes’ and quickly detect all interesting patterns. and all other elements. is the representation of data using points. cafes. a user has to invest time in adding new metadata to all of them. and editing. and artstor. For instance. with passersby. media managers and hosting sites allow users to browse and search images and video. Imagine.000 pixels. These techniques have to operate with speeds many times faster than the normal playback speed (in the case of time-based media.org. turning the corner on a city street and taking in the view of the open square. a 2D scatter plot which shows a distribution of grades in a class with each student represented as a point serves its purpose. and. Their usefulness as research tools. U. but the same type of plot representing the stylistic patterns over the course of an artist’s career via points has more limited use if we can’t see the images of the artworks. which underlies the creation of graphs and information visualizations. compare collections which may have hundreds of thousands of images to each other. and metadata were input by the archivists (none of the sites I reviewed offered user-generated tags. Excel. In all cases. and similar graphical primitives. video. bars. to use an example of still images.org. a linear strip. when you observe a physical scene directly with your eyes.790 manga pages © Lev Manovich and Jeremy Douglass. and media hosting sites. a typical interface offered to the users allows browsing through a collection linearly or by hierarchical categories and subject tags. the categories. 192 . Like dedicated online collection sites. lines. Rendered on iMac using ImagePlot software developed by Software Studies Initiative. The limitations of the typical interfaces for online media collections also hold for interfaces for desktop and mobile applications for media viewing.’ Based on my informal review of some of the largest online institutional media collections available today such as europeana. I should be able to see important information in one million photographs in the same time it takes me to see a single image. Library of Congress digital collections.) As a result. These techniques have to compress massive media universes into smaller observable media ‘landscapes’ compatible with the human information processing capacity. to display photos in a new order. audio or interactive experiences to enable the study of the subtle patterns in the data. a slide show. Desktop applications such as iPhoto. you can look anywhere in any order. they also hide the objects behind the data from the user. Picasa. She can’t automatically organize images by their visual properties or by semantic relationships. while at the same time keeping enough of the details from the original images. and Adobe Bridge. Media Visualization technology matters ↘ Media visualization of 1. But these tools too have their own limitations. a map view (photos superimposed on the world map). structures and relations. ‘trails through massive scientific information and for others be able to follow his traces later.S. This principle has remained unchanged from the earliest statistical graphics of the early 19th century to contemporary interactive visualization software which can work with large data sets. etc. unusual faces. in some cases.) Or. Although such representations make clear the relationships in a data set. Tableau. While this is perfectly acceptable for many types of data. cars. without being able to zoom out to see the shapes. tags.Using the usual search tool is like looking at a pointillist painting at a close range. You can quickly detect and follow a multitude of dynamically changing patterns based on visual and semantic information: cars moving in parallel lines. Many Eyes and other graphing and spreadsheet software do offer a range of visualization techniques designed to reveal patterns in data. when a user accesses institutional media collections via their websites. house painted in similar colours. In contrast. Original visualization size: 44. This allows you to quickly notice a variety of patterns. shop windows which stand out from the rest. people who move along their own trajectories and people talking to each other. A key principle. displaying the results in various formats.

000 images? 193 .000.how to see 1.

our software can show all the images in a collection superimposed on a graph. the other allows us to understand what is behind the points. These features can be then used for similar investigations – for example. places. however the first visualizaion (p. Two visualizations of the same data set presented on this and the previous page illustrate the differences between infovis (information visualization) and mediavis (media visualization). In contrast. or their parts. Similarly. Digital image processing is conceptually similar to automatic analysis of texts already widely used in digital humanities. we can use digital image processing to calculate statistics of various visual properties of images: average brightness and saturation. etc. Both visualizations use familiar scatter plot technique. Our media visualization techniques can be used independently. organized in a variety of configurations according to their metadata (dates. and their positions. they create graphs to show relationships and patterns in a data set.074. Since 2008. Text analysis involves automatic extracting various statistics about the content of each text in a collection such as word usage frequencies. The pages with the highest contrast are on the right. the analysis of visual differences between news photographs in different magazines or between news photographs in different countries. relationships between texts. Like the latter. lines or other graphic primitives. noun and verb usage frequencies. X-axis = standard deviation. while pages with the least contrast are on the left. their lengths. we have measured a number of visual characteristics of each page: contrast. sentence lengths. the pages in the bottom part of the visualization are the most graphic and have the least amount of detail and texture. In between these four extremes. key colours. Each page is represented as a point. • technology matters 194 . In short. In the case of a collection containing single images (for instance. we find every possible stylistic variation. To produce these visualizations. and so on. The below visualization shows the distribution of the data. while another measurement is used to position data on Y-axis. The visualizations on the previous page (p. or the evolution of news photography in general over the 20th century. the number and the properties of shapes. This method allows us to organize images according to their visual characteristics along two dimensions. The pages in the upper right have lots of detail and texture. authors). The visualization below represents each page as a point. We then use one of the measurements to position the data on X-axis. Typical information visualization involves first translating the world into numbers and then visualizing relations between these numbers.790 manga (Japanese comic) pages. Media visualization can be formally defined as creating new visual representations from the visual objects in a collection. my Software Studies Initiative has been developing visual techniques that combine the strengths of media viewing applications. presence of faces). media visualization involves displaying all images. Y-axis = entropy. content properties (for example. In this visualization. We call this method media visualization. 193) use the scaled copies of the pages instead of the points. media visualization translates a set of images into a new visual representation which can reveal patterns in the images. or in combination with digital image processing. We can also use them in a more basic way – for the initial exploration of any large image collection.790 manga (Japanese comics) pages. graphing and visualization applications. and/or visual properties. the 1930s WPA photographs collection from Library of Congress). literary genres. texture properties.↖ Information visualization of 1. etc.193) adds images on top of the points.074. The data for these visualizations are 1. These statistics (referred in computer science as ‘features’) are then used to study the patterns in a single text. However. etc. the changes in visual style over the career of a photographer. while plot making software can only display data as points. pictures are translated into pictures. the number of edges and their orientations. number of lines.

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Caixa de Sapato enables us to realize that the most compulsive beauty is enclosed in what we insist in daily ignoring. In the series Caixa de Sapato (Shoe Box) the collective transits from the family private world to the public sphere with sensibility. Hopefully photography in the future may teach us. Some of the group beliefs are not to sign their works individually and aggregate references of publicity and movies to the photodocumentaryism. Even keeping the field of reportage. These visual metaphors urge the viewer to try to find a more efficient way of mechanical devolution of the appearance of the real. Photographing without dogma and censorship. the body of work laid a vigorous poetic on the familiar routine and results in a universal code. to look more humanistically and intensely at our surroundings. the themes should have priority over the author. the cycles of life and the effective liaisons that grow among people who live or visit the authors’ houses blossom into a vital force of unique beauty. a great number of followers in Brazil and abroad. as well as unique moments of photographic ecstasy. breaking the compromise to realism and expanding the reportage beyond the limits of fiction. surrounded by technological evolution. in which video format reaches its best narrative. Cia de Foto incorporate the idea that subjectivity and the perception of who relates the fact has forcefully to transpire on the surface of the image. 2006 – ongoing The appearance of Cia de Foto in Brazilian photo­ graphy in the last decade brought with it discussions that helped us to reflect upon taboos so far considered untouchable. This way they created an aesthetic that dialogues with many authors of photography history as well as with painting tradition in a profound and delicate study of light. causing endless polemics and then. The three photographers of the collective created proper ethics and aesthetics.  • selected by Eder Chiodetto . In Caixa de Sapato.Cia de Foto Caixa de Sapato All images © Cia de Foto.

advertising. the consolidation of new work and behavioural habits (such as cloud computing) will catalyze many more dynamic cultural stages on a large scale (cloud imaging. I want in fact only to talk of the future of this type of confrontational guerrilla art because the social chronicles and cultural anthropologists already take care of the other. This situation implies substantial changes for photography and the image in general that in the near and medium term will only increase. We all produce images as a natural way of interacting with others.  ›  joan fontcuberta FoNtCU BERtA 203 . a genre aimed at the production of artistic merchandise and ruled by the laws of the marketplace and the entertainment industry. It is a genre in the way that any other cultural form such as de­ sign. spe­ cialists or professionals. artists. It is an era that crowns a process of secularization of the visual experience: the image ceases to be the domain of magicians. or the circus might be. fashion. social networks) but the degree to which this extraordinary flow of images is found accessible to everyone. the preponderant role of the mass media has been confirmed and the iconosphere can be considered the model of the global village. What change has brought now is not the immer­ sion in new communication frameworks (digital formats. from the most clandestine dissidence. We are therefore passing through an age of access. It’s an art which rejects the splendour of the museums and biennials and any other efforts at subjugation. film. Since McLuhan in the 1960s. proposes to fight the laws of the marketplace­ and the entertainment industry at precisely the same time as it reinvents itself as art.JoAN What is commonly understood as art has become a mere genre of culture. cloud living). On the other hand. There is another art which doesn’t draw the spotlight or walk the red carpet but which. We live in a world saturated with images: we live in the image and the image lives in us and makes us live. internet.

On the role of the artist: no longer a case of producing works but of ­ prescribing meanings. collaborative creation. strategic anonymities and orphan works). interactivity.9 This will  be its decalogue: On the experience of art: creative practices which accustom us to dispossession will be privileged: it is better to share than to own. On the dialectic of the subject: we will find greater camouflage of the author and reformu­ lation of the models of authorship (co-authorship. 204 foam magazine #29 what's next? 7 4 On the dialectic of the social: further advances in overcoming the tension between the private and the public. On the function of images: the circulation and management of the image will prevail over the content of the image. 1 6 3 On the artist’s responsibility: an ecology of the visual which will penalize saturation and encourage recycling. .

which trains us not just to live in the image but to survive the images. In short.. it is a matter of greeting a new visual culture able to prepare us for resistance. with the teacher.2 On art’s horizon: more play will be given to the ludic aspects and less to the solemn and the boring. (all facets of art ­ have become chameleon like and authorial). with the art historian. 10 5 205 On the philosophy of art: discourses of originality will be delegitimized and appropriationist practices will be normalized. with the collector. . joan fontcuberta On the politics of art: not to surrender to glamour and ­ consumption but rather to embark on the act of agitating consciences. 8 On the artist’s behaviour: the artist merges with the curator.. with the theorist.

de Appel. the V&A Victoria and Albert Museum. photography and works on paper.com. Rob Hornstra (1975. Lauren Cornell (1978. USA) is a photographer. OffPrint in Paris and at Flash Forward Festival in Toronto and Boston. Adam Broomberg (1970. She is also the founding editor of wordswithoutpictures. He was one of the five curators of the exhibition From Here On as part of Les Rencontres d’ Arles (July 2011). In 2009. Eder Chiodetto (1965. he started the Sochi Project. Hack has been a contributor to The Daily Telegraph on men’s style and has guest-edited The Independent. For its third edition that started in February 2011. writer and performance artist from Los Angeles. The Hague (NL). presentation and preservation of art engaged with technology. The School’s principal mission is to train artistic photographers. all of which support the creation. It recently exhibited Histories of Maps. England. They have exhibited widely and produced seven monographs. among them The Image Society.. USA) and Selva Barni (Milano. In 2003 he published a collection of essays. Germany) is the founder and editor of Conscientious. including Galerie West (The Hague. He is a faculty member of the MFA Photography programme at Hartford Art School (Northampton). He is the founder and editor of the magazine PhotoVision and has written several books about the history. São Paolo. W139 and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. aesthetics and the teaching of photography. Film and Visual Arts (2005) and The Dutch Photobook 1945 . The Grand Absence. She is Course Leader of the MA in Photojournalism at Westminster University. Pirates and Treasures in the Itaú Cultural institute (São Paolo). Nickel van Duijvenboden (1981. the student continues with a three year long in-depth study within one of the twelve specialisations. Australia. She is the author of Imperfect Beauty (2000). The university offers also four master degree programmes in partnership with the Sandberg Institute. A voyage into photography. His works have been exhibited in various galleries and museums. Frits Gierstberg (1959. In addition to her curatorial work at the New Museum. The Netherlands) is a Berlin-based artist and curator who works primarily on and with the world wide web. Fantom Photographic Quarterly is an international publication about the uses and abuses of photo­ graphy published by Boiler Corporation s. Milano. Together with Eefje Blankevoort he founded and runs Prospektor. the Netherlands) is a writer and filmmaker based in Amsterdam. Art in General and MWNM galleries in New York. the Netherlands) is an art historian and critic. He has worked as Head of Exhibitions and curator at the Nederlands Fotomuseum in Rotterdam since 2003. Adelaide. founded in 2003. It is also actively involved in organising exhibition while contributing to various publications. Liset van der Laan. Fantom is edited by Cay Sophie Rabinowitz (New York. creating conceptual work in which photography serves as a catalyst. A historian of photo­ graphy with a doctorate in art history. the Netherlands) is a documentary photo­ grapher. South Africa) are two brothers and photographers based in Cape Town. Cia de Foto is represented by Galeria Vermelho. the ICA in London. United Kingdom) is editor of 8 magazine and foto8. David Horvitz (1982. England) are artists living and working in London. including at MoMA in New York and the Art Institute in Chicago. Halaal Art (2010) at the Goodman Gallery. Hack (1971. photographer and photography critic based in Brazil. Australia. Jörg Colberg (1968. the Netherlands) investigates forms of writings that border on visual art. first and foremost Fantom features the voice of photographers. portfolios. Max Houghton (1970. Art Metropole (Toronto) and the New Museum (NYC). United States) is Executive Director at Rhizome and Adjunct Curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York. together with the writer and filmmaker Arnold van Bruggen. Rob Hornstra is represented by Flatland Gallery. He is currently working on the Sochi Project with photographer Rob Hornstra. Constant Dullaart (1979. A group of ambitious youngsters heading towards a career in the creative industry develop different projects and events based around photo­ graphy during the run of one year. a journalist. Italy) is a writer and curator. Hasan & Husain Essop are represented by Goodman Gallery. he is also the editor of the journal Études Photographiques. École Nationale Supérieure de la Photographie/ The National School of Photography (ENSP). Uruguay) is a journalist and magazine editor. featuring screenings. His writings have appeared in international magazines and he has contributed introductory essays to monographs by various photographers. NL). the Havana Biennial (2009) and Dak’Art Biennial. Exhibitions include Primavera at the Museum of Contemporary Art. Brazil. Joan Fontcuberta (1955. Broomberg and Chanarin are Visiting Fellows at the University of the Arts London. a company focused on the production of documentary practices. Be Happy an organization promoting and studying self-published photobooks. He co-founded Dazed & Confused with photographer Rankin in 1991. He has organized events at The Photographers’ Gallery. He teaches at the Photo Department of the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam and supervised the second year’s photography students taking part in the What’s Next? project initiated by Foam. the FoamLab participants are Jerry Celie. sculpture. United Kingdom) is the Creative Director of the National Media Museum in Bradford. Brazil. He is currently based in Brooklyn. founded in 1982 in Arles (South France). Their latest book War Primer 2 is published by MACK (2011) and interrogates the nature of the images of conflict that have proliferated since 9/11. He sits as a judge on the panel for the Paris ANDAM fashion award. Italy).2010 (upcoming). Cia de Foto is a photography collective based in São Paulo. South Africa. He was awarded an Anne & Gordon Samstag International Visual Arts Scholarship in 2006. Brazil) is an independent curator of photo­ graphy and video. Hugo van de Poel and Rosa Ronsdorf.l. he lectures in photography at the Camberwell College of Arts. Clément Chéroux (1970. Jefferson W. He has published several books.r. Essays on Visual Culture (2002). Foam Lab is a special activity created by Foam in 2007. working primarily in painting. Italy. and publishing its own journal Infra-Mince. students are trained as autonomous photographers. He is co-founder of FOTODOK – Space for Documentary Photography in Utrecht (NL). Dakar (2010). The collective participated at the 3éme biennale des images du monde – Photoquai 2011 in Paris. a widely read weblog dedicated to contemporary fine art photography. is a higher education establishment under the general supervision of the French Ministry of Culture. London.Andy Best (1975. He is Professor of Photojournalism and Photography Essay at Museum of Modern Art of São Paulo. Bruno Ceschel (1976. Spain) has had his work exhibited globally. Based in Brighton. Andy Best is represented by Greenaway Art Gallery. Utrecht (the Netherlands). who acquire both solid theoretical knowledge and in-depth technical skills. Arnold van Bruggen (1979. London (2011) and the Gallery Isabelle van den Eynde in Dubai (2011). NIMk. Australia) is a multidisciplinary artist. By specialising in Photography at the Rietveld Academie.org. ICA Institute of Contemporary Arts and Whitechapel Gallery in London. Fenna Lampe. Documentary Now! Contemporary Strategies in Photography. Last summer he was nominated for the Discovery Prize at the photography festival Les Rencontres d’ Arles. Hasan and Husain Essop (1985. Cornell organizes the monthly New Silent Series. Charlotte Cotton (1971. called the Foundation Year. she writes about photography and the media on a contributors 206 . where she oversees and develops Rhizome’s programmes. and statements. South Africa) and Oliver Chanarin (1971. In 2010 he founded Self Publish. His work is shown internationally at places such as the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Eelke Mol. France) is a curator at the Centre Pompidou / Musée National d’Art Moderne. He is co-editor of a number of books on photography and visual culture. and 2004: Australian­ Culture Now at the National Gallery of Victoria. Gerrit Rietveld Academie is a university of applied sciences for Fine Arts and Design in Amsterdam. Then Things Went Quiet (2003) and The Photograph as Contemporary Art (2005 and 2009). After a general first year. in interviews. Sydney (2009). and graduated as a ‘photographer without photographs’ at the Royal Academy of Art. an individual exhibition Entretanto at the Galeria Vermelho and the series Carnaval at the New York Photo Festival. Their exhibitions include Powerplay (2008). Guy Bourdin (2003). events and performances by emerging artists.

the Netherlands) is a Dutch visual artist who uses photography. Impossible initiated also several projects dedicated to support and promote Instant Photography amongst artists and photographers. His work is centred on photographic representations of identity. but he is probably best known for his projects on the seven rivers of the world and the diamond industry (published as photobooks Diamond Matters. JR is represented by Galerie Perrotin in Paris. the Netherlands) co-founded Nonfiction. curator and researcher. Taiwan) is an artist and writer based in New York. Houston. Joburg Circa Now (2004) by Terry Kurgan and Jo Ractliffe. South Africa) is a Cape Town-based journalist and writer. eye Magazine. the Netherlands) is an independent photojournalist. both by photographers Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin. from travel to art. He is currently the Director of the BFA Photography Program at Parsons the New School for Design. Her work combines video. He was previously Chief Technologist of Google Maps. Recently 207 . His publications and projects contributed fundamentally to the general development of Visual Culture as a field of study and a methodology. the Netherlands) is an independent writer. Afterall. Amsterdam. Flora Lysen (1984. the New Museum. and established with ten others the photo agency NOOR images (Amsterdam). Alison Nordström (1950. He has received numerous prizes for his work. The editor-in-chief is Jiaojiao Chen and the art director is Peng Yangjun. Together with Sara Blokland she is the co-founder of UNFIXED Projects. United States) is Google’s Chief Technology Advocate. including McMuseum (2002). forthcoming 2012). Its mission was not to re-build Polaroid film but to develop a new product with new characteristics. and in the books Alias (2011) and Ghetto (2004). Among her books is Image Makers. street art and participatory art. Anne Marsh (Australia) is Director of the Art Theory Program and Associate Dean Research at Monash University in Australia. The Hague. Her films and photographs have been recently been exhibited at the Guggenheim Museum in New York and Bilbao. Her work has been exhibited widely and it’s part of several collections. Kadir van Lohuizen (1963.org. performance art. performances. and Positions (2010). Michiel van Iersel (1978. Erik Kessels (1966. currently teaching at the Master program in Artistic Research at the Royal Academy of Art. showing the work of eight contemporary artists. including The Guardian. documenting the fleeting human situations. as well as in many gallery exhibitions throughout the United States and Europe. drawing and installations. com.Florian Kaps (CMO). contributors Outlook Magazine
is China’s leading original creative lifestyle magazine. an exhibition in collaboration with the University of Amsterdam. France. United States/ the Netherlands) is an independent curator. and the Vera List Center for Art and Politics. In 2006 American Photo named Martin one of the Innovators of the Year. feminism. His writings have been published in Aperture. 2010). Expos 2 Rue. With the project Face2Face (2007) he made portraits of Palestinians and Israelis and pasted them up in huge formats on both sides of the wall. Bidoun. both them used to be authors of COLORS magazine during 2006 to 2008. Jones (1960. and a professor at the European Graduate School (EGS). He focuses on developing analytical tools that can model new patterns and trends within web-based cultural production and social media. In Via PanAm Van Lohuizen brings the focus back to Latin America. Lev Manovich (1960. the diamond industry and Aderen). Martin (1970. Outlook has been published in Shanghai continuously since October 2002. JR (1983. United States) is Senior Curator of Photographs and Director of Exhibitions at George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester. the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam and at Les Rencontres d’Arles. France) is an artist describing himself as a photograffeur. Her research areas include photo­ graphy. Her books include Look: Contemporary Australian Photo­ graphy since 1980 (Macmillan Publishers. Germany) is a British-based ­ journalist and critic. ABUSE ME at the New York Photo Festival 2010 and most recently From Here On at Les Rencontres d’Arles. the Netherlands. Frieze and Kyoto Journal. He has curated numerous photography exhibitions such as USE ME. He has developed scientific and interactive computer graphics software and has used a home-built 4-gigapixel camera made with parts from the U2/SR71. for ‘breaking the mold for iconic photography books’ with her cadre of ‘conceptually oriented books that have added a fresh vision to the photography world’. and at the Museum of Fine Art. Lisa Oppenheim (1975. In 2011 she curated a major retrospective of more than 150 photographs by Lewis Wickes Hine at the Fondation Henri CartierBresson in Paris. Willem Popelier (1982. contemporary art and theory. the Netherlands) is an artist/photo­ grapher that focuses her research on prolonged observation of the public sphere. His current project Unframed reinterprets in huge formats photos from important photographers taken from the archives of museums. She has written for many publications. He wrote and edited An Introduction to Visual Culture (2nd ed. a large scale participatory project about identity. X-Tra. Laurel Ptak (United States) is a curator who has been based in New York City for the last ten years. She was one of the inaugural curators of the New York Photo Festival in 2008. In 2011 he was granted a special mention at Dutch Doc Awards. a non-profit organization aimed at creating platforms for dialogue between photography. He exhibited his works at Foam Amsterdam. He speaks and writes about art and culture on a regular basis and has hosted or co-hosted conferences on museum innovation. Her research focuses on the cultural history of technology. the Netherlands) is a founding partner and creative director of KesselsKramer. Asmara Pelupessy (1981. Germany) is a visual artist based in New York. United States) lives and works in New York City.com. Paulien Oltheten is represented by Galerie Fons Welters. which is hardly visible in today’s news coverage. Artforum. United States) is publisher of Aperture Foundation’s book program. His very last book just came out: The Right to Look: A Counterhistory of Visuality (2011). Michael T. His artistic research involves photography. Arthur Ou (1974. In 2010 she was the curator of The Smooth and the Striated. André Bosman (COO) and Marwan Saba (CFO) in 2008. an Amsterdam based office for cultural innovation. editor and project organizer in photography and visual culture. Sean O’Toole (1968. and Words Without Pictures (Aperture: 2010). Recent solo exhibitions include Blood to Ghosts at Galerie Juliette Jongma (Amsterdam) and at Klosterfelde. Tokyo (Japan) and Vienna (Austria). DAMn Magazine. Earth. Foam Magazine and Wallpaper* as well as Süddeutsche Zeitung and Du magazine. and from culture to design. writer. director of the Software Studies Initiative. Nicholas Mirzoeff (United Kingdom) is Professor of Media Culture and Communication at New York University. an international communications agency based in Amsterdam. including the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. In 2010 Impossible introduced its first. brand new analog Instant Film materials. The Impossible Project was initiated by Dr. the politics of participation in pop culture and the aesthetics of failure. Lesley A. 2009) and The Visual Culture Reader (3rd ed.freelance basis for a variety of international publications. The Shpilman Institute. Open Museum (2008) and Curating the City (2009). The Sunday Times. She is Assistant Professor of New Media at the Purchase College State University of NY and was previously Editor & Curator at Rhizome. Anne-Celine Jaeger (1975. It covers content ranging from fashion to architecture. and Invention without a Future at Harris Lieberman. in 2008. Paulien Oltheten (1982. After winning the TED Prize in 2011 he started the project Inside Out. was held in the streets of Paris in 2001. Impossible Project Spaces have opened in New York City (USA). She is the founder of the blog about contemporary photography iheartphotograph. Image Takers: The Essential Guide to Photography by Those in the Know. He has covered conflicts throughout the world. researcher. She was resident artist at the Rijksakademie van beeldende Kunsten (the Netherlands) and ARCUS project in Japan. Russia) is professor in the Visual Arts Department of the University of California. Camera Austria. Ou co-organized the conference The Photographic Universe together with the Aperture Foundation. postmodernism and psychoanalysis. Marisa Olson (1977. His first exhibition. and Local Search. San Diego. which included an essay on Guy Tillim. Fantom. His writings on South African photography have appeared in the magazines Art in America.

Tina Modotti. the Museum of Contemporary Photography and the Museum of Fine Arts. Japan) have been working together since 2000 in Beijing. Germany) is an internationally renowned photo­ grapher who lives and works in Dusseldorf. focussing on monumental photography and outdoor exhibitions (next edition September 2012). Sony Ericsson and VSBFonds. Based in Taipei (Taiwan) its designers and editors are Ho-Teng Chang and Shauba Chang. Chaplin and Fellini. Lieko Shiga is represented by Galerie Priska Pasquer. SNS Reaalfonds. She currently lives and works in New York. Ramesh Raskar (India) is head of the Camera Culture research group at MIT Media Lab in Boston. Having studied photography from 1977 to 1985 with Bernd Becher at the Kunstakademie Dusseldorf. She is currently working on her PhD. ads or internet. Germany) is a Berlin-based artist. as well as to individual artist’s publications and curatorial projects. He is also director of PixelPress – an organization that works at the intersection of new media. Tate is the founding editor of the contemporary art blog ilikethisart. Raskar also holds the position of Co-Director at the Center for Future Storytelling. Mariko Takeuchi (1972. Australia) has been the Director of The Photo­ graphers’ Gallery since November 2005. Oschatz Visuelle Medien. studied photography under Otto Steinert at the Folkwang School of Design in Essen from 1966 to 1971. His research activity focuses on the circulation of images. Brett Rogers (1954. Prins Bernard Cultuurfonds. Dienst Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. attempting to redefine questions of subjectivity and authorship. In 2011. She is a recipient of the Kimura Ihei Award and the Young Photographer ICP Infinity Award. Germany. he developed his method of conceptual serial photography. Mister Motley and Foam Magazine. he launched ELSE. online and printed matter: including Rhizome (New York). artist spaces. Spanish and Turkish). his works have been shown and published internationally and are included in numerous collections. Lilly and CANARY in 2008. She is the Chair of the Jury for the annual Deutsche Börse Photography Prize. Waterfall Magazine is a bi-annual independent art and photography magazine. who is an American photographer and writer based in the United Kingdom. net. and associate professor of Kyoto University of Art and Design. the Swiss magazine of photography. Gerrit Rietveld Academie. Waterfall Magazine is self-published in Chinese and English. Ilse van Rijn (1975. She has released two books. Villa Noailles Hyères (France) and The Armory (New York). 208 . China) and inri (1973. France) became Director of Musée de L’Elysée in Lausanne (Switzerland) in 2010. between 1993 and 2007. Japan) graduated at Chelsea College of Art and Design in BA Fine Arts New Media in 2004. the first contemporary art space solely dedicated to photo­ graphy and video art in China. Japan) is a photography critic. United States) is an Assistant Professor of Art at the University of Cincinnati. His work has been shown in a wide range of museums. Stefano Stoll (1975. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. robstolk. Some of his recent innovations include a way to perform an eye test in three minutes using a cell phone. French.she relocated to Stockholm where she serves as curator at Tensta Konsthall and will teach the workshop ‘Towards a History & Philosophy of the Online Image’ at the photo department of Konstfack – University College of Arts. documentary and human rights. Open. Mondriaan Foundation. In 2007 RongRong and inri established the Three Shadows Photography Art Centre. Osaka. and her work is included in major collections such as the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in California. Beamsystems. United States) is an artist/photographer who often re-uses published images from magazines. Igepa. and common experiences. He has been working with found photographs since the early 1980s. Fred Ritchin (United States) is Professor of Photography & Imaging at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts. which makes connections between art. Penelope Umbrico (1957. She is a guest researcher at the National Museum of Art. Houston. daily life. Tate’s work is currently held in collections nationwide. During his studies of art history and economics. Korean. including Rhizome at the New Museum. Schuman. Amsterdam Fund for the Arts. Rautert has been one of the most important teachers of young photographers in Germany when working as professor of photo­ graphy at the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst / Academy of Visual Arts in Leipzig. the Netherlands) is a Dutch writer and art critic. Eizo high-end-monitors. She was a guest curator for the Spotlight on Japan exhibition at Paris Photo 2008. Joachim Schmid (1955. Anne de Vries (the Netherlands) is a Dutch artist based both in Amsterdam and Berlin. where he also co-directs with Susan Meiselas the ­ NYU/Magnum Foundation Photo­ graphy & Human Rights educational program. Lieko Shiga (1980. Between 2000 and 2005 he taught at the academy in Dusseldorf. De Vries graduated from the Gerrit Rietveld Academie and is currently an artist in residence at the Rijksakademie van beeldende kunsten in Amsterdam. Sam Stourdzé (1973. She previously worked at the Visual Arts Department of the British Council where she held the joint positions of Deputy Director and Head of Exhibitions. In 2009 she started the project called KITAKAMA. He has been organizing various events in collaboration with other artists of which BYOB Bring Your Own Beamer nights. She contributes to magazines such as Metropolis M. He is also head of the cultural department of the City of Vevey. Ritchin is the author of After Photography (2008. 1999). Foam (Amsterdam). She has shown internationally. galleries. regularly contributes to Foam Magazine as writer. he co-founded and co-directed the first photography festival in Switzerland: les Journées Photographiques de Bienne. Germany). represents and encourages acute observation via the photographic medium. Cologne. Timm Rautert (1941. Crafts and Design in spring 2012. a camera based on transient imaging to see around the corner and imperceptible markers for motion capture. and of In Our Own Image: The Coming Revolution in Photography (1990. and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. and the production and interpretation of photographs. In 1990 he founded the Institut zur Wiederaufbereitung von Altfotos (The Institute for the Reprocessing of Used Photographs). both still and moving. where he is associate professor. which will be exhibited at the end of 2012. an independent curator. SeeSaw Magazine is an online photography magazine dedicated to work that successfully captures. Thomas Ruff (1958. contributors & support What's Next? has been made possible with the support of:

 AgentschapNL. Aaron Schuman is the director and editor of SeeSaw since its inception in 2004. RongRong (1968. in which she researches contemporary autonomously produced artist’s writings. with translations in Chinese. As a curator he organized several exhibitions including retrospectives of Dorothea Lange. Switzerland) is the Director of the Festival IMAGES in Vevey (Switzerland). Jordan Tate (1981.

discussions. guided tours. whether it’s at our museum in Amsterdam. We also organise a dynamic programme of lectures. Here we schedule a varied programme of exhibitions including world-famous photographers as well as young or undiscovered talent. Large-scale exhibitions alternate with small.Foam enables people all over the world to experience and ­ enjoy photography. in the museum on the K ­ eizersgracht. workshops and special events. via our internationally distributed magazine or in our E ­ ­ ditions department. quickly changing shows. foam amsterdam . on the ­ website. The heart of Foam is located in the centre of Amsterdam.

New York. A large selection from such famed series as American Prospects. one of the pioneers of colour photography. 1987 © Joel Sternfeld and Luhring Augustine. whose exhibition in MoMA in 1976 signalled the official start of colour photography being accepted in the art world. New York). showing more than one hundred photos from ten different series in an exhibition spanning two floors.  • 210 . Until that time. and Stranger Passing will be on show. the result of his legendary journey through the United States. With a subtle feeling for irony and an exceptional feeling for colour. but had rarely been seen in museums and galleries. Along with William Eggleston and Stephen Shore. Sternfeld was influenced by the colour theory of the Bauhaus and by the work of William Eggleston. Sternfeld offers us an image of daily life in America over the last three decades. Wall Street. colour was used widely in advertising and amateur photography. A highlight is Sternfeld’s early work from the 1970s that has never previously been exhibited. Sternfeld saw to it that colour photography became a respected artistic medium in the 1970s.foam magazine # 29 what's next? Summer Interns Having Lunch. A constant factor in his work is his native land America. New York Joel Sternfeld : Colour photographs since 1970 16 December 2011 – 14 March 2012 Foam presents the first major retrospective exhibition in the Netherlands of the work of Joel Sternfeld (1944. its inhabitants and the traces left by people on the landscape.

The shortlist was selected from over 800 portfolio submissions to this year’s Talent Call by Foam Magazine. • 211 . Alison Nordström (US. Florian van Roekel (the Netherlands). co-founder and Editor-in-Chief of Dazed & Confused). The four invited guest curators are Jefferson Hack (UK. Mayumi Hosokura (Japan). George Eastman House). NY). Alison Nordström 5 November – 7 December 2011 foam amsterdam Blue Paper. Katrien Vermeire (Belgium) and Ester Vonplon (Switzerland). Gosha Rubchinskiy (Russia). Alberto Salván Zulueta (Spain). co-founder of Kessels­ Kramer. four visionary presentations and one museum that offers them a stage. curator. Erik Kessels (NL. Jessica Eaton (Canada). collector and specialist in vernacular photography) and Lauren Cornell (US. Erik Kessels. • OF The PhOTOgRAPhy MuSeuM 05 Nov until 07 Dec 2011 � What's Next? The Future of the Photography Museum Guest curators: Jefferson Hack. Mirko Martin (Germany).Raphaël Dallaporta (France). Alessandro Imbriaco (Italy). Fleur van Dodewaard (the Netherlands).The FuTuRe Talent 2011 14 October – 15 December 2011 In the fifth annual Talent issue Foam Magazine highlights work from fifteen young talents in a diverse range of photographic work. Lucas Blalock (USA). By doing so Foam specifically addresses the issue of its own future and how a museum can do justice to a medium as versatile and varied as contemporary photography. Director of Photographs. Lauren Cornell. four different guest curators. Ivor Prickett (Ireland). has invited four different experts from the cultural field to realize a challenging proposal on how photo­ graphy can be presented in a museum. 2010 from the series In A World Without Words… © Ina Jang Four different concepts. Ina Jang (South Korea). For the first time in five years there is an extensive exhibition in Amsterdam presenting this exceptional and yet undiscovered work. Deputy Curator of the New Museum. Foam. With work by photographers: Renato Abreu (Brazil). celebrating its tenth anniversary.

A new generation that is still in search for the escape from the grips of our society.  • foam magazine # 29 what's next? Foam 3h : Pavel Prokopchik Russian Alternative 2 February – 14 March 2012 Pavel Prokopchik has been following a group of people in Russia that choose an alternative lifestyle. a crook whose life consists of adopting and abandoning different identities. his intentions. 2011 © Sara-Lena Maierhofer Lama and at that moment his girlfriend Nastya. Sleeping after arriving to Utrish. If you stay at it longer than that.Foam 3h : Sara-Lena Maierhofer Dear Clark. she decides to study him from a distance. New York). Krasnodarsky kray. the viewer experiences being tossed to and from between the safe Western life and the horrors of wars elsewhere. When she fails to arrange a meeting with the person in question.’ Black Passport is the biography of war photographer Stanley Greene (1949. 15 December 2011 – 1 February 2012 In Dear Clark. Sara-Lena Maierhofer seeks rapprochement to a fraudster. It presents Stanley’s war images alternated with private images. Step by step. his peculiarities. the artist comes closer to getting to know her subject. Like Stanley himself. • Junger Mann. And not into a beautiful butterfly. Russia © Pavel Prokopchik 212 . How can one construct a profile of someone who constantly readjusts himself? What characterizes a man who systematically defies character? How do you grab someone who constantly aims to breakaway? • © Stanley Greene / NOOr Stanley Greene : Black Passport 16 December 2011 – 5 February 2012 ‘I think you can only keep positive for eight years. his appearance. Away from all the politics and materialistically driven society. you turn.

That’s how I see it. The families also received throw-away cameras to take photos themselves. In this exhibition. Together with photographer Stephen Gill she made a selection of pictures she took in Russia between 1991-2009 and which have never been on show before.Les vacances de Monsieur Grunberg 10 February – 18 March 2012 Summer holidays and photos are interconnected: the first thing you pack after passports. focusing primarily on the past fifteen years. texts and film are on show in the exhibition. tickets and money is the camera. the weekly New York Times Magazine has shaped the possibilities of magazine photography. through its commissioning and publishing of photographers’ work across the spectrum of the medium. 1992 © Bertien van Manen Bertien van Manen : Let’s Sit Down Before We Go 23 March – 24 June 2012 foam amsterdam Before leaving for a long journey. ‘A family on holiday is a family in a warzone.’ It began in 2010 with an ad in the papers in Holland. Embedded meant staying over and taking part in the family life. • New York Times Magazine 23 March – 30 May 2012 For over thirty years. who took him to the Greek island of Lefkas. Wendela Hubrecht took photos of the audition and of the families on holiday with. • 2010 © Wendela Hubrecht 213 . The atmosphere in the pictures of Bertien van Manen is like this. After a two-day audition with thirty families in the Holiday Inn Hotel in Amsterdam Grunberg chose the family of Maud and Nick van der Poel. Russian people sit down for a moment and think about where they will be going and why. In Foam the project Les vacances de Monsieur Grunberg by Dutch novelist Arnon Grunberg and artist Wendela Hubrecht is on show. creative processes that have made this magazine the leading venue for photographic storytelling within contemporary news media. Les vacances is a continuation of Grunberg’s embedding with several families in the Dutch city of Utrecht. Material that raises many questions: Why do families want to be watched? Grunberg studies them but is also studied himself. and without Grunberg. Grunberg wanted to research ‘the family’ by going on holiday with them. long-time New York Times Magazine Photo Editor Kathy Ryan provides a behind-the-scenes look at the collaborative. in a war situation. A selection of these photos. His report was published in the NRC Handelsblad. from photojournalism to fashion photography and portraiture. What is a family? What is private? Where is the limit? • Vlada in the Kitchen Kazan. or rather.

working closely together with artists and designers www.nl .lecturisbooks.lecturis.nl www.

monuments. Musicians. theatre and dance ensembles all benefit.nl/information .The Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds supports Foam (C) Maarten Brinkgreve .500 projects and people receive foundation support. artists.00 per month. museums.Foam The mission of the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds is to support cultural and nature preservation projects in the Netherlands. Support us for € 4. www.Tuinzaal 4 . Each year. The foundation emphasizes artistic excellence and educational initiatives.cultuurfonds. over 3. photographers.

MLEUVEN.DIRK BRAECKMAN 06.BE WWW.BE Optimistic Branding Visit vandejong.11 >< 08. BEZOEKM@LEUVEN.01.10.MUSEUM LEUVEN L.VANDERKELENSTRAAT 28.12 Alexia 2010 © Dirk Braeckman.com . 0032 16 27 29 29 | E. B-3000 LEUVEN T. Courtesy Zeno X Gallery Antwerpen M .

Outside Interview with the independent JR by Stefano Stoll interview with JR → 28 Millimetres. Bethlehem. And yet. He runs around the world. With his close companions. a Sappi ­ product . the gallery. He knows no limits but his own. the largest gallery on earth is at his disposal. wood-free offset paper EU Flower awarded Lieko Shiga is printed on heaven42 115g/ m2. For more information please call +31 344 578 100 or email skirschner@igepa. And then in the museums. absolute white coated paper softgloss FSC ­ Paulien Oltheten is printed on Profibulk  1. absolute white coated paper softgloss FSC ­ Cia de Foto is printed on heaven42 135g/ m2. he plots his route. march 2007 © JR / Agence VU 12 13 Box The cover is printed on Lessebo Design smooth bright 300 g/m2. the museum. Face 2 Face. floating like a super-hero.1. CO2 neutral FSC The text pages are printed on Maxi Offset 120g/m2. By love. JR moves about disguised. he exposes himself to danger. The street is his media. Jerusalem. His exhibition is global. wood-free white bulky design paper FSC Hasan & Husain Essop is printed on Profibulk 1. wood-free white bulky design paper FSC Magazine contributions are printed on Magno Gloss 90g/m2. Selftaught. worldwide. JR is a gang. absolute white coated paper softmatt FSC ­ Andrew Best is printed on heaven42 135g/ m2. 115g/m2. to the media. Nairobi or New Delhi.nl JR was born in the street and raised with the need for freedom. Rio. He jumps the turnstiles. He runs over the rooftops. Whether in the banlieues of Paris.Foam Magazine’s choice of paper The paper used in this magazine was supplied by paper merchant Igepa. wood-free triple­ coated gloss paper. He shakes off the police. curiosity and generosity. he surrounds himself with passion. Light slows him down. In the street. Searching for the right cause. 115g/m2. Independence is his fuel. Security Fence. From virtual networks online to the brick walls of Shanghai. By play. Palestinian side. absolute white coated paper softmatt FSC ­ Jordan Tate is printed on heaven42 115g/m2. Pasting on the Separation wall. the curator. The shadows are a resource. JR avoids the sun. JR is energetic. He is at once the artist.1.

All photographs and illustration material is the copyright property of the photographers and   /or their estates. 2010 © Jordan Tate Contributing Writers Eva Bremer. Anne de Vries Copy Editors Rowan Hewison. 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the publishers. neither the publishers nor the authors can accept any responsibility for damage. colophon Distribution The Netherlands Betapress BV T + 31 16 145 78 00 Great Britain Central Books magazine@centralbooks.org ISSN 1570-4874 ISBN 978-90-70516-24-6 © photographers. Hasan and Husain Essop. Jordan Tate Cover Photograph New Work #43. Asmara Pelupessy. Mariko Takeuchi. Fred Ritchin. Flora Lysen. electronic or mechanical. Cia de Foto.foam. Gillian Morris. Anne Marsh. Caroline von Courten. Martin. Marcel Feil.org Subscriptions include 4 issues per year € 70.Issue #29. of any nature. Pjotr de Jong.org Advertising Niek van Lonkhuijzen Foam Magazine PO Box 92292 1090 AG Amsterdam – NL T +31 20 462 20 62 F +31 20 462 20 60 niek@foam. Charlotte Cotton. Brett Rogers.org All rights reserved. Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin. Max Houghton. Liz Waters Lithography & Printing Lecturis Printing Kalverstraat 72 5642 CJ Eindhoven -NL Binding Binderij Hexspoor Ladonkseweg 7 5281 RN Boxtel – NL Paper Igepa Nederland B. Paulien Oltheten. Laurel Ptak. authors. Eder Chiodetto.50 Back issues (# 2 – 28) € 12. Marisa Olson. resulting from the use of this information. Colette Olof.50 Excluding VAT and postage Foam Magazine # 1 is out of print www. Arthur Ou. Ayumi Higuchi Typography Vandejong: Kalle Mattsson Contributing Photographers and Artists Andrew Best. Betty Man Art Director Vandejong: Hamid Sallali Design & Layout Vandejong: Hamid Sallali.org  / shop Publisher Foam Magazine PO Box 92292 1090 AG Amsterdam – NL magazine@foam. RongRong & inri. Any copy­ right holders we have been unable to reach or to whom inaccurate acknowledgement has been made are invited to contact the publishers at magazine@foam. Lieko Shiga. Marloes Krijnen Managing Editor Caroline von Courten Editorial Intern Elisa Medde Magazine Manager Niek van Lonkhuijzen Communication Intern Lotte van den Hout Project Management Femke Papma. Every effort has been made to con­ tact copyright holders. winter 2011/2012 Editor-in-chief Marloes Krijnen Creative Director Pjotr de Jong Editors Caroline von Courten. Nickel van Duijvenboden. Joan Fontcuberta. David Horvitz. Sean O’Toole. De Geer 10 4004 LT Tiel .org Subscriptions Hexspoor Support Center Ladonkseweg 9 5281 RN Boxtel – NL T +31 41 163 34 71 subscription@foam. Kalle Mattsson. Jörg Colberg.NL Editorial Address Foam Magazine Keizersgracht 609 1017 DS Amsterdam – NL T +31 20 551 65 00 F +31 20 551 65 01 editors@foam. Lev Manovich. Iris Maher. Annemarie Hoeve Translation Karen Gamester. Kim Knoppers. Although the highest care is taken to make the information contained in Foam Magazine as accurate as possible. Timm Rautert. Bruno Ceschel.– excluding VAT and postage Students and Club Foam members receive 20% discount Single issue € 17. Foam Magazine BV. Lesley A. Nicholas Mirzoeff. Stefano Stoll. and the publications in which they have been published. including photo-copy. Sam Stourdzé. Amsterdam.com 218 .V. Ilse van Rijn. Marcel Feil.

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#29 What’s Next? Winter 2011/2012 €17.50 .

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