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Laurie Baker (born 1917) is a British-born architect. He studied architecture in the British mill town of Birmingham He came to India in 19 ! and since then li"ing and working in India for o"er !# $ears. He has taken Indian citi%enshi& in 19'9 and resided in (hiru"anantha&uram ((ri"andrum)) *erala.

In India) he is well known for designing and building functional brick homes) with s&ecial features utili%ing natural air mo"ement to cool the home+s interior. , significant Baker feature is irregular) &$ramid-like structures on roofs) with one side left o&en and tilting into the wind. Baker+s designs in"ariabl$ ha"e traditional Indian slo&ing roofs with gables and "ents allowing rising hot air to esca&e. Elements -hile the .allis) the traditional roofs) the ste&&ed arches) the o"erhanging ea"es and the sk$lights etc.) are some of the well-known elements that characteri%e Baker+s st$le) it is his high regard for nature that makes him uni/ue. Site Features In an$ &ro.ect) Baker is &articularl$ sensiti"e to the e0isting contours and the other elements &resent on the site. Before &lanning an$thing1 the location of each tree is taken into consideration. 2"en the le"els in his design are not artificiall$ created but are made to follow e0isting contours or stee& slo&es on the site. Building Materials Baker strongl$ belie"es in the o&timum use of the locall$ a"ailable materials) which are a&&ro&riate to the e0isting climatic conditions. (he local materials like brick) tile) lime) &alm thatch) stone) granite and laterite thus re&lace the con"entional steel and glass of modern architecture. 3angalore tiles are used for the roofing. (hese materials suit the hot) wet and humid climate of *erala and also encourage minimal use of non-renewable resources. ,lso the small-scale industries re/uired for the manufacturing) cutting) &olishing) and other "arious treatment of theses materials hel& in increasing the em&lo$ment amongst the &oor localities. 4oncrete is rarel$ used1 most often in a folded slab design. (he waste and discarded tiles are used as fillers) thereb$ making the roof light and ine0&ensi"e. Techniques ado ted Baker also inno"ated different bonding techni/ues for brick) which allowed him to build of half- brick thickness. (o add rigidit$) man$ a times these walls were designed in a ste&&ed or cur"ed form. 5lass windows) frames and sills are re&laced b$ traditional .allis. (he .alli used in Baker+s structure) is a &erforated screen made of bricks. (he bricks are &laced in a &eculiar fashion so as to &roduce tin$ regular o&enings in the walls. (hese .allis can be designed in "arious &atterns as desired. (his .alli catches light and air and diffuses glare1 while allowing for &ri"ac$ and securit$1 thus acting as a window and a "entilator both at the same time. It encourages airflow) $et the construction of this form of "entilation re/uires neither s&ecial materials nor s&ecial skills. (he s&anned o&enings in a brick wall are made economical b$ using +ste&&ed+ or +corbelled+ arch. In this techni/ue the bricks on each course are cantile"ered out a few inches be$ond the course below) until the re/uired s&an is reached. In case of a rectangular o&ening reinforced brickwork is used which ca&itali%es on the com&osite action of the lintel with the masonr$ abo"e. !ORKS " #entre o$ De%elo ment Studies in Ulloor &#DS'Design

In 1967,Laurie Baker was asked to design a Centre for Research in Applied Economics, in Ulloor; a suburb of Trivandrum. This turned out to be one of the most important pro e!ts of his !areer. "n over a land of nine a!res; have been a!!ommodated the administrative offi!es, a !omputer !enter, housin# and other !omponents of an institutional desi#n. The desi#n e$hibits a ran#e of !on!epts applied b% Laurie Baker, to the individual buildin#s as per suitin# to their needs of fun!tion, s!ale, and dimensions. Also these buildings are a good example of the saying Form Follows Function.

atural !ighting and "entilation -here contem&orar$ architects seek to im&ose control on nature b$ shutting it out with the ad"antage of artificial "entilation and tem&erature control s$stem1 Baker does e0actl$ the o&&osite. Being sensiti"e to nature1 he skillfull$ mani&ulates the natural elements to gain thermal comfort. In the canteen of 4enter of 6e"elo&ment 7tudies1 the high latticed brick walls and a &ond are used to draw air across its surface and cool the building - a cooling s$stem achie"ed in a "ernacular wa$. ,lso b$ gentl$ ste&&ing u& the singl$ loaded building at 4.6.7.) he attem&ts to create continuous bree%ewa$s to tem&er the humid climate in a dece&ti"el$ sim&le wa$. 8ooms are de"oid of glass window) frames and sills. Instead small o&enings in brick akin to traditional .ali are incor&orated. (rellis hone$-combed walling) wood screens and lattice are used in abundance making the room bree%$ and cool.

#onstruction $eatures 1. 9oundation constructed of random rubble mi0ed in lime surkhi mortar1 (lime manufactured from manufactured from sea shells on the site). :. 7u&er structure of load bearing brick. ;. 7labs are of filler tiles1 whereas flooring is a mi0ture of local /uarr$ tiles. . -indows are made out of .ack wood. !. Bathrooms are &lastered) rest all surfaces either e0&osed or whitewashed. <. (he &recast stair treads used in circular stair tower are made of filler slab and bamboo reinforcement. 7. 8oofs are of folded concrete slab #om uter #entre ( #DS Baker sol"ed the &roblem b$ &ro"iding a double-walled) two storied building. (he outer wall made of intersecting circles of brick .alis ser"es the &ur&ose of maintaining a harmonious look with the rest of the building of the :!-$ear-old institution. (he wall is one brick thick1 and for additional su&&ort and stiffness) the mid-le"el slab is fused with the wall. 4om&uter like &unchouts ha"e been made to suggest the functions housed b$ the structure. (he inner wall1 &ro"ides the &rotected shell re/uired for the controls and constraints of a com&uter laborator$. Larger corbelled windows are incor&orated in the inner wall) which control the diffused light of the outer wall) creating a continuous glare-free atmos&here. (he entrance lobb$ (com&uter center-lobb$) is lit b$ a sk$light) so that the officers1 feel a sense of o&enness and not totall$ bound b$ the hea"iness of the double walls. (he roof &ro"ided is of folded concrete slab !omen)s *ostel " #DS (he wall is made cur"ed not onl$ for structural stiffness) but also to add a feminine &la$ful and interacti"e /ualit$ to circulation s&ace. Low seats are built into the walls1 kitchen &latform and sinks follow the .ali surface) dro&&ing built in tables) work areas and ironing boards.

Men)s *ostel (he four store$ building1 on each floor consists of eight rooms1 &lanned in a linear fashion1 to maintain indi"idual &ri"ac$. (his organi%ation is offset b$ the &la$fulness of the circulation and the entrance block-both which mo"e awa$ from an e0cessi"e rectilinear) into the magical realm of cur"ed walls) circular staircase and dee& set wall niches. (his com&osition results in startling contrast of light and shade. &Re$er +o,er oint slides $or s-etches and other ,or-s'

(adao ,ndo was born in =saka) >a&an in 19 1. ?nlike most contem&orar$ architects) ,ndo did not recei"e an$ formal architectural schooling. Instead) he trained himself b$ reading and tra"eling e0tensi"el$ through ,frica) 2uro&e) and the ?nited 7tates. In 197# he established (adao ,ndo ,rchitect @ ,ssociates. ,ndo has built in >a&an) India) 2uro&e) and the ?nited 7tates and he has won man$ awards) including the &restigious Arit%ker ,rchitecture Ari%e for his enrichment of the art of architecture. Features 1. (he first im&ression of his architecture is its materialit$. His large and &owerfull walls set a limit. :. , second im&ression of his work is the tactilit$. His hard walls seem soft to touch) admit light) wind and stillness. ;. (hird im&ression is the em&tiness) because onl$ light s&ace surround the "isitor in (adao ,ndo +s building. Building Materials ,ccordingl$) his concrete and glass buildings reflect) the modern &rogress underwa$ in both >a&an and the world. ,ndo+s chosen building material is reinforced concrete. In &lan) his buildings consist of geometric forms whose smooth concrete surfaces define &ristine scul&ted s&aces. Tradition " Design In o&&osition to traditional >a&anese architecture) ,ndo creates s&aces of enclosure rather than o&enness. He uses walls to establish a human %one and to counter the monoton$ of commercial architecture. =n the e0terior) the wall deflects the surrounding urban chaos) while on the interior it encloses a &ri"ate s&ace. ,ndo de"elo&ed a radicall$ new architecture characteri%ed b$ the use of unfinished reinforced concrete structures. ?sing a geometric sim&licit$ which re"eals a subtlet$ and richness in s&atial articulation) ,ndo has generated an architecture that shares the serenit$ and clarit$ that characteri%e traditional >a&anese architecture. ,ndo re.ects the ram&ant consumerism "isible within much of toda$+s architecture. He res&onds both sensiti"el$ and criticall$ to the chaotic >a&anese urban en"ironment) but maintains a connection to the landsca&e. ,lthough ,ndo re.ects cultural fads) he uses materials and forms to incor&orate the materialism of modern societ$ into his architecture.

Light and Shade ,ndo is &articularl$ masterful at incor&orating light) water) and landsca&e into his structures. -hen building alongside a waterfront or in a natural setting) his work has a strong relationshi& with the nature. =ftentimes) he sinks the building into the site) concealing all but a small outcro&&ing of the building. In urban settings) ,ndo brings the nature into the building through his use of reflecting &ools) light shafts) and framed "istas that focus one+s "iew on water or low &lantings. 7lits allow natural light to &enetrate the thick walls) casting changing &atterns that hel& define the interior s&aces. (hese slits not onl$ increase the intensit$ of light) but ones awareness of light. , fre/uent characteristic of ,ndo+s buildings are long monolithic concrete walls that shield the facade. Like the best artwork) this threshold introduces the element of m$ster$ and sur&rise) heightening e0&ectations as one disco"ers and a&&roaches the entrance.

,ndo has designed s&ecificall$ for the Saint Louis Art Museum/s galleries0 b$ creating a s&ecial architectural s&ace) an en"ironment) that will include an entrance facade) a reflecting &ool) light and shade effects.

!ORKS &Re$er +o,er oint slides $or s-etches' 1. Ro, *ouse in Sumi1oshi0 Osa-a in 23456 (his building was a sim&le block building) inserted into a narrow street of row houses. (his residence is immediatel$ noticeable because of its blank concrete fasade &unctuated onl$ b$ doorwa$. (he whole ob.ect s&ace is di"ided into a three e/ual rectangular s&aces) while the central &art is atrium. (he s&ace nearest the doorwa$ contains the li"ing room at ground le"el) and the bedroom abo"e. (he last final s&ace contains the kitchen and bathtroom below) and the master bedroom abo"e. Build in the wooden residential area abo"e the &ort cit$ of *obe. 76 The Koshino *ouse0 second realisation of (adao ,ndo) was com&leted in two &hrases (19'#-'1 and 19';-' ). (his house is a master&iece) and collects all fragments of (adao ,ndo +s architectonical "ocabular$) mainl$ the light. B7uch things as light and wind onl$ ha"e meaning when the$ are introduced inside a house in a form cut off from the outside world.C (he forms created ha"e altered and a/uired meaning through elementar$ nature (light and air) that gi"e indications of the &assage of time and changing of the seasons. 86 Ro--o *ousing " =ne of the first &ro.ects to bring international attention to (adao ,ndo was his Ro--o *ousing (*obe) H$ogo) 19'1-';)) which is situated much further down the slo&e of the 8okko 3outains than the *oshino house) this com&le0 is wedged into a restricted site on a south-facing <# degrees slo&e. 2ach of the :# units is !) 0 )' m in si%e) and each has a terrace looking out towards the bush harbour of *obe. 7ome $ears later) (adao ,ndo build a second housing com&le0) ad.acent to 8okko Housing I. (8okko Housing II.). 9our times larger than the original building) this structure includes !# dwellings) designed on a !):m s/uare grid. , third and e"en larger structure is under wa$ abo"e 8okko Housing II. (8okko Housing III.)) under construction. ;. The church o$ the light (Baraki) =saka) 19''-'9) is located in a residential suburb # km to the north-east of the center of =saka. It consists from a rectangular concrete bo0 crossed at 1! degrees angle b$ freestanding wall. (he bisecting wall obliges the "isitor to turn to enter the cha&el. In an unusual configuration) the floor descends in stages toward the altar) which is ne0t to the rear wall) whose hori%ontal and "ertical o&enings form a cross) flooding the s&ace with light. . (adao ,ndo build his !ater Tem le) following a small foot&ath) the "isitor first sees a long concrete wall) ;m high) with a single o&ening. (hrough this door one does not find an entrance) but rather another wall) blank) but car"ed this time) bordered b$ a white gra"el &ath. Ha"ing walked &ast this new screen of concrete) the "isitor disco"ers an o"al lotus &ond) #m long and ;#m wide. In the centre of the &ond) a stair wa$ descends to the real entrance of the tem&le. Below the Lotus 9ond) within a circle 1'3 in diameter) the architect has inscribed a 17. m s/uare. Here) within a grid of red wood) a statue of buddha turns its back to the west) where the onl$ o&enings admits the glow of the setting sun. 56 The #hildren/s museum &2399"2393' is located on a large wooded hillside site o"erlooking a lake near the cit$ of Hime.i. In this mature work of (adao ,ndo) the "isitor is in"ited to disco"er the architecture in relation to its natural setting. (he main unit of the museum contains a librar$) indoor and outdoor theatres) an e0hibition galler$) a multi&ur&ose hall and a restaurant. (he outdoor theater is located on the roofto&) with a s&ectacular "iew of the lake. , ste&&ed waterfall and &ool near the building also ser"e to make a connection between the museum and the scener$ of the lake. , &ath) marked b$ a long concrete wall leads the "isitor awa$ from the main structure toward a worksho& com&le0 consisting of a two-stor$ s/uare building. ,long this &ath (adao ,ndo has &laced a sur&rising grou& of 1< concrete columns in a s/uare grid. In their wooded setting) these 9m high &illars recall that the first columns in architectural histor$ were ins&ired b$ trees. >ust down the road from the children+s museum (adao ,ndo designed the #hildren/s Seminar *ouse (1991-9:). , residence for schoolchildren on "acation) which is ca&&ed b$ a small obser"ator$ :6 +ro;ect $or A,a;i Island (here are man$ islands in the inland sea of .a&an that are architectonical$ designed into a small cities. (here are &ro.ects like naoshima museum and hotel (199# - 9: and 199 - 9!)) located at the southern end of island naoshima) and the great ro;ect $or A,a;i island0 *1ogo6 It was designed in 199: and from $ear 1997 is under construction

B(he &rogram is for multi-use facilit$ including a botanic garden) a &lace for the stud$ of horticulture) an o&en-air theater) a con"ention hall) a hotel and a guest house. (he first idea was to restore the greener$) more s&ecificall$ to hold a flower e0&osition there and to de"elo& the idea into a &ermanent garden. (his was to be called the millenium garden) and the &ro.ect was de"elo&ed on the basis of that conce&t. It was decided that the facilities would be linked b$ li"ing things) that is) &lants such as trees and flowers) and the flow of water and &eo&le. *ASSA. FAT*< Ins&ired b$ Aharaonic and traditional Dubian architecture) 9ath$ was engineer-architect) musician) dramatist) teacher) &rofessor) and in"entor. Hassan 9ath$ re-ins&ired the li"ing art of adobe architecture) gi"ing it a mission for the :#th and :1st centuries. He designed com&lete communities including utilities and ser"ices) countr$ retreats) and s&ecial &ro.ects and homes. Hassan 9ath$ had alread$ worked for decades in his belo"ed 2g$&t before he designed and built for the homeless communit$ of 5ourna) ?&&er 2g$&t) which attracted international acclaim +rinci les 2m&lo$ing energ$-conser"ation techni/ues) si0 fundamental &rinci&les underlie Hassan 9ath$Es workF Belief in the &rimac$ of human "alues in architecture Im&ortance of a uni"ersal rather than a limited a&&roach ?se of a&&ro&riate technolog$ Deed for sociall$ oriented) coo&erati"e construction techni/ues (he essential role of tradition (he re-establishment of national cultural &ride through the act of building. Thoughts (he ,ord =contem orar1= is de$ined as meaning =e>isting0 li%ing0 and occurring at the same time as6= (he word im&lies a com&arison between at least two things) and it con"e$s no hint of a&&ro"al or disa&&ro"al. But as used b$ man$ architects) the word does carr$ a "alue .udgment. It means something li-e =rele%ant to its time= and hence to be a&&ro"ed) ,hile =anachronistic= means =irrele%ant to its time= and is a term of disa&&ro"al. In$luence He saw a more a&&ro&riate method of building in the Gernacular ,rchitecture of the Dubians (region of southern 2g$&t)) which influenced his ideas greatl$. Dubian craftsmen were masters at constructing domed and "aulted roofs of mud brick which the$ also used for the walls. (he structures were chea&) cool in the summer and the walls were heat-retaining in winter. Features Hassan 9ath$ de"elo&ed his own ideas) inculcating traditional ,rab st$les like the mal-ha$ &,ind catcher'0 the shu-sha1-ha &lantern dome' and the mashra?e1a &,ooden lattice screens' @ &Sunshades' . ,lso0 the qa'a Aa central0 high"ceilinged u er"stor1 room $or recei%ing guests0 constructed so as to &ro"ide natural light and ensure "entilationH was su&&lanted b$ the ordinar$ salon) and all such delights as the fountain) the salsabil Aa $ountain or a ?asin o$ still ,ater designed to increase air humidit$H He encouraged the re"i"al of such ancient cra$ts as claustra &lattice designs in the mud ,or-' to adorn the buildings. +ro;ects A' Billage ( .e, Courna +lanning (he old 5ourna "illage was situated near archeological Aharaonic sites on the western shore of ?&&er 2g$&t. (he 6e&artment of ,nti/uities commissioned Hassan 9ath$ to meet the challenge of &ro"iding a home for a &oor communit$ of 7)### &eo&le. His solution differed drasticall$) not re/uiring the machinations of the established building industr$ of concrete and steel. 9or Dew 5ourna he utili%ed natural resources using mud-brick) a signature of adobe architecture) and features of 2g$&tian architecture such as enclosed court$ards and domed "aulted roofing. Its strict geometric &lan is broken b$ gentl$ cur"ing streets and slo&ing alle$wa$s. (he$ create a tension that leads one to continuousl$ new "iew&oints while strolling through the "illage. He worked with the local &eo&le to de"elo& the new "illage) training them to make the materials to construct their own buildings with.

=ld 5ourna was essentiall$ a gathering of fi"e tribes of &easants each with different sheiks) or leaders. In his design for Dew 5ourna 9ath$ maintained this social order b$ di"iding the "illage into four /uadrants (two of the tribes were so interrelated that the$ shared a /uadrant) created b$ the two main roads. -ithin each /uadrant blocks were made u& of narrow) winding streets in order to slow traffic. Residences (he residences were to be organiDed into smaller grou s called badanas &neigh?orhood"li-e clusters o$ houses' .ust as the$ were in =ld 5ourna. 2ach house was to be designed according to the needs of the famil$. 9ath$ was against row u&on row of bo0$ concrete buildings because he felt that the$ com&letel$ turned awa$ from the social and en"ironmental considerations that had sha&ed ,rabic architecture. (he homes that 9ath$ &lanned were based on traditional Islamic and desert-li"ing s&atial arrangements. 4haracteristics of this are the kaa &main hall' and iwan &recessed area o$ room' forms as well as the se&aration of &ublic and &ri"ate s&aces. 9ath$ in"estigated the needs of the &easants b$ "isiting with the sheiks from each tribe and talking to the &eo&le. ?nfortunatel$) because the 5ournis were not choosing to be mo"ed) the$ &ro"ided little hel& to 9ath$ des&ite his good intentions. 7till) he managed to ada&t man$ as&ects of their li"es such as watering holes instead of running water) s&eciall$ de"elo&ed beds) and &igeon towers. Ur?an design 9ath$ was concerned with a number of urban design issues. (he first thing he recogni%ed was that the farmland surrounding the selected site would not economicall$ su&&ort a town of 7)###. 9ath$Es solution was to attem&t to &ro"ide multi&le areas of craftsmanshi& in which the bo$s of the town could be trained in. His design o$ the Khan &inn' allowed for training s&aces and work areas behind and abo"e the selling stalls. (he &ro"ision of the mar-et area &sou-' was an added feature on the commercial arena. Art Schools and Theatres (he schools in Dew 5ourna were funded b$ national school building legislation. 9ath$ had high ho&es for the growth of Dew 5ourna. (his is shown b$ his &lans for the craft schools as well as the inclusion of a theater in this rural "illage. 9ath$ en"isioned Dew 5ourna becoming a successful town where e"entuall$ the &eo&le would become &ros&erous enough to desire cultural entertainment. He imagined the theater as a &lace where traditional entertainment such as /uarterstaff contests) a somewhat "iolent form of martial arts) took &lace. Mosque (he mos/ue was &robabl$ the most im&ortant building to be included in Dew 5ourna. It was the first to be built and the onl$ one to be continuousl$ maintained. 9ath$ used some as&ects of =ld 5ournaEs mos/ue (which is curiousl$ similar to that of some Dubian mos/ues) in his design. (he treatment of this building highlights the im&ortance of the religion) des&ite &roblems in social and cultural matters. B' Societ1 o$ Agriculture and IDhit al " Basri (he work that 9ath$ had done for the 8o$al 7ociet$ of ,griculture) the &rotot$&e house at I%bit al-Basri) &ro"e his mettle at "ernacular rchitecture. In these e0am&les was the form that was to become his trademark - the Dubian "ault and dome made from mud bricks. -hen 9ath$ began working in the "ernacular st$le he used mud bricks walls and flat wood roofs. ,lthough the mud for the walls was chea&) the wood was e0&ensi"e. (o lower construction costs 9ath$ wanted to build "aulted ceilings out of brick but without the e0&ensi"e wood forms. (he 7ociet$ of ,griculture (19 1) was 9ath$Es first attem&t at domed roofs. 9ath$ and his team made man$ attem&ts and &erfected the Dubian+s skill in building "aults and domes without an$ bracing.

CEOFRRE< BA!A 5eoffre$ Bawa was 7ri Lanka +s most influential and &rolific architect and 7outh ,sia +s leading guru of tro&ical architecture. In Do"ember :##1) he recei"ed the ,ga *han ,ward for ,rchitecture) 7&ecial 4hairman+s ,ward. Features 7ri Lanka has been sub.ected to strong outside influences from its Indian neighbours) from ,rab traders and from 2uro&ean colonists) and it has alwa$s succeeded in translating these elements into something new but intrinsicall$ 7ri Lankan. Bawa has continued this tradition. His architecture is a subtle blend of modernit$ and tradition) 2ast and -est) formal and &ictures/ue1 he has broken down the artificial segregation of inside and outside) building and landsca&e1 he has drawn on tradition to create an architecture that is fitting to its &lace) and he has also used his "ast knowledge of the modern world to create an architecture that is of its time. Bawa+s &hiloso&h$ that an architect should re-e0amine his own culture and societ$+s traditions) is what has influenced &eo&le the most. He was ins&ired b$ that (>a&anese design)) a kind of stri&&ed-down "ernacular) because most 7ri Lankan buildings) the$ ha"e a tradition of hea"$ bases going u& into something that+s light. It+s actuall$ an ,sian tradition. Highl$ &ersonal in his a&&roach) e"oking the &leasures of the senses that go hand in hand with the climate) landsca&e) and culture of ancient 4e$lon) Bawa brings together an a&&reciation of the -estern humanist tradition in architecture with needs and lifest$les of his own countr$. His sensiti"it$ to en"ironment is reflected in his careful attention to the se/uencing of s&ace) the creation of "istas) court$ards) and walkwa$s) the use of materials and treatment of details


A' The Sri Lan-an +arliament (he new 7ri Lankan Aarliament is an as$mmetric grou& of colonnaded &a"ilions with striking co&&er roofs IfloatingE on a man-made lake. (he site was originall$ a marsh and was dredged to form a small island to su&&ort the structures and a wide shore with dense tree co"er. (he a&&roach is along a causewa$ and across a forecourt. ,gain) Bawa has used a modernist framework to su&&ort indigenous com&onents of &ast architecture and &roduced a building of great beaut$ and harmon$. (he chamber) the focus of &ower) lies within the main &a"ilion with balconies and galleries rising three store$s. (he tiered terraces below hold administrati"e and committee offices. =ther &a"ilions accommodate rooms of "ar$ing functions. (raditional wood and stone columns) reminiscent of ancient &alaces and tem&les) su&&ort the statel$ co&&er roofs. (he Aarliamentar$ com&le0 is BawaEs most s$mbolic work) conce&tuali%ed as mo"ements through s&aces) resulting in the as$mmetrical configuration. It is also &erha&s the onl$ &ro.ect where he has allowed form to o"erride the &riorit$ of landsca&e B' The Ruhunu University

It sits serenely on three hills outside the southern ancient town of Matara. The elegant buildings gaze out into the vastness of the Indian Ocean. Seen from its entrance across the lake, it is simultaneously reminiscent of an English country estate as well as the andy !ake. "eoffrey #awa has drawn u$on these, elegant historical $recedence, the $otential of o$ening u$ vistas and combined them all with a modern a$$roach to create a grou$ of buildings for the diverse functions of a university. %overed walkways link the gazebos, $avilions and verandahs & s$aces for retreat, contem$lation or the gathering of minds. The buildings are of different sizes at different levels, with the residential 'uarters closest to the beach. The (rts and Science )aculties are sited on the other two hills with the library, o$en*air theatre, social center and coffee sho$ in between. #awa has used the natural terrain and the stunning views to their o$timum whilst im$ressions left by $laces

C) Lunuganaga Estate Lunuganga) once a 6utch cinnamon &lantation and then a British rubber &lantation) is 5eoffre$ Bawa+s &ri"ate 1#-h estate about <# km south from 4olombo. , gra"el dri"ewa$ winds stee&l$ u&hill to end at a cascade of ste&s leading to the southern terrace of a low bungalow set ato& a small hill) the main house from where the entire garden e0&lodes into "iew. (he bungalow is at the center of the landsca&e design and the onl$ location where all of the se&arate garden se&arate elements are re"ealed. Vast garden It is a "ast garden consisting of man$ smaller &arts. (o achie"e the succession of o&en and intimate areas) Bawa began mo"ing hills in 19 ') to cut terraces) to re&lant woods) to o&en u& new "istas) continuing with his landsca&ing work until a few $ears before his death in :##;. (he original one-stor$ bungalow was turned inside out but its original shell sur"i"es within a cocoon of new "erandahs) loggias and court$ards. Lunuganga is a totall$ man-made landsca&e. ,lthough conce&tuali%ed in the grand st$le of the gardens of 8enaissance Ital$ and the 1'th centur$ 2nglish garden) it reinter&rets classical 2uro&e in a tro&ical hothouse setting of e0otic trees and &lants that grow abundantl$ in the wettest and most fertile region of 7ri Lanka. Its im&osing) e0&ansi"e "istas go &ast the garden boundaries) gi"ing the illusion that the garden goes on fore"er. #innamon *ill =n one side of the garden) B4innamon HillB is a gentle "ision) a hill with broad) cli&&ed lawns framed b$ full$ grown hardwoods framing its slo&es. (he "iew takes the e$e far awa$) to a lake at the edge of the &ro&ert$ and o"er to the outl$ing hills on the o&&osite shores laurelled b$ a Buddhist stu&a. ,nother "ista stretches until the hori%on. (he e0tensi"e "ista begins at the bungalow terrace) dro&s in le"els to end at the garden+s lakeside rice &add$ that "isuall$ connects to the broad agricultural landsca&e on the other shore. (he "iew constantl$ shifts from the grand to the intimate. (he charm of Lunuganga is in the unfolding of a series of intimate areas within the large formal garden. =ne s&ace leads to another in a se/uence that seems so logical but so natural. Elements o$ Unending sur rises -alking through the garden is an unending series of sur&rises. (here is s&atial intrigue. 4onstantl$ there is something to draw the "iewer into a new e0&erience at the end of each "istaF garden walls) ranges of &lanting) moss-co"ered walls) secluded seating areas &erfect for meditation) &ools) &a"ilions or a series of houses arranged around outdoor &la%as. ,rchitecture com&lements nature at Lunuganga. It is hard to tell whether it is the architecture that enhances nature or "ice "ersa. Bawa built a sim&le) elegant structure called the =*en *ouse= a Aortuguese-tiled roof su&&orted b$ four thick &iers with wood lattice walls.

De0t to the *en *ouse ,as ?uilt the Sandella &Carden Room'0 an e0/uisitel$ &ro&ortioned &a"ilion that ends an o&en terrace ne0t to the main house. 9rom this Bawa could kee& an e$e on the dri"ewa$ and entrance terrace on one side) and from the other he could see through the trees as far as the lake below and the causewa$ kilometers awa$. D' #olom?o *ouse (he 4olombo House and office of 5eoffre$ Bawa is a reworking of alread$ e0isting small units. ,n astonishing &la$ of light and s&ace has transformed the former buildings into a lab$rinth of "erandahs) rooms) &assages and court$ards with a dramatic white entrance tower. It is an intimate &lace) a refuge from the cit$) with "iews of s&aces through s&aces within and without that ha"e been cle"erl$ designed. (he com&act house seems turned in on itself) incor&orating all the essential elements of a town into a miniature stud$ in intros&ection. , familiar blend of traditional and modern com&onents and a meeting of the oriental and occidental is &er"asi"e $et mar"elousl$ subtle. E' Kandalama *otel , stunning "iew across an ancient lake and the "ast 6r$ Jone &lain to the astonishing beaut$ of the !th 4entur$ rock fortress of 7igiri$a) is the &anorama that unra"els before the *andalama Hotel. Built in the late 199#Es) it is wra&&ed around the face of a massi"e rock outcro& rising out of the .ungle. , wide circular ram& takes the "isitor to an entrance tunnel cut into the hillside) leading into the lobb$. Be$ond) the swimming &ool seemingl$ stretches awa$ into the *andalama tank (reser"oir) in the distance in one) continuous swee& of the e$e (he hotel is an architectural landmark though it has made minimal im&act on the en"ironment. BawaEs earl$ modernist training is e"ident in the austerit$ of the design. (he lack of decoration ser"es to heighten the natural surroundings) which since com&letion of the building ha"e almost engulfed it. (umbling "egetation from the terraces and "erandahs) li"ing rock &rotruding into wide corridors and out of floors) wildlife "enturing into and between the wings has softened the harsh lines of the structure. (he .ungle has acce&ted BawaEs work in an embrace) which dee&ens with time. 9) St6 Bridget Montessori School (his school was designed in 19<; (he &lan was intended for "er$ $oung children to identif$ with the natural-look surroundings at their own le"el. (he walls) cu&boards and balustrades sto& at a height of ; ft. K a childEs e$e le"el. 6ecorati"e and other functional features are also at this le"el. ,bo"e this the sides are o&en and with the high roof) &romote natural "entilation. (he classrooms are formed b$ small) low-walled enclosures. (oilets and storerooms seem to be hollowed out of boulders. (he traditional look of construction e0tends to the balconies and balustrades. (he u&&er floor is co"ered b$ a huge umbrella of a roof) &ro.ecting be$ond the e0tent of the walls and su&&orted b$ elegant concrete frames. (he whole effect is like being sheltered b$ a gigantic tree. (he elemental nature of the structure) the natural forms and the nai"etL of the ornamentation e"oke a more 20&ressionist "iew. C' Other !or-s Bawa+s earliest domestic buildings) a court$ard house built in 4olombo for 2na 6e 7il"a in 19<1) was the first to fuse elements of traditional 7inhalese domestic architecture with modern conce&ts of o&en &lanning) demonstrating that an outdoor life is "iable on a tight urban &lot. (he Bentota Beach Hotel of 19<' was 7ri Lanka+s first &ur&ose-built resort hotel) combining the con"eniences re/uired b$ demanding tourists with a sense of &lace and continuit$ that has rarel$ been matched. 6uring the earl$ 197#s a series of buildings for go"ernment de&artments de"elo&ed ideas for the work&lace in a tro&ical cit$) culminating in the 7tate 3ortgage Bank in 4olombo) hailed at the time as one of the world+s first bio-climatic high-rises.

Im&ortance of uni"ersal rather than limited a&&roach. 9ath$ disagreed with the International st$le+s belief that good architecture should be able to be &laced an$where and that buildings could be mass constructed. Instead he thought that the architecture should reflect the local traditions and therefore would "ar$ &lace to &lace.