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Object Oriented ABAP

Hyderabad February 24-26th 2009 Instructor: Subhas Katikala.

Workshop Goals
This workshop will enable you to:
Learn object oriented concepts. Learn the principle of object - oriented programming. Learn the application of object - oriented ABAP.

Course Contents

Object Oriented Concepts Object Oriented Programming. Advantages of the Object-Oriented Approach Classes Components of a Class Methods Syntax and Visibility Instance Methods and Static Methods Constructor Reference Variables Creating References Assigning References

Attributes Syntax and Visibility Instance Attributes and Static Attributes

Course Contents

Inheritance  Super classes and Subclasses  Visibility  Inheritance and the (Instance) Constructor  Parameters  Redefining Methods in OOABAP  Compatibility  Principles of the Narrowing Cast  Static and Dynamic Components  Final Classes and Methods

Course Contents

Polymorphism  Advantages Compared to Procedural Programming  Abstract Classes and Methods  Component Namespaces in Classes

Interfaces  Defining and Implementing an Interface  Working with Interface Components  Interface References Narrowing Cast Widening Cast  Using Several Interfaces  Polymorphism and Interfaces  Polymorphism and Inheritance  Compound Interfaces

Course Contents

Events  Define and Trigger Events  Handle Events  Register and deregister Events  Receive a reference from Sender

Object Oriented Concepts


What are Are Objects? What Objects ?
Model Real world
Tree
Met hod Met hod Met hod

House

Data

Data

Met hod Met hod Met hod

Crane
Met hod Met hod Met hod

Data

Boat

Data

Met hod Met hod Met hod

 Objects are an abstraction of the real world  Objects are units made up of data and of the functions belonging to that data

SAP AG 1999

OOPS
Object Oriented Programming
Encapsulation Inheritance Polymorphism Instantiation Interfacing Events

Advantages
Simplicity Explicitness Maintainability Future Orientation

Classes
Classes are the central element of object-orientation. A Class is an abstract description of an object. Classes are templates for objects. The attributes of objects are defined by the components of the class, which describe the state and behavior of objects.

Classes
You define global classes and interfaces in the Class Builder (Transaction SE24) in the ABAP Workbench. They are stored centrally in class pools in the class library in the R/3 Repository. All of the ABAP programs in an R/3 System can access the global classes.

Components in a class

Classes Defining Local Classes


A complete class definition consists of a declaration part and, if required, an implementation part. The declaration part of a class <class> is a statement block:
CLASS c1 DEFINITION. . ENDCLASS.

If you declare methods in the declaration part of a class, you must also write an implementation part for it.
CLASS c1 IMPLEMENTATION. . ENDCLASS.

Attributes

Classes Defining Local Classes

Attributes, Types, Constants - Syntax

Attributes and Visibility

Instance attributes and Static attributes

Methods

Methods : Syntax

Methods and Visibility

Instance methods and Static methods

Instance methods and Static methods : Example

Constructor

Constructor : Example

Static Constructor : Implementation

Static Constructor : Call Examples

Creating Objects

Reference Variables

Creating Objects : Syntax

Assigning References

Inheritance
Inheritance allows you to derive a new class from an existing class. You do this using the INHERITING FROM addition in the
CLASS <subclass> DEFINITION INHERITING FROM <superclass>

statement. The new class <subclass> inherits all of the components of the existing class <superclass>. The new class is called the subclass of the class from which it is derived. The original class is called the superclass of the new class.

Inheritance

Inheritance : Syntax

Relationships between super classes and subclasses


Relationships between super classes and subclasses

Inheritance and Visibility

Inheritance and (Instance) constructor

Parameters and CREATE OBJECT

Redefining Methods in ABAP Objects

Redefining Methods : Example

Compatibility and Narrowing Cast

Principles of the Narrowing Cast

Static and Dynamic Types: Example

Static and Dynamic Types for References

Static and Dynamic Types for References

Widening the Cast

Widening the cast

Polymorphism

Polymorphism

Polymorphism

Interface
Interfaces exclusively describe the external point of contact of a class, but they do not contain their own implementation part.

Defining and Implementing Interface

Working with Interface components

Interface References Narrowing casting

Interface
The assignment of an object reference to an interface reference is known as a narrowing cast since, as with inheritance, only a part of the object interface is visible once you have assigned the reference. With an interface reference, you can no longer address all components in the class carrying out the implementation, but only the components defined in the interface.

Interface references widening cast

Interface
The widening cast is, as with inheritance, the opposite of the narrowing cast: here it is used to retrieve an object reference from an interface reference. Obviously it cannot be statically checked, since an interface can be implemented by more than one class. An object reference cannot be assigned to an interface reference if it has itself not implemented the corresponding interface.

Using several Interface

In the above example, one class is implementing several interfaces. Even if these interfaces contain components with the same name, they are differentiated in the class carrying out the implementation by the prefix <interfacename>~.

Polymorphism and Interface

Events

Objects or Classes use events to trigger Event Handler methods in other objects or classes. When an event is triggered any number of Event Handler Methods can be called. The events of a class can be raised in the same class using the RAISE EVENT Statement. Events have only output parameters which are accepted by the Event Handler Methods as input parameters. The link between the trigger and the handler is established dynamically at runtime using the statement SET HANDLER.

Events Overview

Triggering and handling Events : Overview

Defining and Triggering Events

Handling and Registering Events

Handling Events

Registering for an Event : Syntax

Deregistration

Registration/Deregistration : Handler Table

Event handling : Characteristics

Events and Visibility