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Sr. no TITLE Page no.

1 History and basics 4
2 Introduction 5
3 Construction 6
4 Fuel cell principle 7
5 Working 8
6 Types of fuel cell 9
7 Electrochemical reaction of fuel cell type 10
8 Fuel cell comparison 21
9 Problem with fuel cell 22
10 Fuel cell goals 23
11 Technology compression 24
12 Advantages 25
13 Disadvantages 26
14 Application 27
15 Research 28
16 Conclusion 30
17 reference 31


Sr. no. Title Page no

1 Construction 6
2 Fuel cell 7
3 Working of fuel cell 8
4 Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell 10
5 Phosphoric acid fuel cell 11
6 Alkaline fuel cell 13
7 Molten carbonate fuel cell 14
8 Solid oxide fuel cell 18
9 Electro chemical reaction of fuel cell type 20


1 Compression of fuel cell 21


1 Technology compression 24


Fuel cell technology has in recent years undergone a period of rapid development.
This evolution has been driven by the requirements of developed countries to reduce the
emission of greenhouse gases, with particular emphasis placed on reducing CO2
emission. This article discussed the possibility of using fuel cell technology for rail
vehicle propulsion, with the United Kingdom chosen as a case study. A brief review of
fuel cell technology and its application with in the UK presented. It is conclude that,
although the technology for fuel cell power will be suitable with in the next few years, its
adoption by mainline Uk rail operators will be delayed considerably until exciting diesel
vehicles have reached the end of their useful life. By this time the technology of fuel cells
will be well proven within other transport markets and its transfer to rail markets will be
facilitated. This will be augmented at this time by increasing diesel fuel prices. However.
The adoption of fuel cell technology for light rail/tram system does offer advantage in
terms of infrastructure development and aesthetics which could make it a serious option
for new and upgraded light rail/tram schemes.


The first demonstration of a fuel cell was by William grove in 1839. Real development in
fuel cells first happened for space application in the 1960’es. Since the 80’es and until
now much development in the fuel cell has been focused on use for transportation,
combined heat and power production and power supply in portable products. Fuel cells
convert the chemical energy in a fuel, mostly hydrogen, into electricity and heat without
any noise and mechanical movement. The only emission of the reaction in the fuel cell is
pure water. A fuel cell is like a battery with the only difference that It will continue to
provide power as long a fuel is provided. Fuel cells are very scaleable and flexible in
design thus giving a vide range of possibilities of usage. A fuel cell can power a small
mobile cell phone, or a car, or even be used for large central power plants.


Fuel cells are often described as being continuously operation batteries, but this is an
incomplete idea. Like batteries fuel cells produces power without combustion or
rotating machinery. Fuel Cell Produce electricity by utilizing an electrochemical
reaction to combine hydrogen ions with oxygen atoms. Hydrogen ions are obtained
from hydrogen-containing fuels. Fuel cells, unlike batteries, use an external and
continuous source of fuel and produce power continuously, as long as the fuel supply
is maintained.

Two electrodes, an anode and a cathode from an individual cell. They are sandwiched
around an electrolyte in the presence of a catalyst to accelerate and improve
electrochemical reaction. Fuel cell that uses fuel to create chemical reactions that
produce either hydrogen- or oxygen- bearing ions at one of the cell’s two electrodes.
These ions then pass through the electrolyte, such as phosphoric acid, and react with
oxygen atoms. The result is an electric current flowing between both electrodes plus
the generation of waste heat and water vapor. This current is proportional to the cross
sectional area of the electrodes. The voltage is limited electrochemically to about 1.23
volts electrode pair, or cell. These cells then can be “stacked” until the desired power
level is reached.



 The anode, the negative post of the fuel cell, has several jobs. It conducts the
electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in
an external circuit. It has channels etched into it that disperse the hydrogen gas
equally over the surface of the catalyst.

 The cathode, the positive post of the fuel cell, has channels etched into it that
distribute the oxygen to the surface of the catalyst. It also conducts the electrons
back from the external circuit to the catalyst, where they can recombine with the
hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.

 The electrolyte is the proton exchange membrane. only conducts positively

charged ions. The membrane blocks electrons.

 The catalyst is a special material that facilitates the reaction of oxygen and
hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon
paper or cloth. The catalyst is rough and porous so that the maximum surface area
of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or oxygen. the platinum-coated
side of the catalyst faces the PEM


The basic principle of a fuel cell is a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen
that produces power and heat. The picture, next to, shows the principle. Hydrogen and
oxygen (air) is supplied on each side of a cell. When hydrogen is lead to the first
catalyst layer, the anode, the hydrogen molecules are split into their basic elements, a
proton and an electron. The protons migrate through the electrolyte membrane to the
second catalyst layer, the cathode. Here they react with oxygen to form water. At the
same time the electrons are forced to travel around the membrane to the cathode side,
because they can not pass the membrane. This movement of electrons thus creates an
electrical current.




 this Fig shows the process that goes on inside an individual fuel cell.

 The red Hs represent hydrogen molecules (H2) from a hydrogen storage

tank. The orange H+ represents a hydrogen ion after its electron is

 The yellow e- represents an electron moving through a circuit to do work

(like lighting a light bulb or powering a car). The green Os represent an
oxygen molecule (O2) from the air, and the blue drops at the end are for
pure water- the only byproduct of hydrogen power.

Types of Fuel Cells

 Fuel cells are classified primarily by the kind of electrolyte they employ. This
determine he kind of chemical reactions take place in the cell, the kind of
catalysts required, the temperature range in which the cell operates ,the fuel
required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications
for which these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells
currently under development, each with its own advantages, limitations, and
potential application. A few of the most promising types include

• Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

• Phosphoric Acid
• Direct Methanol
• Alkaline
• Molten Carbonate
• Zinc air fuel cell
• Protonic ceramic fuel cell
• Solid Oxide
• Regenerative (Reversible)


The polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising fuel
cell technologies. This type of fuel cell will probably end up powering cars, buses and
maybe even your house. The PEMFC uses one of the simplest reactions of any fuel cell.
First, let's take a look at what's in a PEM fuel cell:

Figure 4. The parts of a PEM fuel cell

• The anode, the negative post of the fuel cell, has several jobs. It conducts the
electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in
an external circuit. It has channels etched into it that disperse the hydrogen gas
equally over the surface of the catalyst.
• The cathode, the positive post of the fuel cell, has channels etched into it that
distribute the oxygen to the surface of the catalyst. It also conducts the electrons
back from the external circuit to the catalyst, where they can recombine with the
hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.
• The electrolyte is the proton exchange membrane. This specially treated
material, which looks something like ordinary kitchen plastic wrap, only conducts
positively charged ions. The membrane blocks electrons. For a PEMFC, the
membrane must be hydrated in order to function and remain stable.

• The catalyst is a special material that facilitates the reaction of oxygen and
hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum nanoparticles very thinly coated onto
carbon paper or cloth. The catalyst is rough and porous so that the maximum
surface area of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or oxygen. The
platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the
of a Fuel Cell
Anode side:
The pressurized hydrogen gas (H ) entering the fuel
2H2 => 4H+ + 4e-

cell on the anode side. This gas is forced through the Cathode side:
O2 + 4H+ + 4e- => 2H2O
catalyst by the pressure. When an H molecule comes in

contact with the platinum on the catalyst, it splits into Net reaction:
2H2 + O2 => 2H2O
two H ions and two electrons (e ). The electrons are
+ -

conducted through the anode, where they make their way through the external circuit
(doing useful work such as turning a motor) and return to the cathode side of the fuel cell.

Meanwhile, on the cathode side of the fuel cell, oxygen gas (O ) is being forced through

the catalyst, where it forms two oxygen atoms. Each of these atoms has a strong negative
charge. This negative charge attracts the two H ions through the membrane, where they

combine with an oxygen atom and two of the electrons from the external circuit to form a
water molecule (H O).2

This reaction in a single fuel cell produces only about 0.7 volts. To get this voltage up to
a reasonable level, many separate fuel cells must be combined to form a fuel-cell stack.
Bipolar plates are used to connect one fuel cell to another and are subjected to both
oxidizing and reducing conditions and potentials. A big issue with bipolar plates is
stability. Metallic bipolar plates can corrode, and the byproducts of corrosion (iron and
chromium ions) can decrease the effectiveness of fuel cell membranes and electrodes.
Low-temperature fuel cells use lightweight metals, graphite and carbon/thermoset
composites (thermoset is a kind of plastic that remains rigid even when subjected to high
temperatures) as bipolar plate material.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC)

Acid Fuel
were the
first fuel
cells to be

commercialized. Developed in the mid-1960s and field-

tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in
stability, performance, and cost. Such characteristics have
made the PAFC a good candidate for early stationary

. The PAFC uses an electrolyte that is phosphoric acid (H3PO4) that can approach 100%
concentration. The ionic conductivity of phosphoric acid is low at low temperatures, so
PAFCs are operated at the upper end of the range 150ºC–220ºC.

The charge carrier in this type of fuel cell is the hydrogen ion (H+, proton). This is
similar to the PEFC where the hydrogen introduced at the anode is split into its protons
and electrons. The protons migrate through the electrolyte and combine with the oxygen,
usually from air, at the cathode to form water. The electrons are routed through an
external circuit where they can perform useful work. This set of reactions in the fuel cell
produces electricity and by-product heat.

Anode Reaction: 2 H2 => 4 H+ + 4 e-

Cathode Reaction: O2(g) + 4 H+ + 4 e- => 2 H2O
Overall Cell Reaction: 2 H2 + O2 => 2 H2O

The PAFC operates at greater than 40% efficiency in generating electricity. When
operating in cogeneration applications, the overall efficiency is approximately 85%.
Furthermore, at the operating temperature of PAFCs, the waste heat is capable of heating
hot water or generating steam at atmospheric pressure.

The high efficiency of the PAFC when operated in cogeneration mode is one advantage
of this fuel cell type. In addition, CO2 does not affect the electrolyte or cell performance
and can therefore be easily operated with reformed fossil fuel. Simple construction, low
electrolyte volatility and long-term stability are additional advantages.

Approximately 75 MW of PAFC generating capacity has been installed and is operating.

Typical installations include buildings, hotels, hospitals, and electric utilities in Japan,
Europe and the United States. One particular program sponsored by CERL was to
demonstrate 30 PAFCs generating 200 kW apiece at military installations. The objective
of this program was to gain experience with PAFC operation for maintenance, reliability
and performance.


Most fuel cells are powered by hydrogen, which can be fed to the fuel cell system
directly or can be generated within the fuel cell system by reforming hydrogen-rich fuels
such as methanol, ethanol, and hydrocarbon fuels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs),
however, are powered by pure methanol, which is mixed with steam and fed directly to
the fuel cell anode.

Direct methanol fuel cells do not have many of the fuel storage problems typical of some
fuel cells since methanol has a higher energy density than hydrogen—though less than

gasoline or diesel fuel. Methanol is also easier to transport and supply to the public using
our current infrastructure since it is a liquid, like gasoline.

Direct methanol fuel cell technology is relatively new compared to that of fuel cells
powered by pure hydrogen, and DMFC research and development are roughly 3-4 years
behind that for other fuel cell types.

Alkaline Fuel Cells


Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) were one of the first fuel cell technologies developed, and they
were the first type widely used in the U.S. space program to produce electrical energy and
water onboard spacecraft. These fuel cells use a solution of potassium hydroxide in water
as the electrolyte and can use a variety of non-precious metals as a catalyst at the anode
and cathode. High-temperature AFCs operate at temperatures between 100°C and 250°C
(212°F and 482°F). However, newer AFC designs operate at lower temperatures of
roughly 23°C to 70°C (74°F to 158°F)

AFCs' high performance is due to the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the
cell. They have also demonstrated efficiencies near 60 percent in space applications.

The disadvantage of this fuel cell type is that it is easily poisoned by carbon dioxide (CO 2
). In fact, even the small amount of CO2 in the air can affect this cell's operation, making
it necessary to purify both the hydrogen and oxygen used in the cell. This purification
process is costly. Susceptibility to poisoning also affects the cell's lifetime (the amount of
time before it must be replaced), further adding to cost.

Cost is less of a factor for remote locations such as space or under the sea. However, to
effectively compete in most mainstream commercial markets, these fuel cells will have to
become more cost-effective. AFC stacks have been shown to maintain sufficiently stable
operation for more than 8,000 operating hours. To be economically viable in large-scale
utility applications, these fuel cells need to reach operating times exceeding 40,000 hours,
something that has not yet been achieved due to material durability issues. This is
possibly the most significant obstacle in commercializing this fuel cell technology.

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells


Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are currently being developed for natural gas and
coal-based power plants for electrical utility, industrial, and military applications. MCFCs
are high-temperature fuel cells that use an electrolyte composed of a molten carbonate
salt mixture suspended in a porous, chemically inert ceramic lithium aluminum oxide
(LiAlO2) matrix. Since they operate at extremely high temperatures of 650°C (roughly
1,200°F) and above, non-precious metals can be used as catalysts at the anode and
cathode, reducing costs.

Improved efficiency is another reason MCFCs offer significant cost reductions over
phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). Molten carbonate fuel cells can reach efficiencies
approaching 60 percent, considerably higher than the 37-42 percent efficiencies of a

phosphoric acid fuel cell plant. When the waste heat is captured and used, overall fuel
efficiencies can be as high as 85 percent.

Unlike alkaline, phosphoric acid, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, MCFCs
don't require an external reformer to convert more energy-dense fuels to hydrogen. Due
to the high temperatures at which MCFCs operate, these fuels are converted to hydrogen
within the fuel cell itself by a process called internal reforming, which also reduces cost.

Molten carbonate fuel cells are not prone to carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide
"poisoning" —they can even use carbon oxides as fuel—making them more attractive for
fueling with gases made from coal. Because they are more resistant to impurities than
other fuel cell types, scientists believe that they could even be capable of internal
reforming of coal, such as sulfur and particulates.


 In a typical zinc / air fuel cell, there is a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) a
permeable membrane that allows atmospheric oxygen to pass through, a zinc
anode separated by electrolyte, and some form of mechanical separators. After the
oxygen has converted into the hydroxyl ions and water, the hydroxyl ions will
travel through the electrolyte, and reaches the zinc anode. Here, it reacts with the
zinc, and forms zinc oxide. This process creates an electric current.
 High energy
 Material costs are low.
 Refuelling is a complex process


This is similar to the solid oxide fuel cell, but would operate at slightly lower temperature
(500-700°C). The electrolyte allows the passage of protons (Hydrogen ions, H+).

Similar to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

Not very developed, still in research stage.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells


Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) use a hard, non-porous ceramic compound as the
electrolyte. Since the electrolyte is a solid, the cells do not have to be constructed in the
plate-like configuration typical of other fuel cell types. SOFCs are expected to be around
50-60 percent efficient at converting fuel to electricity. In applications designed to
capture and utilize the system's waste heat (co-generation), overall fuel use efficiencies
could top 80-85 percent.

Solid oxide fuel cells operate at very high temperatures—around 1,000°C (1,830°F).
High temperature operation removes the need for precious-metal catalyst, thereby
reducing cost. It also allows SOFCs to reform fuels internally, which enables the use of a
variety of fuels and reduces the cost associated with adding a reformer to the system.

SOFCs are also the most sulfur-resistant fuel cell type; they can tolerate several orders of
magnitude more sulfur than other cell types. In addition, they are not poisoned by carbon
monoxide (CO), which can even be used as fuel. This allows SOFCs to use gases made
from coal.

High-temperature operation has disadvantages. It results in a slow startup and requires

significant thermal shielding to retain heat and protect personnel, which may be
acceptable for utility applications but not for transportation and small portable
applications. The high operating temperatures also place stringent durability requirements
on materials. The development of low-cost materials with high durability at cell operating
temperatures is the key technical challenge facing this technology.

Scientists are currently exploring the potential for developing lower-temperature SOFCs
operating at or below 800°C that have fewer durability problems and cost less. Lower-
temperature SOFCs produce less electrical power, however, and stack materials that will
function in this lower temperature range have not been identified.

Regenerative Fuel Cells

Regenerative fuel cells produce electricity from hydrogen and oxygen and generate heat
and water as byproducts, just like other fuel cells. However, regenerative fuel cell
systems can also use electricity from solar power or some other source to divide the
excess water into oxygen and hydrogen fuel—this process is called "electrolysis." This is
a comparatively young fuel cell technology being developed by NASA and others.

Electrochemical reactions of the Fuel Cell types


Fuel Cell Comparisons



Chief among the problems associated with fuel cells is how expensive they are. Many of
the component pieces of a fuel cell are costly. For PEMFC systems, proton exchange
membranes, precious metal catalysts (usually platinum), gas diffusion layers, and bipolar
plates make up 70 percent of a system's cost [Source: Basic Research Needs for a
Hydrogen Economy]. In order to be competitively priced (compared to gasoline-powered
vehicles), fuel cell systems must cost $35 per kilowatt. Currently, the projected high-
volume production price is $110 per kilowatt [Source: Testimony of David Garman]. In
particular, researchers must either decrease the amount of platinum needed to act as a
catalyst or find an alternative.

Researchers must develop PEMFC membranes that are durable and can operate at
temperatures greater than 100 degrees Celsius and still function at sub-zero ambient
temperatures. A 100 degrees Celsius temperature target is required in order for a fuel cell
to have a higher tolerance to impurities in fuel. Because you start and stop a car relatively
frequently, it is important for the membrane to remain stable under cycling conditions.
Currently membranes tend to degrade while fuel cells cycle on and off, particularly as
operating temperatures rise.

Because PEMFC membranes must by hydrated in order to transfer hydrogen protons,
researches must find a way to develop fuel cell systems that can continue to operate in
sub-zero temperatures, low humidity environments and high operating temperatures. At
around 80 degrees Celsius, hydration is lost without a high-pressure hydration system.

The Department of Energy’s Technical Plan for Fuel Cells states that the air compressor
technologies currently available are not suitable for vehicle use, which makes designing a
hydrogen fuel delivery system problematic.


Pollution reduction is one of the primary goals of the fuel cell. By comparing a fuel cell-
powered car to a gasoline-engine-powered car and a battery-powered car, you can see
how fuel cells might improve the efficiency of cars today.

Since all three types of the cars have many of the same components (tires, transmission
etc.) we will ignore that part of the car and compare efficiency up to point where
mechanical power is generated. Let’s start with the fuel cell car. (All of these efficiencies
are approximation, but they should be close enough to make a rough comparison.)

If the fuel cell is powered with pure hydrogen, it has the potential to be up to 80%
efficient. That is, it converts 80% of the energy content of the hydrogen into electrical
energy. But, as we learned in the previous section, hydrogen in difficult to store in a car.
When we add a reformer to convert methanol to hydrogen, the overall efficiency drops to
about 30 to 40 %.

We still need to convert the electrical energy into mechanical work. This is accomplished
by the electric motor and inverter. A reasonable number for the efficiency of the
motor/inverter is about 80%. So we have 30 to 40 % efficiency at converting methanol to
electricity, and 80% efficiency converting electricity to mechanical power. That give an
overall efficiency of about 24 to 32%.

Technology comparison



 Zero Emissions: a fuel cell vehicle only emits water vapor if fueled with pure
hydrogen, while if it has an on board reformer for the hydrogen production we
have to take into account its emission. The vehicle is a really no-noise vehicle,
except for the noise of the auxiliaries (pumps, fan etc.)

 High efficiency: since fuel cell does not use combustion, their efficiency is not
linked to their maximum operation temperature. As a result, the efficiency of the
power conversion step( the actual electrochemical reaction as opposed to the
actual combustion reaction) can be significantly higher that that of thermal
engines. In addition fuel cell also exhibit higher part load efficiency and do not
display a sharp drop in efficiency as the power plant size decrease.

 Rapid load-following: fuel cell exhibit good load following characteristics. Fuel
cell systems, however, are comprised of predominately mechanical device each of
which has it own response time to changes in load demand.

 Low temperatures: fuel cell systems suitable for automotive application operate
at low temperature. This is an advantages in the fuel cells require little warm up
time ,high temperature hazards are reduce, and the thermodynamic efficiency of
the electro-chemical reaction is inherently better.

 Reduced number of energy transformations. Fuel cell system do not require

recharging. Rather, fuel cell systems must be re-fueled, which is faster than

charging a battery and can provide greater range depend-in on the size of the
storage tank.


 Hydrogen: ironically, hydrogen which is of such benefit environmentally when

used in a fuel cell, is also its greatest liability in that it is difficult to manufacture
and store. Current manufacturing process are expensive and energy in-tensive and
also often drive ultimately from fossil fuels.

 High-cost catalyst: fuel cell suitable for automotive application typically requires
the use of a platinum catalyst to promote the power generation reaction. Platinum
is a rare metal and is very expensive.

 New technology: fuel cells are an emerging technology. As with my new

technology, reactions in cost, weight and size concurrent with increase in
reliability and lifetime remain pri-Mary engineering goals.

 Lack of infrastructures : an effective hydrogen infrastructure has yet to be



Fuel cells have many applications today, and the list is growing fast. There are three basic
market segments that fuel cells satisfy: portable/battery substitution, transportation and
distribute power.

 Applications for Portable and Battery Substitution

 Portable appliances and power tools
 Small personal vehicles
 Consumer electronics(laptops, cell phone)
 Backup power

 Applications for Transportation

 Automotive
 Public transportation
 Commercial transportation (truck, tractor)
 Marine
 military

 Applications for Distributed Power

 Homes ands small businesses
 Commercial and industrial sites
 Remote, off-grid location ( telecom tower, weather station)


Ballard power, Canada…predominately working on PEFC for transpiration and electric

power plants. Most of the PEFC technology was developed in house and they own over
200 patents. They are working loosely with Daimler Chrysler and ford. According to
Merrill lynch, the PEFC fuel cell cars powered by Ballard will not commence mass
production until 2004. In Aug 1999 however they announced purchase of a world wide,
non-exclusive license to DMFC intellectual property from the California. Institute of
technology(Caltech) and the university of southern California (USC) through DTI
energy., inc. which holds exclusive licensing rights to the intellectual property.

CSIRO, Australia... Large scientific research agency, working on planner SOFC, claim to
be making good progress.

Energy ventures Inc, Canada… is developed DMFC, AFC and lithium ion batteries for
portable power. Dec 1999 the company claimed its new DMFC technology has resolved
the historic problem of methanol cross-over and would result in an initial 30-40%
improvement in output. Wayne Hartford, president of EVI stated that “we feel that the
marketplace has hugely underestimated and difficulty in developing a broadly based
consumer friendly fuelling infrastructure for hydrogen. With out that, there is a need to
reform any other fuel into hydrogen on board a vehicle and this equipment is costly, takes
up space and requires a significant percentage of the power out put to operate.”

Fuel cell energy, USA… working on MCFC of 300kw, 1.5 MW and 3 Mw for electric
generation, this technology cannot be scaled down below 300 KW because of their need

for significant amounts of auxiliary equipment such as pumps. They target jan2001 as
their date of market entry.

JPL, USA.. a division of NASA, they have been working on DMFC extensively since
1992. many of the increase in efficiency and power density are as a result or their efforts.
Nissan & Suzuki, Japan…Nissans announced on feb1998 that they would developed a
PEFC automobile based on the Ballard technology, one year later however they have
announced they will be joining Suzuki to develop their own DMFC automobile

Sulzer, Germany…working on a 3 KW SOFC for CHP

Toyota, Japan…has their own PEFC technology they are working on.


• Fuel cells are still a few years away from commercialization on a large scale. It is
very difficult to tell which fuel and which technology will be predominant in the
future. There are some problems to be solved in the SOFC and the DAFC. If these
can be solved then these will become the predominant fuel cells being developed
in the future.


 Micro-vett
 Fuel Cell Systems
Second Edition
By: James Larminie
 Control of Fuel Cell Power Systems: Principles, Modeling, Analysis, and
Feedback Design
Jay T. Pukrushpan
Anna G. Stephanopoulos
Huei Peng