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MTE-01 CALCULUS 4 Credits

Basic properties of R, Absolute value, Intervals on the real line, Functions
(Definition and examples), Inverse functions, Graphs of functions, Operations on
functions, Composite of functions, Even and odd functions, Monotone functions,
Periodic functions.
Definition of limits, Algebra of limits, Limits as x → ∞ (or − ∞ ), One-sided limits,
Continuity (Definitions and Examples, Algebra of continuous functions),
Definition of derivative of a function, Derivatives of some simple functions,
Algebra of derivatives, The chain rule, Continuity versus derivability.
Derivatives of the various trigonometric functions, Derivatives of inverse function,
The inverse function theorem, Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, Use
of transformations. Derivative of exponential function, Logarithmic functions,
Hyperbolic functions, Inverse hyperbolic functions, Methods of differentiation
(Derivative of xr, Logarithmic Differentiation, Derivatives of functions defined in
terms of a parameter, Derivatives of implicit functions).

Second and third order derivatives, nth order derivatives, Leibniz theorem, Taylor’s
series and Maclaurin’s series Maxima-minima of functions (Definitions and
examples, a necessary condition for the existence of extreme points), Mean value
theorems (Rolle’s theorem, Lagrange’s mean value theorem), Sufficient conditions
for the existence of extreme points (First derivative test, Second derivative test),
Concavity/convexity, Points of inflection. Equation of tangents and normals, Angles
of intersection of two curves, Tangents at the origin, Classifying singular points,
Asymptotes (Parallel to the axes, Oblique asymptotes). Graphing a function,
Tracing a curve (given its Cartesian equation, or in parametric form, or Polar

Partitions of a closed interval, Upper and lower product sums, Upper and lower
integrals, Definite integral, Fundamental theorem of calculus. Standard integrals,
Algebra of integrals, Integration by substitution, Integrals using trigonometric
formulas, Trigonometric and Hyperbolic substitutions, Two properties of definite
integrals, Integration by parts, Evaluation of ∫ (a − x )dx, ∫ (a + x )dx, ∫ ( x − a )dx,
2 2 2 2 2 2

∫ e (f (x) + f ′(x ))dx . Reduction formulas for ∫ sin x dx, ∫ cos x dx, ∫ tan x dx and
x n n n

∫ sec x dx, Integrals involving products of trigonometric functions (Integrand

of the type sin m x cos n x, e ax sin n x ), Integrals involving hyperbolic functions.
Integration of some simple rational functions, Partial fraction decomposition,
Method of substitution, Integration of rational trigonometric functions, Integration
of Irrational functions

Monotonic functions, Inequalities, Approximate value. Area under a curve
(Cartesian equation, Polar equations), Area bounded by a closed curve, Numerical
integration. (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule). Length of a plane curve (Cartesian
form, Parametric form, Polar form), Volume of a solid of revolution, Area of surface
of revolution.

Video Programme: Curves

Sets, subsets, union and intersection of sets, Venn diagrams, Cartesian product,
relations, functions, composition of functions, binary operations, fields. Plane and
space vectors, addition and scalar multiplication of vectors, scalar product,
orthonormal basis, vector equations of a line, plane and sphere. Definition and basic
properties, subspaces, linear combination, algebra of subspaces, quotient spaces.
Linear independence and some results about it, basic results about basis and
dimension, completion of a linearly independent set to a basis, dimension of
subspaces and quotient spaces.

Definitions and examples of linear transformation, kernel, range space, rank and
nullity, homomorphism theorems. L (U, V), the dual space, composition of
transformations, the minimal polynomial. Definition of a matrix, matrix associated
to a linear transformation, the vector space Mmxn(F), transpose, conjugate, diagonal
and triangular matrices, matrix multiplication, inverse of a matrix, matrix of a change
of basis. Rank of a matrix, elementary operations, row-reduced echelon matrices,
applying row reduction to obtain the inverse of a matrix and for solving a system of
linear equations.

Definition and properties, product formula, matrix adjoint and its use for obtaining
inverses, Cramer’s rule, determinant rank. Definition and how to obtain them,
diagonalisation. Cayley-Hamilton theorem, minimal polynomial’s properties.
Definition, norm of a vector, orthogonality.

Linear functionals of inner product spaces, adjoint of an operator, self-adjoint and
unitary operators, Hermitian and unitary matrices. Definitions, representation as
matrix product, transformation under change of basis, rank of a form, orthogonal and
normal canonical reductions Definitions, standard equations, description and some
geometrical properties of an ellipse, a hyperbola and parabola, the general reduction.

Video Programme: Linear Transformations and Matrices

Sets, Equality of Sets, Operations on Sets, Venn diagrams, Functions, Types of
Functions, Composite Functions, Operations with Functions. Graphs (Exponential
and Logarithmic Functions, Trigonometric functions), Trigonometric ratios.
Polynomials and Equations, Sequences and Series, Permutations and Combinations,
Binomial Theorem.
Two Dimensional Coordinate System -Distance between Two points, Area of a
Triangle, Equation of a Line, , Angle between Two Lines, Distance of a Point from a
Line, Circle, Three Dimensional Coordinate System- Equation of a Straight Line in
3-D, The Plane, The Sphere. Vectors as directed line segments, Algebra of Vectors
and their applications (addition and subtraction of vectors, resolution of vectors, dot
and cross product).

Limit and Continuity, Derivative of a Function at a Point, Its Geometrical
Significance, Rules for differentiation, differentiation of Trigonometric, Exponential
and Logarithmic Functions, Differentiation of Inverse Algebraic and Inverse
Trigonometric Functions, Chain Rule, Differentiation of Implicit Functions and
Logarithmic Differentiation, Physical Aspects of Derivatives

Tangents and Normals, Higher Order Derivatives, Maxima and Minima,
Asymptotes, Curve-Tracing, Functions of Two Variables, Partial Derivatives of
Order Two, Homogeneous Functions, Euler’s Theorem. Antiderivatives, Integration
as Inverse of Differentiation, Definite Integral as the Limit of the Sum, Properties of
Definite Integrals, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus Standard Integrals,
Methods of Integration, Integration by Substitution, Integration by parts, Integration
of Trigonometric Functions
Preliminaries, Formation of Differential Equations, Methods of Solving Differential
Equations of First Order and First degree (Variables Separable, Homogeneous
Equation, Exact Equations and Linear Equations).

Some Basic Definitions in Statistics, Frequency Distribution, Discrete Random
Variables, Continuous Random Variables, Measures of Central Tendency and
Dispersion (Mean, Mode, Median, Standard Deviation, Mean Deviation).
Preliminaries: (Sample Space, Discrete Sample Space, Continuous Sample Space),
Rules of Probability, Conditional Probability, Baye’s Theorem. Combination of
events, Binomial Distribution, Poisson Distribution (Emphasis Through
Illustrations). Continuous Random Variables, Types of Continuous Distributions
(Exponential and Normal Distribution – Emphasis Through Illustrations)

Sample Selection, Random Sampling Procedure, Measure of Variation and
Accuracy, Standard Error, Unbiased Estimator, Accuracy and Precision of Sample
Estimator, Types of Sample Design (Random Sampling, Cluster
Sampling).Statistical Hypothesis, Level of Significance, Degrees of Freedom, Chi-
square Test, t-test, Analysis of Variance Correlation and scatter diagram, Correlation
coefficient, Linear regression, Curve Fitting (Least Square Method).

Video Programme: 1) Sampling a case study
2) Sampling in Life Sciences

Definition and examples of sets and subsets, Venn diagrams, Complementation,
Intersection, Union, Distributive laws, De Morgan’s laws, Cartesian product.
What a complex number is, Geometrical representation, Algebraic operations, De
Moivre’s theorem, Trigonometric identities, Roots of a complex number.
Recall of solutions of linear & quadratic equations, Cubic equations (Cardano’s
solution, Roots and their relation with coefficients), Biquadratic equations (Ferrari’s
solution, Descartes’ solution, Roots and their relation with coefficients)

APPENDIX: Some mathematical symbols (Implication, two-way implication, for
all, their exists), Some methods of proof (Direct proof, contrapositive proof, proof
by contradiction, proof by counter-example).

Linear systems, Solving by substitution, Solving by elimination. Definition of a
matrix, Determinants, Cramer’s rule. Inequalities known to the ancients (Inequality
of the means, Triangle inequality), Less ancient inequalities (Cauchy-Schwarz
inequality, Weierstrass’ inequalities, Tchebyshev’s inequalities)

Equations of a line, Symmetry, Change of axes (Translating the axes, rotating the
axes), Polar coordinates. Focus-directrix property, Description of standard form of
parabola, ellipse and hyperbola; Tangents and normals of parabola, ellipse,
hyperbola; Polar equation of conics. General second degree equation, Central and
non-central conics, tracing a conic (Central conics, Parabola), Tangents, Intersection
of conics.

Points, Lines (Direction cosines, Equations of a straight line, Angle between two
lines), Planes (Equations of a plane, Intersecting planes and lines). Equations of a
sphere, Tangent lines and planes, Two intersecting spheres, Spheres through a given
Cones, Tangent plane to a cone, Cylinders.

Definition of a conicoid, Change of axes (Translation of axes, projection, Rotation
of Axes), Reduction to standard form. A conicoid’s centre, Classification of central
conicoids, Ellipsoid, Hyperboloid of one sheet, Hyperboloid of two sheets,
Intersection with a line or a plane.Standard equation, Tracing the paraboloids,
Intersection with a line or a plane.

Sets, Cartesian Product, Relations, Functions, Some number theory – Principle of
induction and divisibility in Z. Binary operations, Definition of a group, Properties
of a Group, Some details of Zn, Sn, C, and appendix on some properties of complex
numbers. Subgroups and their properties, Cyclic groups. Cosets; Statement, proof
and applications of Lagrange’s theorem.

Definition and standard properties of normal subgroups, Quotient groups. Definition
and examples, Isomorphisms, Isomorphism theorems, Automorphisms. Definition,
Examples, Cayley’s theorem. Direct product, Sylow theorems (without proof),
Classifying groups of order 1 to 10.

Elementary properties, Examples of commutative and non-commutative rings and
rings with and without identity. Definitions, Examples, Standard properties,
Quotient Rings (in the context of commutative rings).

Definition and properties of integral domains, Fields, Prime and maximal ideals,
Fields of quotients. Examples, Division Algorithm and Roots of Polynomials.
Euclidean domain, PID, UFD. Eisenstein’s criterion, Prime fields, Finite fields

Video Programme: Groups of Symmetries

The Extended Real Number System R ∞ (Arithmetic Operations in R ∞ , Bounds in R
∞ . Extension of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions to R ∞ ). The concept of
infinite limits (infinite limits as the independent variable x → a ∈ R , One-sided
Infinite Limits, Limits as the independent variable tends to ∞ or - ∞ , Algebra of
Indeterminate Forms, L’Hopital’s rule for form (Simplest form of L’Hopital’s
0 ∞
Rule, Another form of L’Hopital’s rule for form), L’Hoptal’s rule for form,
0 ∞
other types of Indeterminate Forms (indeterminate forms of the type ∞ - ∞ ,
indeterminate forms of the type 0. ∞ , indeterminate forms of the type 00, ∞ 0,1 ∞ ).
The Space Rn (Cartesian products, algebraic structure of Rn, Distance in Rn),
Functions from Rn to Rm.

Limits of Real-Valued Functions, Continuity of Real-Valued Functions, Limit and
Continuity of Functions from Rn → Rm, Repeated limits. First Order Partial
Derivatives (Definition and Examples, Geometric interpretation. Continuity and
Partial Derivatives), Differentiability of Functions from R2 to R, Differentiability of
functions from Rn → R, n > 2. Higher Order Partial Derivatives, Equality of Mixed
Partial Derivatives. Chain Rule, Homogeneous Functions, Directional Derivatives

Taylor’s Theorem (Taylor’s theorem for functions of one variables, Taylor’s
theorem for functions of two variables), Maxima and Minima (local extrema,
Second derivative test for local extrema), Lagrange’s multipliers; Jacobians
(Definition and examples, Partial derivatives of Implicit Functions), Chain rule,
Functional Dependence (Domains in Rn, Dependence). Implicit Function Theorem
(Implicit Function Theorem for two variables, implicit Function Theorem for three
variables), inverse Function Theorem.

Double Integral over a Rectangle (Preliminaries, Double Integrals and Repeated
Integrals), Double Integral over any Bounded set (Regions of Type I and Type II,
Repeated integrals over regions of Type I and Type II), Change of variables.Integral
over a region in space (Integral over a Rectangular Box, Integral over Regions of
Type I and Type II), Change of Variables in Triple Integrals (Triple Integrals in
Cylindrical Coordinates, Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates). Applications of
double integrals (area of a planar region and volume of a solid, Surface area, Mass
and moments), Applications of triple integrals; Line Integrals, Independence of path,
Green’s Theorem.

Video Programme: Double Integration

Basic concepts in the theory of differential equations, Family of curves and
differential equations, Differential Equations arising from physical situations.
Separation of Variables, Homogeneous equations, Exact equations, Integrating
factors. Classification of first order differential equations (DE), General solutions of
linear non-homogeneous equation, Method of Undetermind coefficient, Method of
Variation of Parameters, Equations reducible to linear form, Applications of linear
DEs. Equations which can be factorized, Equations which cannot be factorized
(Solvable for x, y, independent variable absent, homogeneous in x and y, Clairaut’s
and Riccati’s equations).

General form of linear ordinary differential equation, Condition for the existence of
unique solution, linear dependence and independence of the solution of DEs, Method
of solving homogeneous equation with constant coefficients. Types of non-
homogeneous terms for which the method is applicable (polynomial, exponential,
sinusoidal etc.), Observations and Constraints of the method. Variation of parameters,
Reduction of order, Euler’s equations. Differential operators, General method of
finding Particular Integral (PI), Short method of finding PI, Euler's equations.
Method of changing independent Variable, Method of changing dependent variable,
Applications – Mechanical Vibrations, Electric Circuits

Frames of reference for curves and surfaces, Basic concepts in 2-dimensions, Curves
and surfaces in space.
Formation of simultaneous DEs, Existence and Uniqueness, Methods of solution of
dx dy dz
= = , Applications – Orthogonal trajectories, Particle motion in phase-space,
Electric Circuits. Formation of pfaffian Differential Equations their geometrical
meaning, Integrability, Methods of Integration (Variable separable, One variable
separable, Homogeneous PfDEs, Natani’s method). Origin, Classification and
Solution of linear first order PDEs, Linear Equations of the First Order, Cauchy
Problem. Complete integral, Compatibility, Charpits method, Standard forms,
Jacobi’s method, Cauchy problem.

General form of partial differential equation of any order, – Classification and the
Integral, Solutions of reducible homogeneous equations, Solutions of irreducible
homogeneous equations. Particular integral, Analogies of Euler’s equations Origin of
second order PDEs, Classification, Variable separable solution for Heat flow, Wave
and Laplace equations.

Video Programme: Let’s Apply Differential Equations

Sets and functions, system of real numbers, mathematical induction.
Order relations in real numbers, algebraic structure (ordered field, complete ordered
field), countability.

Neighbourhood of a point, open sets, limit point of a set (Bulzano-Weiertrass
Theorem), closed sets, compact sets (Heine-Borel Theorem, without proof).

Algebraic functions, transcendental functions, some special functions.

Sequences, bounded sequences, monotonic sequences, convergent sequences,
criteria for the convergence of sequences, cauchy sequences, algebra of convergent
Infinite series, general tests of convergence, some special tests of convergence
(D’Alembert’s ratio test, Cauchy’s integral test, Raabe’s test, Gauss’s test).
Alternating series (Leitnitz’s test), absolute and conditional convergence,
rearrangement of series.

Notion of limit (finite limits, Infinite limits, sequential limits), algebra of limits.
Continuous functions, algebra of continuous functions, non-continuous functions.
Continuity on bounded closed intervals, pointwise continuity and uniform

Derivative of a function (geometrical interpretation), differentiability and continuity,
algebra of derivatives, sign of a derivatives. Rolle’s theorem, mean value theorems
(Lagrange, Cauchy and generalised mean value theorems), intermediate value
theorem for derivatives (Darboux theorems). Taylor’s theorem, Maclaurin’s
expansion, indeterminate forms, extreme values.

Riemann integrability, Riemann integrable functions, Algebra of integrable
functions, computing an integral. Properties of Riemann integral, Fundamental
Theorem of Calculus, mean value theorems. Sequences of functions, Pointwise
convergence, uniform convergence (Cauchy’s criterion), series of functions.

Video Programme: Limits – glance through history.

Three fundamental theorems of calculus (Intermediate value theorem, Rolle’s
theorem, Lagrange’s mean value theorem) Taylors theorem, Errors (round-off and
Initial approximation to a root (tabulation method, Graphical method) Bisection
method, Fixed point Iteration method. Regula-Falsi method, Newton-Raphson
method, Convergence criterion. Some Results on roots of polynomial equation,
Birge-Vieta method, Graeffe’s root squaring method

Direct methods of solving linear algebraic equations-Cramer’s rule, Direct methods
for special matrices, Gauss elimination method, LU decomposition method.
Finding inverse of a square matrix - The method of adjoints, The Gauss-Jordan
reduction method, LU decomposition method. Iterative methods of finding
solutions - The Jacobi iteration method, The Gauss-Seidal Iteration method. The
eigenvalue problem,The power method, The inverse power method.

Lagrange’s form of interpolation, Inverse Interpolation, General error term. Divided
differences, Newton’s general form of interpolating polynomials - Error term,
Divided difference and derivatives, Further results on Interpolation error. Backward
Interpolation at equally spaced points - Forward and Central Differences, Newtons
forward difference formula, Newton’s backward difference formula, Strirling’s
central difference formula

Numerical differentiation - Methods based on undetermine coefficients, On finite
difference Operators and on Interpolation, Richardson’s Extrapolation, Optimum
of Step Length
Numerical Integration - Methods based on Interpolation (Lagrange interpolation,
Newton’s Forward Interpolation) Composite Integration, Romberg Integration
Numerical solutions of ODE - Basic concepts, Taylor series method, Euler’s
method, Richardson’s extrapolation
Runge-Kutta methods of second, third and fourth order, Richardson’s Extrapolation.

Raw materials of statistics, Frequency distributions: Ungroped frequency
distributions, Grouped frequency distributions); Diagrammatic representation of
frequency distributions: frequencies, Commulative frequencies, Frequency curve,
Broad classes of distributions. Central tendency and dispersion, Measures of central
tendency; The mean, The median, The mode, Algebraic properties of the measures,
A comparison of the measures; Measures of dispersion: The range, The mean
deviation, The standard deviation, Algebraic properties of the measures, A
comparison of the measures; Coefficient of variation. Moments and quantiles:
Moments of a frequency distribution, Quantiles of a frequency distribution;
Skewness; Kurtosis. Tabular and diagrammatic representation of Bivariate data;
What do we mean by regression analysis?, Simple regression line; Correlation
coefficient, Relationship between regression and correlation coefficients,
Limitations of correlation coefficient.

Random experiment, Sample space, Events, Algebra of events. Probability:
Axiomatic Approach: Probability of an event: Definition, Probability of an event:
Properties; classical definition of probability, Conditional probability, Independence
of events, Repeated experiments and trials, Random variable, Two or more random
variables: Joint distribution of random variables, marginal distributions and
independence, Mathematical expectation, Variance, Covariance and correlation
coefficient, Moments and moment generating function, Distribution of sum of two
random variables.
The Bernoulli distribution, The binomial distribution, The multinomial distribution,
The hypergeometric distribution. The negative binomial distribution, The Poisson

Distribution functions, Density functions, Expectation and variance, Moments and
moment generating functions, Functions of a random variable. Uniform
distribution, Normal distribution, Exponential and gamma distributions, Beta
Bivariate distributions, Conditional distributions, Independence, Expectation of
functions of a random vector, Correlation coefficient, regression. Functions of two
random variables: Direct Approach and Transformation approach, Functions of
more than two random variables, Chi-square distribution, t-distribution, F-
Chebyshev’s inequality and weak law of large numbers, Poisson approximation to
binomial, Central limit theorem: Normal approximation to binomial.

Inductive inference, Random sampling, Sampling distributions related to normal
distribution, Point estimation, Testing of hypothesis, Interval estimation.
Properties of estimators, Methods of estimation: Method of moments, Method of
maximum likelihood. Some concepts related to Testing of Hypothesis, Neyman-
Pearson lemma, Likelihood-ratio tests.. Some common tests of hypothesis for
normal populations, Confidence intervals, Chi-square test for goodness of fit.

Matrices(Addition and Multiplication,transpose, inverse, rank), Vector
spaces(Vectors, Linear independence, basis, dimension), Inequalities (Equations,
Inequations and their graphs), convex sets(Definition, examples, definition of
extreme point, half spaces, hyperplanes, convex combination of finite number of
points is a convex set(no proof), definition of convex hull, convex hull of a finite set
is the convex combination of its points(no proof). Mathematical formulation of
maximization and minimization problems, graphical solution, bounded sets,
unbounded sets, alternative optimum. Maximization and minimization problems,
graphical solution of problems in three variables, mathematical formulation of
problems in more than three variables(maximization problems, minimization
problems, General Linear Programming Problem(GLPP) (Slack variables, surplus
variables, unrestricted variables, reduction of a GLPP to its standard form), Matrix
formulation of the standard form, canonical form of a LPP, reducing a GLPP to its
canonical form, types of solutions(feasible solutions, basic solutions, basic feasible
solutions), finding basic solutions of a system of simultaneous linear equations.
The statement of the following theorems(without proofs)
1. If there is a feasible solution to a LPP, there is also abasic feasible solution.
2. Every basic feasible solution of an LPP corresponds to one of the extreme points
the set of feasible solutions.
3. If a minimum or a maximum exists for a LPP, it is attained at one of the extreme
points of feasible region.
Meaning of algorithm, explanation of the steps in simplex algorithm, examples.
Artificial variable
method. Definition of the dual of a LPP. Writing the dual of a given GLPP, Dual of
the Dual is the primal, Weak duality and strong duality theorems(statements only),
illustration of duality theorems through
examples, significance of duality.
The Transportation Problem, mathematical formulation of Transportation Problems,
Transportation Problems, tabular representation of Transportation Problems, special
structure of the Transportation Problem. North-West corner Method, Matrix-
Minima method, checking whether a
feasible solution to a Transportation Problem is a basic solution using closed chain
rule, degenerate basic feasible solutions, solving balanced Transportation Problem
by U-V method, an unbalanced
transportation problem, formulation of an Assignment Problem, solving an
assignment problem by Hungarian method.
Definition of a Game, the pay-off-matrix, Games of pure strategy, Maxmin and
Minmax Principle, saddle point of a pay-off matrix, value of the game, solving
games of pure strategy, mixed strategies,
expected value, algebraic method for 25 2 matrix games of mixed strategies, short
cut method for 25 2 matrix games of mixed strategies, graphical solution of m5 2
and 25 m games by graphical method, dominance Property, modified dominance
property, using algebraic method when the pay-off matrix is a square matrix,
reducing the rectangular matrix game to that of a linear programming problem,
fundamental Theorem of rectangular games, important properties of optimal mixed

Propositions, Logical connectives: Disjunction, Conjunction, Negation, Conditional
Connectives, Precedence rule; Logical Equivalence, Logical quantifiers..
What is a proof?; Different methods of proof: Direct proof, Indirect proofs, Counter
examples; Principle of induction. Boolean algebras; Boolean expressions; Logic
circuits; Boolean functions.

Multiplication and Addition Principles; Permutations: Notations, Circular
Permutations, Permutation of objects not necessarily distinct; Combinations:
Formula for C(n,r), Combination with repetition, The Binomial expansion: Pascal’s
formula for C(n,r), Some identities involving binomial coefficients; The
multinomial expansion: Applications to combinatorial probability, Elements of
classical probability theory, Addition theorem in probability. Integer Partitions:
Recurrence Relation for Pnk , Ferrar’s graph, A recurrence relation for the number of
partitions, generating function for Pn’s; Distributions: Distinguishable objects into
distinguishable containers, Generating function Approach, containers with at most
one ohject, Distinguishable objects into indistinguishable containers, Stirling
numbers of the second kind, Recurrence relation for Snm, A Generalization of the
recurrence relation for Stirling numbers of the second kind, Generating function for
Stirling number of second kind, Bell Numbers, Indistinguishable objects into
distinguishable containers, Indistinguishable objects into indistinguishable
Pigeon-Hole principle; Inclusion and exclusion principle: Application to number
theory - Euler’s toitient function, Application to onto maps, Application to
Probability, Applications to Derangements.

Three recurrent problems; More recurrences; Definitions; Divide and conquer.
Generating functions; Exponential generating function; Applications: Combinatorial
identities, Linear equations, Partitions, Recurrence relations.
Linear homogeneous recurrences; Linear non-homogeneous recurrences; Some
other methods; Method of inspection, Method of telescoping sums, Method of
iteration, Method of substitution.

Graphs; Regular graphs; Subgraphs. Connected graphs, Paths, Circuits and Cycles,
Components, Connectivity, Bipartite graphs, Trees. Eulerian graphs; Fleury’s
algorithm; Hamiltonian graphs; Travelling salesperson problem. Vertex colourings:
Definition and examples; Bounds for chromatic numbers; Planar graphs; When is a
graph planar?; Map colouring problem; Edge colourings.

Mathematical Modelling – what and why?, Types of modelling, Limitations of a
Mathematical Model. Identifying the Essentials of a problem, Mathematical
Formulation (Motion of a simple pendulum, growth of phytoplanktons, motion of a
raindrop). Solution of formulated problems (Motion of A Simple Pendulum,
phytoplankton growth), Interpretation of the solutions.

Free fall of a body, Upward Motion Under Gravity, Simple Harmonic Motion,
Projectile Motion. Noewton’s Law of Gravitation, Escape Velocity, Central forces –
Basic Concepts, Modelling Planetary Motion, Kepler’s laws, Limitations of the
model. Physical Process, Mathematical Model of Plume Rise, Gaussian Model of
Dispersion, Applications of Gaussian Model. Modelling Blood Flow problem and
Oxygen transfer in Red cells. Formulation, solution, Interpretation and Limitations
of the Models.

Exponential growth model and Logistic growth model – Formulation, solution,
Interpreation and Limitations of the models, Extension of the Logistic Model.
Types of Interactions between two species, Prey-Predator and Competing Species
Models – Formulation, solution, Interpretation and Limitations of the models. Basic
definitions and fundamental concepts, Simple epidemic model, General epidemic
model, Recurrent epidemic model without and with Undamped waves –
Formulation, Solution, Interpretation and Limitations of the models.

Utility, demand, production, cost and supply functions, Market
Equilibrium,Monopoly, Duopoly and Oligopoly. Some games and their
characteristics, Two-person zero sum game, Co-operative and Non-co-operative
game theory – “Prisoner’s Dilemma”, “Battle of Sexes” games, Duopoly, some
generalisations, applications and Limitations of the models. Understanding the
problem of Investments, Markowitz Model – Return Valuations, risk valuations,
diversification, Portfolio Selection, - feasible set, efficient and optimal portfolio,
Limitations of the models developed.
Queuing – what and why? Basic concepts, structure and techniques, Modelling
random phenomena, two queueing models, why forecasting? - Basics and time
series analysis, Forecasting Models.