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Jie Wu1 , Xinge You2 , Yuan Yan Tang2,3 , Yiu-ming Cheung2

1

Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hubei University, Wuhan, China

2

Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

3

Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

E-Mail: wujie0032@126.com, youxg@mail.hust.edu.cn

**Abstract energy distribution feature [2], [3], [4]. However, in the first
**

method, the three types of basic creases: principal lines,

Creases, as a special salient feature of palmprint, are wrinkles and ridges are difficult to extract directly from

large in number and distributed at all directions. It changes a palmprint image. In the second approach, the singular

slowly in a person’s whole life, which qualifies themselves information which obtained from the 2-D Wavelet Trans-

as features in palmprint identification. In this paper, we form (WT ) are extensively focusing on the three special

devised a new algorithm of crease extraction by using directions (vertical, horizontal and diagonal), an enormous

non-separable bivariate wavelet filter banks with linear amount of singular information in other directions can not

phase. Compared with the traditional wavelet, our research be revealed in the high frequency components. Thus, the

demonstrates that the three high frequency sub-images problem with these two approaches suggest that new meth-

generated by Non-separable Discrete Wavelet Transform ods are required for palmprint identification.

(NDWT) can extract more creases and no longer extensively The non-separable wavelet, is one of the filter banks,

focus on the three special directions. As a consequence, we which constructed by using the centrally symmetric or-

proposed a new method by combining NDWT and Support thogonal matrices. It is also holding the ability of multi-

Vector Machines (SVM) for palmprint identification. Tested resolution analysis and low computational complexity as

by our experiment, this method achieves a satisfied identifi- traditional wavelet. Our investigation demonstrates that the

cation result and computational efficiency as well. high frequency components from NDWT can capture more

singular information than traditional wavelets. Moreover,

Keywords: Palmprint identification; NDWT when we select different parameters, we could obtain differ-

ent filter banks which emphasize different directional fea-

ture. Therefore, it motivates us to apply an approach based

1. Introduction on the non-separable wavelet to extract the features.

The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes

Biometrics-based personal identification is regarded as the non-separable wavelet filter banks. Section 3 shows the

a reliable method for automatically recognizing during the algorithm of feature extraction. Section 4 provides experi-

last few years [8]. Lots of interesting and meaningful re- mental results. Section 5 gives a conclusion.

search results have been achieved at the same time. As a

new research area of this technology, the palmprint identi-

fication has been greatly emphasized recently because of 2. The Non-separable Wavelet Filter Banks

its advantages such as low cost and stable structure fea-

ture. Therefore, the investigation and development in palm- In digital images processing, multivariate filter banks are

print identification become particularly valuable. especially important. A commonly used method to build

Generally speaking, the previous work on palmprint multivariate filter banks is the tensor products of univariate

recognition focused on two aspects: first, extracting the filters. Nevertheless, this construction of multivariate filter

textural characteristics of palmprints (principle lines and banks focuses extensively on the coordinate direction. In

creases) in spatial domain [1], [5]; second, transforming the this paper, we give a general description on how to con-

palmprint images into the frequency domain to obtain the struct the non-separable wavelet filter banks by using cen-

978-1-4244-2175-6/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

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trally symmetric matrices. The further theory of construc- 3. Feature Extraction and Algorithm

tion is presented in our previous work [6], [7].

In this section, we firstly consider the following 4 × 4 As we known, the traditional two-dimension WT has

centrally symmetric orthogonal matrix H(θ,η) : four orthogonal sub-images which corresponding to LL,

cosθ + cosη −sinθ + sinη −sinθ − sinη cosθ − cosη LH, HL and HH at each level of decomposition.

sinθ − sinη cosθ + cosη cosθ − cosη sinθ + sinη

sinθ + sinη cosθ − cosη cosθ + cosη sinθ − sinη (1)

cosθ − cosη −sinθ − sinη −sinθ + sinη cosθ + cosη

**where (θ, η) is the arbitrary real number pair. By using the
**

above matrix H(θ,η) we will construct the following Non-

separable bivariate wavelet filter banks. According to MRA,

the designed orthogonal FIR and QMF filter banks: m0 , m1 ,

m2 , m3 should satisfy the following conditions:

(a): The low-pass filter m0 satisfying the orthogonal con-

dition;

(b): The matrix generated from four filters m0 , m1 , m2 ,

m3 is unitary.

By using the previous matrix H(θ,η) on the viewpoint of

polyphase. The four filters m j (z1 , z2 ), j = 0, 1, 2, 3 are de- (a)

fined as follows: separable wavelet (db4)

N

1 Y

m j (z1 , z2 ) = (1, z1 , z2 , z1 z2 ) H(θx ,ηx ) D(z1 , z2 )H(θx ,ηx ) V j

2 2 T

(2)

4 k=1

**let z1 = e−iξ , z2 = e−iη , ∂D = {z : |z| = 1}
**

1 0 0 0

0 z 0 0

D(z1 , z2 ) = 1

, (z , z ) ∈ ∂D × ∂D (3)

0 0 z2 0 1 2

0 0 0 z1 z2

V0 = (1, 1, 1, 1)T ; V1 = (1, −1, 1, −1)T

V2 = (1, 1, −1, −1)T ; V3 = (1, −1, −1, 1)T (4)

For any given positive integer N, the arbitrary real num- (b)

ber pairs (θk , ηk ), k = 1, 2, · · · , N (the (θk , ηk ) may equal to non−separable wavelet

(θ j , η j ) while k , j ) can generate different filter banks.

For example, when the N = 1, θ = 0.386, η = 0.125, the Figure 1. Wavelet decomposition

filter banks can be represented in matrix form as follows:

Similarly, the previous non-separable wavelet filter

0.3125 0.0410 −0.0173 0.1319 banks also can generate four orthogonal sub-images which

0.0816 −0.0107 −0.0045 −0.0345

m0 = corresponding to the filters m0 , m1 , m2 and m3 at each level

−0.0345 −0.0045 −0.0107 0.0816 of decomposition. Here the sub-image corresponding to the

0.1319 −0.0173 0.0410 0.3125

filter m0 carries low frequency information as coarse as pos-

0.2679 0.0352 0.0273 −0.2081 sible. The other three parts capture high frequency informa-

0.0700 −0.0092 0.0071 0.0543 tion of the image in different directions. As Figure 1 shown,

m1 =

−0.0543 −0.0071 0.0092 −0.0700 the three high frequency components could capture more

0.2081 −0.0273 −0.0352 −0.2679 singular information than tensor products WT , and the ap-

0.2081 0.0273 −0.0352 0.2679 proximation of original image is much coarser than the low

0.0543 −0.0071 −0.0092 −0.0700 frequency component from the tensor products WT .

m2 =

0.0700 0.0092 0.0071 −0.0543 Feature vector, which represents the original palmprint,

−0.2679 0.0352 −0.0273 −0.2081 should well distinguish the palmprints from different per-

0.1319 0.0173 0.0410 −0.3125 son.It is obvious that, the sub-image cropped from the cen-

0.0345 −0.0045 0.0107 0.0816 tral of palmprint contains an enormous of creases in differ-

m3 =

0.0816 0.0107 −0.0045 0.0345 ent directions. As a consequence, it is reasonable for us to

−0.3125 0.0410 0.0173 0.1319 apply a method based on MRA to represent the multi-scale

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feature. Here, we will describe the general construction of original palmprint G

**NDWF by using the above non-separable wavelet.
**

Our previous studies showed that the three high fre-

quency components obtain from NDWT can capture more

singular information than traditional wavelets. However,

n×n sub-images

as we have mentioned above, the crease in high frequency Divide

**components is vital to our identification. Thus, it bene-
**

fits us from the viewpoint of NDWT to construct the fea- 3×4×n×n

high

ĂĂĂ

ture vector. When the palmprint decomposed by NDWT in frequency

4-th NDWT

components

the I-th level, the original palmprint G can be represented

by 3I + 1 decomposed sub-images: [AI , {Hi , Vi , Di }i=1,2...,I ],

ĂĂĂĂĂĂ

where AI is the low frequency sub-image of original palm-

compute the mean of each high frequency components

print, {Hi , Vi , Di }i=1,2,··· ,I are the high frequency sub-images.

For each high frequency sub-image, we extract the sta- NDWF

tistical feature: mean, which defined as follows:

1 XX

m n Figure 2. Construction of NDWF

Mi = |Hi (x, y)| (5)

m ∗ n x=1 y=1

where Hi (x, y) corresponds to the coefficient of high fre- step 1 Divide original palmprint into 4 × 4 non-overlap blocks;

quency sub-images at i-th level, while m, n denote it width

and height. step 2 Decompose the sub-images by non-separable wavelet to

4th level;

The mean reflects the distribution of palmprint’s details

in different direction at each non-separable wavelet decom- step 3 For all the high frequency components, compute the means

pose level. Hence, the vector (6) constituted by the means and construct the NDWF;

of all high frequency sub-images could describe the statisti-

cal intensity of original palmprint efficiently. step 4 Use the S V M to compute the correctness.

T d = (M1 , M2 , · · · , MI )d (6)

where I is the total decomposition level. d refers to the 4. Experimental Results

three high frequency sub-images from NDWT .

Nevertheless, the feature vector we obtain only by com- In this section, we compare the results of our method

puting the mean from high frequency sub-images is a global with some others which most of them are based on tradi-

feature of palmprint. It fails to preserve the information tional WT , such as WT +NN, WT + S V M, NDWT + NN.

concerning the spatial location of different details. To deal Experiments are conducted by the PolyU Palmprint

with this problem, we divide the original palmprint G into Database, which contains 600 palmprints captured from 100

n × n non-overlap blocks equally. For each blocks we apply different persons, six samples from each of them were col-

4-th non-separable wavelet transform, and 3 × 4 × n × n high lected. Three palmprints are chosen randomly in each per-

frequency sub-images are obtained consequently. Then we son for training and the rest are for testing. Thus, a train-

use the means of all high frequency sub-images which com- ing samples set of 300 palmprints and a testing samples set

puted from (5) to form a vector F, here we called as NDWF with 300 palmprints are created. In this way, we run the

(see Figure 2). system 10 times and obtain 10 different training and test-

F = ( f1 , f2 , · · · , fn×n ) (7) ing databases. For each time, we do the same procedures

for WT method and compare the results of our method with

where fk = T 1d , T 2d , · · · , T Id others at two aspects: the identification accuracy and the

k=1,2,··· ,n×n

The feature matching is based on measuring the simi- computation time. The identification accuracy is decided

larity between two NDWF s F1 and F2 . As a conventional by the top response rate achieved, and the computation time

classifier, Nearest Neighbor algorithm (NN) is commonly can be classified into two part: the first is defined as the

adopted in palmprint identification. However, in recent re- seconds used for feature extraction of one palmprint, the

search work, the S V M classifier has demonstrated better second is the time used for classification of 300 palmprints.

performance than NN. In this paper, the S V M is applied to The experimental results for WT + NN, WT + S V M,

final classification. NDWT + NN, NDWT + S V M are summarized in Table1.

To sum up, our method is composed of the two factors, In the experiments, the blocks used for WT method are ex-

which could simply termed as NDWT + S V M. The general actly the same as NDWT . It is obvious that the NDWT per-

procedures can be summarized as below: forms better than WT both in identification accuracy and

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computation time. The NDWT + S V M method achieves different directional information, which is suitable for

99.67% accuracy which is 1.33 percent better than WT + extracting the irregular creases of palmprint. In order to

S V M, and the computation time used for feature extraction reflect the distribution of creases in different directions at

of one palmprint is much lower. Moreover, when we choose different resolutions, we decomposed the original palmprint

the conventional classifier NN algorithm, the NDWT gives to 4-th level by NDWT , and compute the means of each

better performance than WT by 1.67 percent. high frequency component to form a NDWF. To verify

Table 1. Comparisons of computational time and recog- the reliability of our method, we conduct experiments to

nition rate among other methods compare our method with some others under different

decomposition levels. And it has been proved that the pro-

method computation time accuracy posed method is superior to others in terms of identification

WT + NN 0.234s+3.594s 97.67% accuracy and efficiency.

NDWT + NN 0.062s+3.594s 99.33%

WT + S V M 0.234s+3.204s 98.33% Acknowledgement

NDWT + S V M 0.062s+3.204s 99.67%

This work is supported by the grant 607731871 from

In order to test the reliability of our proposed method, the NSFC, NCET-07-0338 from the Ministry of Education,

we conduct the experiments of above four methods with de- and the grant 2006ABA023, 2007CA011 and 2007ABA036

composition level ranging from 1 to 4 for each palmprint. from the Department of Science & Technology in Hubei

As Figure 3 shown, when we choose the same classifier, the province, China. Xinge You is the Corresponding author.

methods based on NDWT are superior to the methods based

on WT in each decomposition level. Moreover, the identifi- References

cation rate of NDWT is increasing as long as the decompo-

sition level improving. When the palmprint is decomposed [1] Duta N, Jain A K, and Mardia K V. ”Matching of

by NDWT to 4-th level, we could obtain the identification Palmprint”, Journal; Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol

rate of 99.67% while WT reaches only 98.33%. 23, No. 4, pp. 477-485. 2001.

[2] Li Wenxin, and David Zhang. ”Palmprint Identifi-

100

cation by Fourier Transform”, Journal; International

99

Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelli-

98

gence, Vol 16, No. 4, pp. 417-432. 2002.

97

**[3] Lu Guangming, David Zhang, W.K. Kong. ”Palm-
**

Recognition rate

96

95

print Identification by Fused Wavelet Characteristics”,

94

Journal; Image Pattern Recognition, 2007.

93 [4] Wu Xiangqian, Wang Kuanquan, and David Zhang.

NDWT+NN

92 WT+NN ”Wavelet Energy Feature Extraction and Matching for

WT+SVM

91

NDWT+SVM Palmprint Recognition”, Journal; Journal of Computer

90

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Science and Technology, 2005.

Decomposition level

[5] Lu Guangming, David Zhang. ”Palmprint Recognition

Using Eigenpalm Feature”, Journal; Pattern Recogni-

Figure 3. Recognition rates versus the de- tion Letters, No. 24, pp. 1463-1467. 2003.

composition level

[6] Xinge You, Dan Zhang, et al, ”Face Representation by

Using Non-tensor Product Wavelets”, Proceedings of

the 18th ICPR, Vol 1, pp. 503-506. 2006.

5. Conclusion

[7] Xinge You, Qiuhui Chen et al, ”Construction of non-

In this paper, to overcome the drawbacks of feature tensor product wavelet and its application”, Technical

extraction based on traditional WT , we propose a novel Report, Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong

method by using non-separable wavelet filter banks. First Baptist University 2007.

of all, compared to the traditional WT , the non-separable [8] Wu Xiangqian, David Zhang, and Wang Kuanquan,

wavelet filter banks could capture more singular infor- The Technology of Palmprint Recognition, Science

mation in three high frequency components. Secondly, press, Beijing, 2006.

when we choose different filter banks we could emphasize

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