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**PALMPRINT IDENTIFICATION USING
**

WAVELET ENERGY

Kie Yih Edward Wong* G. Sainarayanan** Ali Chekima*

*School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

**Department of Electrical and Electronics, New Horizon College of Engineering, Bangalore, India

**Abstract- Palmprint Identification is the means of recognizing Palmprint geometry features are incapable to identify the
**

an individual from the database using his/ her palmprint identity of individuals in large database. This is because most

features. Palmprint is easy to capture, requires cheaper of the adults have similar palm width and palm area. Line

equipment and is more acceptable by the public. Moreover, features are hard to extract due to its thickness that is not

palmprint is also rich in features. Wavelet transform is a multi- uniform. Some of the wrinkles are as thick as the principal

resolution analysis tool that can extract palm lines in different lines. Point features require high-resolution images to find the

resolution levels. In low-resolution level, fine palm lines are minutiae points, or delta points. Palmprint can be analyzed as

extracted. The higher the resolution level, the coarser are the texture features. Some of the texture analyses conducted are

extracted palm lines. In this work, a digital camera is used to using Wavelet Transform [6], Derivative of Gaussian filters

acquire the ten right hand image of 100 different individuals. [7] and Fourier Transform [8]. Wavelet transforms extract

The hand images are pre-processed to find the key points. By wavelet coefficients from the palmprint image using different

referring to the key point, the palmprint images are rotated and types of wavelets. Some of the commonly used wavelets are

cropped. The palmprint images are enhanced and resized. The Haar wavelet, Daubechies wavelet, Symlets wavelet and

resized images are decomposed using different types of wavelets Coiflets wavelet. Every wavelet has its own decomposition

for six decomposition levels. Two different wavelet energy and scaling coefficients. The wavelets under different scaling

representations are tested. The feature vectors are compared to property can act as multi-resolution analysis to analyse

the database using Euclidean Distance or classified using different types of palm lines (principal line, wrinkles and

feedforward backpropagation neural network. From the results, ridges) [9].

an accuracy of 99.07 percent can be obtained using Db5 wavelet Fig. 1 shows the proposed palmprint biometric system

energy feature type 2 and classified with neural network. using wavelet energy.

I. INTRODUCTION

Palmprint Identification is the means of recognizing an

individual from the database using his/ her palmprint features.

Palmprint is one of the physiological biometrics that has been

introduced a decade ago. Physiological biometrics is the

usage of human body parts to identify the identity of an

individual. Some of the commonly used physiological Fig. 1. Palmprint Biometric System

characteristics are fingerprint, face, hand geometry, iris and

palmprint. Fingerprint can achieve high accuracy but it is In this work, ten right hand images of 100 different

affected by “dummy finger” that can fool most of the individuals are acquired using a digital camera. Then, the

fingerprint identification systems that do not have liveliness hand images are pre-processed to find the key points. By

test [1]. Face recognition has lower identification rate but it referring to the key points, the angle of rotation and the ROI

can be used to track the location of a person using mask are calculated. The palmprint images are rotated

surveillance cameras. Hand geometry features for most of the according to the angle of rotation and the central part of the

adults are similar, thus it is not suitable for identification palm is cropped. The palmprint images are enhanced using

purposes. Iris identification can provide highest accuracy image adjustment and/ or histogram equalization [10-11]. The

compared to others biometrics methods, but the iris-scanning palmprint is resized to 256 x 256 pixels. The resized images

device is expensive and might cause visual discomfort for are decomposed using different types of wavelets for six

frequent users. decomposition levels. The types of wavelet used in this work

Palmprint gained popularity among other types of are Haar wavelet, Daubechies wavelet 2 to 6, Symlets wavelet

biometric systems because it is difficult to imitate due to its 3 to 6 and Coiflets wavelet 1 and 2. Two different wavelet

complexity and size. The palmprint image is easy to capture energy representations namely, combination decomposition

and more acceptable by the public. Palmprint acquisition level normalization, WE1 and individually decomposition

requires cheaper equipment than iris scanning devices, such level normalization, WE2 are tested. The feature vectors are

as commercial digital camera. Furthermore, palmprint is also compared to the database using Euclidean distance or

rich in features. Various types of methods are suggested to classified using scaled conjugate gradient-based feedforward

extract the geometry features [2], line features [3], point backpropagation neural network.

features [4] and texture features [5-7] from the palmprint.

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International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007

**II. HAND IMAGE ACQUISITION local minima and K2 be the third local minima, circled in the
**

A Canon Powershot A430 digital camera is used to capture Fig 4.

ten right hand images of 100 different individuals. The hand

images had a uniform dark intensity background. The uniform

dark intensity background eases the hand image

segmentation. During the hand image acquisition, users are

required to lean their hand against the background and spread

their fingers apart. No special peg alignment is needed in this

work. No special lighting is used to brighten the hand images.

All of the hand images are 1024 x 768 pixels saved using

JPEG compression in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) format. Fig. 2

shows a hand image acquired using digital camera.

Fig. 4. Graph of Dist(PB,PW) versus Index of PB

**From the index of K1 and K2 in graph, the location of K1
**

and K2 in the boundary hand image is determined as

illustrated in Fig 5. The angle of rotation, ș˚ is the turning of

line connecting K1 and K2 (LK1,K2) with origin at K1 in a

clockwise direction so that the line is parallel with the x-axis.

The angle of rotation is visualized in Fig. 5.

Fig. 2. Hand Image

**III. HAND IMAGE PRE-PROCESSING
**

There are three main steps in image pre-processing, which

are image segmentation, image alignment and region-of-

interest selection. Image segmentation separates the hand

image from its background. Since the background is uniform

low intensity color, a global threshold value is selected to

perform the task. A fixed global threshold value cannot

segment different hand images properly. Thus, Otsu’s Method

is used to find a variable global threshold value [12] for

image segmentation. Fig. 3 shows the segmented hand image

using Otsu’s Method. Fig. 5. Angle of Rotation Calculation

**Let dK1,K2 be the distance between K1 and K2. According
**

to experimentation, distance between LK1,K2 and the ROI

mask, dK,ROI, is defined as 0.2 times of dK1,K2. This is to move

the ROI mask towards the center of the palm. The length of

each side of ROI mask, ls, is 1.4 times of dK1,K2. Variable ROI

masks allow cropping of palmprint image according to

different palm size. Fig. 6 shows the determination of the

square ROI mask.

Fig. 3. Segmented Hand Image

**Since the hand is free to rotate, image alignment is required
**

to align the hand images to a predefined orientation. Before

that, the boundary of the hand image is located using

boundary tracking algorithm. The middle of the wrist, PW, is

defined as the median value of the right most pixels. The

distance between boundary pixels, PB and PW, Dist(PB, PW)

are calculated. Fig. 4 shows the graph of Dist(PB, PW) versus

index of PB. PB and PW are shown in Fig. 5. Let K1 be the first

Fig. 6. Square ROI Mask Determination

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International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007

**IV. PALMPRINT EXTRACTION From Fig. 8, it is observed that the histogram equalized
**

The minimum and maximum for four corners of ROI mask palmprint images darken the palm lines and its background.

in x and y-axis are determined. Referring to these values, a E1 is less clear than E3 because the conversion of RGB to

smaller hand image was cropped. The cropped image is grayscale before image adjustment reduces the extraction of

rotated by ș degrees clockwise. By referring to the index of useful palmprint lines. The Histogram Equalized Palmprint

the first non-zero pixel, m from the diagonal pixels of the Image, E2 and Histogram Equalized Individual Adjusted

rotated image, the rotated image is cropped m pixels from its Palmprint Image, E4 are similar but E2 is clearer than E4.

side to obtain palmprint image. Let the grayscale intensity Since the enhanced images were variable in size, all of the

palmprint image be E0. Fig. 7 shows the palmprint image in enhanced images were resized to 256 x 256 pixels.

RGB format (left) and grayscale intensity format, E0 (right).

V. WAVELET TRANSFORM

Wavelet transform is a multi-resolution analysis tool that

can extract the palm lines in different resolution levels. In

low-resolution decomposition, the fine details of the

palmprint image are extracted. When the decomposition level

increases (higher resolution), the coarser palm lines are

extracted. In wavelet decomposition, the original palmprint

image (level one) or the approximation of the previous

decomposition level (others level except level 1) is used to

further decompose into approximation, horizontal, vertical

(a) (b) and diagonal details of the next decomposition level as in Fig.

Figure 7. Palmprint Image in (a) RGB (b) Grayscale Intensity 9. The size of the approximation and details for the level L +

1 is half of the width and height of the level L.

All of the palmprint images are enhanced using either

histogram adjustment and/ or histogram equalization. The

adjusted palmprint image, E1, is obtained by adjusting

grayscale palmprint image into full 256 bins. Histogram

equalized palmprint image, E2, is the grayscale palmprint

image with its histogram equalized into 256 bins. When all

the color channel of the palmprint image (Red, Green and

Blue) was firstly adjusted into 256 color bins, before

converting it into grayscale image, the individually adjusted

palmprint image, E3, is calculated. Histogram equalized

individual adjusted palmprint image, E4, is the histogram Fig. 9. Six Level of Wavelet Decomposition

equalized of E3. Fig 8 shows the enhanced images using

different enhancement methods. In this work, the palmprint image is analysed using Haar

wavelets, Daubechies wavelets (db2 to db 6), Symlets

Wavelets (sym3 to sym 6) and Coiflets Wavelets (coif1 and

coif2) to decompose the enhanced palmprint image into 6

decomposition levels. Fig. 10 shows the Haar wavelet

coefficients for the image E1 in six decomposition levels. The

details for every decomposition levels are adjusted for easy

viewing.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 8. Enhanced Image. (a) E1, (b) E2, (c) E3 and (d) E4

Fig. 10. Haar Wavelet Coefficients For E1

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International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007

**VI. WAVELET ENERGY The wavelet energy feature for L decomposition levels are
**

The wavelet coefficient images for different decomposition arranged as in (3).

levels have different size. Thus, the images are divided into 4

x 4 blocks regardless of the size of the image. Each 4 x 4 WL L = [WD H , L , WDV , L , WD D , L ] (3)

block in different decomposition levels represents the wavelet

coefficient value in the same particular area of coefficient

image in different decomposition levels. The feature representation WE1 is calculated using (4) and

The wavelet energy for all the blocks is calculated using (1) (5).

WE ALL = [WL 6 , WL5 , WL 4 , WL3 , WL 2 , WL1 ] (4)

P Q

WE i , j = ¦ ¦ (C p , q ) 2 (1) WE1 = WE ALL / sum(WE ALL ) (5)

p =1 q =1

**For feature representation WE2, the feature vector is
**

where i and j are the location of the blocks from 1 to 4, [P Q] obtained by calculating using (6) and (7).

is the size of the decomposition block, C is wavelet

coefficient value in every block.

NWL L = WL L / sum(WL L ) (6)

Two types of wavelet energy representations are used in

this work. The first wavelet energy representation, WE1, is

calculated by normalizing the sum of the total decomposition WE 2 = [ NWL 6 , NWL 5 , NWL 4 , NWL 3 , NWL 2 , NWL1 ] (7)

levels while the second wavelet energy representation, WE2,

is calculated by normalizing the sum of different Fig. 13 shows the wavelet energy for the same individual

decomposition levels. Figure 11 shows the feature but taken at different time interval while Fig 14 shows the

representation WE1 and Figure 12 shows the feature wavelet energy for different individuals.

representation WE2.

Fig. 11. Feature Representation WE1

Fig. 13. Wavelet Energy For Same Individual At Different Time

Fig. 12. Feature Representation WE2

**The wavelet energy feature (horizontal, vertical and
**

diagonal) in different decomposition levels is arranged, as in

(2). Fig. 14. Wavelet Energy For Different Individuals

**WD K , L = [WE1,1 , WE1,2 , WE1,3 , , WE 4,3 , WE 4,4 ] (2) From Fig. 13 and 14, it is shown that the wavelet energy is
**

different in every individual. The wavelet energy can be

regenerated from the same individual at different time.

where WDK,L is the wavelet energy for detail K in L

decomposition level, K is either horizontal, vertical or

diagonal details.

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International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007

**VII. FEATURE MATCHING achieved, or when the maximum epoch of 20000 is reached,
**

The feature vector (WE1 or WE2) is matched using or when the minimum gradient of 1e-6 is exceeded. Another

Euclidean distance or scaled conjugate gradient-based three sets of feature vector are used to find a suitable

feedforward backpropagation neural network. The Euclidean threshold for determining the genuine and imposter. The

Distance measures the likeliness of two different wavelet remaining four sets of feature vectors are used for testing

energy features using (8). purposes.

**Y VIII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
**

ED = ¦ (WEX k , y − WEX l , y ) 2 (8) Table 1 and Table 2 show the Euclidean Distance results

y =0 for WE1 and WE2 respectively.

**where WEX is the wavelet representation type 1 or 2 {WE1 Table 1: Euclidean Distance Results for WE1
**

or WE2}, Y is the length of the feature vector, WEXk and E0 E1 E2 E3 E4

WEXl are any two feature vectors for individual k and l from Coif1 78.640 81.554 82.940 81.551 82.988

the database. Coif2 78.962 82.474 82.429 82.451 82.384

Fig. 15 shows the graph of the normalized genuine and Db2 82.443 86.328 86.140 86.266 86.160

imposter matching distribution versus the threshold index. If Db3 81.468 85.400 84.969 85.330 84.925

the wavelet energy feature belongs to the same individual Db4 79.240 82.547 81.730 82.510 81.757

(intra-class matching), the ED result will be lower than the Db5 79.958 84.396 82.939 84.334 82.984

threshold obtained from the minimum error. For the inter Db6 78.208 81.899 80.856 81.819 80.894

class matching or matching between different individuals, the Haar 89.694 90.660 91.761 90.645 91.726

ED result will be higher than the threshold obtained from the Sym3 81.468 85.400 84.969 85.330 84.925

minimum error. Sym4 77.954 82.169 82.408 82.083 82.424

Sym5 76.430 79.598 80.525 79.618 80.537

Sym6 78.740 82.462 82.335 82.414 82.291

**Table 2: Euclidean Distance Results for WE2
**

E0 E1 E2 E3 E4

Coif1 80.725 83.842 87.043 83.816 87.019

Coif2 80.060 82.777 84.675 82.779 84.648

Db2 82.094 86.437 89.208 86.376 89.235

Db3 83.105 87.399 90.026 87.372 89.992

Db4 82.286 86.831 89.084 86.781 89.065

Db5 83.073 86.180 88.856 86.192 88.833

Db6 82.098 85.118 88.006 84.979 87.972

Haar 86.848 90.765 92.945 90.770 92.894

Sym3 83.105 87.399 90.026 87.372 89.992

Fig. 15. Genuine/ Imposter Matching Distribution Versus Threshold Index

Sym4 78.453 80.818 83.712 80.744 83.766

Sym5 79.052 82.036 84.920 82.009 84.957

In this work, each of the feature vectors is matched with the Sym6 77.946 80.007 82.909 79.908 82.912

remaining 999 feature vectors in the database using Euclidean

Distance. The genuine ED distribution graph and imposter From both tables (Table 1 and Table 2), it is shown that the

ED distribution graphs are drawn. Since for every feature Haar wavelet can achieve the highest accuracy rate compared

vector, there will be nine genuine matching and 990 imposter to other types of wavelet such as Daubechies 2 to 6, Symlets

matching, both of the distribution graph is normalized. From 3 to 6 and Coiflets 1 to 2. The enhanced image (E1, E2, E3

the interceptions between these two distribution graphs, a and E4) can improve the accuracy of the system, compared to

threshold is selected. The accuracy for different types of the original grayscale image E0. The histogram equalized

wavelets using different types of feature representation is images, E2 and E4 can perform better compared to the

calculated. adjusted images, E1 and E3. The enhanced image, E2 can

In the scaled conjugate gradient-based feedforward yield the best accuracy rate compared to others. Wavelet

backpropagation neural network (NN), three out of ten sets of energy representation type 2 is better than the wavelet energy

feature vector (for same individual) are used for training. In representation type 1.

this work, the number of hidden neuron is set to 288, 432, and Table 3 to 5 are the neural network results for 288, 432 and

576, so that it is one, 1.5 and two times the size of the feature 576 hidden neurons respectively. CoifX is the Coiflets

vector. The NN has 100 output neurons to represent the Wavelet of Order X, where X = 1 or 2. DbX is the Daubechies

identity of every user in the system. The output neuron has a Wavelet of Order X, where X = 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. SymX is the

range from zero to one. Both of the hidden and output Symlets Wavelet of Order X, where X = 3, 4, 5 or 6.

neurons used tangent sigmoid activation function for training.

The NN is trained until the performance goal of 1e-3 is

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International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007

Table 3: Neural Network Results for 288 Hidden Neuron. pixels, two key points (K1 and K2) were determined. Using

E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 these key points, the angle of rotation and the location of

Coif1 96.58 98.23 97.75 98.10 97.95 square ROI are approximated. The palmprint image is

Coif2 96.93 98.33 98.00 98.59 98.53 cropped out after rotation. The palmprint image is enhanced

Db2 97.34 98.33 98.26 98.83 98.46 using image adjustment and/ or histogram equalization. The

Db3 97.42 97.16 97.84 96.96 97.40 enhanced image is decomposed into six levels using different

Db4 97.10 97.88 97.48 97.74 97.94 types of wavelet such as Haar wavelet, Daubechies wavelet,

Db5 97.04 98.42 98.61 98.14 97.41 Symlets Wavelet and Coiflets Wavelet. The wavelet

Db6 96.93 98.34 97.84 98.23 97.79 coefficients are represented using two types of wavelet energy

Haar 97.22 97.91 97.95 97.78 98.20 features, WE1 or WE2. The wavelet energy feature is

Sym3 97.42 97.16 97.84 96.96 97.40 compared with the remaining of the feature vectors stored in

Sym4 97.19 97.98 98.20 97.81 97.49 the database using the Euclidean Distance or the scaled

Sym5 96.44 97.88 97.47 98.17 98.22 conjugate gradient-based feedforward backpropagation neural

Sym6 97.01 98.15 98.25 97.77 98.29 network. From the results, an accuracy of 99.07 can be

achieved using enhanced image E3 decomposed with

Table 4: Neural Network Results for 432 Hidden Neuron.

Daubechies 5 (Db5) and trained using neural network with

E0 E1 E2 E3 E4

576 hidden neurons. For future work, more test data will be

Coif1 97.39 98.12 97.93 98.43 98.12

gathered to test the accuracy of the neural network. A

Coif2 97.31 98.43 98.70 98.13 98.60

modified wavelet transform will be suggested to further

Db2 97.99 98.70 98.22 98.70 98.41

increase the accuracy of the palmprint biometric system.

Db3 97.58 97.84 98.59 98.67 98.31

Db4 97.65 98.15 97.99 98.22 98.44

97.59 98.50 98.57 98.45 98.75

REFERENCES

Db5 [1] Ton Van Der Putte and Jeroen Keuning, “Biometrical Fingerprint

Db6 97.46 98.56 98.85 98.54 98.17 Recognition: Don’t Get Your Fingers Burned, Smart Card Research and

Haar 97.94 98.50 98.51 98.44 98.61 Advanced Applications,” IFIP TC8/WG8.8 Fourth Working Conference on

Sym3 97.58 97.84 98.59 98.67 98.31 Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications, pp. 289-303, 2001.

[2] Edward Wong, G. Sainarayanan and Ali Chekima, “Palmprint

Sym4 97.47 98.36 98.17 98.20 98.39

Authentication using Relative Geometric Feature,” 3rd International

Sym5 97.00 98.19 98.55 98.24 98.47 Conference on Artificial Intelligent in Engineering and Technology (ICAIET

Sym6 97.17 98.64 98.60 98.54 98.50 2006), pp 743-748.

[3] C.C. Han, H.L. Cheng, C.L. Lin and K.C. Fan, “Personal Authentication

Table 5: Neural Network Results for 576 Hidden Neuron. using Palm-print features”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, issue 2, 2003, pp

371-381.

E0 E1 E2 E3 E4

[4] Nicolae Duta, Anil K. Jain and Kanti V. Mardia, “Matching of

Coif1 97.52 98.53 98.44 96.28 97.32 palmprints”, Pattern Recognition Letters 23, 2002, pp. 477-485.

Coif2 97.27 98.16 98.61 98.20 98.68 [5] Wenxin Li, Jane You and David Zhang, “Texture-Based Palmprint

Db2 98.04 98.49 98.26 98.71 98.63 Retrieval Using a Layered Search Scheme for Personal Identification,” IEEE

Transactions on Multimedia, vol 7, No. 5, Oct 2005, pp 891 – 898.

Db3 97.93 98.85 98.09 98.83 97.71

[6] Xiang-Qian Wu, Kuan-Quan Wang and David Zhang, "Wavelet Based

Db4 97.40 98.47 98.87 98.38 98.79 Palmprint Recognition," Proceedings of the First International Conference

Db5 97.90 98.84 98.49 99.07 98.73 on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Beijing, 4-5 November 2002, pp.

Db6 97.75 98.94 98.70 98.91 97.59 1253-1257.

[7] Xiangqian Wu, Kuanquan Wang and David Zhang, “Palmprint Texture

Haar 98.33 98.17 97.89 98.62 98.40

Analysis Using Derivative of Gaussian Filters”, International Conference on

Sym3 97.93 98.85 98.09 98.83 97.71 Computational Intelligence and Security 2006, Vol. 1 (2006), pp. 751-754.

Sym4 97.66 98.30 98.74 98.62 98.70 [8] Wenxin Li, David Zhang and Zhuoqun Xu, “Palmprint Identification By

Sym5 97.21 98.45 98.75 98.53 98.21 Fourier Transform”, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and

Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 16, No.4 (2002), pp. 417-432.

Sym6 97.40 98.42 98.89 98.45 98.82

[9] David D. Zhang, Palmprint Authentication, Kluwer Academic Publishers,

2004.

From Table 3 to 5, it is observable that the increase of the [10] Edward Wong, G. Sainarayanan and Ali Chekima, “Palmprint

hidden neurons can increase the accuracy rate. The increase Identification using Discrete Cosine Transform,” World Engineering

of hidden neurons will increase the storage space required to Congress 2007 (WEC2007), pp 85-91.

[11] Edward Wong, G. Sainarayanan and Ali Chekima, “Palmprint

save the network. An accuracy of 99 percent can be achieved Identification using SobelCode,” Malaysia-Japan International Symposium

using the wavelet energy representation WE2 for Daubechies on Advanced Technology (MJISAT), 12-15 Nov 2007, Accepted for oral

5 (Db5). The scaled conjugate gradient-based feedforward presentation.

backpropagation neural network can classify the genuine and [12] Otsu, N., "A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,"

imposter better than the Euclidean Distance. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1979,

pp. 62-66.

IX. CONCLUSION

Ten right hand images from 100 different individuals were

acquired using a digital camera. The hand images were

segmented and its boundaries are located. From the boundary

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