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ICSP2006 Proceedings

Palmprint Identification using Gabor Wavelet Probabilistic Neural Networks 1
Dongmei Sun, Zhengding Qiu, Qiang Li

Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, P.R.China

Abstract: In this paper, a novel algorithm for automatic palmprint This paper proposes a new method for palmprint
identification based on Gabor wavelet probabilistic neural identification called Gabor wavelet probabilistic neural
networks (GWPNN) is proposed, which incorporating advantages networks (GWPNN), which incorporating advantages of
of Gabor wavelet network (GWN) and probabilistic neural both Gabor wavelet network (GWN) and probabilistic
networks (PNN). We first construct a GWN model for each
neural networks (PNN). We first construct a GWN model
individual palmprint and then combine it with PNN in a unified
framework that aims to significantly improve the discriminant for each palmprint and then combine it with PNN in a
capability for palmprint recognition. In our experiments, the unified framework that aims to significantly improve the
accuracy identification rate can reach 99.5% on the database that discriminability for palmprint identification. The rest of the
contains 1,971 image samples. It demonstrates that proposed paper is organized as follows. GWN is described in Section
algorithm is effective and robust. 2. GWPNN is discussed in Section 3. Section 4 gives some
Key words: palmprint identification, Gabor wavelet, probabilistic experimental results. Finally, conclusions are presented in
neural networks Section 5.


Recently, palmprint recognition has received much more For an automatic pattern identification system, it is
attention. Compared with the other available biometric important to accurately extract local features. Wavelet
features, palmprint recognition has several advantages [1]: analysis is desirable for this purpose since it has good
(i) palmprints contain more rich information than characteristics of space-frequency localization. In particular,
fingerprints and hand geometry, so they are more Gabor wavelet functions provide the best possible tradeoff
distinctive; (ii) palmprints are easily captured even with between spatial and frequency resolution [11]. Furthermore,
lower resolution devices, which would be cheaper; (iii) using Gabor wavelets analysis is biologically motivated, as
using a palmprint capturer, all the features of a palm such they have similar shapes to the receptive fields of simple
as hand geometry, minutiae features, principal and wrinkles cells in the human visual cortex.
could be combined to build a more accurate and robust Wavelet networks are the combination of wavelet
multi-modal biometric system; (iv) user’s acceptability is theory and neural networks, which using wavelets as
high. activation function. The strength of wavelet networks lies
Current works on palmprint recognition primarily are in their capabilities of catching essential features in
based on two categories of features [2]: (i) statistical “frequency-rich” signals. Kruger has proposed a GWN for
features such as eigenpalm [3], fisherpalm [4], Fourier face recognition [11]. A set of weighted Gabor wavelets
transform [5], Gabor filter [6], wavelet transform [7]; (ii) were used to represent an image. Since GWN was
structural features including principal lines, creases, delta optimized for the representation of an image, it may not
points, minutiae [8-10]. effectively handle the discriminating features for
One of important problems for palmprint recognition is recognition [12]. So we extend the GWN to a new
how to match or classify a palmprint using the extracted GWPNN.
features. There are usually two categories of discrimination For a given palmprint image f(x,y), a GWN model is
techniques for palmprint recognition. One is based on constructed by a set of Gabor wavelets ^\ i ` :
minimum distance classifiers. Some popular distance
measurements include Euclidean, Mahalanobis and cosine
distance. The other is constructing decision classifiers by f ( x, y ) ¦ w\ i i < 7W (1)
i 1
optimizing an error criterion. One of examples is artificial
neural network.

1 This work is supported by Research Foundation of Beijing Jiaotong University under contracts 2004SM008, the Key Laboratory of
Information Science & Engineering of Railway Ministry under Grant No.0509.
0-7803-9737-1/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE

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(a) Original palmprint images (b) The representation with GWN for (a)

Fig.1 The palmprint images represented with the optimized GWN


\ 1

\2 )
Di(x) C(x)
Input palmprint Xi2



Gabor wavelets Pattern layer Summation layer Decision layer

Fig. 2 Diagram of GWPNN

Here ^\ i ` is a 2D Gabor wavelet basis function that can Where, W ^w1 , w2 ,!, wN ` denotes a weight vector
be defined as: specific for an individual palmprint image f. N is the
1 ª 1 º number of Gabor wavelets in GWN.
\ i ( x, y) exp « 2 ( x'2  y '2 ) » cos(Z0 x' ) (2) Because Gabor wavelets are non-orthogonal, for a
2SV 2 ¬ 2V ¼ given family < , the weight W can not be calculated by
Where, projection of the Gabor wavelets onto the image f.
x' ai ( x cos T i  y sin T i ), y ' ai ( x sin T i  y cos T i ), According to Kruger [11], this problem can be solved by
Z0 , V , ai ,Ti are the frequency, the deviation related to the

considering the bi-orthogonal family of wavelets < as
spatial band width, the scale and the orientation 1
respectively. In order to find the GWN for an image f, we W 7f
< < < 7
<7 f (4)
minimize the energy function:
Fig.1 shows two original palmprint images represented
with the optimized GWN.
W arg min f ( x, y )  ¦ wi\ i ( x, y ) (3)
i 1

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The PNN is one of implementation on Bayes strategy
through finding the minimum risk cost based on the
probability density function. PNN offers several strengths
over back-propagation networks. Besides its generalization
ability, the training speed of PNN is much faster because its
leaning rule is simple and requires only a single pass
(a) The original captured (b) The ROI of the
through the training data [2]. Most important, training a
palmprint image palmprint image
new pattern into a trained PNN requires no retraining of the
existing network links.
Fig.3 The captured palmprint image and the ROI
In this paper, we propose a GWPNN by introducing
of the palmprint
the weight vectors of GWN to PNN as feature patterns. As
show in Fig.2, the diagram consists of five layers. The first
layer receives input palmprint images. The second layer
corresponds to a set of Gabor wavelets, which are used to 20
represent the image patterns with GWN feature space. The
third layer servers as pattern layer, which receives the
weight vectors of GWN. On receiving a pattern x from the 15

second layer, the neuron xij of the pattern layer computes its Distance
output [13]:
ª ( x  x ij ) T ( x  x ij ) º
g ij ( x ) p (i ) exp «  » (5) 7.5

¬« 2V 2 ¼» 5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Where, p(i) is a priori probability, xij is the neuron vector, ı User No.
is a smoothing parameter. Fig. 4. Distance between a test sample and other
The forth layer is summation layer, the neurons 20 samples
compute the maximum likelihood of pattern x being
classified into Ci through summarizing and averaging the
output of all neurons that belong to the same class: unify their size to 128×128. After histogram equalization
T and noise canceling of the ROIs, the palmprint database is
1 Ni ª ( x  xij ) ( x  xij ) º set up. Fig.3 shows the original captured palmprint image
Di ( x) p(i ) ¦ exp « » (6)
Ni j 1 ¬« 2V 2 ¼»
and the ROI of the palmprint through preprocessing.
The hold-out rule is employed to evaluate the
Where, Ni is the number of samples in class Ci. classification error. Palmprint database is divided into two
The final decision output is presented at the last layer. non-overlapping sets: training set and testing set. The
The output layer unit classifies the pattern x according to training set is made up of 490 palmprint (5 palmprints from
the Bayes’s decision rule based on the output of all the each of unique individual) samples, while the remainder
summation layer neurons: 1481 images make up of the testing set (6-20 samples for
Cˆ ( x) arg max{Di ( x)}, i 1,2,..., m (7) each person).
We investigate the identification performance using
In this way, GWPNN inherits the strengths of both
different number of Gabor wavelets for GWPNN. Table 1
GWN and PNN in image representation and in pattern
displays the correct identification rate as the number
varying from 16 to 100. It is demonstrated that as the
number of Gabor wavelets increase, the correct
identification rate also increase. When 80 Gabor wavelets
are used the identification rate is highest. Even the number
The experimental database is consisted of 1,971 right-
of Gabor wavelets increase, the performance did not
hand images from 98 individuals. To evaluate the stability
increase anymore.
of palmprint features, each individual’s hand-image is
Fig. 4 shows the distances between a test sample and
collected 2~5 times in a period of 3 month. A special
20 palmprints in the database. We can see that the output
digital-camera-based device is designed to capture the
value of the GWPNN is 3#. It is noticeable that using
images. The original resolution of hand-images is
GWPNN we can obtain the correct identification rate
1792×1200. We take the ROIs (region of interest) out and

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