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**Palmprint Identification using Gabor Wavelet Probabilistic Neural Networks 1
**

Dongmei Sun, Zhengding Qiu, Qiang Li

**Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, P.R.China
**

E-mail: dmsun@bjtu.edu.cn

Abstract: In this paper, a novel algorithm for automatic palmprint This paper proposes a new method for palmprint

identification based on Gabor wavelet probabilistic neural identification called Gabor wavelet probabilistic neural

networks (GWPNN) is proposed, which incorporating advantages networks (GWPNN), which incorporating advantages of

of Gabor wavelet network (GWN) and probabilistic neural both Gabor wavelet network (GWN) and probabilistic

networks (PNN). We first construct a GWN model for each

neural networks (PNN). We first construct a GWN model

individual palmprint and then combine it with PNN in a unified

framework that aims to significantly improve the discriminant for each palmprint and then combine it with PNN in a

capability for palmprint recognition. In our experiments, the unified framework that aims to significantly improve the

accuracy identification rate can reach 99.5% on the database that discriminability for palmprint identification. The rest of the

contains 1,971 image samples. It demonstrates that proposed paper is organized as follows. GWN is described in Section

algorithm is effective and robust. 2. GWPNN is discussed in Section 3. Section 4 gives some

Key words: palmprint identification, Gabor wavelet, probabilistic experimental results. Finally, conclusions are presented in

neural networks Section 5.

1. INTRODUCTION 2. GABOR WAVELET NETWORK

**Recently, palmprint recognition has received much more For an automatic pattern identification system, it is
**

attention. Compared with the other available biometric important to accurately extract local features. Wavelet

features, palmprint recognition has several advantages [1]: analysis is desirable for this purpose since it has good

(i) palmprints contain more rich information than characteristics of space-frequency localization. In particular,

fingerprints and hand geometry, so they are more Gabor wavelet functions provide the best possible tradeoff

distinctive; (ii) palmprints are easily captured even with between spatial and frequency resolution [11]. Furthermore,

lower resolution devices, which would be cheaper; (iii) using Gabor wavelets analysis is biologically motivated, as

using a palmprint capturer, all the features of a palm such they have similar shapes to the receptive fields of simple

as hand geometry, minutiae features, principal and wrinkles cells in the human visual cortex.

could be combined to build a more accurate and robust Wavelet networks are the combination of wavelet

multi-modal biometric system; (iv) user’s acceptability is theory and neural networks, which using wavelets as

high. activation function. The strength of wavelet networks lies

Current works on palmprint recognition primarily are in their capabilities of catching essential features in

based on two categories of features [2]: (i) statistical “frequency-rich” signals. Kruger has proposed a GWN for

features such as eigenpalm [3], fisherpalm [4], Fourier face recognition [11]. A set of weighted Gabor wavelets

transform [5], Gabor filter [6], wavelet transform [7]; (ii) were used to represent an image. Since GWN was

structural features including principal lines, creases, delta optimized for the representation of an image, it may not

points, minutiae [8-10]. effectively handle the discriminating features for

One of important problems for palmprint recognition is recognition [12]. So we extend the GWN to a new

how to match or classify a palmprint using the extracted GWPNN.

features. There are usually two categories of discrimination For a given palmprint image f(x,y), a GWN model is

techniques for palmprint recognition. One is based on constructed by a set of Gabor wavelets ^\ i ` :

minimum distance classifiers. Some popular distance

N

measurements include Euclidean, Mahalanobis and cosine

distance. The other is constructing decision classifiers by f ( x, y ) ¦ w\ i i < 7W (1)

i 1

optimizing an error criterion. One of examples is artificial

neural network.

1 This work is supported by Research Foundation of Beijing Jiaotong University under contracts 2004SM008, the Key Laboratory of

Information Science & Engineering of Railway Ministry under Grant No.0509.

____________________________________

0-7803-9737-1/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE

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(a) Original palmprint images (b) The representation with GWN for (a)

Fig.1 The palmprint images represented with the optimized GWN

X11

X12

\ 1

X1N1

D1(x

\2 )

Xi1

Di(x) C(x)

Input palmprint Xi2

\i

XiN2

Dm(x)

Xm1

Xm2

\N

XmNm

Gabor wavelets Pattern layer Summation layer Decision layer

Fig. 2 Diagram of GWPNN

**Here ^\ i ` is a 2D Gabor wavelet basis function that can Where, W ^w1 , w2 ,!, wN ` denotes a weight vector
**

be defined as: specific for an individual palmprint image f. N is the

1 ª 1 º number of Gabor wavelets in GWN.

\ i ( x, y) exp « 2 ( x'2 y '2 ) » cos(Z0 x' ) (2) Because Gabor wavelets are non-orthogonal, for a

2SV 2 ¬ 2V ¼ given family < , the weight W can not be calculated by

Where, projection of the Gabor wavelets onto the image f.

x' ai ( x cos T i y sin T i ), y ' ai ( x sin T i y cos T i ), According to Kruger [11], this problem can be solved by

Z0 , V , ai ,Ti are the frequency, the deviation related to the

considering the bi-orthogonal family of wavelets < as

follow:

spatial band width, the scale and the orientation 1

respectively. In order to find the GWN for an image f, we W 7f

< < <7

<7 f (4)

minimize the energy function:

2

Fig.1 shows two original palmprint images represented

N

with the optimized GWN.

W arg min f ( x, y ) ¦ wi\ i ( x, y ) (3)

i 1

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3. GABOR WAVELET PROBABILISTIC NEURAL

NETWORKS

**The PNN is one of implementation on Bayes strategy
**

through finding the minimum risk cost based on the

probability density function. PNN offers several strengths

over back-propagation networks. Besides its generalization

ability, the training speed of PNN is much faster because its

leaning rule is simple and requires only a single pass

(a) The original captured (b) The ROI of the

through the training data [2]. Most important, training a

palmprint image palmprint image

new pattern into a trained PNN requires no retraining of the

existing network links.

Fig.3 The captured palmprint image and the ROI

In this paper, we propose a GWPNN by introducing

of the palmprint

the weight vectors of GWN to PNN as feature patterns. As

show in Fig.2, the diagram consists of five layers. The first

layer receives input palmprint images. The second layer

corresponds to a set of Gabor wavelets, which are used to 20

represent the image patterns with GWN feature space. The

17.5

third layer servers as pattern layer, which receives the

weight vectors of GWN. On receiving a pattern x from the 15

**second layer, the neuron xij of the pattern layer computes its Distance
**

12.5

output [13]:

10

ª ( x x ij ) T ( x x ij ) º

g ij ( x ) p (i ) exp « » (5) 7.5

¬« 2V 2 ¼» 5

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Where, p(i) is a priori probability, xij is the neuron vector, ı User No.

is a smoothing parameter. Fig. 4. Distance between a test sample and other

The forth layer is summation layer, the neurons 20 samples

compute the maximum likelihood of pattern x being

classified into Ci through summarizing and averaging the

output of all neurons that belong to the same class: unify their size to 128×128. After histogram equalization

T and noise canceling of the ROIs, the palmprint database is

1 Ni ª ( x xij ) ( x xij ) º set up. Fig.3 shows the original captured palmprint image

Di ( x) p(i ) ¦ exp « » (6)

Ni j 1 ¬« 2V 2 ¼»

and the ROI of the palmprint through preprocessing.

The hold-out rule is employed to evaluate the

Where, Ni is the number of samples in class Ci. classification error. Palmprint database is divided into two

The final decision output is presented at the last layer. non-overlapping sets: training set and testing set. The

The output layer unit classifies the pattern x according to training set is made up of 490 palmprint (5 palmprints from

the Bayes’s decision rule based on the output of all the each of unique individual) samples, while the remainder

summation layer neurons: 1481 images make up of the testing set (6-20 samples for

Cˆ ( x) arg max{Di ( x)}, i 1,2,..., m (7) each person).

We investigate the identification performance using

In this way, GWPNN inherits the strengths of both

different number of Gabor wavelets for GWPNN. Table 1

GWN and PNN in image representation and in pattern

displays the correct identification rate as the number

classification.

varying from 16 to 100. It is demonstrated that as the

number of Gabor wavelets increase, the correct

4. EXPERIMENTS

identification rate also increase. When 80 Gabor wavelets

are used the identification rate is highest. Even the number

The experimental database is consisted of 1,971 right-

of Gabor wavelets increase, the performance did not

hand images from 98 individuals. To evaluate the stability

increase anymore.

of palmprint features, each individual’s hand-image is

Fig. 4 shows the distances between a test sample and

collected 2~5 times in a period of 3 month. A special

20 palmprints in the database. We can see that the output

digital-camera-based device is designed to capture the

value of the GWPNN is 3#. It is noticeable that using

images. The original resolution of hand-images is

GWPNN we can obtain the correct identification rate

1792×1200. We take the ROIs (region of interest) out and

99.5%.

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[3] G. Lu, D. Zhang, K. Wang, “Palmprint recongnition using

eigenpalm features”, Pattern recognition Letters, vol. 24, pp.

Table 1. Correct identification rate using different 1463-1467, 2003.

number of Gabor wavelets in GWPNN [4] X. Wu, G. Lu, D. Zhang, K. Wang, “Fisherpalms based

palmprint recongnition”, Pattern recognition Letters, vol. 24, pp.

Number of 16 25 36 64 80 100 2829-2838, 2003

wavelets [5] W. Li, D. Zhang, Z. Xu, “Palmprint Identification by Fourier

Identification 75.2 80.5 88.6 96 99.5 98 Transform”, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and

rate (%) Artificial Intelligence, vol. 16, pp. 417-432, 2002

[6] W. Kong, D. Zhang, W. Li, “Palmprint feature extraction

using 2-D Gabor filters”, Pattern recognition, vol. 36, pp. 2339-

2347, 2003

5. CONCLUSION

[7] L. Zhang, D. Zhang, “Characterization of palmprints by

wavelet signatures via directional context modeling”, IEEE Trans.

This paper proposes a new method for palmprint Man and Cybernetics, Part B, vol. 34, pp. 1335-1347, 2004.

identification called GWPNN, which incorporating [8] D. Zhang and W. Shu, “Two novel characteristics in palmprint

advantages of both GWN and PNN. First, we construct a verification: datum point invariance and line feature matching”,

GWN model for individual, then the weight vectors of Pattern Recognition, vol. 32, pp. 692-702, 1999.

GWN are introduced to PNN as feature patterns. In this [9] J. Chen, C. Zhang, G. Rong, “Palmprint Recognition using

way, a GWPNN not only has good image representation Crease”, International Conference on Image Processing, vol.3, pp.

ability, but also significantly improve the discriminating 234-237, Oct. 7-10, 2001.

[10] C. Han, H. Cheng, C. Lin, K. Fan, “Personal authentication

capability for palmprint identification. The experimental

using palm-print features”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, pp. 371-

results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the 381, 2003.

method. [11] V. Krüger, “Gabor Wavelet Networks for Object

Representation”, Ph.D thesis, University of Maryland, 2001.

REFERENCES [12] H. Zhang, B. Zhang, W. Huang, Q. Tian, “Gabor Wavelet

Association Memory for face Recognition”. IEEE Trans. Neural

[1] A.K. Jain, A. Ross, D. Prabhakar, “An introduction to Networks, vol. 16, pp. 275-278, 2005

biometric recognition”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for [13] K. Mao, K. Tan, W. Ser, “Probabilistic Neural-Network

Video Technology, vol. 14, pp. 4-20, 2004. Structure Determination for Pattern Classification”, IEEE Trans.

[2] T. Connie, A. Jin, M. Ong, D. Ling, “An automated palmprint Neural Networks, vol. 11, pp. 1009-1016, 2000.

recognition system”, Image and Vision Computing, vol. 23, pp.

501-515, 2005.

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