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LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas, also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, liquid petroleum gas or simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a vital source of energy for millions of people around the world. LP Gas consists mainly of propane and butane, which are gases at atmospheric temperature and pressure. When subjected to modest pressure or refrigeration, these gases liquefy making it possible to transport and store LP Gas as a liquid, yet use it as a gas. This requires pressurized cylinders and containers, which must be safely and carefully handled. LP Gas is a clean and portable fuel. It provides heat and power in remote areas as well as in densely populated urban areas. Because of its portability, it is not dependent on transmission lines or pipeline grids. Its most popular use is for cooking and heating in the residential and commercial segments. The agriculture market uses LP Gas for crop and animal production, and powering farm equipment such as irrigation pump engines. Industry relies on LP Gas for heating, drying, and powering industrial trucks etc. In response to growing concerns of urban air pollution and greenhouse gas formation, the use of LP Gas as an automotive fuel (Auto Gas) is becoming increasingly popular. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of all energy consumed, and burns relatively cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards, but it can cause air pollution. Large amounts of LPG can be stored in bulk cylinders and can be buried underground. USES Rural heating Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many countries, LPG can provide an alternative to electricity and heating oil (kerosene). LPG is most often used where there is no access to piped natural gas. Motor fuel When LPG is used to fuel internal combustion engines, it is often referred to as autogas or auto propane. In some countries, it has been used since the 1940s as a petrol alternative for spark ignition engines.

LPG has a lower energy density than either petrol or fuel-oil, so the equivalent fuel consumption is higher. Many governments impose less tax on LPG than on petrol or fuel-oil, which helps offset the greater consumption of LPG than of petrol or fuel-oil. However, in many European countries this tax break is often compensated by a much higher annual road tax on cars using LPG than on cars using petrol or fuel-oil. Propane is the third most widely used motor fuel in the world. 2008 estimates are that over 13 million vehicles are fueled by propane gas worldwide. Over 20 million tonnes (over 7 billion US gallons) are used annually as a vehicle fuel. Refrigeration LPG is instrumental in providing off-the-grid refrigeration, usually by means of a gas absorption refrigerator. Cooking LPG is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, for convenience or because it is the preferred fuel source. According to the 2011 Census of India, 28.5% of Indian households or 33.6 million Indian households used LPG as cooking fuel in 2011, which is supplied to their homes either in pressurised cylinders or through pipes. LPG is subsidised by the government in India. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it potentially affects the urban middle class voting pattern. LPG was once a popular cooking fuel in Hong Kong; however, the continued expansion of town gas to buildings has reduced LPG usage to less than 24% of residential units. LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in virtually all households, with the exception of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo which have a natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Poor families receive a government grant ("Vale Gs") used exclusively for the acquisition of LPG. LPG is commonly used in North America for outdoor grilling. ADVANTAGES OF LPG LPG can be economically stored and transported as liquid in cylinders and used as a gas in any place. LPG is easily controllable and flexible to use according to requirements. LPG has a complete construction and produces a large amount of heat. LPG produces very little CO or during combustion and is uncommonly safe. Does not leave Carbon or Sulfur deposits on gas appliances thus reducing repairs and washing.

LPG is an efficient petroleum fuel. BENEFITS OF LPG AS A FUEL Greener and Cleaner Compared with petrol and diesel, LPG is the best environmental alternative LPG is a low carbon content fuel that can reduce your carbon footprint LPG produces fewer harmful emissions that impact on local air quality Engine noise is low Less damage to soil and water in case of spills - LPG will quickly evaporate in the event of a fuel spill. Unlike petrol and diesel, there is no risk of ground or water contamination Cheaper Savings of up to 50% compared with petrol and over 20% compared with diesel on fuel costs Cheaper road tax for some vehicles Discounts on London Congestion Charges Discounts on some car parking schemes See how much money and CO2 emissions you can save by converting your vehicle to LPG autogas Greener Reduce your carbon footprint by running on LPG. Independent Pan-European tests were undertaken in 2003 which demonstrated the following results: Petrol CO2 is 20.3% more than LPG Diesel CO2 is 1.8% more than LPG The 2005 report by CONCAWE found a small CO2 advantage of LPG over diesel increasing to 10% by 2010 as a result of the worsening CO2 emissions of diesels as those engines struggle to meet Euro V emission standards. Cleaner Air quality, particularly in urban areas, is a continuing issue for the nation's health. Department of Health statistics show that particulates are responsible for thousands of advanced deaths and thousands of instances of illness; also NOx emissions are a major element of low-level ozone, which causes smog and can worsen existing asthma conditions ,

General Advantages and Disadvantages of LPG: the most dangerous form of energy to be used in households, especially on the fact that its highly inflammable and can cause fire accidents in homes yet if properly handled its the most safe fuel to apply. re comparable to those of an equivalent vehicle fueled on gasoline. Propane has a high octane rating of 104, in-between Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (130) and regular unleaded gasoline (87).

nd can disperse into the atmosphere with little risk of ignition unless trapped in a confined place. This is a significant advantage compared to Kerosene a popular household fuel in many developed countries and one of the principal causes of destruction of property by fires in the Urban areas.

urban levels, and the country as a whole, LP Gas produces virtually no soot (particular matter, PM) and relative to most other renewable fuels, low emissions of carbonmonoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of Nitrogen (Nox) the principle precursors of ozone , which produces smog ms, if breathed in at the point of combustion which makes it highly suitable as a house hold cooking fuel and can thus greatly reduce indoor pollution, according to studies done in India it can be the most efficient fuel in cooking stoves yielding emission levels much lower than the traditional fuels and Kerosene. -destabilizing greenhouse gas from LP Gas, Calculated on fuel-cycle basis, are lower than from most fossil fuels and traditional fuels used in unsustainable way.

deforestation and can free supplies of dung for use as fertilizers in the soils to enhance agricultural productivity. ty aspect, LP Gas enjoys reduced airborne emissions, it has no virtually evaporative emissions since its stored and transported in sealed containers, a major problem with other liquid petroleum fuels such as Kerosene. It produces virtually no soot and burns clean.

irregularity of supply, risk of explosion and limited awareness mean that, its not widely used in the majority of countries like Somaliland, however in comparison to electricity the cost becomes cheaper in the longer run.