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The Middle Ages
In October of 1066, Duke William of Normandy, France killed the last of the Anglo-Saxon
kings at the Battle of Hastings. The Norman Conquest, as it was called, changed English
_____________, ______________________, and __________________________. Because William
wanted to rule the Anglo-Saxon and not completely eliminate them, England today is a
mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Norman elements. One of the achievements of William was
the __________________ Book, which was an inventory of almost all the property in England
that allowed for taxation.
 Do we still have this taxation today?

I. Feudalism and Knighthood: Pyramid Power
A. Feudalism was based on ________________________________________________ with
God as the
supreme overlord.
B. Feudalism brought a sense of ________________________________, which could
especially be seen
in the institution of _____________________.
1. Primary duty of males above the serf class was
2. Boys were trained from an early age to become
3. At the end of the training, boys were “___________________” which means
II. Women in Medieval Society: No Voice, No Choice
A. No ______________________ rights.
B. Always ___________________________ to a man, whether husband, father or
C. Husband’s or father’s social standing determined

III. Chivalry and Courtly Love: Ideal but Unreal
A. ____________________ was a system of ideals and social codes governing
1. Oath of _____________________ to the overlord.
2. Observe certain rules of _______________________.
3. Adoring a particular lady was seen as a way of
a. Courtly _____________ in its ideal form was _____________________.
b. A knight might wear his lady’s ____________ in battle.
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c. He might _______________ her in words and be _________________ by
d. The lady was always __________________ and out of
B. Chivalry brought about a new type of literature, the ____________________.
IV. The New City Classes: Out from Under the Overlords
A. City classes developed as more and more people lived in towns and cities.
1. ____________________ class
2. ____________________ class
3. ____________________ class
C. The middle class, also called the ____________________ class had its own tastes in
the arts and the ability to pay for what they liked.
1. Most medieval art is not _____________________________ but
______________________; often called “people’s art”
2. The middle class point of view can be seen in ______________, mystery and
plays, and in the cathedrals and
V. The Great Happenings
A. The Crusades: Ho! For the Holy Land
1. The Crusades were a series of wars between
_____________________________________ and
____________________________ with the Holy Land as the prize.
2. Europe didn’t win but did benefit enormously from contact with the
__________________________ of the Middle East.
a. mathematics
b. astronomy
c. _____________________
d. _____________________
B. The martyrdom of Thomas a Becket: Murder in the cathedral
1. Becket had risen to great power as ___________________________ under
King Henry II.
2. Henry appointed him archbishop of Canterbury (head of the Catholic
Church of England)
hoping to gain an upper hand in _________________with the Church.
a. Henry’s plan backfired when Becket often took the ____________
side in the dispute.
b. Henry’s knights took Henry’s wish to be rid of Becket literally and
____________________ him in his _________________________.
3. Public outrage weakened the monarchy and ______________________ the
power of the Catholic Church.
a. Led to corruption in the _____________________
b. The state had no power to stop this corruption
4. Church remained the ___________________ of learning
a. Monasteries were the _________________ and ___________________
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b. Church’s language, __________________, was the international
language of _____________________ Europeans.
c. Church’s leader, the _______________, had no boundaries.
D. The Magna Carta: Power to (some of) the people
1. England returned to older, democratic ways with the signing of the Magna
Carta by King John.
a. English _______________ forced King John to sign it.
b. The signing signified a ___________________ of central papal power.
c. The document later became the basis for English
E. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453): The arrow is mightier than armor.
1. Two English kings made doubtful claims to the French throne.
2. England lost but for the first time began to think of themselves as
_____________________ rather than Anglo-Norman.
a. _______________, small landowners, replaced the knight in shining
armor, and using the yard-long longbow, they became a dominant
force in society.
b. This new society was democratic and grew out of the ruins of
F. The Black Death
1. Striking England in 1348-1349, the Black Death, or _________________
________________ was highly contagious and spread by
2. As a result, the population was reduced by one-third causing a
__________________________ which ended feudalism and gave the
_____________ their freedom.