Fundamental of Continum Mechanics

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Fundamental of Continum Mechanics

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description oI the motion oI Ilow is given in three dimensional space with

respect to the reIerence Irame or relative to the rotational Irame. Dynamics

involves the Irequent use oI derivatives oI scalars, vectors and tensors. Ve-

locity and acceleration are the time derivatives, which are important kine-

matic parameters necessary to set an equation oI motion in Newtonian me-

chanics, on which continuum mechanics is based. Also given are Iorces

connected with space derivatives in regard to displacement gradient and

relative strain, which are other important aspects oI continuum mechanics.

In this chapter, deIinitions oI stress tensors and strain tensors are also pro-

vided, and will be developed in more detail in the chapters to Iollow.

1.1 Dynamics of FIuid Motion

When we deal with Iluid motion, in many Iluid engineering cases the dy-

namics oI a molecule, or the molecular structure oI the Iluid body, does not

explicitly come into eIIect. At the scale oI molecular motion, properties oI

the Iluid body, such as density, are typically subject to extreme variation

with respect to the instantaneous distance oI the Irame. While, Ior the mo-

tion oI Iluid Ilow, the macro-motion with the scale oI Ilow channel or ex-

ternal object takes place, thus we may apply the 'continuum hypothesis¨,

with which the Iluid body has a continuous structure in the instantaneous

Irame oI space, as schematically indicated in Fig. 1.1. In Fig. 1.1, let us

denote

m

L as the small scale (molecular scale), which can be taken as the

mean Iree path oI the molecule;

l

L as the large scale, which can be the

characteristic length oI the geometric conIiguration oI Iluid motion. More-

over, there may exist an intermediate length scale

i

L , where a certain eI-

Iect oI a molecule or the molecular structure retains the properties oI Iluid.

In order to quantiIy the eIIect oI the scale in the properties oI Iluid, and

consequently to the dynamics oI Iluid motion, we will take the ratio be-

tween the actual characteristic length oI Ilow geometry, typically

l

L , and

Certain concepts and deIinitions are basic to the study oI continuum

mechanics, and they should be thoroughly understood at the outset. Below, a

5

6 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

the mean Iree path oI the molecules (the correlation length oI the mole-

cules)

m

L , such that we get the Iollowing Iormula where is called the

Knudsen number.

l

m

L

L

(1.1.1)

'Continuum Mechanics¨ in a general sense, and 'Fluid Mechanics¨ in

particular, is normally valid when 1, where the continuum hypothe-

sis can be assured. HenceIorth we shall make two assumptions: Iirst, that

in every case, the Ilow oI Iluid has a small Knudsen Number, with which

the scale oI momentum oI Ilow is Iar longer than the correlation length oI

the molecules; and second, that the Iluid body has a continuous structure.

IIg. l.l Iroµorfy vnrInfIon wIfh scnIo íns fyµIcnIIy soon wIfh µroµorfIos

such ns donsIfy ¹

It is interesting to mention, although we will not deal with the problem

in this text, that there is a Iield oI study that deals with small scaled Ilow

phenomena in continuum mechanics. These phenomena have been dubbed

Iluid Ilows in a micro-channel, or micro-Iluid-mechanics as it is more

commonly reIerred to. The reader may wish to reIer to a more detailed de-

scription provided by Kim and Kavila, 1991, and Tabeling, 2005.

The motion oI a Iluid can be perIectly determined, when the velocity at

every point oI the space is occupied by Iluid motion. ThereIore, to express

the velocity with independent variables, there are two distinct methods, the

so-called Eulerian and Lagrangian speciIications.

l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon ?

One method is to trace the motion oI a particle in space with time. In

particular, a particle in Iluid is called 'Iluid particle¨, which is a subdivi-

sion oI the Iluid around a speciIic point x . This method is called Lagran-

gian speciIication. The position vector oI the Iluid particle, considering a

motion relative to a given Irame oI reIerence at time t , can be expressed

as

t ,

0

x x x (1.1.2)

where

0

x and t are independent parameters, and

0

x is the original posi-

tion at 0 t , 0

0 0

, x x x . The velocity u and acceleration a at time t

can be written similarly as

t

t ,

x

x u u

0

(1.1.3)

t

t ,

u

x a a

0

(1.1.4)

As seen in Fig. 1.2(a), Lagrangian speciIication describes the motion oI a

body oI mass (Iluid particle) and its variation oI Ilow state along the parti-

cle path.

Another method is to give the spatial distribution oI Ilow state as a

Iunction oI spatial coordinates x ( : y x , , x ; : y x , , are Euler variables)

and time t , where x and t are independent variables. This method is

called Eulerian speciIication, and describes the variation oI Ilow state in a

position x (position vector in spatial coordinates x ) at a given time t , not

describing the behavior oI each particle, see Fig. 1.2(b). In the Eulerian

speciIication the velocity u can be expressed as

t , x u u (1.1.5)

The expression oI the acceleration a in an Eulerian speciIication is given

by diIIerentiation Iollowing the motion oI a Iluid particle and the rate oI

change oI the velocity oI that particle with respect to time

) (

) , ( ) , (

u

x u x u x x u

a

t t t

t t t

0 t 0 t

lim lim

(1.1.6)

Particularly in Iluid mechanics, a in Eq. (1.1.6) is called the material de-

rivative or substantial derivative, and is oIten expressed as

) (

) (

( )

( )

8 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

u

u

a u

t Dt

D

(1.1.7)

In general, the rate oI change over time oI material parameter A, where A

can be a scalar, vector or tensor associated with the (material) point at time

t, can be expressed by the material derivative (the diIIerential operator

Dt D is also called Lagrangian derivative) as

t A t A

t Dt

t DA

, ,

,

x u x

x

0

(1.1.8)

ín¹ !ngrnngInn sµocIfIcnfIon íb¹ IuIorInn sµocIfIcnfIon

IIg. l.2 ÐoscrIµfIon of fIuId mofIon

The derivative deIined in Eq. (1.1.7) can be Iurther written, using vector

identities (see section oI Appendix B-5), as Iollows

u u u

u u 2

2

1

t Dt

D

(1.1.9)

The term u u or A u , operating in Eqs. (1.1.7) and (1.1.8) respec-

tively, are called the convective term, which express the Iact that, Ior time

independent Ilow 0 t , the Iluid properties, such u or A, depend only

upon the spatial coordinates x. Namely, the changes in Iluid properties are

due to the changing spatial position oI a given Iluid particle as it Ilows.

The terms t u , t A are the Eulerian time derivatives evaluated at a

position x.

l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon 9

Having established the conceptual and mathematical representation oI

the kinematic description oI motion, we will now consider the decomposi-

tion oI motion. This will be done in order to establish the concept and

mathematical description oI that rate. An important concept in a motion oI

continuum is to know how the deIormation can be expressed Irom the ve-

locity Iield t , x u u .

IIg. l.3 MnforInI IIno L chnngo

Let us consider the conIiguration oI an inIinitesimal element t L oI a

straight material line. It undergoes translation, rotation, and stretching, as a

result oI the nonuniIorm velocity Iield oI dt dx u . As time elapses, the

t L becomes dt t L . From the Iigure in Fig. 1.3, it is clear that

dt t dt t t

dt t t dt t t t dt t

, ,

, , ) ( ) (

x u L x u L

x u x L x u L x L

(1.1.10)

so that, the changing rate oI t L as dt t t can be written as

...

,

, ,

L

x u

L x u L x u

L L t

t t

dt

t dt t

(1.1.11)

where the right hand side oI Eq. (1.1.11) is a Taylor series expansion Ior

t , x u around ) (t L . Equation (1.1.11) can be Iurther modiIied as

material line element t L moves to the new positions P and Q, where

l0 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

t

t

dt

t

t dt t

L

x u L

L L

,

(1.1.12)

Let us denote t t t L L and x L t , since we are taking

t L as an inIinitesimal line element, so that we have

E

x

X

x

X

L

L L

t

t t t

(1.1.13)

and

u

x

u

x

u

L

x u

0

lim

x

t

t ,

(1.1.14)

where E is called the displacement gradient tensor and u is called the

velocity gradient tensor. Using the notation deIined in Eqs. (1.1.13) and

(1.1.14). Thus, the change rate oI material line element t L , which is

given by Eq. (1.1.11), will be written by the Iormula

e x

u u u u x u x

T T

2

1

2

1

(1.1.15)

where superscript T denotes the transpose oI tensor. It is noted here that in

expanding Eq. (1.1.15) the velocity gradient tensor u, arbitrary second

order tensor is decomposed into symmetric and skew-symmetric (or anti-

symmetric) parts. We now deIine the rate oI strain (or the rate oI deIorma-

tion) tensor, as the symmetric part oI the velocity gradient tensor

T

u u

2

1

e (1.1.16)

and the vorticity (or spin) tensor, as the skew-symmetric part oI the veloc-

ity gradient tensor

T

u u

2

1

(1.1.17)

Thus, the change rate oI t L due to translation t , x u can be straining

e x and rotation x . Consequently the velocity gradient tensor can

be written by

l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon ll

e u (1.1.18)

In order to gain more physical insight Ior tensors e and in contin-

uum mechanics, we will examine e in the Iirst place. ReIerring Eq.

(1.1.16), e can be written by the Cartesian suIIix convention Ior three val-

ues, i ÷ 1, 2 and 3, or f ÷ 1, 2 and 3, which correspond to x , y and :

respectively as Iollows

i

f

f

i

f i if f i

x

u

x

u

e

2

1

e e e e e

(1.1.19)

where

f i

e e is the unit dyad (see Appendix B-1), and the components oI

the rate oI strain tensor

if

e is presented by

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

3

3

3

2

2

3

3

1

1

3

3

2

2

3

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

3

3

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

e e e

e e e

e e e

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

e

if

(1.1.20)

It is easily known Irom Eq. (1.1.20) that

if

e is the symmetric and has 6 in-

dependent components, i.e.

11

e ,

22

e ,

33

e ,

21 12

e e ,

32 23

e e and

13 31

e e . The

orthogonal components

11

e ,

22

e , and

33

e are the rate oI elongational strain,

due to a local deIormation oI Iluid in stretching or contraction in x , y ,

and : axis respectively. In addition the oII-orthogonal components

12

e ,

23

e , and

31

e (as well as

21

e ,

32

e , and

13

e ) are, on the other hand, due to a

local deIormation oI Iluid in shearing in the plane oI x y , y : , and : x

respectively. Figure 1.4 gives an idea oI the deIormation rate occurring in

Iluid in x y plane. Figure 1.4 (1)-a shows the simple elongational (or ex-

tensional) Ilow Iield as one oI typical stretching and contraction oI Ilow,

where the rate oI elongational strain appears. Furthermore, in order to

make the point clear, in Fig. 1.4 (1)-b the stretching oI a Iluid element in

the elongational Ilow Iield is indicated. Similarly in Fig. 1.4 (2)-a the dia-

gram shows the simple shear Ilow Iield, where the shear strain takes place

and (2)-b a sketch oI the shear Iield is displayed, where a Iluid element is

sheared in the Ilow direction.

The symmetry oI the tensor e guarantees that there will always be

three mutual orthogonal orientations oI x X p , Ior each oI which the

corresponding rate oI deIormation is either elongation or contraction, that

is the principal rates oI deIormation, to which we can assign

11 1

e e ,

22 2

e e and

33 3

e e . The summations oI

1

e ,

2

e and

3

e are invariant Ior

coordinate transIormation, which give the proportional rate oI increase oI

an inIinitesimal material volume

3 2 1

e e e divu u (1.1.21)

íl¹·n SImµIo oIongnfIonnI í2¹·n SImµIo shonr fIow fIoId

íor oxfonsIonnI ¹ fIow fIoId

IIg. l.4 !ocnI doformnfIon of fIuId

This quantity deIined in Eq. (1.1.21) is called the divergence oI the veloc-

ity Iield oI t , x u . Furthermore, a deIinition that is independent Irom a

coordinates system can be given by

l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon l3

J

S

dJ

J

dS

J Dt

J D

J

div

u

u n u

1

1 1

(1.1.22)

Equation (1.1.22) is called the Euler`s relation, which implies the physical

rate oI change over time oI the volume oI moving Iluid particles per unit

volume. It is noted that to write the volume integral

J

dJ u Irom the

surIace integral

S

dS u n the Gauss` divergence theorem is applied.

The skew-symmetric part given by Eq. (1.1.17) oI the velocity gra-

dient tensor u can be similarly written by the Cartesian suIIix conven-

tion as

i

f

f

i

f i if f i

x

u

x

u

2

1

e e e e (1.1.23)

and

if

can be Iurther written in matrix Iorm

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

2

1

32 31

23 21

13 12

3

2

2

3

3

1

1

3

2

3

3

2

2

1

1

2

1

3

3

1

1

2

2

1

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

if

(1.1.24)

Components, which appear in Eq. (1.1.23), as the components oI

u, are related with the Iollowing Iormula

3 3 2 2 1 1

2

1

1

2

3

1

3

3

1

2

3

2

2

3

1

e e e

e e e u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

(1.1.25)

l4 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

It may be useIul to consider u in a little more detail Ior the

sake oI coupling equations in the Iollowing chapters. The nature oI u

can be examined by introducing the alternator or alternating unit tensor

ifk k f i

e e e as Iollows

3 3 2 2 1 1

2

1

1

2

3

1

3

3

1

2

3

2

2

3

1

3 3 2 2 1 1

e e e

e e e

e e e

e u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

x

u

f

k

fk

f

k

fk

f

k

fk

f

k

i ifk

(1.1.26)

Thus, in comparison with (1.1.23) and (1.1.25), a vector (in this case

u) with components

1

,

2

and

3

can be reduced Irom a general

second order tensor S (in the present case

f i

x u , x u , u or

u grad ), whose components oI skew-symmetric part (in this case ) are

written by

0

0

0

2

1

1 2

1 3

2 3

(1.1.27)

Note that the vector

3 2 1

, , is called the pseudovector oI the tensor

S or simply the vector oI tensor S . See Exercise 1.4.

By employing the alternator , the vector may be Iound Irom S ,

more speciIically Irom the skew-symmetric part

a

S oI S, denoting

2

a

S while the symmetric part

s

S oI S may be expressed by

2

s

e S . The Iollowing relationships are particularly useIul;

S (1.1.28)

S

2

1

a

(1.1.29)

Note that Irom Eqs. (1.1.28) and (1.1.29) the pseudovector is zero,

0 , iI a second order tensor S is symmetric 0

a

S , and vice versa.

l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon l5

For the sake oI clarity and convenience, the unit tensor I and the al-

ternator are deIined below. I is deIined such that

if f i

e e I

(1.1.30)

where

if

is the Kronecker delta and

f i

e e is the unit dyad.

if

is deIined

as

f i

f i

if

iI 0

iI 1

(1.1.31)

is similarly deIined by

ifk k f i

e e e (1.1.32)

where

ifk

is the Eddington notation and

k f i

e e e is the unit polyadic. Thus,

the alternator is a polyadic.

ifk

is deIined in the Iollowing manner

k f k i f i

ifk

ifk

ifk

or , , iI 0

213 or , 132 , 321 iI 1

312 or , 231 , 123 iI 1

(1.1.33)

It is useIul Ior to be alternatively expressed with the Iorm

1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1

e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e (1.1.34)

AIter giving mathematical Iormalities Ior the tensor , we will see

how may cause a local deIormation in the Ilow Iield t , x u . The de-

Iormation due to can be examined Irom Eq. (1.1.11) as

dt t dt t

a

L

u

L L L X ) ( ) ( (1.1.35)

Note that

a

L u is a skew-symmetric part oI the velocity gradient ten-

sor. It is Iurther noted that by taking an inIinitesimal time duration t dt

and on inIinitesimal line element x x L , we can obtain the deIorma-

tion in x - y plane, Ior example

3 3 3

3 3

3

2

1

2

1

0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0

2

1

e

e x X , ,

t x y

t y x t

(1.1.36)

l6 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

The implication oI Eq. (1.1.36) is, in the x y plane, that as indicated in

Fig. 1.5, the Iluid element x y is rotated around the : axis with its an-

gular velocity 2

3 3

. Thus, as easily speculated Irom Fig. 1.5, the

vorticity tensor represents a rigid body rotation oI Iluid element with

angular velocity 2 . The pseudovector oI the velocity gradient ten-

sor, i.e. u u : , is called the vorticity vector. The vorticity

vector is an important Ilow parameter in Iluid mechanics.

IIg. l.5 !IgId body rofnfIon of fIuId oIomonf x y

1.2 Dynamics in Rotating Reference Frame

In consideration oI kinematics let us explore the relationship between an

inertial and a rotating reIerence Irame. For brevity, let the rotating reIer-

ence Irame be rotated with a constant angular velocity with respect to

the inertial reIerence Irame, supposing no translation oI the rotating reIer-

ence Irame to the inertial reIerence Irame, see Fig. 1.6. It is noted that we

adopt a right-handed orthogonal coordinates system, where 0 is an

angular velocity vector, which rotates to the direction oI a right-handed

screw. The position vectors

0

x and

r

x oI a material point x in the iner-

tial Irame and rotating Irame respectively are related as

0

x x Q

r

(1.2.1)

where Q is a rotation tensor, which is an orthogonal tensor with a relation

oI I Q Q

T

, and

1

Q Q

T

(where Q is an unitary matrix);

1

Q

denotes the inverse oI the tensor Q and

T

Q denotes the transpose oI the

tensor Q.

IIg. l.6 !ofnfIng roforonco frnmo wIfh InorfInI roforonco frnmo

In order to correlate two Irames kinematically, we shall consider a ve-

locity and acceleration at the material point. To start with, apply Dt D ,

the material derivative, to Eq. (1.2.1) to obtain the relative velocity

r

u

Dt

D

Dt

D

Dt

D

Dt

D

Dt

D

r

r

r

0 1

0

0

x

x

x

x

x

u

Q Q

Q

Q

Q

(1.2.2)

Equation (1.2.2) can be Iurther written with the velocity

0

u in the inertial

Irame, letting

0 0

u x Dt D by

0

u x u Q

r r

(1.2.3)

Here we used tensor calculus (Ior relative position vector

r

x , see Problem

1-1) as

r r

T

r

Dt

D

Dt

D

x x x

1

Q

Q

Q

Q

(1.2.4)

l8 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

It is noted that is the pseudovector oI the skew-symmetric tensor

T

Dt D Q Q in the same manner explained Ior the vorticity vector

previously. Next, by taking the material derivative again to Eq. (1.2.3), we

can obtain the relative acceleration

r

a oI the material point x as Iollows

0

1 1

a x u u

u

a

Q Q

Q

Q

Q

r r r

r

r

Dt

D

Dt

D

Dt

D

(1.2.5)

Consequently Irom Eq. (1.1.4), we can obtain the acceleration vector

0

a ,

i.e. the acceleration oI the inertial Irame, by relating Eq. (1.2.5) in the ro-

tating Irame as

r r r

x u a a 2

0

(1.2.6)

where it is derived when an inertial Irame is instantaneously coincident

with the rotating Irame , as I Q . In Eq. (1.2.6), the Iirst term in the right

hand side oI the equation is the rectilinear acceleration, the second is the

Corioli`s acceleration, and the third is the centripetal acceleration. With

identical vectors, it is easy to show that the third term oI Eq. (1.2.6), i.e.

the centripetal acceleration can be reduced to the potential Iorm as

2 2

2

2

1

2

1

r

r r

x x (1.2.7)

so that, deIining a potential Iunction , and setting 2

2 2

r , where r

simply denotes distance Irom the axis oI rotation, the centripetal accelera-

tion can be expressed as

r

x (1.2.8)

It may be worthwhile to note that the operation to reduce the relation

(1.2.6) can be simply understood by a vector algebra Ior a Iluid particle ro-

tating at a constant angular velocity along an axis oI rotation in the in-

ertial reIerence Irame at a material point x

r

x x

0

(1.2.9)

and

r r

x u u

0

(1.2.10)

Equation (1.2.9) reIers to the instantaneous moment, when I Q , and Eq.

(1.2.10) implies the relative velocity oI the Iluid particle rotating to the

l.3 MnforInI ObjocfIvIfy nnd ConvocfIvo ÐorIvnfIvos l9

inertial Irame. Thus, taking the time derivative to Eq. (1.2.10), as we have

similarly done to Eq. (1.2.3), we can obtain the acceleration oI the Iluid

particle relative to the inertial Irame as

r r

r

dt

d

Dt

D

x u

u u

a 2

0

0

(1.2.11)

which is exactly the same Iorm as Eq. (1.2.6). The relation given by Eq.

(1.2.11) can again be written, using the potential

2

0 r r

u a a (1.2.12)

where 2

2 2

r .

1.3 MateriaI Objectivity and Convective Derivatives

On the microstructure level material elements may be aIIected by strong

electromagnetic Iield or strong inertial Iorces; however, on the continuum

level the physical characteristic oI a material, such as demonstrated by the

Hooke`s law (the relationship between the extension and the Iorce can be

regarded as a physical property oI spring itselI), is independent oI the mo-

tion oI the observer. This concept is called 'the material objectivity¨ or

'the principle oI Irame invariance¨. Particularly in dealing with the rela-

tionship between a deIormation and a stress in continuum, so-called consti-

tutive equation, this concept is oI some importance.

In order to satisIy the principle oI Irame invariance, the Iollowing lin-

ear transIormation by E (see Q and E in Eqs. (1.2.1) and (1.3.4) Ior

equivalence) must be satisIied Ior any arbitrary vectors (say a velocity vec-

tor ) , ( t x u ) and second order tensor (say a stress tensor ) ( t , T x ) in the

Cartesian reIerence Irame. This can be set in the inertial reIerence Irame

in such a way that

0

u u Q

r

to E u u (1.3.1)

T

r

Q T Q T

0

to

T

E T E T (1.3.2)

where the suIIix r denotes the rotating reIerence Irame. Note that scalar

properties (such temperature, density, etc.) are always Irame invariant.

Now we will direct our attention to how the time derivative oI vectors

and tensors are aIIected in order Ior the principle oI Irame invariance to be

satisIied. We will consider this problem with respect to the transIormation

20 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

oI a material line element as displayed in Fig. 1.3, where the material line

element x L ) (t (in the material reIerence Irame) is transIormed to

) ( dt t L (in the new space Irame), noting that X L L t dt t ) ( and

deIining the displacement gradient tensors as

E

x

X

x

X

lim

0 x

(1.3.3)

so that Eq. (1.3.3) can be Iurther written as

x X E (1.3.4)

and

X x

1

E

(1.3.5)

Eventually E is a linear transIormation tensor, and in order to veriIy the

principle oI Irame invariance we will transIorm a tensor T (in the mate-

rial reIerence Irame) to T (in the new space Irame). This transIormation

can be written

T

E T E T

(1.3.6)

and the reverse transIormation is deIined by

T

) (

1 1

E T E T (1.3.7)

Thus, the material derivative oI T in Eq. (1.3.7) will be

T T

T

Dt

D

) ( ) (

1 1 1 1 1 1

E T E E T E E T E

T

(1.3.8)

denoting the material derivative, i.e. T T Dt D . Equation (1.3.8) can be

Iurther reduced to the Iorm

T T

T T T T

) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

E T T T E

E T E E T E E T E T

u u

u u

(1.3.9)

It is noted that to derive Eq. (1.3.9) we have used the relations

1 1 1

E E E E and

1

E E x u u . The relations are obtained

Irom Eq. (1.3.4) Ior the velocity u as

x

d

d

E

t

X

u (1.3.10)

and

l.3 MnforInI ObjocfIvIfy nnd ConvocfIvo ÐorIvnfIvos 2l

1

E E E

X

x

X

u

u

(1.3.11)

Consequently, the tensor (

T

u u T T T ) is linearly transIormed by a

material line element oI

1

E , and we denote Eq. (1.3.9) as

T

) (

1 1

E T E T

(1.3.12)

where is called the upper convective derivative, which is deIined as Iol-

lows

T

T

Dt

D

u u

u u

T T T

T T

T

T

(1.3.13)

In the upper convective derivative, the base vectors are contravariant``

base vectors. That is, the base coordinate vectors are parallel to material

lines, which are deIormed (stretched and rotated) with a material line.

In a similar manner, with covariant`` base vectors, that are normal to

material planes, where in a deIormation each base vector rotates to remain

normal and stretches so that its length remains proportional to the area oI

the material plane to which it is normal, we have the lower convective de-

rivative deIined by

u u T T T T

T

(1.3.14)

II we extend Iurther, we will see that when material lines are in a de-

Iormation with rotational coordinates, we can deIine the derivative in the

Iollowing manner

T T T T

(1.3.15a)

or alternatively

T T T T

2

1

(1.3.15b)

where is the spin tensor and the derivative T is called the corotational

derivative (a) or the Jaumann derivative (b). The corotational (Jaumann)

derivative can be gotten Irom the upper convective derivative directly by

setting e 0 u , and using

T

.

22 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

The three derivatives, Eqs. (1.3.13), (1.3.14) and (1.3.15), can satisIy

the principle oI Irame invariance, and this can be easily demonstrated to

meet the condition in Eq. (1.3.2) Ior the rotation tensor Q to give

T T

T T T T

T T T

T

Dt

D

Dt

D

Dt

D

Q ) T T

T

( Q

) Q (Q Q T Q

Q T Q ) Q (Q ) Q T (Q

T T

T

u u

u

u

u u

(1.3.16)

So, T meets the suIIicient condition Ior the principle oI Irame invariance.

Observe that in deriving Eq. (1.3.16), the Iollowing relation was used

T T T

Q Q Q Q (1.3.17)

since we have I

T

Q Q , where Q is the unitary matrix, which is written

by

T T

Q Q Q Q . It is Iurther noted that the velocity gradient tensor

u itselI does not satisIies the principle oI Irame invariance as it is shown

that

Q Q

Q Q Q Q

T

T T

u

u u

(1.3.18)

X X X X x x d d ds

T T

T

T

1

1 1 2

E E E E (1.4.1)

x x x x X X d d dS

T T T T

E) (E ) (E ) (E

2

(1.4.2)

The displacement gradient tensor E, deIined in Eqs. (1.1.13) and (1.3.3), is

not generally symmetric and contains both deIormation and rotation oI a

material line. Thus, E itselI is not a quantity oI the Irame invariance and

one may have to exclude the eIIect oI rotation oI a material line, particu-

larly when a constitutive equation is considered. In order to deIine Iinite

strain tensors, which are Iree Irom rotation, we can simply take the square

oI the length oI x or X , Ior the material lines beIore and aIter deIorma-

tion respectively (see Fig. 1.3), such that

1.4 DispIacement Gradient and ReIative Strain

l.5 !oynoIds` Trnnsµorf Thoorom 23

Equations (1.4.1) and (1.4.2) contain metric tensors,

1

) E (E

T

and

E) (E

T

respectively.

HereaIter we deIine strain tensors, one oI which is called the Cauchy

strain tensor C deIined by

E E C

T

(1.4.3)

and the other is called the Finger strain tensor deIined by

T

1 1 1

E E C (1.4.4)

These two tensors are both positive symmetric, and describe the deIorma-

tion Irom t to t t oI a material line, which are Iree Irom rotation. Con-

sidering the character oI two tensors, C and

1

C , we can deIine two

closely related relative strain tensors as Iollows

C I

R

(1.4.5)

I C

1

R

(1.4.6)

These two relative strain tensors are very useIul and are oIten used in de-

riving integral constitutive equations Ior viscoelastic Iluids.

1.5 ReynoIds' Transport Theorem

In deriving conservation equations oI Ilow, it is particularly important to

consider the volume integral

) (

) , (

t J

dJ t F I x , oI which material deriva-

tive is deIined as Dt DI . t J J is a closed volume oI Iluid particles, or

otherwise known as a material volume (element) consisting oI a represen-

tative material line, and ) , ( t F x is any scalar, vector, or tensor Iunction.

Reynolds` transport theorem concerns the rate oI change oI any volume in-

tegral, i.e. Dt DI .

BeIore proceeding Iurther, it may be useIul to consider the change oI a

material volume

0

dJ Irom coordinates at time

0

t to coordinates x at

time t , where is the material coordinates, and they are Cartesian coor-

dinates, ) , , (

3 2 1

. Also let the volume element

0

dJ be

3 2 1

d d d , ,

oI an elementary parallelepiped, as sketched in Fig. 1.7. Due to the Iluid

motion, this parallelepiped

0

dJ is moved to some neighborhood oI the

Cartesian point ) , ( t x x at time t , with the volume element oI dJ,

24 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

whose sides are

1

dx ,

2

dx and

3

dx , i.e.

3 2 1

dx dx dx dJ . The change oI co-

ordinates ) , , (

3 2 1

x x x x must be given to the corresponding coordinates

) , , (

3 2 1

by

) , , (

3 2 1 i i

x x (1.5.1)

The sides

1

dx ,

2

dx and

3

dx oI the volume element can be given by chain

rule as

f

f

i

i

d

x

dx Ior 3 , 2 , 1 i

(1.5.2)

IIg. l.? Chnngo of mnforInI voIumo nf fImo t

The resultant volume element dJ can be calculated by the box product

oI vectors`

1

x d ,

2

x d , and

3

x d three sides, representing material line

elements oI dJ

3 2 1

3 2 1 3 2 1

d d Jd

d d d d d d dJ x x x x x x

(1.5.3)

where J is called the Jacobian oI the transIormation oI the variables, and

is deIined as

l.5 !oynoIds` Trnnsµorf Thoorom 25

3

3

2

3

1

3

3

2

2

2

1

2

3

1

2

1

1

1

3 2 1

3 2 1

3 2 1

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x

J

k f i

ifk

, ,

, ,

(1.5.4)

From the relation given by Eq. (1.5.3), J is the ratio oI a material vol-

ume element to its initial volume as

0

dJ

dJ

J

(1.5.5)

and

0

J Jd J d . This is called the dilatation.

In consideration oI the dilatation, the time derivative (the material de-

rivative) oI the volume integral

) (

,

t J

dJ t F I x can be written (by

means oI the Lagrangian description)

0

0

0

0

J

J J(t)

dJ

t D

J D

F J

t D

DF

dJ J t t F

t D

D

dJ t F

t D

D

t D

DI

, , , x x

(1.5.6)

Using the deIinition oI the divergence in Eq. (1.1.22), we can obtain

the dilatation`s relative rate oI change along a path line oI a Iluid particle

as Iollows

t D

DJ

J t D

JdJ D

JdJ Dt

dJ D

dJ

div

1 1 1

0

0

u

(1.5.7)

Thus, Irom Eqs. (1.5.6) and (1.5.7) we can obtain the Iollowing relation-

ship

dJ F

t D

DF

JdJ F

Dt

DF

t D

DI

J

J

u u

0

0

(1.5.8)

The Iormula (1.5.8) is called the Reynolds` transport theorem, and can be

Iurther extended into a number oI diIIerent Iorms, using the deIinition oI

the material derivative given by Eq. (1.1.7) as

26 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

dJ F

t

F

t D

DI

J

u (1.5.9)

dS F dJ

t

F

S J

u n

(1.5.10)

It should be noted that the Gauss` divergence theorem was applied in order

to write the surIace integral

S

dS ~ Irom the volume integral

J

dJ ~ .

The physical picture oI the Reynolds` transport theorem is that the rate

oI change oI the integral oI F in Lagrangian description is the sum oI the

integral oI the rate oI change at a point, and the net Ilow oI F over the

control volume surIace in Eulerian description.

1.6 Forces on VoIume EIement

There are two kinds oI Iorces acting on a volume element oI a continuum

medium. The volume element taken in a Ilow Iield is called the control

volume in Eulerian description and equivalently called the Iluid particle in

Lagrangian description. In both cases, as depicted in Fig. 1.8, 'Body

Iorces¨ as one oI the two kinds, can be regarded as reaching the medium

and acting over the entire volume. Body Iorces, which are represented by a

symbol g, are due to long-range Iorces, such as gravitation (with the

gravitational acceleration ) or electromagnetic Iorces, etc. They are usu-

ally independent Irom a deIormation oI the volume element and are caused

by an external Iield oI source.

'SurIace Iorces¨, oI another kind, are to be regarded as acting upon the

surIace oI each part oI the volume element. The origins oI surIace Iorces

are chieIly due to two short-range Iorces, viscous and elastic Iorces, those

have strong dependence on a deIormation oI the volume element. The sur-

Iace Iorces have molecular origin in the vicinity oI the surIace, and act on

internal Iorces through the surIace. SurIace Iorces may also be generated

by an externally applied Iield, such as electromagnetic Iield, through sur-

Iace coupling. We shall see detailed descriptions oI body Iorces and sur-

Iace Iorces in later chapters, such as Chapter 7 and Chapter 8. However, at

present we will treat the surIace Iorces, with reIerence to stresses, that can

be represented by a stress tensor. We Iollow to deIine a general stress ten-

sor in a continuum medium, in this chapter, through Cauchy`s Iundamental

theorem Ior stress.

l.6 Iorcos on VoIumo IIomonf 2?

Stress is a vector quantity deIined as a Iorce per unit area. Let F be a

Iorce exerted across an area dS , on which the unit outward normal vector

n is acting by the material. From Cauchy`s theorem, the stress vector at

the point a oI S located by a position vector x at time t can be deIined

by

t

dS

d

S

n

s

, lim

0

x t

F F

(1.6.1)

IIg. l.8 Iody nnd surfnco forcos

IIg. l.9 Sfrossos on surfnco oIomonfs

28 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

In order to give an insight to the nature oI the stress

n

t at point a, we

consider an elementary tetrahedron oI the body as schematically displayed

in Fig. 1.9, where the Iront surIace aS has a normal unit vector oI n . As

elucidated in Fig. 1.9, the small tetrahedron has three oI its Iaces, where

the surIace elements are

1 1 1

dS d n S ,

2 2 2

dS d n S and

3 3 3

dS d n S ,

denoting

i

n the normal unit vector and

i

aS the area oI each element. We

may Iurther indicate the stress vectors over each oI three Iaces, by

i

t Ior 1,

2, 3 and n. Since the surIace oI the tetrahedron is closed, owing that Iour

Iaces 1 i , 2, 3 and n bind the tetrahedron, we apply the principle oI local

equilibrium to the stress Iorces, subjecting to inIinitesimal tetrahedron, so

that

0

3 3 2 2 1 1

dS dS dS dS

n

t t t t (1.6.2)

Then, in the limit oI 0

i

dS , we can write the components oI the surIace

element in such a way that

dS dS dS dS

3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1

, , , , n n n n n n

(1.6.3)

since

3 2 1

dS dS dS dS can certainly be true. Thus Eq. (1.6.2)

becomes

3 3 2 2 1 1

t n t n t n n t

n

(1.6.4)

The expression in the parenthesis is a dyadic and each term in the paren-

thesis has three components, that is

f f f

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

T

e e t n e e t n e e t n , ,

3

33

32

31

3 3 2

23

22

21

2 2 1

13

12

11

1 1

(1.6.5)

where

1 1

t n shows the vector components oI

1

t on the surIace oI

1 1

dS n Iacing

1

n direction, and so on.

Using the dyadic notation, Eq. (1.6.5) can be written as

f i if

f i

T

T T T

T T T

T T T

e e

e e T

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

(1.6.6)

l.6 Iorcos on VoIumo IIomonf 29

where T is called the stress tensor, which has components oI a second or-

der matrix. ThereIore, Eq. (1.6.4) can be written alternatively with the

stress T by

if i f

T n t

(1.6.7)

or

T n t

n

(1.6.8)

The expression oI Eq. (1.6.6) is called Cauchy`s stress Iormula. It can

be veriIied by some tensor calculus that n n T T

T

, where

T

T is the

transpose oI T. It is, however, only true that when the tensor T is sym-

metric, the relationship oI n n T T

T

can be held.

The diagonal components

11

T ,

22

T and

33

T oI the stress tensor T are

called the normal stresses and the oII-diagonal components

12

T ,

21

T ,

31

T ,

13

T ,

23

T and

32

T are called the shear stresses.

When continuum medium is at rest, implying that Iluid velocity is

identically zero at any given time, any stress acting upon a volume element

is called hydrostatic stress, except Ior very speciIic cases in non-

Newtonian Iluids or electromagnetic medium, which will be introduced in

the later chapters. The hydrostatic stress is a normal stress, which is inde-

pendent oI the orientation. The hydrostatic stress can be expressed by de-

noting p as

f if i

pn T n

(1.6.9)

and this expression yields the Iollowing relationship as

if if

p T

(1.6.10)

or alternatively

I T p

(1.6.11)

where I is the unit tensor. p in Eqs. (1.6.10) and (1.6.11) can be identi-

Iied as the thermodynamic pressure in a compressive Iluid under assump-

tion that the Iluid is in equilibrium even when the Iluid is in motion. How-

ever, in incompressible limit, p can be treated as an independent dynamic

variable, retaining p as a pressure. Including the hydrostatic stress, the

stress tensor may be written as

if if if

p T

(1.6.12)

30 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

or alternatively

I T p

(1.6.13)

The stress tensor , which is oIten termed as deviatoric stress tensor,

may include various contributions, depending upon the physical character

oI the continuum medium, such as compressibility, viscoelastic nature, and

external (such as electromagnetic) Iield eIIects, likewise Ior p mentioned

above. A general expression oI the total stress T may be expressed by

*

if if

*

if

p T (1.6.14)

where

*

p and

`

if

are the extended pressure and stress tensor respectively.

The mean oI

if

T is deIined as

*

ii

*

ii m

p T T

3

1

3

1

(1.6.15)

and the deviatoric stress

if

is deIined as

if m if if

T T (1.6.16)

In viscous, incompressible Newtonian Iluid, i.e 0

`

ii

and p p

`

, the

mean stress is equal to the pressure p as

p T

m

(1.6.17)

This Iluid is sometimes called the perIect Iluid.

Exercise

Exercise 1.1 Dyadic Product u

u is called the gradient oI vector u and is sometimes written x u or

grad u . u is the second order tensor in the Cartesian coordinates system.

Show u as the dyadic product, using suIIix notation oI tensor with unit

Ans.

i

f

f i f f

i

i

x

u

u

x

e e e e u

(1)

dyads

f i

e e .

IxorcIso 3l

Equation (1) shows that u is a second order tensor whose if compo-

nents are

i f

u u .

Exercise 1.2 Convective Term

In Eq. (1.1.7), the term u u u u is called the convective term in

Iluid mechanics. Using the vector identities in Appendix B-5 (B.5-6), re-

duce Eq. (1.1.9).

u v v u u v v u v u (1)

Ans.

Set u v , which gives

u u u u u

2

2

1

(2)

When the vorticity vector u , Eq. (2) becomes

u u u u

2

2

1

(3)

II the velocity Iield u is irrotational, i.e. 0 u , u has a scalar po-

tential such that

u

(4)

and with the scalar potential the convective term will be written

2

u u

2

1

(5)

Exercise 1.3 Euler´s Relation

ProoI the Euler Relation given by Eq. (1.1.22)

u J

Dt

DJ

(1)

where

32 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

3

3

2

3

1

3

3

2

2

2

1

2

3

1

2

1

1

1

3 2 1

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

J

k f i

ifk

(2)

Ans.

We Iirstly write the Iollowing relation, Ior the velocity gradient

f

i i

f f

i

u

Dt

Dx x

Dt

D

(3)

With this relation, we are able to set an expression oI the time change oI

the Jacobian as Iollows

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

u x x x u x x x u

Dt

DJ

3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1

(4)

While Eq. (3) may be Iormulated by chain rule

f

i

f

i

f

i

k

i

f

k

f

i

x

x

u x

x

u x

x

u

x

u x u

3

3

2

2

1

1

(5)

Thus, Iinally Eq. (4) can be reduced to give the required Iorm

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k f i

ifk

k

l

l f i

ifk

k f

l

l i

ifk

k f i

l

l

ifk

x x x

x

u x x x

x

u x x x

x

u

x x x

x

u x x x

x

u x x x

x

u

x x x

x

u x x x

x

u x x x

x

u

x

x

u x x x x

x

u x x x x

x

u

Dt

DJ

3 2 1

3

3 3 2 1

2

3 3 2 1

1

3

3 2 1

3

2 3 2 1

2

2 3 2 1

1

2

3 2 3

3

1 3 2 2

2

1 3 2 1

1

1

3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1

u J

x

u

J

x

u

J

x

u

J

3

3

2

2

1

1

(6)

IxorcIso 33

Exercise 1.4 Pseudovector

II is a pseudovector oI a second order tensor S , examine the nature oI

in consideration oI Eq. (1.1.28).

S (1)

Ans.

Decompose S into the symmetric part and skew-symmetric part as

a s

2

1

2

1

S S

S S S S S

T T

(2)

where the skew-symmetric part is written by components

0

0

0

2

1

0

0

0

2

1

1 2

1 3

2 3

23 32 13 31

32 23 12 21

31 13 21 12

a

s s s s

s s s s

s s s s

S

(3)

Namely vector is expressed with components

1

,

2

and

3

as

3 3 2 2 1 1

e e e (4)

where is obtained by S (see Eq. (1.1.26) Ior example), this implies

that components oI the skew-symmetric part oI the second order tensor are

composed oI components oI the pseudovector. II S is assumed to be a ve-

locity gradient u , the vorticity vector is derived Irom components oI

the spin tensor, which is the skew-symmetric part oI the tensor u .

Exercise 1.5 Material Objectivity

The upper convective Maxwell model constitutive equation (a linear vis-

coelastic model, in Chapter 7) can be written by

e

0

2

(1)

34 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

where is a second order tensor, and

0

are constant and e is the rate

oI deIormation tensor (see Eq. (1.1.16)). Show that Eq. (1) satisIy the ma-

terial objectivity.

Ans.

The material objectivity has to be met by the linear transIormation Ior

tensor A as Iollows

T

t t Q A Q A (2)

where t Q is a rotation tensor, deIined in Eq. (1.2.1). ThereIore, the con-

stitutive Equation oI Eq. (1) has to be invariant by the transIormation oI Eq.

(2), that is

e

0

2

(3)

where

T

Q Q (4)

T

Q Q

(5)

and

T

Q e Q e (6)

knowing that scalar constants are Irame invariants.

In order to veriIy the invariance oI Eq. (1), take the transIormation to the

model equation

T

Q e Q

0

2

(7)

Since Eq. (7) is linear, we can write

T T T

Q e Q Q Q Q Q

0

2

(8)

Thus we can recover the given equation by knowing Eqs. (4), (5) and (6)

e

0

2

(9)

IxorcIso 35

In deriving Eq. (9), we used the principal oI Irame invariance (the ma-

terial objectivity) Ior the upper convective derivative given in Eq. (1.3.16).

Exercise 1.6 Reynolds´ Transport Theorem

Give a physical picture oI the Reynolds` transport theorem, considering the

rate oI change oI a certain quantity F oI matter moving through a control

volume, as depicted in Fig. 1.10,

Ans.

Consider a control volume oI region A, which contains a quantity oI

matter at some time t , indicated by the solid line. At some time later

time t t , the boundary oI the system has a new physical location as

shown by the dotted line, at which the control volume occupies regions B

and A minus C. The increment oI the matter is written

t m t t m t t m t t m m

A B C A

(1)

IIg. l.l0 Sysfom of movIng confroI voIumo nnd fIxod confroI voIumo

Taking diIIerentiation to Eq. (1) with respect to time t and aIter rear-

rangement, we can write

t

t t m t t m

t

t m t t m

t

m

C B A A

(2)

36 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

The rate oI change oI m is calculated by taking the limit oI Eq. (2) as

0 t . The Iirst term on the right hand side oI Eq. (2) thus becomes

J

A A

A A

t

FdJ

t

m m

t t

t m t t m

0

lim

(3)

Since region A is Iixed in the coordinates, we can write

J J

dJ

t

F

FdJ

t

(4)

In a similar manner as the second term becomes

C B

C B

t

m m

t

t t m t t m

0

lim

(5)

where

B

m is the rate oI change oI m through surIace area

1

S Irom control

volume (region A), and which is expressed by surIace integral

1

S

B

d F m S u

(6)

where u F is the Ilux oI F ( F is transported through the surIace oI the

control volume by stream oI Ilow with velocity u ).

Similarly

C

m is expressed

2 S

C

d F m S u

(7)

where the minus sign means the inward to the surIace oI the control vol-

ume. With Eqs. (6) and (7). Equation (5) becomes

S

C B

d F m m S u

(8)

ThereIore, the rate oI change oI m is altogether written

S J J

t

d F dJ

t

F

FdJ

Dt

D

t

m

S u

0

lim

(9)

This is a Lagrangian-to-Eulerian description oI the rate oI change oI an

extensive integral quantity given by Eq. (1.5.10).

IxorcIso 3?

Exercise 1.7 Principal Axes of Stress

The pressure p deIined in Eq. (1.6.17) is the mean oI the normal stresses,

that is, one third oI the trace oI the total stress tensor T. It appears that p

is meant to be the mean oI the principal stresses. Give the deIinition oI the

principal stresses and its direction oI the principal axis.

Ans .

When the direction oI a stress vector

n

t is equal to that oI an unit

normal vector n , iI

n

t is derived Irom a stress tensor T by Cauchy`s

stress Iormula, the direction oI n is called the direction oI the principal

axes oI stress and the stresses are the principal stresses.

Thus, in case oI n being parallel with the principal axes, we can write

n n t T

n

(1)

where is a scalar quantity. Equation (1) gives a relationship written as

0 I T n (2)

and Eq. (2) has to satisIy

0 I T

(3)

Ior the condition oI 0 n . Equation (3) is called the characteristic equa-

T. Roots oI Eq. (3) give eigenvalues, which are the

The perIect Iluid given by Eq. (1.6.17) is an isotropic Iluid in a sense

that a simple direct stress acting in it does not produce a shearing deIorma-

tion. In the Iunctional relation between stress and deIormation must be in-

dependent oI the orientation oI the coordinates system.

The component Iorm oI Eq. (3) is written by

0

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

T T T

T T T

T T T

(4)

with which we have a third order polynomial equation Ior as Iollows

0

3 2

2

1

3

I I I (5)

tion oI stress tensor

principal stresses Ior the principal axes.

38 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

Since is independent oI choice oI the coordinates system, the coeIIi-

cients oI

1

I ,

2

I and

3

I in Eq. (5) are also independent oI the choice oI the

coordinates. ThereIore,

1

I ,

2

I and

3

I are Irame invariants. Equation (5) is

also true Ior other tensors such as the rate oI deIormation tensor, which is

discussed in more detail in Chapter 7,

1

I ,

2

I and

3

I are respectively given by

T

r

t I

1

(6)

2

2 2

2

2

1

2

1

T T T : T

r r r

t t t I (7)

iI T is symmetric, i.e. T : T T

2

r

t ,

and

T det

3

I (8)

Note that iI

1

,

2

and

3

are the principal stresses,

1

I ,

2

I and

3

I are re-

spectively given by

3 2 1

3

1

m

m ii

I (9)

1 3 3 2 2 1 2

2

1

fi if ff ii

I (10)

and

3 2 1 3

det

if

I (11)

ProbIems

1-1. Show that

T

Q Q is a skew-symmetric tensor, and whose pseudovec-

tor is .

Ans.

r u r

r r r r r

r r r

where

Iixed Ior rotation rigid

that so

0

1

0

0 0

T

T

T T T

T T T

t t

Q Q Q Q Q

) ( Q

Q Q Q Q Q Q

Q Q Q Q I, Q Q

IrobIoms 39

1-2. II Q is a rotation tensor, show that Q is a unitary matrix, which satis-

Iies

1 1

Q Q . Consider the two dimensional axis rotation by

where the Irame is transIerred x´ y´ to x y .

Ans.

1

cos sin

sin cos

Q Q

Q

T

y

x

y

x

x x

1-3. ProoI Ior Cartesian vectors u and v, that

u v v u v u v v u

Ans.

f

f

i f

f

i i

f

f i

f

i

i

f

f i f

f

f

f

i f i

f

m

f

l m l

f

fl im fm il

m l

f

klm kif m l

f

klm ifk m l klm

f

ifk

u

x

v v

x

u v

x

u u

x

v

v

x

u v u

x

v

x

u v u

x

v

x

u v u

x

v u

x

v u

x

v u

x

1-4. When a scalar Iunction t , p x diIIers Iorm a material surIace, but

t p , x moves with a velocity v diIIerent Irom the stream velocity u ,

show that

p

dt

dp

n v u

Ans.

p p

dt

dp

t

p

p

t

p

dt

dp

t x p

n v u v u

v u w

w ,

,

0 point material with not and

, velocity relative with move but

surIace, is the material II

u

40 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

1-6. Obtain components

xx

T ,

xy

T and

x:

T oI tensor T.

Ans.

k i

j i

i i

T

T

T

x:

xy

xx

T

T

T

1-7. Show that the velocity gradient tensor u does not satisIy the princi-

ple oI Irame invariance.

Ans.

. oI tion transIorta linear not is

and ,

0

0

0 0

0

0

0 0

0

0 0

Q Q Q

Q Q

Q Q Q Q

Q Q

Q Q

Q Q Q

`

u u

u

u

x

x

x

x

x

u

u

x u u

x

x

x x x x

T

T

T T

r r

r

r

T

r

r

T

r

NomencIature

A : material parameter

a : acceleration

C : Cauchy strain tensor

-1

C : Finger tensor

E : displacement gradient tensor

e : rate oI strain tensor

i

e : unit base vector k j, i,

1-5. VeriIy that the Finger tensor deIined in Eq. (1.4.4),

T 1 1 1

i.e. E E C

is symmetric. Consider E in the Cartesian coordinates system.

Ans.

k

X

f

x

k

X

i

x

T

kf

E

ik

E

if

C

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

i

X

f

x

T

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

X

x

f

X

i

x

T

1 1 1

3

3

3

2

3

1

2

3

2

2

2

1

1

3

1

2

1

1

3

3

2

3

1

3

3

2

2

2

1

2

3

1

2

1

1

1

1

1 1 1

E , E

E E C

1

1

f i

e e : unit dyad

F : Iorce

g

: body Iorce

: gravitation acceleration

I : unit tensor

J : Jacobian

L : material line element

i

L : Intermediate scale

l

L : large scale

m

L : molecular scale

n : unit normal vector

p

: pressure

Q : rotation tensor

S : general second order tensor

S : surIace area

T : total stress tensor

n

t : stress vector

t : time

u : velocity

x : position vector in vector space

: Knudsen number

if

: Kronecker delta

: (polyadic) alternator

ifk

: Eddington notation

: eigenvalue

: scalar potential

: angular velocity

: spin tensor

: vorticity vector

BibIiography

The content in this chapter is standard matter and treated in almost all texts.

The mathematical methods in accounting Cartesian vectors and tensors are

Iound in

1. A. RutherIord, Jectors, Tensors, ana the Basic Equations of Fluia Me-

chanics, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliIIs, NJ, 1962.

IIbIIogrnµhy 4l

42 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

2. F. B. Hildebrand, Aavancea Calculus for Applications (2nd Edition),

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliIIs, NJ, 1976.

3. R. B. Bird, C. F.Curtiss, R. C. Armstrong and O. Hassanger, Dynamics

of Polymeric Liquias (2nd Edition), John Wiley & Sons, A Wiley-

Interscience Publication, New York, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 1987. Appen-

dices are useIul.

4. G. B. ArIken and H. J. Weber, Mathematical Methoas for Physicists

(6th Edition), Elsevier, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2005.

Some interesting topics on microhydrodynamics are Iound in

5. S. Kim and S. J. Karrila, Microhyaroaynamics, Principles ana Selectea

Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, a division oI Reed Publishing

(U.S.A.) Inc., OxIord, London, 1991.

6. P. Tabeling, Introauction to Microfluiaics, OxIord University Press

Inc., New York, 2005.

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