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1.

FundamentaIs in Continuum Mechanics


description oI the motion oI Ilow is given in three dimensional space with
respect to the reIerence Irame or relative to the rotational Irame. Dynamics
involves the Irequent use oI derivatives oI scalars, vectors and tensors. Ve-
locity and acceleration are the time derivatives, which are important kine-
matic parameters necessary to set an equation oI motion in Newtonian me-
chanics, on which continuum mechanics is based. Also given are Iorces
connected with space derivatives in regard to displacement gradient and
relative strain, which are other important aspects oI continuum mechanics.
In this chapter, deIinitions oI stress tensors and strain tensors are also pro-
vided, and will be developed in more detail in the chapters to Iollow.
1.1 Dynamics of FIuid Motion
When we deal with Iluid motion, in many Iluid engineering cases the dy-
namics oI a molecule, or the molecular structure oI the Iluid body, does not
explicitly come into eIIect. At the scale oI molecular motion, properties oI
the Iluid body, such as density, are typically subject to extreme variation
with respect to the instantaneous distance oI the Irame. While, Ior the mo-
tion oI Iluid Ilow, the macro-motion with the scale oI Ilow channel or ex-
ternal object takes place, thus we may apply the 'continuum hypothesis¨,
with which the Iluid body has a continuous structure in the instantaneous
Irame oI space, as schematically indicated in Fig. 1.1. In Fig. 1.1, let us
denote
m
L as the small scale (molecular scale), which can be taken as the
mean Iree path oI the molecule;
l
L as the large scale, which can be the
characteristic length oI the geometric conIiguration oI Iluid motion. More-
over, there may exist an intermediate length scale
i
L , where a certain eI-
Iect oI a molecule or the molecular structure retains the properties oI Iluid.
In order to quantiIy the eIIect oI the scale in the properties oI Iluid, and
consequently to the dynamics oI Iluid motion, we will take the ratio be-
tween the actual characteristic length oI Ilow geometry, typically
l
L , and
Certain concepts and deIinitions are basic to the study oI continuum
mechanics, and they should be thoroughly understood at the outset. Below, a
5
6 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
the mean Iree path oI the molecules (the correlation length oI the mole-
cules)
m
L , such that we get the Iollowing Iormula where is called the
Knudsen number.
l
m
L
L

(1.1.1)
'Continuum Mechanics¨ in a general sense, and 'Fluid Mechanics¨ in
particular, is normally valid when 1, where the continuum hypothe-
sis can be assured. HenceIorth we shall make two assumptions: Iirst, that
in every case, the Ilow oI Iluid has a small Knudsen Number, with which
the scale oI momentum oI Ilow is Iar longer than the correlation length oI
the molecules; and second, that the Iluid body has a continuous structure.

IIg. l.l Iroµorfy vnrInfIon wIfh scnIo íns fyµIcnIIy soon wIfh µroµorfIos
such ns donsIfy ¹
It is interesting to mention, although we will not deal with the problem
in this text, that there is a Iield oI study that deals with small scaled Ilow
phenomena in continuum mechanics. These phenomena have been dubbed
Iluid Ilows in a micro-channel, or micro-Iluid-mechanics as it is more
commonly reIerred to. The reader may wish to reIer to a more detailed de-
scription provided by Kim and Kavila, 1991, and Tabeling, 2005.
The motion oI a Iluid can be perIectly determined, when the velocity at
every point oI the space is occupied by Iluid motion. ThereIore, to express
the velocity with independent variables, there are two distinct methods, the
so-called Eulerian and Lagrangian speciIications.
l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon ?
One method is to trace the motion oI a particle in space with time. In
particular, a particle in Iluid is called 'Iluid particle¨, which is a subdivi-
sion oI the Iluid around a speciIic point x . This method is called Lagran-
gian speciIication. The position vector oI the Iluid particle, considering a
motion relative to a given Irame oI reIerence at time t , can be expressed
as
t ,
0
x x x (1.1.2)
where
0
x and t are independent parameters, and
0
x is the original posi-
tion at 0 t , 0
0 0
, x x x . The velocity u and acceleration a at time t
can be written similarly as
t
t ,
x
x u u
0
(1.1.3)
t
t ,
u
x a a
0
(1.1.4)
As seen in Fig. 1.2(a), Lagrangian speciIication describes the motion oI a
body oI mass (Iluid particle) and its variation oI Ilow state along the parti-
cle path.
Another method is to give the spatial distribution oI Ilow state as a
Iunction oI spatial coordinates x ( : y x , , x ; : y x , , are Euler variables)
and time t , where x and t are independent variables. This method is
called Eulerian speciIication, and describes the variation oI Ilow state in a
position x (position vector in spatial coordinates x ) at a given time t , not
describing the behavior oI each particle, see Fig. 1.2(b). In the Eulerian
speciIication the velocity u can be expressed as
t , x u u (1.1.5)
The expression oI the acceleration a in an Eulerian speciIication is given
by diIIerentiation Iollowing the motion oI a Iluid particle and the rate oI
change oI the velocity oI that particle with respect to time
) (
) , ( ) , (
u
x u x u x x u
a
t t t
t t t
0 t 0 t
lim lim
(1.1.6)
Particularly in Iluid mechanics, a in Eq. (1.1.6) is called the material de-
rivative or substantial derivative, and is oIten expressed as
) (
) (
( )
( )
8 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
u
u
a u
t Dt
D

(1.1.7)
In general, the rate oI change over time oI material parameter A, where A
can be a scalar, vector or tensor associated with the (material) point at time
t, can be expressed by the material derivative (the diIIerential operator
Dt D is also called Lagrangian derivative) as
t A t A
t Dt
t DA
, ,
,
x u x
x
0
(1.1.8)

ín¹ !ngrnngInn sµocIfIcnfIon íb¹ IuIorInn sµocIfIcnfIon
IIg. l.2 ÐoscrIµfIon of fIuId mofIon
The derivative deIined in Eq. (1.1.7) can be Iurther written, using vector
identities (see section oI Appendix B-5), as Iollows
u u u
u u 2
2
1
t Dt
D
(1.1.9)
The term u u or A u , operating in Eqs. (1.1.7) and (1.1.8) respec-
tively, are called the convective term, which express the Iact that, Ior time
independent Ilow 0 t , the Iluid properties, such u or A, depend only
upon the spatial coordinates x. Namely, the changes in Iluid properties are
due to the changing spatial position oI a given Iluid particle as it Ilows.
The terms t u , t A are the Eulerian time derivatives evaluated at a
position x.
l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon 9
Having established the conceptual and mathematical representation oI
the kinematic description oI motion, we will now consider the decomposi-
tion oI motion. This will be done in order to establish the concept and
mathematical description oI that rate. An important concept in a motion oI
continuum is to know how the deIormation can be expressed Irom the ve-
locity Iield t , x u u .
IIg. l.3 MnforInI IIno L chnngo
Let us consider the conIiguration oI an inIinitesimal element t L oI a
straight material line. It undergoes translation, rotation, and stretching, as a
result oI the nonuniIorm velocity Iield oI dt dx u . As time elapses, the
t L becomes dt t L . From the Iigure in Fig. 1.3, it is clear that
dt t dt t t
dt t t dt t t t dt t
, ,
, , ) ( ) (
x u L x u L
x u x L x u L x L

(1.1.10)
so that, the changing rate oI t L as dt t t can be written as
...
,
, ,
L
x u
L x u L x u
L L t
t t
dt
t dt t
(1.1.11)
where the right hand side oI Eq. (1.1.11) is a Taylor series expansion Ior
t , x u around ) (t L . Equation (1.1.11) can be Iurther modiIied as
material line element t L moves to the new positions P and Q, where
l0 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
t
t
dt
t
t dt t
L
x u L
L L
,

(1.1.12)
Let us denote t t t L L and x L t , since we are taking
t L as an inIinitesimal line element, so that we have
E
x
X
x
X
L
L L
t
t t t
(1.1.13)
and
u
x
u
x
u
L
x u
0
lim
x
t
t ,
(1.1.14)
where E is called the displacement gradient tensor and u is called the
velocity gradient tensor. Using the notation deIined in Eqs. (1.1.13) and
(1.1.14). Thus, the change rate oI material line element t L , which is
given by Eq. (1.1.11), will be written by the Iormula
e x
u u u u x u x
T T
2
1
2
1

(1.1.15)
where superscript T denotes the transpose oI tensor. It is noted here that in
expanding Eq. (1.1.15) the velocity gradient tensor u, arbitrary second
order tensor is decomposed into symmetric and skew-symmetric (or anti-
symmetric) parts. We now deIine the rate oI strain (or the rate oI deIorma-
tion) tensor, as the symmetric part oI the velocity gradient tensor
T
u u
2
1
e (1.1.16)
and the vorticity (or spin) tensor, as the skew-symmetric part oI the veloc-
ity gradient tensor
T
u u
2
1
(1.1.17)
Thus, the change rate oI t L due to translation t , x u can be straining
e x and rotation x . Consequently the velocity gradient tensor can
be written by
l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon ll
e u (1.1.18)
In order to gain more physical insight Ior tensors e and in contin-
uum mechanics, we will examine e in the Iirst place. ReIerring Eq.
(1.1.16), e can be written by the Cartesian suIIix convention Ior three val-
ues, i ÷ 1, 2 and 3, or f ÷ 1, 2 and 3, which correspond to x , y and :
respectively as Iollows
i
f
f
i
f i if f i
x
u
x
u
e
2
1
e e e e e
(1.1.19)
where
f i
e e is the unit dyad (see Appendix B-1), and the components oI
the rate oI strain tensor
if
e is presented by
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
1
1
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
e e e
e e e
e e e
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
e
if

(1.1.20)
It is easily known Irom Eq. (1.1.20) that
if
e is the symmetric and has 6 in-
dependent components, i.e.
11
e ,
22
e ,
33
e ,
21 12
e e ,
32 23
e e and
13 31
e e . The
orthogonal components
11
e ,
22
e , and
33
e are the rate oI elongational strain,
due to a local deIormation oI Iluid in stretching or contraction in x , y ,
and : axis respectively. In addition the oII-orthogonal components
12
e ,
23
e , and
31
e (as well as
21
e ,
32
e , and
13
e ) are, on the other hand, due to a
local deIormation oI Iluid in shearing in the plane oI x y , y : , and : x
respectively. Figure 1.4 gives an idea oI the deIormation rate occurring in
Iluid in x y plane. Figure 1.4 (1)-a shows the simple elongational (or ex-
tensional) Ilow Iield as one oI typical stretching and contraction oI Ilow,
where the rate oI elongational strain appears. Furthermore, in order to
make the point clear, in Fig. 1.4 (1)-b the stretching oI a Iluid element in
the elongational Ilow Iield is indicated. Similarly in Fig. 1.4 (2)-a the dia-
gram shows the simple shear Ilow Iield, where the shear strain takes place
and (2)-b a sketch oI the shear Iield is displayed, where a Iluid element is
sheared in the Ilow direction.

l2 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs


The symmetry oI the tensor e guarantees that there will always be
three mutual orthogonal orientations oI x X p , Ior each oI which the
corresponding rate oI deIormation is either elongation or contraction, that
is the principal rates oI deIormation, to which we can assign
11 1
e e ,
22 2
e e and
33 3
e e . The summations oI
1
e ,
2
e and
3
e are invariant Ior
coordinate transIormation, which give the proportional rate oI increase oI
an inIinitesimal material volume
3 2 1
e e e divu u (1.1.21)

íl¹·n SImµIo oIongnfIonnI í2¹·n SImµIo shonr fIow fIoId
íor oxfonsIonnI ¹ fIow fIoId

IIg. l.4 !ocnI doformnfIon of fIuId

This quantity deIined in Eq. (1.1.21) is called the divergence oI the veloc-
ity Iield oI t , x u . Furthermore, a deIinition that is independent Irom a
coordinates system can be given by
l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon l3
J
S
dJ
J
dS
J Dt
J D
J
div
u
u n u
1
1 1

(1.1.22)
Equation (1.1.22) is called the Euler`s relation, which implies the physical
rate oI change over time oI the volume oI moving Iluid particles per unit
volume. It is noted that to write the volume integral
J
dJ u Irom the
surIace integral
S
dS u n the Gauss` divergence theorem is applied.
The skew-symmetric part given by Eq. (1.1.17) oI the velocity gra-
dient tensor u can be similarly written by the Cartesian suIIix conven-
tion as
i
f
f
i
f i if f i
x
u
x
u
2
1
e e e e (1.1.23)
and
if
can be Iurther written in matrix Iorm
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
2
1
32 31
23 21
13 12
3
2
2
3
3
1
1
3
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
if






(1.1.24)
Components, which appear in Eq. (1.1.23), as the components oI
u, are related with the Iollowing Iormula
3 3 2 2 1 1
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
3
1
2
3
2
2
3
1
e e e
e e e u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u

(1.1.25)
l4 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
It may be useIul to consider u in a little more detail Ior the
sake oI coupling equations in the Iollowing chapters. The nature oI u
can be examined by introducing the alternator or alternating unit tensor
ifk k f i
e e e as Iollows
3 3 2 2 1 1
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
3
1
2
3
2
2
3
1
3 3 2 2 1 1
e e e
e e e
e e e
e u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
x
u
f
k
fk
f
k
fk
f
k
fk
f
k
i ifk





(1.1.26)
Thus, in comparison with (1.1.23) and (1.1.25), a vector (in this case
u) with components
1
,
2
and
3
can be reduced Irom a general
second order tensor S (in the present case
f i
x u , x u , u or
u grad ), whose components oI skew-symmetric part (in this case ) are
written by
0
0
0
2
1
1 2
1 3
2 3
(1.1.27)
Note that the vector
3 2 1
, , is called the pseudovector oI the tensor
S or simply the vector oI tensor S . See Exercise 1.4.
By employing the alternator , the vector may be Iound Irom S ,
more speciIically Irom the skew-symmetric part
a
S oI S, denoting
2
a
S while the symmetric part
s
S oI S may be expressed by
2
s
e S . The Iollowing relationships are particularly useIul;
S (1.1.28)
S
2
1
a
(1.1.29)
Note that Irom Eqs. (1.1.28) and (1.1.29) the pseudovector is zero,
0 , iI a second order tensor S is symmetric 0
a
S , and vice versa.
l.l ÐynnmIcs of IIuId MofIon l5
For the sake oI clarity and convenience, the unit tensor I and the al-
ternator are deIined below. I is deIined such that
if f i
e e I
(1.1.30)
where
if
is the Kronecker delta and
f i
e e is the unit dyad.
if
is deIined
as
f i
f i
if
iI 0
iI 1
(1.1.31)
is similarly deIined by
ifk k f i
e e e (1.1.32)
where
ifk
is the Eddington notation and
k f i
e e e is the unit polyadic. Thus,
the alternator is a polyadic.
ifk
is deIined in the Iollowing manner
k f k i f i
ifk
ifk
ifk
or , , iI 0
213 or , 132 , 321 iI 1
312 or , 231 , 123 iI 1


(1.1.33)
It is useIul Ior to be alternatively expressed with the Iorm
1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 1
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e (1.1.34)
AIter giving mathematical Iormalities Ior the tensor , we will see
how may cause a local deIormation in the Ilow Iield t , x u . The de-
Iormation due to can be examined Irom Eq. (1.1.11) as
dt t dt t
a
L
u
L L L X ) ( ) ( (1.1.35)
Note that
a
L u is a skew-symmetric part oI the velocity gradient ten-
sor. It is Iurther noted that by taking an inIinitesimal time duration t dt
and on inIinitesimal line element x x L , we can obtain the deIorma-
tion in x - y plane, Ior example
3 3 3
3 3
3
2
1
2
1
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0
2
1
e
e x X , ,
t x y
t y x t



(1.1.36)
l6 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
The implication oI Eq. (1.1.36) is, in the x y plane, that as indicated in
Fig. 1.5, the Iluid element x y is rotated around the : axis with its an-
gular velocity 2
3 3
. Thus, as easily speculated Irom Fig. 1.5, the
vorticity tensor represents a rigid body rotation oI Iluid element with
angular velocity 2 . The pseudovector oI the velocity gradient ten-
sor, i.e. u u : , is called the vorticity vector. The vorticity
vector is an important Ilow parameter in Iluid mechanics.

IIg. l.5 !IgId body rofnfIon of fIuId oIomonf x y
1.2 Dynamics in Rotating Reference Frame
In consideration oI kinematics let us explore the relationship between an
inertial and a rotating reIerence Irame. For brevity, let the rotating reIer-
ence Irame be rotated with a constant angular velocity with respect to
the inertial reIerence Irame, supposing no translation oI the rotating reIer-
ence Irame to the inertial reIerence Irame, see Fig. 1.6. It is noted that we
adopt a right-handed orthogonal coordinates system, where 0 is an
angular velocity vector, which rotates to the direction oI a right-handed
screw. The position vectors
0
x and
r
x oI a material point x in the iner-
tial Irame and rotating Irame respectively are related as
0
x x Q
r
(1.2.1)
where Q is a rotation tensor, which is an orthogonal tensor with a relation
oI I Q Q
T
, and
1
Q Q
T
(where Q is an unitary matrix);
1
Q

l.2 ÐynnmIcs In !ofnfIng !oforonco Irnmo l?


denotes the inverse oI the tensor Q and
T
Q denotes the transpose oI the
tensor Q.


IIg. l.6 !ofnfIng roforonco frnmo wIfh InorfInI roforonco frnmo
In order to correlate two Irames kinematically, we shall consider a ve-
locity and acceleration at the material point. To start with, apply Dt D ,
the material derivative, to Eq. (1.2.1) to obtain the relative velocity
r
u
Dt
D
Dt
D
Dt
D
Dt
D
Dt
D
r
r
r
0 1
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
u
Q Q
Q
Q
Q

(1.2.2)
Equation (1.2.2) can be Iurther written with the velocity
0
u in the inertial
Irame, letting
0 0
u x Dt D by
0
u x u Q
r r
(1.2.3)
Here we used tensor calculus (Ior relative position vector
r
x , see Problem
1-1) as
r r
T
r
Dt
D
Dt
D
x x x
1
Q
Q
Q
Q

(1.2.4)
l8 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
It is noted that is the pseudovector oI the skew-symmetric tensor
T
Dt D Q Q in the same manner explained Ior the vorticity vector
previously. Next, by taking the material derivative again to Eq. (1.2.3), we
can obtain the relative acceleration
r
a oI the material point x as Iollows
0
1 1
a x u u
u
a
Q Q
Q
Q
Q
r r r
r
r
Dt
D
Dt
D
Dt
D


(1.2.5)
Consequently Irom Eq. (1.1.4), we can obtain the acceleration vector
0
a ,
i.e. the acceleration oI the inertial Irame, by relating Eq. (1.2.5) in the ro-
tating Irame as
r r r
x u a a 2
0
(1.2.6)
where it is derived when an inertial Irame is instantaneously coincident
with the rotating Irame , as I Q . In Eq. (1.2.6), the Iirst term in the right
hand side oI the equation is the rectilinear acceleration, the second is the
Corioli`s acceleration, and the third is the centripetal acceleration. With
identical vectors, it is easy to show that the third term oI Eq. (1.2.6), i.e.
the centripetal acceleration can be reduced to the potential Iorm as
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
r
r r
x x (1.2.7)
so that, deIining a potential Iunction , and setting 2
2 2
r , where r
simply denotes distance Irom the axis oI rotation, the centripetal accelera-
tion can be expressed as
r
x (1.2.8)
It may be worthwhile to note that the operation to reduce the relation
(1.2.6) can be simply understood by a vector algebra Ior a Iluid particle ro-
tating at a constant angular velocity along an axis oI rotation in the in-
ertial reIerence Irame at a material point x
r
x x
0
(1.2.9)
and
r r
x u u
0
(1.2.10)
Equation (1.2.9) reIers to the instantaneous moment, when I Q , and Eq.
(1.2.10) implies the relative velocity oI the Iluid particle rotating to the
l.3 MnforInI ObjocfIvIfy nnd ConvocfIvo ÐorIvnfIvos l9
inertial Irame. Thus, taking the time derivative to Eq. (1.2.10), as we have
similarly done to Eq. (1.2.3), we can obtain the acceleration oI the Iluid
particle relative to the inertial Irame as
r r
r
dt
d
Dt
D
x u
u u
a 2
0
0
(1.2.11)
which is exactly the same Iorm as Eq. (1.2.6). The relation given by Eq.
(1.2.11) can again be written, using the potential
2
0 r r
u a a (1.2.12)
where 2
2 2
r .
1.3 MateriaI Objectivity and Convective Derivatives
On the microstructure level material elements may be aIIected by strong
electromagnetic Iield or strong inertial Iorces; however, on the continuum
level the physical characteristic oI a material, such as demonstrated by the
Hooke`s law (the relationship between the extension and the Iorce can be
regarded as a physical property oI spring itselI), is independent oI the mo-
tion oI the observer. This concept is called 'the material objectivity¨ or
'the principle oI Irame invariance¨. Particularly in dealing with the rela-
tionship between a deIormation and a stress in continuum, so-called consti-
tutive equation, this concept is oI some importance.
In order to satisIy the principle oI Irame invariance, the Iollowing lin-
ear transIormation by E (see Q and E in Eqs. (1.2.1) and (1.3.4) Ior
equivalence) must be satisIied Ior any arbitrary vectors (say a velocity vec-
tor ) , ( t x u ) and second order tensor (say a stress tensor ) ( t , T x ) in the
Cartesian reIerence Irame. This can be set in the inertial reIerence Irame
in such a way that
0
u u Q
r
to E u u (1.3.1)
T
r
Q T Q T
0
to
T
E T E T (1.3.2)
where the suIIix r denotes the rotating reIerence Irame. Note that scalar
properties (such temperature, density, etc.) are always Irame invariant.
Now we will direct our attention to how the time derivative oI vectors
and tensors are aIIected in order Ior the principle oI Irame invariance to be
satisIied. We will consider this problem with respect to the transIormation


20 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
oI a material line element as displayed in Fig. 1.3, where the material line
element x L ) (t (in the material reIerence Irame) is transIormed to
) ( dt t L (in the new space Irame), noting that X L L t dt t ) ( and
deIining the displacement gradient tensors as
E
x
X
x
X
lim
0 x
(1.3.3)
so that Eq. (1.3.3) can be Iurther written as
x X E (1.3.4)
and
X x
1
E
(1.3.5)
Eventually E is a linear transIormation tensor, and in order to veriIy the
principle oI Irame invariance we will transIorm a tensor T (in the mate-
rial reIerence Irame) to T (in the new space Irame). This transIormation
can be written
T
E T E T
(1.3.6)
and the reverse transIormation is deIined by
T
) (
1 1
E T E T (1.3.7)
Thus, the material derivative oI T in Eq. (1.3.7) will be
T T
T
Dt
D
) ( ) (
1 1 1 1 1 1
E T E E T E E T E
T
(1.3.8)
denoting the material derivative, i.e. T T Dt D . Equation (1.3.8) can be
Iurther reduced to the Iorm
T T
T T T T
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
E T T T E
E T E E T E E T E T
u u
u u

(1.3.9)
It is noted that to derive Eq. (1.3.9) we have used the relations
1 1 1
E E E E and
1
E E x u u . The relations are obtained
Irom Eq. (1.3.4) Ior the velocity u as
x
d
d
E
t
X
u (1.3.10)
and





 

l.3 MnforInI ObjocfIvIfy nnd ConvocfIvo ÐorIvnfIvos 2l
1
E E E
X
x
X
u
u
(1.3.11)
Consequently, the tensor (
T
u u T T T ) is linearly transIormed by a
material line element oI
1
E , and we denote Eq. (1.3.9) as
T
) (
1 1
E T E T
(1.3.12)
where is called the upper convective derivative, which is deIined as Iol-
lows
T
T
Dt
D
u u
u u
T T T
T T
T
T


(1.3.13)
In the upper convective derivative, the base vectors are contravariant``
base vectors. That is, the base coordinate vectors are parallel to material
lines, which are deIormed (stretched and rotated) with a material line.
In a similar manner, with covariant`` base vectors, that are normal to
material planes, where in a deIormation each base vector rotates to remain
normal and stretches so that its length remains proportional to the area oI
the material plane to which it is normal, we have the lower convective de-
rivative deIined by
u u T T T T
T

(1.3.14)
II we extend Iurther, we will see that when material lines are in a de-
Iormation with rotational coordinates, we can deIine the derivative in the
Iollowing manner
T T T T

(1.3.15a)
or alternatively
T T T T
2
1

(1.3.15b)
where is the spin tensor and the derivative T is called the corotational
derivative (a) or the Jaumann derivative (b). The corotational (Jaumann)
derivative can be gotten Irom the upper convective derivative directly by
setting e 0 u , and using
T
.

22 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
The three derivatives, Eqs. (1.3.13), (1.3.14) and (1.3.15), can satisIy
the principle oI Irame invariance, and this can be easily demonstrated to
meet the condition in Eq. (1.3.2) Ior the rotation tensor Q to give
T T
T T T T
T T T
T
Dt
D
Dt
D
Dt
D
Q ) T T
T
( Q
) Q (Q Q T Q
Q T Q ) Q (Q ) Q T (Q
T T
T
u u
u
u
u u


(1.3.16)
So, T meets the suIIicient condition Ior the principle oI Irame invariance.
Observe that in deriving Eq. (1.3.16), the Iollowing relation was used

T T T
Q Q Q Q (1.3.17)
since we have I
T
Q Q , where Q is the unitary matrix, which is written
by
T T
Q Q Q Q . It is Iurther noted that the velocity gradient tensor
u itselI does not satisIies the principle oI Irame invariance as it is shown
that
Q Q
Q Q Q Q
T
T T
u
u u

(1.3.18)
X X X X x x d d ds
T T
T
T
1
1 1 2
E E E E (1.4.1)
x x x x X X d d dS
T T T T
E) (E ) (E ) (E
2
(1.4.2)

   


The displacement gradient tensor E, deIined in Eqs. (1.1.13) and (1.3.3), is
not generally symmetric and contains both deIormation and rotation oI a
material line. Thus, E itselI is not a quantity oI the Irame invariance and
one may have to exclude the eIIect oI rotation oI a material line, particu-
larly when a constitutive equation is considered. In order to deIine Iinite
strain tensors, which are Iree Irom rotation, we can simply take the square
oI the length oI x or X , Ior the material lines beIore and aIter deIorma-
tion respectively (see Fig. 1.3), such that
1.4 DispIacement Gradient and ReIative Strain
l.5 !oynoIds` Trnnsµorf Thoorom 23
Equations (1.4.1) and (1.4.2) contain metric tensors,
1
) E (E
T
and
E) (E
T
respectively.
HereaIter we deIine strain tensors, one oI which is called the Cauchy
strain tensor C deIined by
E E C
T
(1.4.3)
and the other is called the Finger strain tensor deIined by
T
1 1 1
E E C (1.4.4)
These two tensors are both positive symmetric, and describe the deIorma-
tion Irom t to t t oI a material line, which are Iree Irom rotation. Con-
sidering the character oI two tensors, C and
1
C , we can deIine two
closely related relative strain tensors as Iollows
C I
R
(1.4.5)
I C
1
R

(1.4.6)
These two relative strain tensors are very useIul and are oIten used in de-
riving integral constitutive equations Ior viscoelastic Iluids.
1.5 ReynoIds' Transport Theorem
In deriving conservation equations oI Ilow, it is particularly important to
consider the volume integral
) (
) , (
t J
dJ t F I x , oI which material deriva-
tive is deIined as Dt DI . t J J is a closed volume oI Iluid particles, or
otherwise known as a material volume (element) consisting oI a represen-
tative material line, and ) , ( t F x is any scalar, vector, or tensor Iunction.
Reynolds` transport theorem concerns the rate oI change oI any volume in-
tegral, i.e. Dt DI .
BeIore proceeding Iurther, it may be useIul to consider the change oI a
material volume
0
dJ Irom coordinates at time
0
t to coordinates x at
time t , where is the material coordinates, and they are Cartesian coor-
dinates, ) , , (
3 2 1
. Also let the volume element
0
dJ be
3 2 1
d d d , ,
oI an elementary parallelepiped, as sketched in Fig. 1.7. Due to the Iluid
motion, this parallelepiped
0
dJ is moved to some neighborhood oI the
Cartesian point ) , ( t x x at time t , with the volume element oI dJ,
24 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
whose sides are
1
dx ,
2
dx and
3
dx , i.e.
3 2 1
dx dx dx dJ . The change oI co-
ordinates ) , , (
3 2 1
x x x x must be given to the corresponding coordinates
) , , (
3 2 1
by
) , , (
3 2 1 i i
x x (1.5.1)
The sides
1
dx ,
2
dx and
3
dx oI the volume element can be given by chain
rule as
f
f
i
i
d
x
dx Ior 3 , 2 , 1 i
(1.5.2)


IIg. l.? Chnngo of mnforInI voIumo nf fImo t
The resultant volume element dJ can be calculated by the box product
oI vectors`
1
x d ,
2
x d , and
3
x d three sides, representing material line
elements oI dJ
3 2 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
d d Jd
d d d d d d dJ x x x x x x

(1.5.3)
where J is called the Jacobian oI the transIormation oI the variables, and
is deIined as
l.5 !oynoIds` Trnnsµorf Thoorom 25
3
3
2
3
1
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x x x x
J
k f i
ifk
, ,
, ,
(1.5.4)
From the relation given by Eq. (1.5.3), J is the ratio oI a material vol-
ume element to its initial volume as
0
dJ
dJ
J
(1.5.5)
and
0
J Jd J d . This is called the dilatation.
In consideration oI the dilatation, the time derivative (the material de-
rivative) oI the volume integral
) (
,
t J
dJ t F I x can be written (by
means oI the Lagrangian description)
0
0
0
0
J
J J(t)
dJ
t D
J D
F J
t D
DF
dJ J t t F
t D
D
dJ t F
t D
D
t D
DI
, , , x x


(1.5.6)
Using the deIinition oI the divergence in Eq. (1.1.22), we can obtain
the dilatation`s relative rate oI change along a path line oI a Iluid particle
as Iollows
t D
DJ
J t D
JdJ D
JdJ Dt
dJ D
dJ
div
1 1 1
0
0
u
(1.5.7)
Thus, Irom Eqs. (1.5.6) and (1.5.7) we can obtain the Iollowing relation-
ship
dJ F
t D
DF
JdJ F
Dt
DF
t D
DI
J
J
u u
0
0
(1.5.8)
The Iormula (1.5.8) is called the Reynolds` transport theorem, and can be
Iurther extended into a number oI diIIerent Iorms, using the deIinition oI
the material derivative given by Eq. (1.1.7) as
26 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
dJ F
t
F
t D
DI
J
u (1.5.9)
dS F dJ
t
F
S J
u n
(1.5.10)
It should be noted that the Gauss` divergence theorem was applied in order
to write the surIace integral
S
dS ~ Irom the volume integral
J
dJ ~ .
The physical picture oI the Reynolds` transport theorem is that the rate
oI change oI the integral oI F in Lagrangian description is the sum oI the
integral oI the rate oI change at a point, and the net Ilow oI F over the
control volume surIace in Eulerian description.
1.6 Forces on VoIume EIement
There are two kinds oI Iorces acting on a volume element oI a continuum
medium. The volume element taken in a Ilow Iield is called the control
volume in Eulerian description and equivalently called the Iluid particle in
Lagrangian description. In both cases, as depicted in Fig. 1.8, 'Body
Iorces¨ as one oI the two kinds, can be regarded as reaching the medium
and acting over the entire volume. Body Iorces, which are represented by a
symbol g, are due to long-range Iorces, such as gravitation (with the
gravitational acceleration ) or electromagnetic Iorces, etc. They are usu-
ally independent Irom a deIormation oI the volume element and are caused
by an external Iield oI source.
'SurIace Iorces¨, oI another kind, are to be regarded as acting upon the
surIace oI each part oI the volume element. The origins oI surIace Iorces
are chieIly due to two short-range Iorces, viscous and elastic Iorces, those
have strong dependence on a deIormation oI the volume element. The sur-
Iace Iorces have molecular origin in the vicinity oI the surIace, and act on
internal Iorces through the surIace. SurIace Iorces may also be generated
by an externally applied Iield, such as electromagnetic Iield, through sur-
Iace coupling. We shall see detailed descriptions oI body Iorces and sur-
Iace Iorces in later chapters, such as Chapter 7 and Chapter 8. However, at
present we will treat the surIace Iorces, with reIerence to stresses, that can
be represented by a stress tensor. We Iollow to deIine a general stress ten-
sor in a continuum medium, in this chapter, through Cauchy`s Iundamental
theorem Ior stress.
l.6 Iorcos on VoIumo IIomonf 2?
Stress is a vector quantity deIined as a Iorce per unit area. Let F be a
Iorce exerted across an area dS , on which the unit outward normal vector
n is acting by the material. From Cauchy`s theorem, the stress vector at
the point a oI S located by a position vector x at time t can be deIined
by
t
dS
d
S
n
s
, lim
0
x t
F F
(1.6.1)
IIg. l.8 Iody nnd surfnco forcos
IIg. l.9 Sfrossos on surfnco oIomonfs
28 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
In order to give an insight to the nature oI the stress
n
t at point a, we
consider an elementary tetrahedron oI the body as schematically displayed
in Fig. 1.9, where the Iront surIace aS has a normal unit vector oI n . As
elucidated in Fig. 1.9, the small tetrahedron has three oI its Iaces, where
the surIace elements are
1 1 1
dS d n S ,
2 2 2
dS d n S and
3 3 3
dS d n S ,
denoting
i
n the normal unit vector and
i
aS the area oI each element. We
may Iurther indicate the stress vectors over each oI three Iaces, by
i
t Ior 1,
2, 3 and n. Since the surIace oI the tetrahedron is closed, owing that Iour
Iaces 1 i , 2, 3 and n bind the tetrahedron, we apply the principle oI local
equilibrium to the stress Iorces, subjecting to inIinitesimal tetrahedron, so
that
0
3 3 2 2 1 1
dS dS dS dS
n
t t t t (1.6.2)
Then, in the limit oI 0
i
dS , we can write the components oI the surIace
element in such a way that
dS dS dS dS
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
, , , , n n n n n n
(1.6.3)
since
3 2 1
dS dS dS dS can certainly be true. Thus Eq. (1.6.2)
becomes
3 3 2 2 1 1
t n t n t n n t
n
(1.6.4)
The expression in the parenthesis is a dyadic and each term in the paren-
thesis has three components, that is
f f f
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
e e t n e e t n e e t n , ,
3
33
32
31
3 3 2
23
22
21
2 2 1
13
12
11
1 1
(1.6.5)
where
1 1
t n shows the vector components oI
1
t on the surIace oI
1 1
dS n Iacing
1
n direction, and so on.
Using the dyadic notation, Eq. (1.6.5) can be written as
f i if
f i
T
T T T
T T T
T T T
e e
e e T
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11



(1.6.6)
l.6 Iorcos on VoIumo IIomonf 29
where T is called the stress tensor, which has components oI a second or-
der matrix. ThereIore, Eq. (1.6.4) can be written alternatively with the
stress T by
if i f
T n t
(1.6.7)
or
T n t
n

(1.6.8)
The expression oI Eq. (1.6.6) is called Cauchy`s stress Iormula. It can
be veriIied by some tensor calculus that n n T T
T
, where
T
T is the
transpose oI T. It is, however, only true that when the tensor T is sym-
metric, the relationship oI n n T T
T
can be held.
The diagonal components
11
T ,
22
T and
33
T oI the stress tensor T are
called the normal stresses and the oII-diagonal components
12
T ,
21
T ,
31
T ,
13
T ,
23
T and
32
T are called the shear stresses.
When continuum medium is at rest, implying that Iluid velocity is
identically zero at any given time, any stress acting upon a volume element
is called hydrostatic stress, except Ior very speciIic cases in non-
Newtonian Iluids or electromagnetic medium, which will be introduced in
the later chapters. The hydrostatic stress is a normal stress, which is inde-
pendent oI the orientation. The hydrostatic stress can be expressed by de-
noting p as
f if i
pn T n
(1.6.9)
and this expression yields the Iollowing relationship as
if if
p T
(1.6.10)
or alternatively
I T p
(1.6.11)
where I is the unit tensor. p in Eqs. (1.6.10) and (1.6.11) can be identi-
Iied as the thermodynamic pressure in a compressive Iluid under assump-
tion that the Iluid is in equilibrium even when the Iluid is in motion. How-
ever, in incompressible limit, p can be treated as an independent dynamic
variable, retaining p as a pressure. Including the hydrostatic stress, the
stress tensor may be written as

if if if
p T
(1.6.12)
30 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
or alternatively
I T p
(1.6.13)
The stress tensor , which is oIten termed as deviatoric stress tensor,
may include various contributions, depending upon the physical character
oI the continuum medium, such as compressibility, viscoelastic nature, and
external (such as electromagnetic) Iield eIIects, likewise Ior p mentioned
above. A general expression oI the total stress T may be expressed by
*
if if
*
if
p T (1.6.14)
where
*
p and
`
if
are the extended pressure and stress tensor respectively.
The mean oI
if
T is deIined as
*
ii
*
ii m
p T T
3
1
3
1
(1.6.15)
and the deviatoric stress
if
is deIined as
if m if if
T T (1.6.16)
In viscous, incompressible Newtonian Iluid, i.e 0
`
ii
and p p
`
, the
mean stress is equal to the pressure p as
p T
m
(1.6.17)
This Iluid is sometimes called the perIect Iluid.
Exercise
Exercise 1.1 Dyadic Product u
u is called the gradient oI vector u and is sometimes written x u or
grad u . u is the second order tensor in the Cartesian coordinates system.
Show u as the dyadic product, using suIIix notation oI tensor with unit
Ans.
i
f
f i f f
i
i
x
u
u
x
e e e e u
(1)
dyads
f i
e e .
IxorcIso 3l
Equation (1) shows that u is a second order tensor whose if compo-
nents are
i f
u u .
Exercise 1.2 Convective Term
In Eq. (1.1.7), the term u u u u is called the convective term in
Iluid mechanics. Using the vector identities in Appendix B-5 (B.5-6), re-
duce Eq. (1.1.9).
u v v u u v v u v u (1)
Ans.
Set u v , which gives
u u u u u
2
2
1
(2)
When the vorticity vector u , Eq. (2) becomes
u u u u
2
2
1
(3)
II the velocity Iield u is irrotational, i.e. 0 u , u has a scalar po-
tential such that
u
(4)
and with the scalar potential the convective term will be written
2
u u
2
1
(5)
Exercise 1.3 Euler´s Relation
ProoI the Euler Relation given by Eq. (1.1.22)
u J
Dt
DJ
(1)
where
32 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
3
3
2
3
1
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
3 2 1
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
J
k f i
ifk
(2)
Ans.
We Iirstly write the Iollowing relation, Ior the velocity gradient
f
i i
f f
i
u
Dt
Dx x
Dt
D

(3)
With this relation, we are able to set an expression oI the time change oI
the Jacobian as Iollows
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
u x x x u x x x u
Dt
DJ
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1

(4)
While Eq. (3) may be Iormulated by chain rule
f
i
f
i
f
i
k
i
f
k
f
i
x
x
u x
x
u x
x
u
x
u x u
3
3
2
2
1
1

(5)
Thus, Iinally Eq. (4) can be reduced to give the required Iorm
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k f i
ifk
k
l
l f i
ifk
k f
l
l i
ifk
k f i
l
l
ifk
x x x
x
u x x x
x
u x x x
x
u
x x x
x
u x x x
x
u x x x
x
u
x x x
x
u x x x
x
u x x x
x
u
x
x
u x x x x
x
u x x x x
x
u
Dt
DJ
3 2 1
3
3 3 2 1
2
3 3 2 1
1
3
3 2 1
3
2 3 2 1
2
2 3 2 1
1
2
3 2 3
3
1 3 2 2
2
1 3 2 1
1
1
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1

u J
x
u
J
x
u
J
x
u
J
3
3
2
2
1
1

(6)
IxorcIso 33
Exercise 1.4 Pseudovector
II is a pseudovector oI a second order tensor S , examine the nature oI
in consideration oI Eq. (1.1.28).
S (1)
Ans.
Decompose S into the symmetric part and skew-symmetric part as
a s
2
1
2
1
S S
S S S S S
T T

(2)
where the skew-symmetric part is written by components
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
2
1
1 2
1 3
2 3
23 32 13 31
32 23 12 21
31 13 21 12
a
s s s s
s s s s
s s s s
S

(3)
Namely vector is expressed with components
1
,
2
and
3
as
3 3 2 2 1 1
e e e (4)
where is obtained by S (see Eq. (1.1.26) Ior example), this implies
that components oI the skew-symmetric part oI the second order tensor are
composed oI components oI the pseudovector. II S is assumed to be a ve-
locity gradient u , the vorticity vector is derived Irom components oI
the spin tensor, which is the skew-symmetric part oI the tensor u .
Exercise 1.5 Material Objectivity
The upper convective Maxwell model constitutive equation (a linear vis-
coelastic model, in Chapter 7) can be written by
e
0
2
(1)

34 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
where is a second order tensor, and
0
are constant and e is the rate
oI deIormation tensor (see Eq. (1.1.16)). Show that Eq. (1) satisIy the ma-
terial objectivity.
Ans.
The material objectivity has to be met by the linear transIormation Ior
tensor A as Iollows
T
t t Q A Q A (2)
where t Q is a rotation tensor, deIined in Eq. (1.2.1). ThereIore, the con-
stitutive Equation oI Eq. (1) has to be invariant by the transIormation oI Eq.
(2), that is
e
0
2
(3)
where
T
Q Q (4)
T
Q Q
(5)
and
T
Q e Q e (6)
knowing that scalar constants are Irame invariants.
In order to veriIy the invariance oI Eq. (1), take the transIormation to the
model equation
T
Q e Q
0
2
(7)
Since Eq. (7) is linear, we can write
T T T
Q e Q Q Q Q Q
0
2
(8)
Thus we can recover the given equation by knowing Eqs. (4), (5) and (6)
e
0
2
(9)


  



  
IxorcIso 35
In deriving Eq. (9), we used the principal oI Irame invariance (the ma-
terial objectivity) Ior the upper convective derivative given in Eq. (1.3.16).
Exercise 1.6 Reynolds´ Transport Theorem
Give a physical picture oI the Reynolds` transport theorem, considering the
rate oI change oI a certain quantity F oI matter moving through a control
volume, as depicted in Fig. 1.10,
Ans.
Consider a control volume oI region A, which contains a quantity oI
matter at some time t , indicated by the solid line. At some time later
time t t , the boundary oI the system has a new physical location as
shown by the dotted line, at which the control volume occupies regions B
and A minus C. The increment oI the matter is written
t m t t m t t m t t m m
A B C A

(1)
IIg. l.l0 Sysfom of movIng confroI voIumo nnd fIxod confroI voIumo
Taking diIIerentiation to Eq. (1) with respect to time t and aIter rear-
rangement, we can write
t
t t m t t m
t
t m t t m
t
m
C B A A
(2)
36 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
The rate oI change oI m is calculated by taking the limit oI Eq. (2) as
0 t . The Iirst term on the right hand side oI Eq. (2) thus becomes
J
A A
A A
t
FdJ
t
m m
t t
t m t t m
0
lim
(3)
Since region A is Iixed in the coordinates, we can write
J J
dJ
t
F
FdJ
t

(4)
In a similar manner as the second term becomes
C B
C B
t
m m
t
t t m t t m
0
lim
(5)
where
B
m is the rate oI change oI m through surIace area
1
S Irom control
volume (region A), and which is expressed by surIace integral
1
S
B
d F m S u
(6)
where u F is the Ilux oI F ( F is transported through the surIace oI the
control volume by stream oI Ilow with velocity u ).
Similarly
C
m is expressed
2 S
C
d F m S u
(7)
where the minus sign means the inward to the surIace oI the control vol-
ume. With Eqs. (6) and (7). Equation (5) becomes
S
C B
d F m m S u
(8)
ThereIore, the rate oI change oI m is altogether written
S J J
t
d F dJ
t
F
FdJ
Dt
D
t
m
S u
0
lim
(9)
This is a Lagrangian-to-Eulerian description oI the rate oI change oI an
extensive integral quantity given by Eq. (1.5.10).
IxorcIso 3?
Exercise 1.7 Principal Axes of Stress
The pressure p deIined in Eq. (1.6.17) is the mean oI the normal stresses,
that is, one third oI the trace oI the total stress tensor T. It appears that p
is meant to be the mean oI the principal stresses. Give the deIinition oI the
principal stresses and its direction oI the principal axis.
Ans .
When the direction oI a stress vector
n
t is equal to that oI an unit
normal vector n , iI
n
t is derived Irom a stress tensor T by Cauchy`s
stress Iormula, the direction oI n is called the direction oI the principal
axes oI stress and the stresses are the principal stresses.
Thus, in case oI n being parallel with the principal axes, we can write
n n t T
n

(1)
where is a scalar quantity. Equation (1) gives a relationship written as
0 I T n (2)
and Eq. (2) has to satisIy
0 I T
(3)
Ior the condition oI 0 n . Equation (3) is called the characteristic equa-
T. Roots oI Eq. (3) give eigenvalues, which are the
The perIect Iluid given by Eq. (1.6.17) is an isotropic Iluid in a sense
that a simple direct stress acting in it does not produce a shearing deIorma-
tion. In the Iunctional relation between stress and deIormation must be in-
dependent oI the orientation oI the coordinates system.
The component Iorm oI Eq. (3) is written by
0
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
T T T
T T T
T T T
(4)
with which we have a third order polynomial equation Ior as Iollows
0
3 2
2
1
3
I I I (5)
tion oI stress tensor
principal stresses Ior the principal axes.
38 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
Since is independent oI choice oI the coordinates system, the coeIIi-
cients oI
1
I ,
2
I and
3
I in Eq. (5) are also independent oI the choice oI the
coordinates. ThereIore,
1
I ,
2
I and
3
I are Irame invariants. Equation (5) is
also true Ior other tensors such as the rate oI deIormation tensor, which is
discussed in more detail in Chapter 7,
1
I ,
2
I and
3
I are respectively given by
T
r
t I
1
(6)
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
T T T : T
r r r
t t t I (7)
iI T is symmetric, i.e. T : T T
2
r
t ,
and
T det
3
I (8)
Note that iI
1
,
2
and
3
are the principal stresses,
1
I ,
2
I and
3
I are re-
spectively given by
3 2 1
3
1
m
m ii
I (9)

1 3 3 2 2 1 2
2
1
fi if ff ii
I (10)
and
3 2 1 3
det
if
I (11)
ProbIems
1-1. Show that
T
Q Q is a skew-symmetric tensor, and whose pseudovec-
tor is .
Ans.
r u r
r r r r r
r r r
where
Iixed Ior rotation rigid
that so
0
1
0
0 0
T
T
T T T
T T T
t t
Q Q Q Q Q
) ( Q
Q Q Q Q Q Q
Q Q Q Q I, Q Q

IrobIoms 39
1-2. II Q is a rotation tensor, show that Q is a unitary matrix, which satis-
Iies
1 1
Q Q . Consider the two dimensional axis rotation by
where the Irame is transIerred x´ y´ to x y .
Ans.
1
cos sin
sin cos
Q Q
Q
T
y
x
y
x
x x

1-3. ProoI Ior Cartesian vectors u and v, that
u v v u v u v v u
Ans.
f
f
i f
f
i i
f
f i
f
i
i
f
f i f
f
f
f
i f i
f
m
f
l m l
f
fl im fm il
m l
f
klm kif m l
f
klm ifk m l klm
f
ifk
u
x
v v
x
u v
x
u u
x
v
v
x
u v u
x
v
x
u v u
x
v
x
u v u
x
v u
x
v u
x
v u
x


1-4. When a scalar Iunction t , p x diIIers Iorm a material surIace, but
t p , x moves with a velocity v diIIerent Irom the stream velocity u ,
show that
p
dt
dp
n v u


Ans.
p p
dt
dp
t
p
p
t
p
dt
dp
t x p
n v u v u
v u w
w ,
,
0 point material with not and
, velocity relative with move but
surIace, is the material II

u
40 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs

1-6. Obtain components
xx
T ,
xy
T and
x:
T oI tensor T.
Ans.
k i
j i
i i
T
T
T
x:
xy
xx
T
T
T


1-7. Show that the velocity gradient tensor u does not satisIy the princi-
ple oI Irame invariance.
Ans.
. oI tion transIorta linear not is
and ,
0
0
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0 0
Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q
Q Q Q
`
u u
u
u
x
x
x
x
x
u
u
x u u
x
x
x x x x
T
T
T T
r r
r
r
T
r
r
T
r

NomencIature
A : material parameter
a : acceleration
C : Cauchy strain tensor
-1
C : Finger tensor
E : displacement gradient tensor
e : rate oI strain tensor
i
e : unit base vector k j, i,

1-5. VeriIy that the Finger tensor deIined in Eq. (1.4.4),
T 1 1 1
i.e. E E C
is symmetric. Consider E in the Cartesian coordinates system.
Ans.
k
X
f
x
k
X
i
x
T
kf
E
ik
E
if
C
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
i
X
f
x
T
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
X
x
f
X
i
x
T
1 1 1
3
3
3
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
3
3
2
3
1
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
E , E
E E C

1
1
f i
e e : unit dyad
F : Iorce
g
: body Iorce

: gravitation acceleration
I : unit tensor
J : Jacobian
L : material line element
i
L : Intermediate scale
l
L : large scale
m
L : molecular scale
n : unit normal vector
p
: pressure
Q : rotation tensor
S : general second order tensor
S : surIace area
T : total stress tensor
n
t : stress vector
t : time
u : velocity
x : position vector in vector space
: Knudsen number
if
: Kronecker delta
: (polyadic) alternator
ifk
: Eddington notation
: eigenvalue
: scalar potential
: angular velocity
: spin tensor
: vorticity vector
BibIiography
The content in this chapter is standard matter and treated in almost all texts.
The mathematical methods in accounting Cartesian vectors and tensors are
Iound in

1. A. RutherIord, Jectors, Tensors, ana the Basic Equations of Fluia Me-
chanics, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliIIs, NJ, 1962.
IIbIIogrnµhy 4l
42 l IundnmonfnIs In ConfInuum MochnnIcs
2. F. B. Hildebrand, Aavancea Calculus for Applications (2nd Edition),
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliIIs, NJ, 1976.
3. R. B. Bird, C. F.Curtiss, R. C. Armstrong and O. Hassanger, Dynamics
of Polymeric Liquias (2nd Edition), John Wiley & Sons, A Wiley-
Interscience Publication, New York, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 1987. Appen-
dices are useIul.
4. G. B. ArIken and H. J. Weber, Mathematical Methoas for Physicists
(6th Edition), Elsevier, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2005.

Some interesting topics on microhydrodynamics are Iound in

5. S. Kim and S. J. Karrila, Microhyaroaynamics, Principles ana Selectea
Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, a division oI Reed Publishing
(U.S.A.) Inc., OxIord, London, 1991.
6. P. Tabeling, Introauction to Microfluiaics, OxIord University Press
Inc., New York, 2005.