Social Security Beneficiaries Enrolled in the

Direct Deposit Program, December 1996*

On April 26, 1996, Public Law 104-134 was
Chart 1 .-Payment volume, by type of disbursement, fiscal year 1997
enacted, requiring all Federal payments except
tax refunds be issued electronically by January
2, 1999, thus beginning a new era in electronic
N Federal tax 10.5%
funds transfer (EFT). This legislation, the Debt
Collection Improvement Act of 1996-part of
the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and
Appropriations Act of 1996-mandated
that
effective July 27, 1996, all new recipients of
Federal payments use EFT. Only persons
--Other’ 9.1%
certifying in writing that they do not
have an account at a financial institution are
exempt.
The Social Security Administration (SSA)
r Salary/allotment
5.8%
implemented the first phaseof the new legislar Vendor 1.9%
tion effective with claims filed for Old-Age,
1.2%
PMiscellaneous
Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) or
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) beginning
August 1, 1996. Since benefit payments issued
‘Includes
payments
from the Veteran’s
Administration,
Office of Personnel
Management,
and the Railroad Retirement
Board.
by SSA account for a significant portion of the
U.S. Department of the Treasury disbursements,
SSA’s role in the EFT 99, as the initiative is called, is of major
Becauseof the many complex issuesinvolved in converting
significance. Of the 857 million payments the Treasury
the entire Federal payment structure to EFT, the Treasury
Department disbursedin fiscal year 1997, 71.4 percent were
Department issueda proposedrule, in September 1997, on how
made to OASDI and SSI beneficiaries (chart 1).
Federal agencieswere to implement the program (Notice of
This note presentsdata on the beneficiaries using direct
ProposedRulemaking 3 1 CFR Part 208). This proposal
deposit in December 1996, including demographic characterisrequired that all recipients of Federal payments who have an
tics, benefit amounts, and State of residence. The data were
account at a financial institution receive benefits via EFT. For
derived from a lo-percent sampleof the Master Beneficiary
those individuals who do not have an account, an Electronic
Record-the major administrative databasefor SSA.’ The
Transfer Account (ETA) at a financial institution will be
1996 data will be useful in evaluating the effects of the new
provided. Until this option becomesavailable or by January 2,
legislation.
2000, whichever is earlier, theseindividuals can continue to
The initial impact of the new legislation was evident in
receive paper checks. Recipients with ETAs will have access
1997. In December 1996,63 percent of all OASDI and 30
to the funds through automatedteller machines (ATMs) or
percent of SSI benefit payments were made by direct deposit.
point-of-sale (POS) terminals with an accesscard.
By December 1997, the rates had risen to 69 percent and 38
Under the proposedrule, certain recipients may be eligible
percent, respectively.
for a waiver. Recipients entitled prior to July 26, 1996, who
certify that accessingthe funds would be difficult becauseof a
physical disability or becauseof limited accessto financial
*Joseph Bondar, Division of Retirement, Survivors, and Disability
institutions, ATMs, or POS terminals may be eligible for a
Insurance Statistics and Analysis, Office of Research, Evaluation and
waiver. Recipients who certify that they do not have an
Statistics, Social Security Administration.
account and that EFT payments would be a hardship due to

52

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physical disability, limited access to financial institutions, or
financial hardship would be eligible for a waiver regardless of
when they began to receive benefits.
The proposed rule provided for a 90-day period for the
general public to comment on the proposal. In an effort to
obtain feedback from the public, the Treasury Department held
public hearings in Baltimore, Dallas, Los Angeles, and New
York and will weigh all responses before it issues a final
ruling.*

Background
In 1975, the Treasury Department and SSA introduced the
direct deposit program for the payment of benefits. A rudimentary form of direct deposit existed prior to 1975 but was
initially available only to beneficiaries with extenuating
circumstances who filed a “power-of-attorney”
with the
financial institution receiving the deposit. This option for
benefit payment was extended in November 1970 to all
beneficiaries regardless of reason for wanting it. On August 7,
1972, the enactment of Public Law 92-366 eliminated the need
for a power-of-attorney
by allowing Federal agencies to draw
checks directly to financial institutions. This legislation also
authorized the issuance of composite checks by Federal
agencies to financial institutions. In other words, institutions
receiving monthly checks for multiple beneficiaries could now
receive a single check, thus streamlining the benefit disbursement process and clearing the way for the present direct
deposit program.
Under the current direct deposit program, an electronic
funds transfer, originated by the Treasury Department on
SSA’s behalf, is sent to an account at a financial institution
designated by the beneficiary. The EFT conforms to an agreed
upon electronic format established by the financial community.
The electronic credit is transmitted through the national
automated clearinghouse system (ACH), which is a secure
computer network operated mainly by the Federal Reserve
System.
Direct deposit offers many advantages to Social Security
beneficiaries. It gives beneficiaries quicker access to the funds
and should a problem arise, it can be corrected much faster.
The problems of lost, stolen, or misplaced checks are virtually
eliminated. Beneficiaries no longer have to visit a financial
institution to deposit their checks.
Electronic funds transfer also offers cost savings to Federal
agencies. The Treasury Department estimates that EFT will
save the Federal Government approximately $100 million
annually in processing costs. This is in addition to $65 million
lost by individuals, businesses, and the government as a result
of forgery, theft, and counterfeiting of checks. A significant
portion of the savings can be attributed to the fact that the cost
of issuing an electronic payment is only $.02 compared with
$.43 for a check. Since SSA currently issues 17.8 million
paper checks per month to OASDI and SSI beneficiaries, the
savings could be quite substantial. An additional saving to SSA
is a reduction in the workload for handling payment problems.
Advantages to financial institutions as a result of EFT include

Social Security Bulletin

lower processing costs over mailed paper checks and increased
use of the institution’s services.

Demographic

Characteristics

In December 1996, 27.6 million Social Security beneficiaries were using direct deposit (table 1). This number, representing 63.2 percent of the total beneficiary population, has
grown from 4.7 million (14 percent) in 1976 (table 2). During
this period, the monthly amount of direct deposits rose from
$1.1 billion ($3 billion in 1996 dollars) to nearly $20 billion.
Generally, direct deposit participation rates were highest for
the beneficiary categories with older beneficiaries. For
example, only 38 percent of beneficiaries under age 30, and 4.5
percent of those aged 30-39 were enrolled in the program at the
end of 1996. In contrast, 67 percent of beneficiaries aged 6079 and nearly 69 percent of those aged 80 or older were
enrolled (table 3). About two-thirds of retired workers and
nondisabled widows and widowers were using direct deposit.
Wives and husbands of retired workers with a participation rate
of 61 percent was the next most likely group to be enrolled.
Disabled workers had a participation rate of 5 1 percent. The
enrollment rate of all other beneficiary groups was below 50
percent.
Regardless of age, women used direct deposit somewhat
more frequently than did men. Overall, 67 percent of women
and 64 percent of men were enrolled. Only 38 percent of
children used direct deposit, which is indicative of the lower
participation rate of their parents who actually received the
benefit and chose the payment method.
Black beneficiaries and those of other races selected direct
deposit less frequently than did white beneficiaries. Sixty-six
percent of white beneficiaries were enrolled in direct deposit,
compared with 43 percent of black beneficiaries and 50 percent
of persons of other races.

Monthly Benefit
Generally, Social Security beneficiaries using direct deposit
had higher monthly benefits than those not enrolled. This
generalization holds true regardless of the type of benefit
received. For example, at the end of 1996, retired workers
enrolled in direct deposit had an average monthly benefit of
$770.90, while those not enrolled had an average benefit of
$687.90. Similarly, disabled workers using direct deposit had
an average benefit of $750.70, compared with $657.10 for
nondirect depositors.
The relationship between the benefit amount and the use of
direct deposit is more clearly shown in table 4. As the benefit
level increased from less than $200 to $1,200 or more, the
overall participation rate increased from 37 to 74 percent. This
pattern holds true regardless of sex or race of the beneficiary.
White beneficiaries, however, had a higher participation rate
than black beneficiaries and those of other races at all benefit
levels. Similarly, except for those receiving benefits of less

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53

The Seattle and San Francisco regions had the highest
participation rates of the 10 Social Security Administration
regions-78
percent and 74 percent, respectively. The
Philadelphia and Dallas regions had the lowest participation
rates-59 percent (chart 2). As discussed earlier, there appears
to be a strong relationship between the amount of the benefit
and the use of direct deposit. Consequently, the low average
benefit in the Dallas region ($630) corresponds with the
equally low participation rate. The Philadelphia region,
however, would have been expected to have a higher participation rate because of the higher average benefit ($684.70) but
this was not the case. Similarly, participation rates in the New

than $200, women beneficiaries used direct deposit in greater
proportions than did men at all benefit levels.

State of Residence
At the end of 1996, the direct deposit participation rate was
75 percent or higher in four States-Oregon,
Washington,
Florida, and Arizona (table 5). Louisiana, West Virginia, and
Mississippi were the only States with participation rates below
50 percent. Eight States had more than 1 million direct
depositors, which accounted for nearly one-half of the national
total.

Ihart 2.-Direct

deposit participation rates, by State, December 1996

Percent

range

n 70.0-74.9
75.0 or more

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York region (although Puerto Rico is included in this region, it
is combined with “other” areas in the table) were below the
national average, even though New Jersey and New York-the

two States included in the region-ranked
first and third in
average benefit in the Nation. This disparity between the
benefit amount and the participation rate may be a reflection
on the marketing efforts for EFT or perhaps the characteristics
of the beneficiary population. Tables 6 and 7 show participation rates for States, by type of benefit and age. They indicate
(as discussed earlier with respect to national data) that within

each State, older beneficiaries use direct deposit more fre-

quently than younger beneficiaries.

Notes

’ For a discussion on sampling variability for this file, see the

Annual Statistical Supplement, 1997 to the Social Security Bulletin,

pp. 352-353.

* For a morecompletediscussion
of EFT andrecentdevelop-

ments, refer to the Treasury Department’s home page on the Internet:

www.fms.treas.gov/eft.

Table 1.-Number and percent of beneficiaries and average monthly benefit, by type of beneficiary and direct deposit

status,December 1996

Direct depositstatus
Using

All beneficiaries

Not using

Average
Percent

Average
monthly
benefit

monthly
Type of beneficiary
Total.. ...............................................

Number

benefit

Number

Average
Number

Percent

monthly
benefit

43,737,470

$672.80

27,628,OOO

63.2

$719.40

16,109,470

36.8

$592.80

Retired workers and dependents.. ..............
Retired workers.. ....................................
Wives and husbands.. .............................
Children ................................................

30,312,830
26899,170
2,97 1,650
442,010

703.50
744.90
383.80
336.60

20,458,280
18,465,120
1,823,570
169,590

67.5
68.6
61.4
38.4

735.00
770.90
404.90
373.00

9,854,550
8,434,050
272.420

32.5
31.4
38.6
61.6

638.20

687.90

350.20

3 14.00

Disabled workers and dependents.. ............
Disabled workers.. .................................
Wives and husbands.. .............................
Children.. ..............................................

6,076,830
4,386,040
223,300
1,467,490

561.80
704.80
171.80
193.70

2,819,520
2,239,510
86,830
493,180

46.4
51.1
38.9
33.6

641.70
750.70
198.30
224.80

3,257,310
2,146,530
136,470
974,3 10

53.6
48.9
61.1
66.4

492.70

657.10

155.00

177.90

Survivors.. ..................................................
Nondisabled widows and widowers ’ ....
Disabled widows and widowers.. ...........
Widowed mothers and fathers.. ..............
Children ................................................

7,347,120
$021,510
182,020
24 1,490
1,902,100

637.70
707.10
472.10
513.80
486.30

4,349,900
3,349,180
89,800
120,390
790,530

59.2
66.7
49.3
49.9
41.6

696.60
744.00
494.40
564.40
539.20

2,997,220
1,672,330
92,220
121,100
1,111,570

40.8
33.3
50.7
50.1
58.4

552.30
633.30
450.30
463.40
448.60

Special age-72.. ..........................................

690

199.00

300

43.5

199.00

390

56.5

199.00

’ Includes

1,148,080

parents.

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Table 2.-Number

and percent of beneficiaries using direct deposit, by type of beneficiaxy, December 1976-96
December

1976

December

1980

December

PerTvoe

of beneficiarv

Total
Retired
and

Number

.,._._._., ___,..__._,._

Percent

Number

December
Percent

Number

4,716,111

14.3

10,393,684

29.2

14,851,758

40.7

3,374,514

16.3

7,429,390

32.0

11,126,146

2,908,752

16.9

6,498,125

33.2

9,860,541
1,180,875

38.7

__

workers
and

husbands

..__.

424,847

. . . .._...__...._.
__..._ ._...._._..., __

Children

Disabled
workers
and dependents

Number

1992


Percent

December

1996


Per-

Number

cent

22,347,350

53.9

27.628.000

63.2

43.7

l3,229,190

57.9

20,458,280

67.5

11,798,212

49.1
50.3

16,965,OOO

45.0

15,231,370

59.2

18,465,120

68.6

40,915

14.7

847,968

28.1

6.3

83,297

13.0

84,730

43.5

1,615,530

9.7

990,721

21.2

12.2

735,609

25.7

Wives
and
husbands
. . . .._._...___.

37,669

7.9

80,040

Children

86,401

5.8

175,072

875,478

11.7

L952.234

25.7

2,655,552

37.0

605,937

15.1

1,394,436

31.5

2,082,735

43.5

workers

__..,._._...,__.,,. _.

Survivors

. . . .. . .

Widows

.

..

1,342,687

51.9

1,823,570

61.4

20.1

118.100

27.3

169,590

38.4

1,164,963
933,798

28.8
33.5

1.7 14,970
1.375.480

35.0
39.6

17.8

325,395

1.055.081

88,291

834.894

27.6
32.2

17.3

67,814

22.3

67,379

23.2

12.9

152,373

16.5

163,786

16.9

260,590

22.5

3,039,498

42.5

3,665,530

50.2

4,349,900

59.2

2.479.191

49.7

2,988,890

57.6

3,438,980

66.1

78,900

29.1

2,819,520
2,239,510

46.4
51.1

86,830
493,180

38.9
33.6

and

widowers
Widowed

Special

Percent

December

45.7

449,465

and

17,442,128

.._...

Disabled

Children

Number

1987

workers
dependents

Retired
Wives


mothers

fathers

54,153

__...,_._ .._..

age-72

.,.__..._.__

9.4

215,388

_..,._ _..,.._....__..

1

16,654

’ 1988 data not available.
* Based on IO-percent sample.
3 Includes nondisabled
and disabled

56

cent

1984

widowkr)s

7.4

115,192
442,606

20.5
17.0

8.9

21,339

23.0

113,227
459,590

29.6
22.9

14,979

105,694
454,613

37.1

8,477

and tmrent~

Social

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32.1
24.8
44.6

109,520
567,120
1,850

37.3
31.3
52.4

120,390
790,530
300

49.9
41.6
43.5

Table 3.-Number
December 1996

and percent of beneficiaries and average monthly benefit, by age, sex, race, and direct deposit status,

--7

Direct deposit status
All beneficiaries

Characteristic

Number

Total ............. .. .........

-1

Not using

I

Average ~
monthly
benefit

Percent
~~~ I

Average
monthly
benefit

43,737,470

$672.80

27,628,OOO

63.2

$719.40

16,109,470

36.8

39,925,870
188,590
802,150
1,286,780
1,667,050
12,992,610
14898,050
8,090,640

703.00
425.80
534.30
654.00
715.70
671.20
715.00
760.40

26,174,700
71,520
357,650
632,730
864,030
8,701,020
9,987,450
5,560,300

65.6
37.9
44.6
49.2
51.8
67.0
67.0
68.7

736.40
454.20
577.70
699.30
762.30
699.70
744.20
793.90

13,751,170
117,070
444,500
654,050
803,020
4,291,590
4,9 10,600
2530,340

34.4
62.1
55.4
50.8
48.2
33.0
33.0
31.3

639.40

408.40

499.40

610.20

665.60

613.30

655.70

686.70

Children ’ .... ... .......... .... /

3,811,600

356.30

1,453,300

38.1

413.10

2,358,300

61.9

321.20

Sex
Men. .............................
Under 30.. ..................
30-39.. ........................
40-49 ..........................
50-59.. ........................
60-69.. ........................
70-79.. ........................
80 or older.. ................

16,749,700
97,080
398,210
677,250
887,650
$804,180
6,277,780
2,607,550

827.80
467.10
605.00
751.20
860.90
820.60
834.30
884.10

10,695,970
34,210
166,240
320,330
451,070
3,832,530
4,144,940
1,746,650

63.9
35.2
41.7
47.3
50.8
66.0
66.0
67.0

866.40
486.20
645.90
795.40
916.60
856.20
864.10
923.00

6,053,730
62,870
23 1,970
356,920
436,580
1,971,650
2; 132,840
860,900

36.1
64.8
58.3
52.7
49.2
34.0
34.0
33.0

759.50

456.70

575.80

711.50

803.30

751.30

776.60

805.20

Women.. .......................
Under 30.. ..................
30-39.. ........................
40-49.. ........................
50-59.. ........................
60-69.. ........................
70-79.. ........................
80 or older.. ................

23,176,170
91,510
403,940
609,530
779,400
7,188,430
8,620,270
5,483,090

612.80
381.90
464.60
546.00
550.40
550.50
628.10
701.60

15,478,730
37,310
191,410
3 12,400
412,960
4,868,490
5,842,5 10
3,813,650

66.8
40.8
47.4
51.3
53.0
67.7
67.8
69.6

646.60
424.90
518.50
600.60
593.80
576.60
659.20
734.80

7,697,440
54,200
212,530
297,130
366,440
2,3 19,940
2,777,760
1,669,440

33.2
59.2
52.6
48.7
47.0
32.3
32.2
30.4

544.90

352.30

416.10

488.50

501.50

495.90

562.80

625.50

Race
White.. ..........................
Black.. ..........................
Other ‘. .........................

37,822,600
4,501,500
1,413,370

692.90
544.80
541.50

24,998,680
1,919,080
710,240

66.1
42.6
50.3

730.50
612.00
620.00

12,823,920
2,582,420
703,130

33.9
57.4
49.7

619.70

494.80

462.20

Adults.. .........................
Under 30.. ..................
30-39.. ........................
40-49.. ........................
50-59.. ........................
60-69 ..........................
70-79.. ........................
80 or older.. ................

$592.80

/

’ Includes disabled adult children aged 18 or older, children under 18, and students 18-19

2 Includes 215,650 persons of unknown race.

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Table 4.-Number

and percent

of beneficiaries

using direct deposit, by monthly

benefit,

sex, and race, December

1996

Total

Monthly benefit
amount

.

Total ’. ......... .... .. .. .....

27,628,OOO

63.2

24,998,680

66.1

1,9 19,080

42.6

587,890

49.1

Less than $200.00.. ............
$200.00-$399.90.. ..............
$400.00-$599.90.. ..............
$600.00-$799.90.. ..............
$800.00-$999.90.. ..............
$1,000.00-$1,199.90.. ........
$1,200.00 or more.. ............

859,350
3,128,400
6,400,280
6,022,400
6,583,930
3,188,150
1445,490

36.7
49.9
59.9
65.8
72.9
74.1
73.8

670,990
2,669,550
5,689,580
5,447,680
6,156,760
2,995,580
1,368,540

40.8
53.7
62.9
67.9
74.1
75.1
74.4

129,070
331,720
523,200
437,120
318,370
135,340
44,260

26.2
33.7
41.1
49.5
56.3
59.2
60.8

50,920
107,500
156,340
112,980
88,910
46,930
24,310

28.4
40.3
50.0
56.5
65.3
68.5
70.1

Men ...............................
Less than $200.00.. ............
$200.00~$399.90.. ..............
$400.00-$599.90.. ..............
$600.00-$799.90.. ..............
$800.00-$999.90.. ..............
$1,000.00-$1,199.90.. ........
$1,200.00 or more.. ............

10,695,970
132,300
537,750
1,103,380
2,057,420
3,745,250
2,140,040
979,830

63.9
49.1
48.3
48.3
59.5
70.7
72.1
71.8

9,792,740
112,830
450,830
920,920
1,843,090
3,519,430
2,015,540
930,100

66.5
52.7
52.1
51.9
62.2
72.3
73.3
72.5

629,590
13,240
57,800
125,420
156,970
163,710
85,680
26,770

41.8
34.1
32.5
33.0
41.1
50.6
54.9
56.2

233,880
5,750
25,660
49,160
48,980
53,120
33,180
18,030

51.8
37.1
40.9
43.5
50.2
61.8
65.5
68.2

Women .........................

15,478,730

66.8

14,125,440

Less than $200.00.. ............
$200.00-$399.90.. ..............
$400.00-$599.90.. ..............
$600.00-$799.90.. ..............
$800.00-$999.90.. ..............
$1,000.00-$1,199.90.. ........
$1,200.00 or more.. ............

384,530
2,195,080
4,906,040
3,753,580
2,737,050
1,037,240
465,210

45.0
54.1
65.3
71.1
76.8
78.8
78.4

322,170
1,938,290
4,470,570
3,432,910
2,552,790
970,680
438,030

69.0
48.4
57.3
67.6
72.5
77.7
79.4
78.9

Children 2......................
Less than $200.00.. ............
$200.00-$399.90.. .............
$400.00-$599.90.. .............
$600.00-$799.90.. .............
$800.00-$999.90.. .............
$1,000.00-$1,199.90.. .......
$l,ZOO.OO or more.. ...........

1,453,300
342,520
395,570
390,860
211,400
101,630
10,870
450

38.1
28.1
36.2
44.0
51.2
55.9
62.3
56.3

1,080,500
235,990
280,430
298,090
171,680
84,540
9,360
410

41.0
30.9
38.7
45.7
52.5
56.0
62.7
56.9

’ Total includes persons of unknown
L Includes disabled adult children.

58

48.1

276,940

54.9

41,570
187,020
326,300
25 1,930
143,550
48,920
17,460

31.7
35.8
46.2
57.7
65.1
68.7
69.4

18,350
59,210
91,160
56,270
32,370
13,300
6,280

36.2
44.2
56.4
64.2
72.4
77.1
76.0

272,740
74,260
86,900
71,480
28,220
11,110
740
30

31.0
23.0
30.6
38.1
44.1
52.5
55.2
60.0

77,070
26,820
22,630
16,020
7,730
3,420
450
...

31.9
23.7
32.4
42.1
52.2
61.7
69.2
. .. .

1,016,750

race.

Social Security Bulletin

l

Vol. 61 No. 1 1998
l

l

Table 5.-Number
December 1996

and percent of beneficiaries and average monthly benefit, by region and State and direct deposit status,
All beneficiaries

Region

and State

Total ..........................................
Region 1 (Bo*o”)
.............................
Connecticut
.........................................
Maine ..................................................
Massachusetts
.....................................
New Hampshire..
................................
Rhode Island.. .....................................
Vermont .............................................
Region 11 (New York). .....................
New Jersey ..........................................
New York ............................................
Region III Philadelphia)
................
D&Wale..
...........................................
District of Columbia.
...........................
Maryland. ............................................
Pennsylvania..
.....................................
Virginia ...............................................
West Virginia ......................................
Region IV (Aflanh).
........................
Alabama ..............................................
Florida .................................................
Georgia ...............................................
Kentucky .............................................
Mississippi
..........................................
North Carolina ....................................
South Carolina ....................................
Tenness~. ...........................................
Region V (Chicago)
.........................
Illinois.. ...............................................
Indiana.. ..............................................
Michigan .............................................
Minnesota..
.........................................
Ohio ....................................................
Wisconsin ...........................................
Region VI (Dallas) ..........................
Arkansas. ............................................
Louisiana .............................................
New Mexico ........................................
Oklahoma.. ..........................................
Tt?XaS.. .................................................
Region VII (Kansas City). ...............
IOlW ....................................................
KZUMS.. ...............................................
Missouri.. ............................................
Nebraska .............................................
Region VIII (Denver).
.....................
Colorado .............................................
Montana.. ............................................
North Dakota .......................................
South Dakota.. ....................................
Utah. ...................................................
Wyoming ............................................
Region IX (San Francisco)
..............
Arizona ...............................................
California..
..........................................
Hawaii.. ..............................................
NW&3 ................................................
Rqjo,, X(&a&$
............................
Alaska.. ...............................................
Idaho.. .................................................
Oregon.. ..............................................
Washington .........................................
Ourlying LIrals:
Puerto Rico.. .....................................
Other ‘. .............................................

Number
43,737,470

I

I

Usine

Average
monthly
benefit

Number

$672.80

27,628,OOO

L

direct

dewsit

I
Average
monthly
benefit

Percent
63.2

$719.40

2,341,170
568,900
242,180
1,052,260
188,350
189,450
100,030
4,282,500
1,313,620
2,968,880
4,5@3,930
124.360
77,440
685,230
2,331,780
964,520
385,600
8,899,470
786,510
3,O?d,OlO
1,027,380
719,760
498,230
1,255,190
638,460
939,930
7,900,970
1,826,820
966,990
1,598,350
715,190
I ,909,520
884,100
4,547.130
506,570
701,280
261,780
579,680
2,497,820
2,233,OSO
538,930
435,550
976,790
281,780
1,209,380
504,870
152.990
115,660
135,350
228,270
72,240
5,153,310
720,250
4.022.740
169,300
241,020
l,S76,SSO
45,960
181,160
547,820
801,610

697.40
754.70
621.10
689.80
693.50
690.40
658.10
733.70
756.10
723.80
684.70
711.90
584.90
686.90
707.20
647.70
648.40
643.90
614.40
685.50
628.90
608.20
574.30
639.30
632.50
628.60
703.80
717.70
706.20
721.60
672.60
688.40
698.90
630.00
604.10
601.40
610.00
642.70
642.40
673.60
680.50
694.30
661.60
670.10
652.50
656.20
654.30
629.00
617.40
668.10
677.20
686.80
686.60
686.80
673.30
697.00
694.90
640.70
657.10
694.00
707.20

I ,448,890
341,600
145,480
659,860
127,330
111,620
63,000
2,615,140
763,670
1,851,470
2,679,060
85,610
42,450
414,130
1,406,610
544,880
185,380
s,s4s,5so
424,560
2,364,190
575,580
366,700
248,120
701,920
355,870
508,610
4,998,440
1,131,350
600,190
l,O77,940
476,330
1,128,470
584,160
2,664,430
292,090
322,200
169,650
369,070
l,S11,420
1,519,060
382,250
306,350
631,510
198,950
838,760
351,740
107,190
73,450
88,920
166,080
51,380
3,794,040
55 I ,920
2,958,640
107,830
175,650
1,227,400
28,070
134,520
436,060
628,750

61.9
60.0
60. I
62.7
67.6
58.9
63.0
61.1
58.1
62.4
58.6
68.8
54.8
60.4
60.3
56.5
48.1
62.3
54.0
77.9
56.0
so.9
49.8
55.9
55.7
54. I
63.3
61.9
62.1
67.4
66.6
59. I
66. I
58.6
57.7
45.9
64.8
63.7
60.5
68.0
70.9
70.3
64.7
70.6
69.4
69.7
70. I
63.5
65.7
72.8
71.1
73.6
76.6
73.5
63.7
72.9
77.9
61.1
74.3
79 6
78.4

736.60
792.00
669.40
729.60
723.40
734.00
695.70
774.40
794.70
766.10
726.30
752.60
627.50
722.50
742.70
697.90
704.30
701 .so
678.50
717.70
691 80
674.50
656.20
704.90
697.30
695.60
741 so
756.30
744.90
756.30
710.50
727.00
735.20
689.30
660.20
681.30
67 I .30
685.20
699.60
706.80
708.70
723.60
699.70
700.30
686.40
688.90
687.50
666.80
655.60
698.90
708.70
7 16.80
722.10
715.80
7 12.40
720.60
720.10
683.50
689 70
715.70
73 I .40

625,450
399,560

419.70
442.30

145,520
ISI,

23.3
38.0

550.40
475.20

Social Security Bulletin

l

Vol. 61 No. 1
l

l

1998

Not using direct

Number
16,109,470

denosit

Percent

AWage
monthly
benefit

36.8

$592.80

892,280
227,300
96,700
392,400
61,020
77,830
37,030
1,667,360
549,950
1,117,410
1,889,870
38,750
34,590
271,100
925,170
419,640
200,220
3,353,920
361,9SO
669,820
4.5 1,800
353,060
250.1 IO
553,270
282,590
43 1,320
2,902,.530
695,470
366,800
520,410
238,860
78 1,050
299,940
I ,882,700
2 14,480
379,080
92,130
210,610
986,400
713,990
156,680
129,200
345,280
82,830
370,620
153,130
45,800
42,210
46,430
62,190
20,860
I .359,270
168,330
1,064,lOO
61,470
65,370
349,150
17,890
46,640
I I 1,760
172.860

38.1
40.0
39.9
37.3
32.4
41.1
37.0
38.9
41.9
37.6
41.4
31.2
45.2
39.6
39.7
43.5
51.9
37.7
46.0
22. I
44.0
49.1
so.2
44.1
443
45.9
36.7
38. I
37.9
32.6
33.4
40.9
33.9
41.4
42.3
54. I
35.2
36.3
39.5
32.0
29. I
29.7
35.3
29.4
30.6
30.3
29.9
36.5
34.3
27.2
28.9
26.4
23.4
26.5
36.3
27.1
22. I
38.9
25.7
20.4
21.6

633.90
698.80
548.30
622.80
631.00
627.90
594.00
669.80
702.60
653.70
625.60
622.10
533.30
632.40
653.10
582.60
596.50
548.70
539.40
57 I .90
548.70
539.20
493.00
556.10
551.00
549.60
638.90
655.00
643.00
649.70
596.90
632.60
628.20
546.00
527.80
533.40
497.20
568.20
554.70
602.90
611.90
625.00
591.90
597.50
575.70
581.00
576.80
563.30
544.40
585.70
599.90
603.00
570.10
606.20
604.80
633.50
606.20
573.50
562.90
609.10
619.30

479,930
247,850

76.7
62.0

380.10
422.20

59

Table 6.-Number

and percent of beneficiaries using direct deposit, by State and type of benefit, December 1996

T

Ketirenrnt

Dtsahihty
I

SlillC
Tot;11
Dim2

., .,

I

,,

,,

,,

.,, ,,.

Alahamn..
Alaak;l.....
Arizona
Arkansas

..,..
,..

.,,...,
., ..,

Cnilfomia..

,.,., ..,.

,...

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Di,tnct
ot Columbia
Florida
,, ., ,,
Georria
Hawaii.
Idaho
Illinois...
Indlan;1

,.
,,.,,.
., ., ., .,
., .,

., .,, .,

Iowa
Kansas.
Kentuckv
LouIsian:\...
Maine.

.,..

Mnwland
Massachusetts..
Michiran.
Minnesota
Mtssissinm

,.

,.,.,,

SDouses

Children

Widow(er)s

43,737,470

26,899,860

2,971,650

442,010

S.445,020

27,628,000
63 2

1X,465,420
6X.6

1,823,SlO
61.4

169390
38 4

3,559,370
65.4

I

Chtldrcn
1,902.,100

Children
4,3X6,040

223,300

1,467,490

56.0
63 1
74.3
61.9
62. I

62 7
67 4
80.2
66.5
66 9

70.‘)

42.8
51.4
63.0
4x.x
63.0

36.9
556
48.4
315
49.6

30.5
43 3
39.3
37 4
41. I

31.3
21 0
48.0

73.9
63.6
72.8
56.9
79 6

48.0
33.4
46. I
30.2
46.8

54.8
46.7
557
49.4
62.3

42.3
36 7
46 7
56.3
56. I

39.2
30.9
31.7
38.0
42.9

58.4
s7 2
74 5
60.7
59.0

16. I
37.8
44.3
12.0
39.8

58 0
64 8
78.1
65.8
6.5 S

39.2
48.2
4s 7
39.7
41.5

44.0
544
58.3
49.1
51 0

32.6
42.6
s7 0
36.8
40.6

30 3
37.0
38.X
32.8
32.0

42.S

28.3

60.3
57.3
41 0
76.9
490

46 0
48 I
27 4
27 9
16.6

39.8
36.3
24.5
22 I
25.5

.,.. .,.,..

60.4
62 I
614
66.6
4’) 8

64.2
66 8
13 0
70.6
57.8

S8 9
61.5
65 I
62.2
S1.6

3x.7
40.7
19.5
7
29. I

63.1
61 2
70.8
71.9
52 7

43.X
42.7
42.x
45 6
32.1

49.9
51 9
56.7
526
40 I

3x9
39.9
467
43 3
2'1.3

37.
30.
34
35
24

64 7
70. I

6X 9
74 9

61.9
68. I
64. I
73.6
70 2

48.1
46 0
53 8
49.7
43.2

5s 0
60. I
61.1
59.3
54.6

38.5
39.6

13.5
77,s
72.5

69 I
lb.2
71.9
7s I
69 9

43.4
52 I

70.6
12.9
67.6

46.7
42.7
SS.8
46.8
40.8

52.9
54.8
40 3

42.0
46.4
35 0

58. I
64 8
62.4
55.9
61.S

61.7
73.7
66.9
61.7
65.X

54.9
62.X
59.3
55.7
58.8

38.0
38 7
39.4
37.6
35 2

61.3
6.5.9
65.3
56.2
6X.7

387
394
40.6
37.3
441

45.4
51.9
s1.7
44.7
60.2

19 8
16.1
43 3
340
45.8

34.4
32.4
314
314
45.4

59.
63
79
60
58

I
1
6
1
9

67 9
6X.9
84.0
63 0
61 1

57 4
60.9
78.7
55.5
58 8

12 Y
19.7
5s 9
40.0
22 8

62.5
66 4
82.5
63 3
62 5

3s 5
45.7
56.1
45.1
33 7

48.5
51 I
66.0
54.3
37 5

37.0
407
601
‘II.3
34 3

30.0
16.6
49 I
32 4
2X 0

5s
65
54
60
72

I
7
I
5
8

62.4
6Y.4
59 7
66.4
7X.5

59.0
60.7
51 3
58.7
72 6

16 I
56.5
17 5
34 6
51.6

54 Y
71 I
56.6
64 0
76 6

36 4
44 4
41.6
40.9
52.6

44b
558
44. I
417
57.4

72.4
so 0
327
34.3
57X

31.4
14.2
10 4
12.4
46 4

61.0
56.5
7x 4
48 I
66. I
71.1

682
62.1
X3.5
5s 0
70.4
17. I

60.2
s-l 7
79. I
41 4
61 5
70.3

41.7
37.7
52.7
26.X
19.6
47 3

65.6
59.0
81 6
54 2
70. I
73.X

52.9
42.3
53.2
30.2
4.13
47.1

so.4
42 I
626
36.8
54.6
589

41.8
2X 5
59 7
26.6
42.6
42.9

33 2
28.7
44 s
23.4
35.2
34 6

27 3
3X.0

21.7
41 9

I7 7

10.7

I9 9
32.X

27.2
185

IS.3

2s 4

15.7
23.0

IX I

18.2

12.8

2X 6

,,...,,...,.

.,.,..

..,, ..,.
.,., .,

.,...,

South Dakota.
TUlnc%?e.
Texas
Utah...

,.

..,.

,,., ,....

Other ’
\pcc,al np72

70. I
61.9
72.0
52.2
79 s

34.9
41.5
45.5
16.2
Sl 2

41 5
51.7
35 I
29.7
14. I

C;1rol1na

'Includes

75.6
63.9
71.5
59.0
62 8

56.2
64 5
71.9
59.0
76.9

76.3
76.7
54.9
49.7
64 0

.,

OurlJrn~ urcuv:
Puerto Rico

69 7
60.0
6X.X
54.8
77.9

33 4
42. I
41.8
13.4
51 5

39.5
41.7
32.4
22 I
29.6

,..,

Vermorrt............
VirmnKL
Washineton
West Vireinla.
Wisconsm
Wyommg

51.5
60 I
7s.‘)
54 4
72.X

497.180
33.6

65.5
67 0
46.2
46.7
60.3

,.,. ,... ..,.

.._

Oklahoma
Orecon.
Pcnnsvlvanla
Rhode Island

0
I
9
4
I

86,830
38.9

74.8
14.4
ss.9
52.6
66 I

Nebraska.
NW&
New Hamrxhire

Ohio..

61
6X.
82
64
7x.

2,239,SlO
51 I

70.3
SO.‘)
459
60. I

..,

New Jersey
New Mextco.
New York.
North C;mhna
Norlh Dakota

54.0
61.1
76.6
517
715

790,530
41 6

...,.,.,,.,.,

..,.

Missourt..
Montana

60

Total

depositors:

Numhcr
Percent.

south

Reorcd
I
worken

hcnclrcurc\

I

SocialSecurity Bulletin

38

l

Vol. 61

l

No, I

l

1998

I
I
3
2
6

Table 7.-Number

and percent of beneficiaries using direct deposit, by State and age, December 1996

state
Total .........................................

Number

Direct
depositors

AIF

Percent
using

17 cr under

43,737.470

Direct deoositon
.............................
Percent.. ..........................................

27,628,0+Xl

18-64

65-69

70-74

75 OT older

3.01.5,710

9,057,280

8,640.860

X,3.54.940

14,658.680

63.2

1,178,940
39. I

5,085,690
56.2

5,801,800
67. I

5,546,ooo
66.4

10,015,570
68.3

Alabama.. ............................................
Alaska ..................................................
Arizona.. ..............................................
Arkansas ..............................................
California..
...........................................

786,510
45,%0
720,250
506,570
4,022,740

424560
28,070
S51,920
292,090
2,95X,640

54.0
61.1
76.6
57.7
73.5

34.4
43.1
44.2
36.8
47.1

48 0
s9.4
68.1
51.8
68.0

59.8
68.2
80.2
62.8
76.8

58.1
63.6
81.3
61.4
76.3

58.9
66.0
83.5
62.9
78.4

Colorado ..............................................
Connecticut
........................................
D&WaE..
...........................................
District of Columbia ............................
Florida .................................................

504,870
568,900
124,360
77,440
3,034,OlO

351,740
341,600
85,610
42,450
2,364,190

69.7
60.0
68.8
54.8
77.9

46.5
35.0
41.1
32.0
46.9

61.8
52.8
62.3
47.8
67.9

74.5
62.8
72.5
55.1
80.2

73.8
62.8
72.7
57.1
82.2

75.0
63.8
73.7
61.3
84.1

Georeia ................................................
Hawaii .................................................
Idaho ...................................................
Illinois .................................................
Indiana .................................................

1,027,380
169.300
181,160
1,826,820
966,990

575,580
107,830
134,520
1,131,350
600,190

56.0
63.7
74.3
61.9
62.1

36.8
43.7
45.4
39.2
38.4

48.9
61.4
65.2
s4.3
56.0

61.6
68.9
78.4
66.0
65.7

61.6
64.7
78.9
64.5
64.6

61.4
64.6
80.2
66.4
66.9

Iowa .....................................................
KEXlSZi.5 .................................................
Kentucky.. ...........................................
Louisiana.. ...........................................
Maine ..................................................

538,930
435,550
719,760
701,280
242,180

382,250
306,350
366,700
322,200
145,480

70.9
70.3
50.9
45.9
60.1

46.8
448
30.1
27.8
30.3

66.6
65.1
44.0
39.3
53.6

75.8
74.9
56.8
s2.2
64.3

70.7
70.4
55.4
s1.2
64.7

73.5
74.5
57.9
51.0
65.4

Matvland..
...........................................
Massachusetts
.....................................
Michiean..
...........................................
Minnesota..
..........................................
Mississiopi..
.........................................

685,230
1,052,260
1,598,350
715,190
498,230

414,130
659,860
1,077,940
476,330
248,120

60.4
62.7
67.4
66.6
49.8

42.4
35.6
39.2
42.4
29.5

55.1
56.5
61.7
60.6
42.6

62.9
67.0
71,s
69.5
56.4

62.4
65.2
70.4
67.8
55.7

64.5
66.7
72.8
70.7
57.3

Missouri ...............................................
Montana.. ............................................
Nebraska .............................................
NWt& ................................................
New Hampshire.
..................................

976,790
152,990
281,780
241,020
188,350

631,510
107,190
198,950
17.5,650
127,330

64.7
70.1
70.6
72.9
67.6

43.9
45.0
49.2
49.6
39.9

60.4
64.4
67.8
65.4
60.5

68.8
72.2
75.2
76.4
72.2

66.0
74.0
68.3
77.1
71.3

68.6
75.5
73.6
78.1
72.2

New Jersey ..........................................
New Mexico. .......................................
New York.. ..........................................
North Carolina .....................................

1,313,620
261,780
2,968,880
1,255,190

763,670
169,650
1,851,470
701,920

58.1
64.8
62.4
55.9

35.3
38.0
39.0
36.6

52.5
57.5
56.2
50.3

60.6
70.9
65.0
62.3

59.9
70.4
64.7
60.0

62.0
72.2
67.4
58.5

North Dakota. ......................................
Ohio .....................................................
Oklahoma.. ..........................................
Oregon. ................................................
Pennsylvania
.......................................
Rhode Island.. .....................................

115,660
1,909,520
579,680
547,820
2,331,780
189,450

73.450
1,128,470
369,070
436,060
1,406,610
111,620

63.5
59.1
63.7
79.6
60.3
58.9

44.3
35.2
44.1
55.0
40.4
33.9

61.0
52.5
57.3
72.6
57.9
49.9

62.S
62.9
67.2
82.5
63.2
63.1

63.6
61.1
66.1
82.4
60.8
61.8

67.4
63.9
68.3
84.1
62.2
63.4

South Carolina .....................................
South Dakota.. ....................................
THltleWX..
.........................................
TEXIS.. .................................................
Utah .....................................................

638,460
135,350
939,930
2,497,820
228,270

355,870
88,920
508,610
1,511,420
166,080

55.7
65.7
54.1
6O.S
72.8

35.5
38.0
37.5
38.7
52.4

49.9
60.9
49.0
52.9
65.2

62.8
67.8
59.4
63.3
77.4

s9.9
6.5.1
57.2
64.0
75.8

59.7
71.7
57.6
67.7
78.6

Vermont ...............................................
Vireinia..
.............................................
Washington
.........................................
West Virginia. .....................................
Wisconsin.
...........................................
Wvomine .............................................

100,030
964,520
801,610
385,600
884,100
72,240

63,ooO
544,880
628,750
185,380
584,160
S1.380

63.0
56.5
78.4
48.1
66.1
71.1

43.7
37.6
51.6
28.4
41.1
40.6

55.6
48.7
70.7
40.1
59.8
66.7

65.9
60.7
82.3
52.2
70.2
77.0

67.5
59.6
81.6
52.1
68.2
74.4

67.6
61.7
83.3
S4.8
69.7
75.7

Outlying ui-eu.~:
Puerto Rico. .......................................
Other ’

625,450
399.560

145.520
151.710

23.3
38.0

16.1
24.7

24.5
37 3

28.6
41.5

25.8
41.2

20.6
37.0

Social Security Bulletin

l

Vol. 61

l

No. 1

l

1998

61