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# RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES TITLE: LOW PASS FILTER AND BAND PASS FILTER

## 2.0 Equipment: ED-3300L, ED 3300M Module, RF cables, connectors

3.0 Theory The filter allows for passing a certain frequency and attenuates the others out of various frequency components. It is one of the most frequently used circuits in the entire RF system, and can be formed in variety of types and shape. Before understanding the filter in various points of view, first take a look at the filter by sing a representative RF characteristics graph, S parameter. When the RF is applied to a common line, all the RF signals are obtained as the output except for a little transmission line loss. S 21 of 0dB in the S parameter means that the ratio of the output to the input is unity. That is, since 10*log1=0, the input power is transmitted to the output without loss. S 11 locating lower than S 21 , indicates that the reflected amount is very small. Such a case that S 21, is maintained as about 0dB and S 11 has a small value, means that the input signal of the corresponding frequency is transmitted to the output at its maximum and the reflected occurs at its minimum. That is, it corresponding to the frequency pass band. Contrarily, when S 21 is small and S 11 is about 0 dB, it means the input signal of the corresponding frequency is mostly reflected and not transmitted, which becomes the frequency stop band. Passing a specific frequency to the output at its maximum without loss and reflected the other frequencies are main roles of the filter. i) Low pass Filter

This filter is basic type of the entire filter. The LPF (Low Pass Filter) blocks the radio frequency signals and transmits only the necessary low
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## RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

frequency signal (within the block frequency). It is formed as the simplest form, and other types of filters can be made by converting this basic form in variety. This type of filter is fairy used in the various areas such as removing the low frequency ripple, removing the radio frequency spurious, suppressing the harmonic and various detections. ii) High Pass Filter

The High Pass Filter (HPF) has a charistics that blocks the low frequency signal and transmitts only the radio frequency signals higher than the necessary bandwidth (higher then the lock frequency). The biggest problem if the filter is that it cannot be formed using the distributed element. iii) Band Pass Filter

The Band Pass Filter (BPF) transmits signals in the desirable bandwidth while it blocks signals in the undesirale bandwidth. When the transmission terminal receives or transmits the exectly necessary frequency out of many frequencies, the BPF is used. iv)` Band Stop Filter or Band Reject Filter

In contrast of the BPF, the BSF blocks signals in the desirable bandwidth, while it passes signals in the other bandwidth. This filter is mainly used for blocking inflow of the specific frequency and is formed by arranging and combining the serial and parallel resonances. 4.0 Procedure: 1. Construct and connect the equipment at the below for the Low Pass Filter and Band Pass Filter.

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## RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

Figure 1: LOW PASS FILTER CONNECTION

## Figure 2: BAND PASS FILTER CONNECTION

2. Connect the Voltage Control Oscilloscope (VCO) to power supply and a ll the calibration methods for the equipments was done with carefully before start experiment such as setting to power supply, function generator, and spectrum analyzer. 3. The power supply connected to Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) and was set at 12V MAX in function generator. It is because the range of maximum voltage supply for VCO is 16V. 4. The output from the VCO was connected to the circulator port 1(P1) using connector cable. 5. The P2 of the circulator was connected to low pass filter and P3 was terminated using a 50ohm load. 6. The output from the filter was connected to spectrum analyzer via a detector. All the results were recorded in tables. 7. The channel 1 adjustable voltage tuned using start and stop frequency values between 1.5 to 2GHz in the spectrum analyzer such that the output power can be determined easily. 8. The channel 1 V tune voltage of the ED-3300A(VCO) was changed such that the output voltages can have frequency values shown in table 1. Then with the
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## RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

detector the measurement was recorded in the input of table 1. 9. The low pass filter was replaced by band pass filter and results was measured and recorded in table 2. 10. The calculations to find the reflection coefficient and the values of the filter components were done and analysis of the response of the signal was shown in graphs.

5.0

## Results and observations:

Low Pass Filter Frequenc y (GHz) 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 Vtune(V ) 2.3 3.1 3.8 4.4 4.9 5.5 6.1 6.7 7.3 7.8 8.5 Port 1 V1(mV ) 409.26 522.62 670.65 642.98 614.00 576.00 582.10 594.00 582.00 605.00 543.00 Port 2 V2(mV ) 351.56 437.71 567.54 525.05 392.34 148.05 74.22 39.70 60.24 24.64 15.84 Insertio n Loss (dB) 1.32 1.54 1.45 1.76 3.89 11.80 17.89 23.50 19.70 27.80 30.70

P1(mW ) 3.40 5.62 9.63 8.20 8.05 7.51 7.01 5.16 6.95 7.27 6.33

P1(dBm ) 5.32 7.30 9.30 9.32 7.19 8.31 8.21 8.38 8.46 8.86 7.75

P2(mW ) 2.20 3.98 8.20 7.57 6.80 5.56 2.20 1.23 2.45 2.52 2.64

P2(dBm ) 3.40 6.12 9.17 8.83 8.32 7.45 3.22 1.57 2.74 3.65 3.81

Sample Calculation Insertion Loss (IL) V1 IL 20 log V 2 409.26 IL 20 log 351.56 IL 1.32dB

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## Graph of Insertion Loss v/s Frequency For Low Pass Filter

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Frequency (GHz) Insertion Loss

Band pass Filter Frequency Vtune(V) Port 1 Port 2 Insertion (GHz) Loss P1(mW) V1(mV) P1(dBm) P2(W) V2(mV) P2(dBm) (dB) 1.50 2.3 3.40 409.26 5.32 5.5 52.84 -12.5 17.78 1.55 3.1 5.62 522.62 7.30 7.5 20.50 -20.0 28.13 1.60 3.8 9.63 670.65 9.30 11 21.00 -20.0 30.09 1.65 4.4 8.20 642.98 9.32 11.5 23.00 -21.0 28.93 1.70 4.9 8.05 614.00 7.19 210 105.00 -6.6 15.34 1.75 5.5 7.51 576.00 8.31 5.3m 510.00 7.3 1.06 1.80 6.1 7.01 582.10 8.21 5m 500.00 7.1 1.32 1.85 6.7 5.16 594.00 8.38 5.3m 515.00 7.3 1.24 1.90 7.3 6.95 582.00 8.46 1m 220.00 -0.7 5.45 1.95 7.8 7.27 605.00 8.86 7 30.00 -15.0 26.09 2.00 8.5 6.33 543.00 7.75 6 21.00 -20.0 28.25 Sample Calculation Insertion Loss (IL): V1 IL 20 log V 2 409.26 IL 20 log 52.84 IL 17.78dB

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## Graph of Insertion Loss v/s Frequency For Band Pass Filter

35 30 Insertion Loss 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Frequency (GHz)

2. Find the stop frequency of the filter from the measured values of two filters. From the graph of frequency response, the stop frequencies for both filters are:

## Graph of Insertion Loss v/s Frequency For Low Pass Filter

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Frequency (GHz) Insertion Loss BENT 4153

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## Graph of Insertion Loss v/s Frequency For Band Pass Filter

35 30 Insertion Loss 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85 1.9 1.95 2 Frequency (GHz)

Band pass Filter FCL = 1.73 GHz and fCH = 1.87 GHz

3. Design a band pass filter using L and C. With specification (Ripple = 0.5dB, Center Frequency = 1GHz Band Width = 10%, N = 3, Impedance : 50 Designing a Bandpass Filter Using L and C Specifications: Ripple = 0.5dB Center frequency = 1 GHz Bandwitdth = 10% N=3 Impedance = 50 Low pass filter design

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L1 = 0.4985nH

C1 = 50.812pF

L2=87.27nH

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C3=C1= 50.812pF
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## RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

6.0 Discussion 1. The aim of this lab is to witness first-hand the effect of the Low-Pass Filter and Band-Pass Filter utilizing the ED3300L and ED3300M module. 2. The Low-Pass Filter reflect/blocks the high frequency signal (above the threshold set by the circuit). In the lab session, the amplitude of the output waveform of the signal of the low frequency is slightly higher than the high-frequency. 3. The Band-Pass Filter blocks the signals that are out of the allowed frequency. Only signal with the frequency between the specified range and let pass, hence the name Band-Pass Filter. In the lab session, the results are quite obvious with the ED3300M module. At frequency of 1.5GHz to 1.6GHz, the average dBm ~ -30 which make it a bit hard to distinguish the V-tune vale. 4. From the result, we can clearly see the insertion loss as the frequency increases which means that the signals are reflected more and more as the following increases. This goes along with the theoretical expectation of the Low Pass Filter. 5. The result for the Band Pass Filter looks promising as well, at frequency 1.5GHz, 1.6GHz, 2.0GHz, the loss are high; showing that the signal are blocked. While at 1.7GHz to 1.9GHz, the loss are low indicating the signal are let thorough. The result are as expected as the theoretical result where the filter only allow signal to pass through at only certain frequency.

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## RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

7.0 Conclusion At the end of the lab sessions, we are able to manage the investigate the operation of various type of microwave filters; the Low Pass Filter and Band Pass Filter.

8.0 Reference
[1] LAB SHEET OF RF AND MICROWAVE TECHNIQUE BENT 4153

Low Pass Filter and Band Pass Filter [2] Band Pass Filter (n.d.). Retrieved from Princeton: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Band_Pass_Filter.html [3] Giangrand, I. (n.d.). Conversions between Low-Pass Filter and Band-Pass Filter. Retrieved from giangrandi.ch: http://www.giangrandi.ch/electronics/anttool/swr.html [4] Bogatin, E. (2004). Signal Integrity - Simplified. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

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