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# Series

FOURIER SERIES
Graham S McDonald
A self-contained Tutorial Module for learning
the technique of Fourier series analysis
G Begin Tutorial
c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk
1. Theory
2. Exercises
4. Integrals
5. Useful trig results
6. Alternative notation
7. Tips on using solutions
Full worked solutions
Section 1: Theory 3
1. Theory
G A graph of periodic function f(x) that has period L exhibits the
same pattern every L units along the x-axis, so that f(x +L) = f(x)
for every value of x. If we know what the function looks like over one
complete period, we can thus sketch a graph of the function over a
wider interval of x (that may contain many periods)

f(x)
x
PERIOD =L
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Section 1: Theory 4
G This property of repetition denes a fundamental spatial fre-
quency k =
2
L
that can be used to give a rst approximation to
the periodic pattern f(x):
f(x) c
1
sin(kx +
1
) = a
1
cos(kx) + b
1
sin(kx),
where symbols with subscript 1 are constants that determine the am-
plitude and phase of this rst approximation
G A much better approximation of the periodic pattern f(x) can
be built up by adding an appropriate combination of harmonics to
this fundamental (sine-wave) pattern. For example, adding
c
2
sin(2kx +
2
) = a
2
cos(2kx) + b
2
sin(2kx) (the 2nd harmonic)
c
3
sin(3kx +
3
) = a
3
cos(3kx) + b
3
sin(3kx) (the 3rd harmonic)
Here, symbols with subscripts are constants that determine the am-
plitude and phase of each harmonic contribution
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Section 1: Theory 5
One can even approximate a square-wave pattern with a suitable sum
that involves a fundamental sine-wave plus a combination of harmon-
ics of this fundamental frequency. This sum is called a Fourier series
Fundamental +5 harmonics
Fundamental +20 harmonics

x
PERIOD =L
Fundamental
Fundamental +2 harmonics
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Section 1: Theory 6
G In this Tutorial, we consider working out Fourier series for func-
tions f(x) with period L = 2. Their fundamental frequency is then
k =
2
L
= 1, and their Fourier series representations involve terms like
a
1
cos x , b
1
sinx
a
2
cos 2x , b
2
sin2x
a
3
cos 3x , b
3
sin3x
We also include a constant term a
0
/2 in the Fourier series. This
allows us to represent functions that are, for example, entirely above
the xaxis. With a sucient number of harmonics included, our ap-
proximate series can exactly represent a given function f(x)
f(x) = a
0
/2 + a
1
cos x + a
2
cos 2x + a
3
cos 3x + ...
+ b
1
sinx + b
2
sin2x + b
3
sin3x + ...
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Section 1: Theory 7
A more compact way of writing the Fourier series of a function f(x),
with period 2, uses the variable subscript n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
G We need to work out the Fourier coecients (a
0
, a
n
and b
n
) for
given functions f(x). This process is broken down into three steps
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

_
2
f(x) dx
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

_
2
f(x) cos nx dx
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

_
2
f(x) sinnx dx
where integrations are over a single interval in x of L = 2
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Section 1: Theory 8
G Finally, specifying a particular value of x = x
1
in a Fourier series,
gives a series of constants that should equal f(x
1
). However, if f(x)
is discontinuous at this value of x, then the series converges to a value
that is half-way between the two possible function values

f(x)
x
Fourier series
converges to
half-way point
"Vertical jump"/discontinuity
in the function represented
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Section 2: Exercises 9
2. Exercises
Click on Exercise links for full worked solutions (7 exercises in total).
Exercise 1.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) =
_
1, < x < 0
0, 0 < x < .
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is
1
2

2

_
sinx +
1
3
sin3x +
1
5
sin5x + ...
_
c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 10
Exercise 2.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) =
_
0, < x < 0
x, 0 < x < .
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + ...
_
+
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x ...
_
c) By giving appropriate values to x, show that
(i)

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+. . . and (ii)

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+. . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 11
Exercise 3.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) =
_
x, 0 < x <
, < x < 2 .
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is
3
4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
_

_
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
c) By giving appropriate values to x, show that
(i)

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+. . . and (ii)

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+. . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 12
Exercise 4.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) =
x
2
over the interval 0 < x < 2.
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 4
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is

2

_
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+
1
9
. . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 13
Exercise 5.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) =
_
x, 0 < x <
0, < x < 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is

4
+
2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
_
+ sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x +
1
4
sin4x + . . .
c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+ . . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 14
Exercise 6.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) = x in the range < x < .
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is
2
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x . . .
_
c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 2: Exercises 15
Exercise 7.
Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that
f(x) = x
2
over the interval < x < .
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3
b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

2
3
4
_
cos x
1
2
2
cos 2x +
1
3
2
cos 3x . . .
_
c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

2
6
= 1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . .
G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation
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Section 3: Answers 16
The sketches asked for in part (a) of each exercise are given within
the full worked solutions click on the Exercise links to see these
solutions
The answers below are suggested values of x to get the series of
constants quoted in part (c) of each exercise
1. x =

2
,
2. (i) x =

2
, (ii) x = 0,
3. (i) x =

2
, (ii) x = 0,
4. x =

2
,
5. x = 0,
6. x =

2
,
7. x = .
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Section 4: Integrals 17
4. Integrals
Formula for integration by parts:
_
b
a
u
dv
dx
dx = [uv]
b
a

_
b
a
du
dx
v dx
f (x)
_
f(x)dx f (x)
_
f(x)dx
x
n x
n+1
n+1
(n = 1) [g (x)]
n
g

(x)
[g(x)]
n+1
n+1
(n = 1)
1
x
ln|x|
g

(x)
g(x)
ln|g (x)|
e
x
e
x
a
x a
x
ln a
(a > 0)
sinx cos x sinhx coshx
cos x sinx coshx sinhx
tanx ln|cos x| tanhx lncoshx
cosec x ln

tan
x
2

cosechx ln

tanh
x
2

## sec x ln|sec x + tanx| sechx 2 tan

1
e
x
sec
2
x tanx sech
2
x tanhx
cot x ln|sinx| cothx ln|sinhx|
sin
2
x
x
2

sin 2x
4
sinh
2
x
sinh 2x
4

x
2
cos
2
x
x
2
+
sin 2x
4
cosh
2
x
sinh 2x
4
+
x
2
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Section 4: Integrals 18
f (x)
_
f (x) dx f (x)
_
f (x) dx
1
a
2
+x
2
1
a
tan
1 x
a
1
a
2
x
2
1
2a
ln

a+x
ax

(0<|x| <a)
(a > 0)
1
x
2
a
2
1
2a
ln

xa
x+a

## (|x| > a>0)

1

a
2
x
2
sin
1 x
a
1

a
2
+x
2
ln

x+

a
2
+x
2
a

(a > 0)
(a < x < a)
1

x
2
a
2
ln

x+

x
2
a
2
a

(x>a>0)

a
2
x
2
a
2
2
_
sin
1
_
x
a
_
a
2
+x
2
a
2
2
_
sinh
1
_
x
a
_
+
x

a
2
+x
2
a
2
_
+
x

a
2
x
2
a
2
_

x
2
a
2
a
2
2
_
cosh
1
_
x
a
_
+
x

x
2
a
2
a
2
_
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Section 5: Useful trig results 19
5. Useful trig results
When calculating the Fourier coecients a
n
and b
n
, for which n =
1, 2, 3, . . . , the following trig. results are useful. Each of these results,
which are also true for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , can be deduced from
the graph of sinx or that of cos x
G sinn = 0
1
0
1
2
3
3 2

sin(x)
x

G cos n = (1)
n
1
0
1
2
3
3 2

cos(x)
x

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Section 5: Useful trig results 20
1
0
1
2
3
3 2

sin(x)
x

1
0
1
2
3
3 2

cos(x)
x

Gsinn

2
=
_
_
_
0 , n even
1 , n = 1, 5, 9, ...
1 , n = 3, 7, 11, ...
Gcos n

2
=
_
_
_
0 , n odd
1 , n = 0, 4, 8, ...
1 , n = 2, 6, 10, ...
Areas cancel when
when integrating
over whole periods
G
_
2
sinnxdx = 0
G
_
2
cos nxdx = 0

+ +
1
0
1
2 3 3 2

sin(x)
x

+
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Section 6: Alternative notation 21
6. Alternative notation
G For a waveform f(x) with period L =
2
k
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nkx + b
n
sinnkx]
The corresponding Fourier coecients are
STEP ONE
a
0
=
2
L
_
L
f(x) dx
STEP TWO
a
n
=
2
L
_
L
f(x) cos nkx dx
STEP THREE
b
n
=
2
L
_
L
f(x) sinnkx dx
and integrations are over a single interval in x of L
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Section 6: Alternative notation 22
G For a waveform f(x) with period 2L =
2
k
, we have that
k =
2
2L
=

L
and nkx =
nx
L
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
n
cos
nx
L
+ b
n
sin
nx
L
_
The corresponding Fourier coecients are
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1
L
_
2L
f(x) dx
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1
L
_
2L
f(x) cos
nx
L
dx
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1
L
_
2L
f(x) sin
nx
L
dx
and integrations are over a single interval in x of 2L
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Section 6: Alternative notation 23
G For a waveform f(t) with period T =
2

f(t) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nt + b
n
sinnt]
The corresponding Fourier coecients are
STEP ONE
a
0
=
2
T
_
T
f(t) dt
STEP TWO
a
n
=
2
T
_
T
f(t) cos nt dt
STEP THREE
b
n
=
2
T
_
T
f(t) sinnt dt
and integrations are over a single interval in t of T
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Section 7: Tips on using solutions 24
7. Tips on using solutions
G When looking at the THEORY, ANSWERS, INTEGRALS, TRIG
or NOTATION pages, use the Back button (at the bottom of the
G Use the solutions intelligently. For example, they can help you get
started on an exercise, or they can allow you to check whether your
intermediate results are correct
G Try to make less use of the full solutions as you work your way
through the Tutorial
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Solutions to exercises 25
Full worked solutions
Exercise 1.
f(x) =
_
1, < x < 0
0, 0 < x < , and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2
0
1

2 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 26
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

f(x)dx =
1

_
0

f(x)dx +
1

_

0
f(x)dx
=
1

_
0

1 dx +
1

_

0
0 dx
=
1

_
0

dx
=
1

[x]
0

=
1

(0 ())
=
1

()
i.e. a
0
= 1 .
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Solutions to exercises 27
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

1

_
0

## f(x) cos nxdx +

1

_

0
f(x) cos nxdx
=
1

_
0

1 cos nxdx +
1

_

0
0 cos nxdx
=
1

_
0

cos nx dx
=
1

_
sinnx
n
_
0

=
1
n
[sinnx]
0

=
1
n
(sin0 sin(n))
=
1
n
(0 + sinn)
i.e. a
n
=
1
n
(0 + 0) = 0.
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Solutions to exercises 28
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

f(x) sinnx dx
=
1

_
0

f(x) sinnx dx +
1

_

0
f(x) sinnx dx
=
1

_
0

1 sinnx dx +
1

_

0
0 sinnx dx
i.e. b
n
=
1

_
0

sinnx dx =
1

_
cos nx
n
_
0

=
1
n
[cos nx]
0

=
1
n
(cos 0 cos(n))
=
1
n
(1 cos n) =
1
n
(1 (1)
n
) , see Trig
i.e. b
n
=
_
0 , n even

2
n
, n odd
, since (1)
n
=
_
1 , n even
1 , n odd
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Solutions to exercises 29
We now have that
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
with the three steps giving
a
0
= 1, a
n
= 0 , and b
n
=
_
0 , n even

2
n
, n odd
It may be helpful to construct a table of values of b
n
n 1 2 3 4 5
b
n

2

0
2

_
1
3
_
0
2

_
1
5
_
Substituting our results now gives the required series
f(x) =
1
2

2

_
sinx +
1
3
sin3x +
1
5
sin5x + . . .
_
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Solutions to exercises 30
c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
Comparing this series with
f(x) =
1
2

2

_
sinx +
1
3
sin3x +
1
5
sin5x + . . .
_
,
we need to introduce a minus sign in front of the constants
1
3
,
1
7
,. . .
So we need sinx = 1, sin3x = 1, sin 5x = 1, sin7x = 1, etc
The rst condition of sinx = 1 suggests trying x =

2
.
This choice gives sin

2
+
1
3
sin3

2
+
1
5
sin5

2
+
1
7
sin7

2
i.e. 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
Looking at the graph of f(x), we also have that f(

2
) = 0.
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Solutions to exercises 31
Picking x =

2
thus gives
0 =
1
2

2

_
sin

2
+
1
3
sin
3
2
+
1
5
sin
5
2
+
1
7
sin
7
2
+ . . .
_
i.e. 0 =
1
2

2

_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
_
A little manipulation then gives a series representation of

4
2

_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
_
=
1
2
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . . =

4
.
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Solutions to exercises 32
Exercise 2.
f(x) =
_
0, < x < 0
x, 0 < x < , and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

2 3
3 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 33
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

f(x)dx =
1

_
0

f(x)dx +
1

_

0
f(x)dx
=
1

_
0

0 dx +
1

_

0
xdx
=
1

_
x
2
2
_

0
=
1

2
2
0
_
i.e. a
0
=

2
.
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Solutions to exercises 34
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

1

_
0

## f(x) cos nxdx +

1

_

0
f(x) cos nxdx
=
1

_
0

0 cos nxdx +
1

_

0
xcos nxdx
i.e. a
n
=
1

_

0
xcos nx dx =
1

__
x
sinnx
n
_

_

0
sinnx
n
dx
_
(using integration by parts)
i.e. a
n
=
1

__

sinn
n
0
_

1
n
_

cos nx
n
_

0
_
=
1

_
( 0 0) +
1
n
2
[cos nx]

0
_
=
1
n
2
{cos n cos 0} =
1
n
2
{(1)
n
1}
i.e. a
n
=
_
0 , n even

2
n
2
, n odd
, see Trig.
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Solutions to exercises 35
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

f(x) sinnxdx =
1

_
0

f(x) sinnxdx +
1

_

0
f(x) sinnxdx
=
1

_
0

0 sinnxdx +
1

_

0
xsinnxdx
i.e. b
n
=
1

_

0
xsinnxdx =
1

_
_
x
_

cos nx
n
__

_

0
_

cos nx
n
_
dx
_
(using integration by parts)
=
1

1
n
[xcos nx]

0
+
1
n
_

0
cos nxdx
_
=
1

1
n
( cos n 0) +
1
n
_
sinnx
n
_

0
_
=
1
n
(1)
n
+
1
n
2
(0 0), see Trig
=
1
n
(1)
n
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Solutions to exercises 36
i.e. b
n
=
_

1
n
, n even
+
1
n
, n odd
We now have
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
where a
0
=

2
, a
n
=
_
0 , n even

2
n
2
, n odd
, b
n
=
_

1
n
, n even
1
n
, n odd
Constructing a table of values gives
n 1 2 3 4 5
a
n

2

0
2

1
3
2
0
2

1
5
2
b
n
1
1
2
1
3

1
4
1
5
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Solutions to exercises 37
This table of coecients gives
f(x) =
1
2
_

2
_
+
_

_
cos x + 0 cos 2x
+
_

1
3
2
_
cos 3x + 0 cos 4x
+
_

1
5
2
_
cos 5x + ...
+ sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x ...
i.e. f(x) =

4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + ...
_
+
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x ...
_
and we have found the required series!
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Solutions to exercises 38
c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that
(i)

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ ...
Comparing this series with
f(x) =

4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + ...
_
+
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x ...
_
,
the required series of constants does not involve terms like
1
3
2
,
1
5
2
,
1
7
2
, ....
So we need to pick a value of x that sets the cos nx terms to zero.
The Trig section shows that cos n

2
= 0 when n is odd, and note also
that cos nx terms in the Fourier series all have odd n
i.e. cos x = cos 3x = cos 5x = ... = 0 when x =

2
,
i.e. cos

2
= cos 3

2
= cos 5

2
= ... = 0
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Solutions to exercises 39
Setting x =

2
in the series for f(x) gives
f
_

2
_
=

4

2

_
cos

2
+
1
3
2
cos
3
2
+
1
5
2
cos
5
2
+ ...
_
+
_
sin

2

1
2
sin
2
2
+
1
3
sin
3
2

1
4
sin
4
2
+
1
5
sin
5
2
...
_
=

4

2

[0 + 0 + 0 + ...]
+
_
_
1
1
2
sin
..
=0
+
1
3
(1)
1
4
sin2
. .
=0
+
1
5
(1) ...
_
_
The graph of f(x) shows that f
_

2
_
=

2
, so that

2
=

4
+ 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ ...
i.e.

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ ...
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Solutions to exercises 40
Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that
(ii)

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ ...
Compare this series with
f(x) =

4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + ...
_
+
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x ...
_
.
This time, we want to use the coecients of the cos nx terms, and
the same choice of x needs to set the sinnx terms to zero
Picking x = 0 gives
sinx = sin2x = sin3x = 0 and cos x = cos 3x = cos 5x = 1
Note also that the graph of f(x) gives f(x) = 0 when x = 0
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Solutions to exercises 41
So, picking x = 0 gives
0 =

4

2

_
cos 0 +
1
3
2
cos 0 +
1
5
2
cos 0 +
1
7
2
cos 0 + ...
_
+sin0
sin0
2
+
sin0
3
...
i.e. 0 =

4

2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ ...
_
+ 0 0 + 0 ...
We then nd that
2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ ...
_
=

4
and 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ ... =

2
8
.
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Solutions to exercises 42
Exercise 3.
f(x) =
_
x, 0 < x <
, < x < 2, and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

0
2 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 43
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

_
2
0
f(x)dx =
1

_

0
f(x)dx +
1

_
2

f(x)dx
=
1

_

0
xdx +
1

_
2

dx
=
1

_
x
2
2
_

0
+

_
x
_
2

=
1

2
2
0
_
+
_
2
_
=

2
+
i.e. a
0
=
3
2
.
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Solutions to exercises 44
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) cos nxdx
=
1

_

0
xcos nxdx +
1

_
2

cos nxdx
=
1

_
_
x
sinnx
n
_

_

0
sinnx
n
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
+

_
sinnx
n
_
2

=
1

_
1
n
_
sinn 0 sinn0
_

_
cos nx
n
2
_

0
_
+
1
n
(sinn2 sinn)
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Solutions to exercises 45
i.e. a
n
=
1

_
1
n
_
0 0
_
+
_
cos n
n
2

cos 0
n
2
_
_
+
1
n
_
0 0
_
=
1
n
2

## (cos n 1), see Trig

=
1
n
2

_
(1)
n
1
_
,
i.e. a
n
=
_

2
n
2

, n odd
0 , n even.
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Solutions to exercises 46
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) sinnxdx
=
1

_

0
xsinnxdx +
1

_
2

sinnxdx
=
1

_
_
x
_

cos nx
n
__

_

0
_
cos nx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
+

_
cos nx
n
_
2

=
1

_
_
cos n
n
+ 0
_
+
_
sinnx
n
2
_

0
_

1
n
(cos 2n cos n)
=
1

_
(1)
n
n
+
_
sinn sin0
n
2
_
_

1
n
_
1 (1)
n
_
=
1
n
(1)
n
+ 0
1
n
_
1 (1)
n
_
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Solutions to exercises 47
i.e. b
n
=
1
n
(1)
n

1
n
+
1
n
(1)
n
i.e. b
n
=
1
n
.
We now have
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
where a
0
=
3
2
, a
n
=
_
0 , n even

2
n
2

, n odd
, b
n
=
1
n
Constructing a table of values gives
n 1 2 3 4 5
a
n

2

0
2

_
1
3
2
_
0
2

_
1
5
2
_
b
n
1
1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5
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Solutions to exercises 48
This table of coecients gives
f(x) =
1
2
_
3
2
_
+
_

_ _
cos x + 0 cos 2x +
1
3
2
cos 3x + . . .
_
+
_
1
_ _
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
i.e. f(x) =
3
4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
_

_
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
and we have found the required series.
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Solutions to exercises 49
c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that
(i)

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
Compare this series with
f(x) =
3
4

2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
_

_
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
Here, we want to set the cos nx terms to zero (since their coecients
are 1,
1
3
2
,
1
5
2
, . . .). Since cos n

2
= 0 when n is odd, we will try setting
x =

2
in the series. Note also that f(

2
) =

2
This gives

2
=
3
4

2

_
cos

2
+
1
3
2
cos 3

2
+
1
5
2
cos 5

2
+ . . .

_
sin

2
+
1
2
sin2

2
+
1
3
sin3

2
+
1
4
sin4

2
+
1
5
sin5

2
+ . . .

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Solutions to exercises 50
and

2
=
3
4

2

[0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]

_
(1) +
1
2
(0) +
1
3
(1) +
1
4
(0) +
1
5
(1) + . . .

then

2
=
3
4

_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . . =
3
4

2
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . . =

4
, as required.
To show that
(ii)

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ . . . ,
We want zero sinnx terms and to use the coecients of cos nx
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Solutions to exercises 51
Setting x = 0 eliminates the sinnx terms from the series, and also
gives
cos x+
1
3
2
cos 3x+
1
5
2
cos 5x+
1
7
2
cos 7x+. . . = 1+
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+. . .
(i.e. the desired series).
The graph of f(x) shows a discontinuity (a vertical jump) at x = 0
The Fourier series converges to a value that is half-way between the
two values of f(x) around this discontinuity. That is the series will
converge to

2
at x = 0
i.e.

2
=
3
4

2

_
cos 0 +
1
3
2
cos 0 +
1
5
2
cos 0 +
1
7
2
cos 0 + . . .
_

_
sin0 +
1
2
sin0 +
1
3
sin0 + . . .
_
and

2
=
3
4

2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ . . .
_
[0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]
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Solutions to exercises 52
Finally, this gives

4
=
2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ . . .
_
and

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+
1
7
2
+ . . .
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Solutions to exercises 53
Exercise 4.
f(x) =
x
2
, over the interval 0 < x < 2 and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 4

3 4 0 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 54
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) dx
=
1

_
2
0
x
2
dx
=
1

_
x
2
4
_
2
0
=
1

_
(2)
2
4
0
_
i.e. a
0
= .
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Solutions to exercises 55
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) cos nxdx
=
1

_
2
0
x
2
cos nxdx
=
1
2
_
_
x
sinnx
n
_
2
0

1
n
_
2
0
sinnxdx
_
. .
using integration by parts
=
1
2
_
_
2
sinn2
n
0
sinn 0
n
_

1
n
0
_
=
1
2
_
(0 0)
1
n
0
_
, see Trig
i.e. a
n
= 0.
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Solutions to exercises 56
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) sinnxdx =
1

_
2
0
_
x
2
_
sinnxdx
=
1
2
_
2
0
xsinnxdx
=
1
2
_
_
x
_
cos nx
n
__
2
0

_
2
0
_
cos nx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
=
1
2
_
1
n
(2 cos n2 + 0) +
1
n
0
_
, see Trig
=
2
2n
cos(n2)
=
1
n
cos(2n)
i.e. b
n
=
1
n
, since 2n is even (see Trig)
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Solutions to exercises 57
We now have
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
where a
0
= , a
n
= 0, b
n
=
1
n
These Fourier coecients give
f(x) =

2
+

n=1
_
0
1
n
sinnx
_
i.e. f(x) =

2

_
sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x + . . .
_
.
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Solutions to exercises 58
c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+
1
9
. . .
Setting x =

2
gives f(x) =

4
and

4
=

2

_
1 + 0
1
3
+ 0 +
1
5
+ 0 . . .
_

4
=

2

_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+
1
9
. . .
_
_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+
1
9
. . .
_
=

4
i.e. 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+
1
9
. . . =

4
.
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Solutions to exercises 59
Exercise 5.
f(x) =
_
x , 0 < x <
0 , < x < 2, and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

0
2 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 60
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) dx
=
1

_

0
( x) dx +
1

_
2

0 dx
=
1

_
x
1
2
x
2
_

0
+ 0
=
1

2
2
0
_
i.e. a
0
=

2
.
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Solutions to exercises 61
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) cos nxdx
=
1

_

0
( x) cos nxdx +
1

_
2

0 dx
i.e. a
n
=
1

__
( x)
sinnx
n
_

_

0
(1)
sinnx
n
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
+0
=
1

_
(0 0) +
_

0
sinnx
n
dx
_
, see Trig
=
1
n
_
cos nx
n
_

0
=
1
n
2
(cos n cos 0)
i.e. a
n
=
1
n
2
((1)
n
1) , see Trig
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Solutions to exercises 62
i.e. a
n
=
_
_
_
0 , n even
2
n
2
, n odd
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

_
2
0
f(x) sinnxdx
=
1

_

0
( x) sinnxdx +
_
2

0 dx
=
1

_
_
( x)
_

cos nx
n
__

_

0
(1)
_

cos nx
n
_
dx
_
+ 0
=
1

_
_
0
_

n
__

1
n
0
_
, see Trig
i.e. b
n
=
1
n
.
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Solutions to exercises 63
In summary, a
0
=

2
and a table of other Fourier cocients is
n 1 2 3 4 5
a
n
=
2
n
2
(when n is odd)
2

0
2

1
3
2
0
2

1
5
2
b
n
=
1
n
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
=

4
+
2

cos x +
2

1
3
2
cos 3x +
2

1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
+ sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x +
1
4
sin4x + . . .
i.e. f(x) =

4
+
2

_
cos x +
1
3
2
cos 3x +
1
5
2
cos 5x + . . .
_
+ sinx +
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x +
1
4
sin4x + . . .
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Solutions to exercises 64
c) To show that

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+ . . . ,
note that, as x 0 , the series converges to the half-way value of

2
,
and then

2
=

4
+
2

_
cos 0 +
1
3
2
cos 0 +
1
5
2
cos 0 + . . .
_
+ sin0 +
1
2
sin0 +
1
3
sin0 + . . .

2
=

4
+
2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+ . . .
_
+ 0

4
=
2

_
1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+ . . .
_
giving

2
8
= 1 +
1
3
2
+
1
5
2
+ . . .
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Solutions to exercises 65
Exercise 6.
f(x) = x, over the interval < x < and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

2
3
3 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 66
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

f(x) dx
=
1

xdx
=
1

_
x
2
2
_

=
1

2
2

2
2
_
i.e. a
0
= 0.
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Solutions to exercises 67
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

## f(x) cos nxdx

=
1

xcos nxdx
=
1

_
_
x
sinnx
n
_

_
sinnx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
i.e. a
n
=
1

_
1
n
( sinn () sin(n))
1
n
_

sinnxdx
_
=
1

_
1
n
(0 0)
1
n
0
_
,
since sinn = 0 and
_
2
sinnxdx = 0,
i.e. a
n
= 0.
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Solutions to exercises 68
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

f(x) sinnxdx
=
1

xsinnxdx
=
1

_
_
xcos nx
n
_

_
cos nx
n
_
dx
_
=
1

1
n
[xcos nx]

+
1
n
_

cos nxdx
_
=
1

1
n
( cos n () cos(n)) +
1
n
0
_
=

n
(cos n + cos n)
=
1
n
(2 cos n)
i.e. b
n
=
2
n
(1)
n
.
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Solutions to exercises 69
We thus have
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx
_
with a
0
= 0, a
n
= 0, b
n
=
2
n
(1)
n
and
n 1 2 3
b
n
2 1
2
3
Therefore
f(x) = b
1
sinx + b
2
sin2x + b
3
sin3x + . . .
i.e. f(x) = 2
_
sinx
1
2
sin2x +
1
3
sin3x . . .
_
and we have found the required Fourier series.
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Solutions to exercises 70
c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
Setting x =

2
gives f(x) =

2
and

2
= 2
_
sin

2

1
2
sin
2
2
+
1
3
sin
3
2

1
4
sin
4
2
+
1
5
sin
5
2
. . .
_
This gives

2
= 2
_
1 + 0 +
1
3
(1) 0 +
1
5
(1) 0 +
1
7
(1) + . . .
_

2
= 2
_
1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
_
i.e.

4
= 1
1
3
+
1
5

1
7
+ . . .
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Solutions to exercises 71
Exercise 7.
f(x) = x
2
, over the interval < x < and has period 2
a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3
0

2
2 3
3 2

f(x)
x

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Solutions to exercises 72
b) Fourier series representation of f(x)
STEP ONE
a
0
=
1

f(x)dx =
1

x
2
dx
=
1

_
x
3
3
_

=
1

3
3

_

3
3
__
=
1

_
2
3
3
_
i.e. a
0
=
2
2
3
.
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Solutions to exercises 73
STEP TWO
a
n
=
1

## f(x) cos nxdx

=
1

x
2
cos nxdx
=
1

_
_
x
2
sinnx
n
_

2x
_
sinnx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
=
1

_
1
n
_

2
sinn
2
sin(n)
_

2
n
_

xsinnxdx
_
=
1

_
1
n
(0 0)
2
n
_

xsinnxdx
_
, see Trig
=
2
n
_

xsinnxdx
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Solutions to exercises 74
i.e. a
n
=
2
n
_
_
x
_
cos nx
n
__

_
cos nx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts again
=
2
n
_

1
n
[xcos nx]

+
1
n
_

cos nxdx
_
=
2
n
_

1
n
_
cos n () cos(n)
_
+
1
n
0
_
=
2
n
_

1
n
_
(1)
n
+ (1)
n
_
_
=
2
n
_
2
n
(1)
n
_
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Solutions to exercises 75
i.e. a
n
=
2
n
_

2
n
(1)
n
_
=
+4
n
2
(1)
n
=
4
n
2
(1)
n
i.e. a
n
=
_
4
n
2
, n even
4
n
2
, n odd.
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Solutions to exercises 76
STEP THREE
b
n
=
1

f(x) sinnxdx =
1

x
2
sinnxdx
=
1

_
_
x
2
_
cos nx
n
__

2x
_
cos nx
n
_
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
=
1

1
n
_
x
2
cos nx

+
2
n
_

xcos nxdx
_
=
1

1
n
_

2
cos n
2
cos(n)
_
+
2
n
_

xcos nxdx
_
=
1

1
n
_

2
cos n
2
cos(n)
_
. .
=0
+
2
n
_

xcos nxdx
_
=
2
n
_

xcos nxdx
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Solutions to exercises 77
i.e. b
n
=
2
n
_
_
x
sinnx
n
_

sinnx
n
dx
_
. .
using integration by parts
=
2
n
_
1
n
( sinn () sin(n))
1
n
_

sinnxdx
_
=
2
n
_
1
n
(0 + 0)
1
n
_

sinnxdx
_
=
2
n
2
_

sinnxdx
i.e. b
n
= 0.
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Solutions to exercises 78
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
[a
n
cos nx + b
n
sinnx]
where a
0
=
2
2
3
, a
n
=
_
4
n
2
, n even
4
n
2
, n odd
, b
n
= 0
n 1 2 3 4
a
n
4(1) 4
_
1
2
2
_
4
_
1
3
2
_
4
_
1
4
2
_
i.e. f(x) =
1
2
_
2
2
3
_
4
_
cos x
1
2
2
cos 2x +
1
3
2
cos 3x
1
4
2
cos 4x. . .
_
+ [0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]
i.e. f(x) =

2
3
4
_
cos x
1
2
2
cos 2x +
1
3
2
cos 3x
1
4
2
cos 4x + . . .
_
.
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Solutions to exercises 79
c) To show that

2
6
= 1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . . ,
use the fact that cos n =
_
1 , n even
1 , n odd
i.e. cos x
1
2
2
cos 2x +
1
3
2
cos 3x
1
4
2
cos 4x +. . . with x =
gives cos
1
2
2
cos 2 +
1
3
2
cos 3
1
4
2
cos 4 +. . .
i.e. (1)
1
2
2
(1) +
1
3
2
(1)
1
4
2
(1) +. . .
i.e. 1
1
2
2

1
3
2

1
4
2
+. . .
= 1
_
1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . .
_
. .
(the desired series)
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Solutions to exercises 80
The graph of f(x) gives that f() =
2
and the series converges to
this value.
Setting x = in the Fourier series thus gives

2
=

2
3
4
_
cos
1
2
2
cos 2 +
1
3
2
cos 3
1
4
2
cos 4 + . . .
_

2
=

2
3
4
_
1
1
2
2

1
3
2

1
4
2
. . .
_

2
=

2
3
+ 4
_
1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . .
_
2
2
3
= 4
_
1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . .
_
i.e.

2
6
= 1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+
1
4
2
+ . . .