The Indic intellectual tradition

Countering the Neo-colonialist Paradigm Perspectives on the History of Science Narrated by Kosla Vepa

ISERV Meeting, Hyderabad August 1st, 2009

నమ థ్ ె
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The Indic intellectual tradition

An overview of the ancient Indic contribution In specific areas Astronomy Mathematics Para Vidya

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition h d ll l d

I regard myself primarily as a Historian of science My dharma is to report objectively and faithfully and Interpret the data accurately and draw correct inferences. My goals are to bring to the attention of future generations the knowledge th t was painstakingly gathered b th th k l d that i t ki l th d by the ancients primarily because the Occident has deliberately ignored or obfuscated this contribution. Why did I develop this presentation

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The Indic intellectual tradition

Why did I develop this presentation ? Sheldon Pollock The William B. Ransford Professor of Sanskrit & Indian Studies Columbia University, had written a paper titled

“Is there an Indian Intellectual History?”
Journal of Indian Philosophy,2009 ? See http://www.columbia.edu/cu/mealac/faculty/pollock/ The title intrigued me

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The Indic intellectual tradition

SOME YARDSTICKS TO GAGE INDIA´S INTELLECTUAL TRADITION
Is th I there a systematic approach? t ti h? Is it supported by Empirical observation Is there an efficient taxonomy Are the principles g p p generalized to apply to a wide range of p pp y g phenomena Does the episteme stand the test of logical rigor Is it confirmed by alternative approaches Can it be verified by repeated experiment? Is there emphasis on complete specification of assumptions Are there unambiguous measures Will ancient Indian wisdom satisfy these parameters ? And finally, the issue with which the Occident is most obsessed with When did it happen and does it claim precedence over Babylon
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The Indic Intellectual Trad dition

The story within the story The Loin Cloth Syndrome The Eurocentricity of the Occidental The inability of the Occidental to recognize the contributions of other civilizations. In what direction did the transmission of knowledge take place ? West to east or vice versa or was it bidirectional

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The I di I t ll t l T diti Th Indic Intellectual Tradition

What we hope to cover today, Is to I t present enough material so th t we may answer t h t i l that Some pertinent questions Is there a unique nature to the Indic contributions Did the ancient Indics borrow from the Greeks Did the Occident borrow from India What is the message(s) that the ancients are trying to convey to us and how should we decipher it Are we aping the Occidental in judging the literature of the ancients or are we making a Genuine attempt to understand the ancients y y p Faithfully transmit and faithfully interpret
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition h I di I ll l di i
Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The importance of chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas g Indic approach to creating knowledge – Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage ArchaeoAstronomy & Astrochronology The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of mathematics

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Why study history ? What is History ? The study of history The Father of Historiography h h f h Our Framework for writing history History of Science

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

The study of History Why study history? y y y It is the DNA of our civilization
•Gain access to laboratory of human experience, • reveals data about the forces that affect our own lives lives, •Enables us to acquire some usable habits of mind •Catalyzes the emergence of relevant skills •Develop enhanced capacity for informed citizenship, p p y p, •Develop critical thinking, and simple awareness. •Wow, does it do all this ? Yes and more, the study of history is like taking aspirin . It aids the development of Wisdom
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Who were the founders of History and Historiography
• Writing in the Muqaddimah i th 14th century, Ib Kh ld said th t W iti i th M ddi h in the t Ibn Khaldun id that “All records, by their very nature, are liable to error” because of the following reasons: – They favor a creed or opinion (biased) – It is difficult to determine the original intent or context – History may have been written to favor a certain power The t bl ith interpreting th past i th t we l k at it th Th trouble with i t ti the t is that look t through th h the present. We must learn to put ourselves in their shoes. The Indics regard Veda Vyaasa as the father of historiography

• •

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

The Traditional Definition What do historians look for What was said What was written What was physically preserved The earliest oral record of a history is that of the Veda (4000 BCE) and the earliest written record is d (4000 ) d h l d the Cuneiform 3400 BCE

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इितहासः Thus indeed ,in conformity with tradition

The Indic Intellectual Tradition

§ इितहासः itihaasaha Tradition has it that it stands for the epics

Ramayana and Mahabharata In other words these are our historical Mahabharata. narratives. Historical evidence or tradition which is recognized as proof by the pauranikas § History Helps Us Understand People and Societies y p p § History Helps Us Understand Change and How the Society We Live in Came to Be

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• •

ु ि ि र् े ीितहासः पराणिमितवृमााियकोदाहरणं धमर्थ र्र्शां चेतीि ि ो Puraana (the chronicles of the ancients), Itivrtta (history), Akhyayika (tales), Udaaharana (illustrative stories), Dharmashastra (th canon of Ri ht Dh h t (the f Righteous conduct), and d t) d Arthashastra (the science of Government) are known by (comprise the corpus of Ithihaasa ) History Kautilya s Arthashastra, 1, • Kautilya’s Arthashastra Book 1 Chapter 5 (Kautilya is presumed to have lived during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya in 1568 BCE

What is history

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• • • Kalhana’s Rajatarangini ु धमार्थ र्काममोक्षाणामपदेशसमितं । ु ु परावृ ं कथायिमितहासं ूचक्षते ।।
“Dharmaartha-kaama-mokshanaam upadesa-samanvitam | Puraa-vrttam, k h P kathaa-yuktam I hih k Ithihaasam prachakshate ||” h kh

History will be the narration of events as they happened, in the form of a story, which will be an advice to the reader to be followed in life, to gain the purusaarthas namely Kama the satiation of desires through Artha the tool, by following the path of Dharma the human code of conduct to gain Moksha or liberation.

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Mahabharata Adi Parva 1.267,268 • • ु ु े “इितहासपराणाभ्य़ां वॆदो समपिॄंयत ु िबभॆ अौतादं वॆदो मामयं ूहिरित “ the Mahabharata (Adi-Parva1.267,268) and Manu-Samhita state, "One should complement one's understanding of the Vedas i h h h l f h I ih V d with the help of the Itihasas and the Puranas." And d h P "A d elsewhere it is stated, "The Puranas are called by that name because they are complete."

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Why should we take a fresh look at History The state of knowledge in various fields such as Physics, Genetics, biology, chemistry, and forensics, is such that they can now be brought to bear on the questions that arise in the decipherment of history. No longer i one f l is forced t guess, at l t i an i d to t least in increasing i number of cases, the dates when an event took place, as did the colonial overlord
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
Proposed chronology of the Vedics A work in progress

What is the proper sheet anchor to use
 The sheet anchor the Western Indologists use is the ascension to the throne of Chandragupta Maurya  The Indics especially the Mathematicians preferred to use the end of Mahabharata or the death of Sri Krishna as the reference year

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
Proposed chronology of the Vedics p g A work in progress
Event Birth Birth Bi th Birth Birth Lifespan Coronation Coronation Coronation Era Coronation Pancha Siddhanta Reign Birth Writings August 1,2009 Individual Veda Vyaasa Apastambha Date ~3300 BCE 3200 BCE

Baudhayana Aryabhata Gautama Buddha Chandragupta Maurya Asoka Maurya Kanishka Andhra Satavahana Chandragupta of Gupta dynasty VarahaMihira Vikramaditya Brahmagupta Bhaskara IISiddhanta Siromani ©Indic Studies Foundation 2765 BCE 1888-1807 BCE 1554 BCE 1472 BCE 1294-1234 BCE 833 BCE -327 BCE 327 327 BCE 123 BCE 102 BCE to 78 BCE 30 BCE 486 BCE 19

The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Caricaturization of the Indic I • • • • • Religious beliefs of the Indic are the root cause of his misfortunes. The Indic is inherently incapable of adventurous behavior and will not venture beyond the confines of the Indian subcontinent (Kaalapaani y ) syndrome) The Indic is incapable of original, rational and creative ideas. The Indic is incapable of independent thinking aqnd prone to exaggeration and hyperbole and lacks precision The caste system is an artifact of the Indic religious belief system, and that system the Indic is inherently opposed to egalitarian ideas The Indic is especially unique and egregious in the manner in which he exploits his fellow Indics

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Caricaturization of the Indic II • • • • • • The I di i f d Th Indic is fundamentally not tuned to making progress and advancing in t ll tt d t ki d d i i the modern world, and is lost in an ancient mind set Everything good and worthwhile in the Indian subcontinent has been imported by the invaders, and the only indigenous characteristics are those like caste that are inherent to the Indic civilization. The Indic is fatalistic and will not make an effort to change his destiny which is written in stone the moment he is born The Indic is lazy and indolent The Indic has no sense of history and is even poorer at keeping records of his historical past As a consequence of the above the Indic is socially backward, possibly morally corrupt and perennially hence dependent upon Westernization to reform the current problems in Indian society.

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The Indic intellectual tradition The H li Hypothesis and th Th Hegelian H th i d the Greek Obsession

2 Key assumptions in Colonial Paradigm of history
1. Every noteworthy development was made by invaders (Hegelian Hypothesis). The history of India is almost entirely a History of Invasions I i 2. No discovery ought to be credited to the Indics prior to the advent of the Golden age of Greece circa 600 BCE Greece,

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Inconsistencies I
• • • • • • • • • The inherent contradictions of the Aryan Invasion Theory by the mythic and yet to be identified Aryan race. The insistence on clinging to a racial terminology even when it is widely discredited and abandoned elsewhere The insistence that Indic astronomy , geometry and mathematics was not autochthonous to India but was borrowed from the Greek or the Babylonians The origin of the Brahmi script becomes a victim of the ‘anywhere but India’ syndrome Devaluation and denigration of the extent of the ancient Indic contribution to Mathematics and Astronomy Dating of the Mahabharata Dating of the Satapatha Brahmana Dating of the Veda Dating of the Vedanga Jyotisha g g y

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Inconsistencies II
• • • • • • • • Dating of the Sulva sutras i f h l The beginning of the Vikrama era The dating of the Buddha The dating of the Arthashastra The dating of Chandragupta Maurya The dating of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi The dating of Aryabhata Inconsistencies in the chronology of the Indic historical narrative

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Tradition

The Indic i ili ti Th I di civilization unique of great antiquity or a derivative civilization i f t ti it d i ti i ili ti If we do not write our own history somebody else will (they will have no compulsion to be true to our history). They will write it from their perspective an account favorable to their civilization. A History of a civilization is the record of all its experiences, mistakes and successes (the DNA of the civilization). The INDIC SHOULD NEVER ACCEPT AN ACCOUNT OF HIS OWN HISTORY WRITTEN BY THOSE WHO HAVE NO ACCOUNTABLIITY . Nations have gone to war in order to learn from an adversaries history By not insisting on an accurate rendering of his own history the Indic is abdicating his claim to being one of the unique civilizations of the world and as a result will b relegated t th status of a d i ti civilization ill be l t d to the t t f derivative i ili ti

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
It must have been the Aryans !
Eurocentricity (a euphemism for a clearly racist attitude) gave and still gives greater credit to Greece and later to Babylonian mathematics rather than recognize Indic and Vedic mathematics on its own merits . Indics incapable of discovering and utilizing a gamut of mathematical techniques. Ergo, since the Indics were incapable, the discoveries were made by a mythical race from elsewhere – the Aryans. The Circular argument persists to this day – assumptions are treated as facts and any conclusion contradicting the assumption is therefore dismissed summarily as absurd .
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition h I di I ll l di i
Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa pp The problem of Indic chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana Indic approach to creating knowledge –Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage Archaeoaastronomy & Astrochronology The Th concepts of S t f Sunya and I fi it d Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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The Indic intellectual tradition The Problem of Ancient Indic Chronology

Created (for no discernible rationale) by Sir William Jones (1746-1794) He single handedly retrofitted Indic History to fit his own misconceptions Lopped off 1200 years f L d ff from P Puranic Itih i Itihaasa texts t t Mistakenly identified the identity of Sandrocottus, referred by Megasthenes with Chandragupta Maurya. Thus was born the subject of Indology analogous to Entomology, the study of insects There is no need for the Indic to hanker for the approval of those who have do not have the accountability for the accurate History Unlike many who belong to this civilization , I prefer to assume this was Napoleons dictum at work - Attribute not to malice that which can be attributed to Incompetence

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
TimeLine according to MaxMueller[4] MaxMueller[ Chandas Rg Veda Mantras later Vedas Brahmanas Sutras 1200 to 1000 BCE 1000 to 800 BCE 800 to 600 BCE 600 to 200 BCE

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Timeline according to Keith[5] Keith[5 Taittiriya Samhita 500 BCE Baudhayana 400 BCE Ashvalayana 350 BCE Sankhayana 350 BCE Yaska 300 BCE Apastambha 300 BCE Pratisakhya 300 BCE Panini 250 BCE Katyayana 800to 600 BCE 800to

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Why is chronology important
In the past , the Indic has been very cavalier about his chronology Chronology must be internally and externally consistent, Current History is both internally and externally inconsistent A false chronology leads to false conclusions about our history It denies us precedence in mathematical discoveries If chronology is not important why is the occidental so tenacious in denying our antiquity The stigma of being characterized as a derivative civilization The late David Pingree of Brown University was obsessed with denying the ancient Indic the credit for independent discovery in astronomy and mathematics.
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition We have been subjected to an epistemic rupture of the vastest possible scale
• “…it is also a historical fact that Britain thereupon set out to colonize Indian minds no less than Indian space, thereby producing what Sudipta Kaviraj has characterized, without much exaggeration, as ‘‘an epistemic rupture on the vastest possible scale—one of the greatest known in history,’’ whereby Indian forms of thought of great antiquity and complexity were summarily disqualified. ” Sheldon Pollock, Columbia University To the various excesses and grotesqueries that arise from defects of the Indian mind, according to A. A. Macdonell, is to be added the nonexistence of history. ‘‘The total lack of the historical sense is so characteristic, that the whole course of Sanskrit literature is darkened by the shadow of this defect …Early India wrote no history because it never made any’’ (Macdonell 1900, p. 11)..

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The Problem of Chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The S d Darshanas Th Sad D h Indic approach to creating knowledge – Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage Archaeoastronomy & Astrochronology The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The structure of Vedic Literature (continued)
Each Veda consists of Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas - speculation in the solitude of wilderness eventually taking shape as the Upanishads, To these were appended what were later called the Vedangas comprising of Shiksha (phonetics) Sandhi rules Chandas (meter) Nirukta (etymology) Vyakarana (grammar) Jyotisha (astronomy and calendric functions) KalpaSutras(Ritual procedures and the associated mathematics) Note the emphasis on brevity throughout, Sandhi to make the content more compact, phonetics for mnemonic purposes. Panini’s Ashtadhyayi is a tour de force as the worlds oldest Grammar text and Nirukta for associativity in remembering the y g meaning of words
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The Vedic infrastructure - Sruti and Smrti

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The Vedic Infrastructure continued Sutras are the continuedmain mode of transmitting the Oral knowledge

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

The Structure of Indic Literature We can only discuss what survived the millennia of wars and destruction. Literally thousands of manuscripts were destroyed when Ikhtiar Khalji rode into Bihar with a small band of looters around 1200 CE Indic Literature is derived from a Srautic Parampara – an oral tradition, which is one reason that the original language has still survived. Why was it an Oral Parampara ? Hence there is great importance paid to brevity The content needs to be maximized for a given number of syllables hence the need for Sutras
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
A lot of the material has been lost d l t f th t i lh b l t due t d t to destruction and d ti d decay

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The problem of Indic Chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The I di Weltanschauung or D h Th Indic W lt h g Darshana Th S d D h The Sad Darshanas Indic approach to creating knowledge – Vedic episteme or Pramana The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The Astronomical heritage The nature of the mathematics

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The Sad Darshanas Those darshanas that attest to primacy of the Veda are known as Astika, Nyaya Vaiseshika Sankhya Yoga Purva Mimamsa Uttara Mimamsa while those that do not are known as Nastika Buddhism, Jainism Buddhism Jainism, Charvaka & others
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Take Away
Ancient India always had a ‘loyal opposition’ Those who did not believe in the Vedic infrastructure . Such diversity was inherent in the ethos of the Hindu, who has always been comfortable in embracing the consequences of such diversity. This is in marked contrast to the Occident where the edict of exclusive adherence was the norm. Non compliance in the Occident resulted in dire and fatal consequences to the q safety of the individual and the creation of new knowledge We do not need lectures in dealing with diversity, it is part and parcel of our Ethos or Hindutva
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa pp The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas Indic approach to creating knowledge –Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage Archaeoastronomy & Astrochronology The Th concepts of S t f Sunya and I fi it d Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Pramaana – The Vedic Episteme- How do you create Knowledge
The number of Pramaanas in each darshana are preset since the rule cannot be changed once the debate has begun. They consist of a combination of the following, Pratyaksha – perception ूत्यक्ष Anumaana – Inference अनुमान Sabda – Vedic Testimony, शब्द Upamaana – Analogy,उपमान Arthaapatti – Implication अथार्पिक्त Implication,अथापिक्त Anupalabdi – Non apprehension,अनुपलिप्द

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The Vedanga Period
• • • • • • • • • • • • • The V d Th Vedanga (IAST vedāṅga, " vedāṅga, "member of the V d ") dāṅ dā b f h Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics and phonology (sandhi) (śikṣ (sandhi) Chandas (chandas): meter ( ) Pingala g Vyakarana (vyākaraṇa): grammar Panini vyākaraṇ Nirukta (nirukta): etymology (nirukta): Yaska Jyotisha (jyotiṣa): astrology (jyotiṣ Lagadha Kalpa (kalpa): ritual (kalpa): Apastambha, Baudhayana, Katyayana , Manava The Vedangas are first mentioned in the Mundaka Upanishad as topics to be observed by students of the Vedas. Later, they developed into independent disciplines, p each with its own corpus of Sutras.

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 What kinds of knowledge did they develop and who were these individuals  Yajnavalkya who wrote the Shatapatha Brahmana ( as well as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad)in which he describes the motion of the sun and the moon and advances a 95 year cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon d l h i h i f h d h  Lagadha who authored the Jyotisha Vedanga  Baudhayana the author of the Sulvasutra named after him  Apastambha “  Katyayana “  Panini the Grammarian for the Indo Europeans  Pingala Binary System of number representation Aryabhatta the astronomer laureate of ancient India  Varahamihira who synthesized the knowledge  The author of the Jaina treatises the Suryaprajnapati, Chandraprajnapati and the Suryaprajnapati, seventh section of JambudvipaprajnapatiW
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The Major contribution of the Indic to Mathematics j and astronomy •the invention of the decimal place value system and the creation of modern arithmetic; •the invention of the sine and cosine functions leading to the creation of modern trigonometry; •The creation of algebra. • The science of Algorithms – d l i a sequence h i f l ih developing of steps for calculation , that can be replicated by a machine or computer •Ancient Hindus were the master of the infinite series •The science of Observational Astronomy
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
Apastambha Aryabhatta I Aryabhatta II Ashvalayana Baudhayana Bhadrabahu Bhartrihari Bh t ih i Bhaskara I Bhaskara II Bose Brahmadeva Brahmagupta Govindasvami HarishHarish-Chandra Hemchandra Jagannatha Jyesthadeva Kamalakara Katyayana Lagadha Lalla Madhava Mahadeva Bhatta Mahavira Mahendra Suri Manava M Manjulacharya Narayana Pandita Nilakantha Somayaji Panini Paramesvara Patodi Pingala Pillai Pill i Prthudakasvami Puthumana Somayajee Rajagopal Ramanujan Sankara Satananda Sridharacharya Suryaprajnaapati (author unknown) Sripati Varahamihira Vateswaracharya V t h Vijayanandi Virasena Acharya Henry Whitehead Yajnavalkya Yaska Yativrsabha Yatavrisham Acharya Yavanesvara

India has had a tradition of scholarship and knowledge creation throughout the millennia until it was extinguished by the overt acts of British colonial overlord The overlord. major result – literacy in the country plummeted to 6% in 1906 . We have over 150 names in the area of Astronomy and Mathematics. Many more than in the Occident during a comparable period
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
Aryabhata I A(the elder) आयर्भट
Born 2765 BCE (based on modern research) conventional dating (476 - 550 CE)

astronomer mathematician of the ancient world

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

"Aryabhata is the first famous mathematician and astronomer of Ancient India. In his book Aryabhatteeyam, Aryabhata clearly provides his birth date. In the 10th stanza, of the Kalakriya, or the reckoning of time 0 h f h l k i h k i f i he says 60 x 6 = 360 years elapsed in this Kali Yuga, he was 23 years old. The stanza of the sloka starts with “Shastyabdanam Shadbhiryada vyateetastra yascha yuga padah.”“Shastyabdanam Shadbhi” means 60 x 6 = 360. While printing the manuscript, the word “Shadbhi” was altered to “Shasti”, which implies 60 x 60 = 3600 years after Kali Era Era.

Misdating of Aryabhata

षष्टयब्दानाम षिद्भयर्दा व्तीतस्तर् यश्च युगपादाः । ऽयिधका िवंशित रब्दाःत दे वा मम जन्मनो अतीताः ।।

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Aryabhata’s bi th time was fi d as 476 A D A bh t ’ birth ti fixed A.D Since in every genuine manuscript, we find the word “Shadbhi” and not the altered “Shasti”, it is clear that Aryabhata was 23 years old in 360 Kali Era or 2742 B.C. This implies that Aryabhata was born in 337 Kali Era or 2765 B.C. and p y therefore could not have lived around 500 A.D., as manufactured by the Indologists to fit their invented framework. Bhaskara I is the earliest known commentator of Aryabhata’s works. His exact time is not known except that he was in between Aryabhata (2765 B.C.) and Varahamihira (123 B.C.)." .

Misdating of Aryabhata

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Question how many Aryabhata were there Aryabhata I A the elder (referred to as such Al Biruni) who wrote the Aryasidhanta Aryabhata I B of Kusuma Pura (referred to as such by Al Biruni) who wrote AryaBhateeya Aryabhata II (950 CE) See C N Srinivasa Iengar and AlBiruni among others Whatever may be the true date, the currently accepted date of 476 CE is unsustainable f many reasons. C l b bl for Colebrooke places h k l him most l k l in the likely h BCE category

Misdating of Aryabhata

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Aryabhata आयर्भट
Explains the causes of eclipses of the Sun and the Moon. Moon Estimated the length of the year at 365 days 6 hours 12 minutes 30 seconds is remarkably close to the true value which is about 365 days 6 h d hours. book has four chapters: (i) the astronomical constants and the sine table (ii) mathematics required for computations (iii) division of time and rules for computing the longitudes of planets using eccentrics and epicycles (iv) the armillary sphere, computation of eclipses.

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Comparison of The Àryabhatiya of Àryabhata and Astronomic values.

Astronomy Ast onom Constants

AD 2000 0 2000.0

Aryabhatiya A abhati a

1604 BC

Rotations per solar orbit

366.25636031

366.2563589

366.25635656

Days per solar orbit

365.25636031

365.2563589

365.25635656

Days per lunar orbit

27.32166120

27.3216638

27.32166801

Rotations per lunar orbit

27.39646289

27.39646514

27.39646936

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Summary of Aryabhata’s work 2565 BCE (new and consistent chronology)
   Approximation for PI "Āryabhatīya", a tour de force consisting merely of 108 verses Āryabhatīya", developed de elo ed astronomical and mathematical theo ie i which the Earth t o o i l d the ti l theories in hi h E th was taken to be spinning on its axis and the periods of the planets were given with respect to the sun (in other words, it was heliocentric) A calculated the earth’s sidereal period to be 23 hrs 56 m 4.1 s. (23.9344725428 h) remarkably close to the accurate value of 23 h 56 m 4.091 s Laid the foundation for a mathematical infrastructure to solve future problems in the field of Astronomy including Trigonometry believed that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight and he believes that the orbits of the planets are ellipses. ellipses.

 

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Panini पािणिन
Based on new research 3100 BCE conventional date (520 BCE - 460BCE) Probably the single most influential individual in the linguistic and symbolic mathematical development of India. The worlds first Grammarian the worlds first developer of Linguistics as a science codified rules of Sanskrit grammar first suggested alphameric symbols for numbers Postulated use of zero and place value system ???

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Sage Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) (c. 2000 BCE to 1200BCE) of Mithila advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of y y y the sun and the moon. credited with the authorship of the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which references to the motions of the sun and the moon are found. 1800 BC is sometimes suggested by the astronomical evidence within the Shatapatha Brahmana, while some Western scholars dispute his historicity. major figure in the Upanishads. His deep p j g p p philosophical p teachings in the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, and the apophatic teaching of 'neti neti' etc. is found to be startlingly similar to the Buddhist doctrine and to modern science.

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the conventional date for B'hari is at least a half a century later , but if he is a brother of the famous Vikramaditya, it does not compute Bhartrihari is the odd man out in India's anthology of the ancients. First of, how does one categorize him. Is he more important for his philosophical writings, or for being the first ancient to study Linguistics after Panini or was he best known for being a well known member of one of the most illustrious ruling dynasties of India. Here are 2 curriculum vitae until we have time to digest all that he has produced Author of Vaakyapaadiya, Traya-Satakam y p y , y http://www.urday.com/bharatri.htm http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/bhartrihari.htm

Bhartrihari Bhartrihari (c.100 BCE?)

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What the rest of the world said about Indic contributions
The historian Florian Cajori, one of the most celebrated historians of mathematics in the early 20th century, suggested that "Diophantus, the father of Greek algebra, got the first algebraic knowledge from India " This theory India. is supported by evidence of continuous contact between India and the Hellenistic world from the late 4th century BC, and earlier evidence that the eminent Greek mathematician Pythagoras visited India, which further India 'throws open' the Eurocentric ideal.

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Saad al-Andalusi,
t e st sto a o Sc e ce the first historian of Science who in 1068 wrote Kitab Tabaqut o 068 ote tab abaqut al-Umam in Arabic (Book of Categories of Nations) . A native of Andalusia in Moorish Spain (7000 miles away) Translated into English by Alok Kumar in 1992 To their credit, the Indians have made great strides in the study of numbers (3) and of geometry. They have acquired immense information and reached the zenith in their knowledge of the movements of the stars g (astronomy) and the secrets of the skies (astrology) as well as other mathematical studies. After all that, they have surpassed all the other peoples in their knowledge of medical science and the strengths of various drugs, g g , the characteristics of compounds and the peculiarities of substances.
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Our journey today will take us to j y y The Indian approach to Itihaasa The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas Indic approach to creating knowledge –Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage Archaeoastronomy & A t h A h t Astrochronology l The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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The Celestial Timekeepers Th C l i l Ti k Or How to design a calendar By Observing the Sun and the Moon

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There are basically 3 kinds of calendars in the world 1. 1 Lunar Calendar keeps track of the phases of the moon 2. Solar Calendar keeps track of the seasons of the year 3. Luni Solar Calendar –attempts to do both Other ways of classifying calendars Arithmetical Metonic Intercalation Astronomical Use astronomical phenomena to determine intercalation

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Definitions (see figure)  Ecliptic –comes from the word Eclipse
the great circle on the celestial sphere that lies in the plane of the earth's orbit (called the plane of the ecliptic). Because of the earth's yearly revolution around the sun, the sun appears to move in an annual journey through the heavens with the ecliptic as its path path.

 Celestial sphere or armillary
to turn as the earth rotates

imaginary sphere enveloping the earth appears

 Celestial equator  equinox (ē´kwĬnŏks) , क्तांतीोुत्त (Kranthivruth)

 equatorial coordinate system  Line of Declination  Line of right ascension

 Periodicity of the saptarishi or Great Bear constellation or the Ursa Major

either of two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic and the celestial equator intersect.

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The Celestial sphere
Known also as the Armillary K l th A ill sphere or Gola in Sanskrit) Showing the ecliptic and its inclination to the celestial equator and is the inclination of the earths axis to the axis perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic About 23.5 degrees g

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The Armillary or Celestial sphere (Gola)

depicts the way the ancients saw the universe, as they gazed at the sky. Armillary spheres have concentric rings to indicate planetary orbits, the zodiac band of constellations, and terrestrial and celestial measurement circles such as the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and the equator. Sometimes they are mounted with an Orrery inside. Sometimes they are mounted as garden sundials. A Ptolemaic armillary sphere has an earth globe at the center, surrounded by celestial circle and zodiac armillary rings, demonstrating the geocentric theory of the universe developed by Ptolemy and others in ancient Greece and Rome The latest view is that Rome. Ptolemy was certainly not the first or the only one to develop a calculation algorithm based on a geocentric model. The Indics were already there, no pun intended, as were probably the Chinese

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Different Coordinate systems in use

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UTC date and time of solstices and equinoxes[1] year Vernal equinox Mar day 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 20 21 20 20 20 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 time 19:16 01:00 06:49 12:33 18:26 00:07 05:48 11:44 17:32 23:21 05:14 11:02 16:57 Solstice June da y 21 21 21 21 21 21 20 21 21 21 20 21 21 time 13:24 19:10 00:57 06:46 12:26 18:06 23:59 05:45 11:28 17:16 23:09 05:04 10:51 Autumnal Equinox Sept day 23 23 22 22 23 23 22 22 23 23 22 22 23 time 04:55 10:47 16:30 22:23 04:03 09:51 15:44 21:18 03:09 09:04 14:49 20:44 02:29 Solstice Dec day 22 22 21 21 22 22 21 21 21 22 21 21 21 time 01:14 07:04 12:42 18:35 00:22 06:08 12:04 17:47 23:38 05:30 11:11 17:11 23:03

This table gives the date and time of the solstices and equinoxes for a few of the years from the present. Note the durations of the seasons are not equal and neither should we expect them to be , because of variation of the Earths velocity, as enunciated in Keplers laws

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Effects of the tilt of the earth’s axis of rotation earth s to the orbital plane

Results in seasons (Fall , winter, spring and summer) see figure gy p g As a result of gyroscopic forces arising out of the tilt, the earths rotation about its own axis, and the rotation around the sun in the orbital plane, there is a precession of the axis, which causes the axis to point towards a perceptibly different direction every thousand years. This also results in the precession of the Vernal and Autumnal Equinox, another manifestation of the precession of the axis.

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Effects of the tilt of the earth’s axis of rotation to the orbital plane Precessional wobble affecting the location of polestar

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Effects of the tilt of the earth’s axis of rotation earth s to the orbital plane Precession of the equinoxes

पू.भा

3092 1837 477 CE CE CE
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401 1623 2221 3247 3835 BCE BCE BCE BCE BCE
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition The results of Precession

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition Did the Vedics know about precession

Alpha Draconis was the pole star 4000 years ago – described in RG 10.82.2 as being very near to Ursa Major – Jacobi calculates g y j 2780 BCE as the probable date of the verses\ The first point of Aries has moved due to precession The chasing of Rohini by Prajapati ( g y j p (tenth Mandala) )

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The difference between the sidereal day and the solar day from Wikipedia. Wikipedia For the same reason the sidereal year is longer than the solar or tropical year by about 20 minutes. We will come back to this when we discuss the precession of the equinoxes

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Values for the Lunar sidereal orbit and the Lunar Synodic orbit are given in Table below

COMPARISONS

Lunar sidereal orbit

Lunar synodic orbit

AD 2000.0 AD 498 Àryabhata Paulisa Siddhanta

27.32166156 27.3216638 27.321668 27.321673

29.53058888 29.530591 29.530582 29.530587

1604 BC

27.321668

29.530595

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Some more definitions
Sidereal Year Ysd = 365.256363634259 (2007 CE) days Solar or tropical Year Y = 365.2421988 (2007 CE) M = 29.530587946 days

Synodic Month

Sidereal Month Msd = 27.32166156 days Sidereal Day = 23 hrs 56 mts 4 091 sec = 86 164 091 seconds 4.091 86,164.091 Civil or Solar Day = 24 hours = 86,400 seconds Metonic cycle 19 tropical years is 234.997 synodic months, which is very close to an integer. So every 19 years the phases of the moon fall on the same dates (if it were not for the skewness introduced by leap y y p years). 19 years is therefore called ) y a Metonic cycle (after Meton, an astronomer from Athens in the 5th century B.C.E.). Yajnavalkya cycle advances a 95 year cycle to synchronize the moon and the sun, which is of course a multiple of the Metonic cycle. The Vedics because of their superiority in Algebraic notation and the number system had the more accurate measurements August 1,2009 ©Indic Studies Foundation 76

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Calendar and Tithi
The Indian Almanac or Panchangam( 5 limbs) has 5 concepts imbedded within it. Five items are named for each day of the week (vara), the tithi, the Nakshatra, the Karana , and the Yoga at sunrise and sunset. The Indian calendar uses lunisolar sunset parameters. The month that is used is a Synodic month, and such a month has a period of 29.5306 days (the 24 hour day or solar day)and the year used is a sidereal year (365.2563604) days The lunar day begins at sunrise and the length of the lunar day is determined by the length of time between sunrises –defined as the angular distance between the sun and the moon (12 degrees) The Th waxing and waning phases are known as Shukla and Krishna Pakshas and i d i h k Sh kl dK i h P k h d each comprise 15 days

The lunar date is referred to as the Tithi.

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ASTRONOMIC AUTHORITY Years in Cycle Rotations of the earth Days Lunar Orbits Àryabhata (from Clarke and Kay) 4,320,000 1,582,237,500 1,577,917,500 57,753,336 Surya Siddanta 4,320,000 1,582,237,828 1,577,917,828 57,753,336

Kay notes 57,753,339 lunar orbits rather than 57,753,336 per Clarke. Synodic Months Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn August 1,2009 53,433,336 17,937,920 17 937 920 7,022,388 2,296,824 364,224 146,564 ©Indic Studies Foundation 53,433,336 17,937,060 17 937 060 7,022,376 2,296,832 364,220 146,568 78

The Indic Intellectual Tradition Comparison of Astronomical constants
ASTRONOMIC QUANTITY Years in Cycle ,MY Rotations,R Days in a MY, DMY=R-MY Mean Rotations of the earth in a SiYr R/MY=1 +DSiYr Lunar Orbits one MY,LO Àryabhata (from Clarke and Kay) 4,320,000 1,582,237,500 1,577,917,500 366.2586805556 366 2586805556 Surya Siddanta 4,320,000 1,582,237,828 1,577,917,828 366.2587564815 366 2587564815 366.2587565 366 2587565 2007 4,320,000

57,753,336

57,753,336

Days in a Sidereal month,DSiM = 1577917500/57753336 = 27.32166848 Kaye notes 57,753,339 lunar orbits rather than 57,753,336 per Clarke. Synodic Months MSyn in a MY= 53,433,336 LO-MY 53,433,336

Days in a synodic month DSynM = 1,577,917,500/53,433,336=29.53058181 days=DMY/MSyn

The Indic Intellectual Tradition Comparison of Astronomical constants
ASTRONOMIC QUANTITY Mercury orbits in 1 MY Àryabhata (from Clarke and Kay) 17,937,920 Surya Siddanta 17,937,060 88.21054443 7,022,376 7 022 376 225.313744 2,296,832 688.8783455 688 8783455 1.880851538 2007 17,937,033.867 87.969 7,022,260.402 7 022 260 402 224.7 2,296,876.453 686.2 686 2 1.88

Orbital Period of Mercury in 88.20631534 sidereal days Venus O bit in 1 MY V Orbits i 7,022,388 7 022 388 Orbital Period of Venus (days) 225.3133589 Mars Orbits in 1 MY Orbital Period of Mars days Years Jupiter Orbits in 1 MY Orbital Period of Jupiter, Jupiter Years Saturn Orbits in 1 MY Orbital period of Saturn, Years 2,296,824 688.8807449 688 8807449 1.880858089 364,224 11.86083289 11 86083289 years 146,564 29.47517808 years

364,220 364,195.066 11.86096315 11 86096315 years 11 86 years 11.86 146,568 146,562.19 29.47598253 years 29.46 years

The Indic Intellectual Tradition
English calendar weekdays
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Indian calendar weekdays
Raviwar Somwar (Chandrawar) Mangalwar Budhwar Guruwar Shukrawar Shaniwar

Chaitra Vaishakh Jeshta Ashadh Shrawan(Sawan) Bhadrapad(Bhado) Bh d d(Bh d ) Ashwin Kartik Margshirsh Paush Falgoon (Fagan)

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Zodiac sign
Aries Taurus T Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius g Capricorn Aquarius Pisces

Sanskrit Name
Mesha Vrishabha V i h bh Mithuna Karka Simha Kanya Tula Vrishchika Dhanus Makara Kumbha Meena

Sector begin
00 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330

Sector end
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

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Precession Equation 50".29 + 2".22 T where T = Number of centuries from AD 2000

Ayanamsa and Precession The Th ayanamsa i d fi d as the angle b which the sidereal ecliptic l is defined h l by hi h h id l li i longitude of a i d f celestial body is less than its tropical ecliptic longitude. The ayanamsa is mostly assumed to be close to be 24° today, according to N. C. Lahiri 23.85° as of 2000. This value would correspond to a coincidence of the sidereal with the tropical p p zodiac in or near the year 293 CE, roughly compatible with the assumption that the tradition of the tropical zodiac as current in Western astrology was fixed by Ptolemy in the 3rd century. The sidereal ecliptic longitude of a celestial body is its longitude on the ecliptic defined with respect to the "fixed" stars. The tropical ecliptic longitude of a celestial body is its longitude on the ecliptic defined with respect to the vernal equinox point.
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Ahargana (the equivalent is the Julian day number} ( q y } Ahargana, is the number of civil days from a certain epoch to another date, and is an important quantity in Hindu astronomy because the knowledge of ahargana on that date and the knowledge of the mean position of the planets at the time of the epoch, from which the ahargana has been calculated, enable the astronomer to find the mean position of the planet on the later date. All astronomers have given g g various methods of calculating the ahargana. Vateshvara has devoted a whole chapter to this subject.
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Names of the Months Month Name Devanagari (Maas) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 caitra vai¾¡kha jyai½¿ha ¡¾¡¢ha sr¡va³a ¡ bh¡drapada ¡¾vina k¡rtika m¡rga¾§r½a agrah¡ya³a pau½a m¡gha ph¡lguna च ैऽ वैशाख  ै आशाढ भािपद

Month day 1 (Gregorian) March 22 April 21 May 22 June 22 July J l 23 August 23 September 23 October 23 November 22 December 22 January 21 February 20

Number of days 30 31 31 31 31 31 30 30 30 30 30 30

Season Ritu Vasanta Grishma Grishma Varshaa Varshaa V h Sharat Sharat Hemanta Hemanta Sisir Sisir Vasanta

ॐावण

आिन र् मागर्शीषर्र् अमहायण पौष माघ काितर्क

ु फान

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1.Aswini , α,β Arietis, 15.Swati , αBootes, Arcturus

The Nakshatras, the concordance with theZodiac is shown in the next slide

2.Apabharani , δArietis , Botein 3.Krittika ,η,π Taurii, Pleiades, Alcyone 4.Rohini, αTauri, Aldebaran 5.Mrigasirsha , β Taurii 6.Ardhra α Orionis, Betelgeuse 7. Punarvasu βGeminorium, Pollux 8.Tisya Or Pusya , δCancri 9.Aslesha , αCancri 1,2 10.Magha αLeonis. 10 Magha , αLeonis Regulus 11.Purva Phalguni , δLeonis 12.Uttara Phalguni , βLeonis,Denebola 13.Hasta , δ Corvi 14.Chitra ,αVirginis, Spica

16.Visakha, α, χLibrae 17.Anuradha, δ Scorpii 18.Jyeshta ,α Scorpii 19.Mula ,λScorpii 20.Purva Ashadha ,δ Sagittarii 21.Uttarashadha,τ Sagittarii 22.Sravana , αAquilae 23.Dhanishta 23 Dhanishta , αDelphini 24.Satabhisaj ,λ Aquarii 25.Bhadrapada ,α Pegasi, Markab 26.Uttara Bhadrapada, α Andromeda 27.Revathi , η Piscium 87

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1

27

25 The Indic Intellectual Tradition XII 4 I 24 XI II 23 6 III Cancerकक र् 21 IV 8 IX 20 19 9 10 The Solar and Sidereal Zodiac or the Nakshatras V VIII 11 12 13 14 VI VII 16 15 17 18 X 22 Note that the Sidereal Zodiac represented by integer g numbers is rotating anticlockwise relative to the Solar Zodiac at the rate of 1 degree every 72 years and will move 30 degrees every 2160 years 5

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Western zodiac Taurus, Bull Gemini, Twins Cancer, Crab Leo,Lion Virgo, Virgin Libra, Balance Scorpius, Scorpion Sagittarius, Archer Capricornus,Goath Capricornus Goath orn Aquarius,Waterpou rer Pisces,fish , Aries, ram
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Name of Indian zodiac Vrushabha Mithuna h Karka (greek Karkinos) Simha Kanya Tula Vrushchik Dhanu Makara Kumbha Meena Mesha

Name of lunar month jyai½¿ha ¡¾¡¢ha ¾ sr¡va³a bh¡drapada ¡¾vina k¡rtika m¡rga¾§r½a,agrah¡ya³a pau½a m¡gha ph¡lguna caitra vai¾¡kha

Position in Zodiac(figure 10) I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
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When was the conception of the present Yuga system p p g y
• It is the conventional wisdom as mentioned in the history of astronomy by SN Sen and KS Shukla that the system of 4 Yugas and the total period of 4,320,000 years was set up by Aryabhata and or Brahmagupta. But it is safe to say that by the time Arybahata came along these Mahayuga periods were well ensconsed, because Aryabhata proposes rationalizing them • First we need to understand whether the Yuga system is of Pauranik Origin (Markandeya Purana, Vayu Puraana, Matsya Purana) or is it of Siddhantic Origin. • The great age or kalpa of Brahma 4,320,000 can be traced to the Satapatha Brahmana (LCM includes the great precession cycle of circa 25877 years) • Then there is the question of the proper interpretation of the Divyabda =360 civil years • Precession is ascribed to Hipparchos 125 BCE, but the Hindus and the Babylonian Kidinnu ( Chaldeans)may have had a good idea as well as q quantitative measurements far earlier
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A Day in Brahma’s Life 0f 1 Kalpa
1 Brahma Day (day and night) = 2 Kalpa B h D (d d i ht) K l 1 Kalpa = 4,320,000,000 earthly years (Y) =14 Manus + 1Kritayuga = 1000 MY =14*71.4+.4 Mahayugas Kaliyuga = 432,000 Y = 1KY = 1200 divine years (DY) = 1 Yuga 1 DY = 360 Y Dwapara = 864,000 Y = 2KY = 2400 DY TretaYuga = 1,296,000 Y = 3KY = 3600 DY Kritayuga = 1,728,000 Y =4 KY = 4800 DY = 0.4 MY =.4/71.4 = 5.6022408964e-3 Mahayuga (MY) = 4,320,000 earthly years = 10 KY = 12000 DY 1Manvantra (M) = 71 MY = 306.72 million years Delay in creation = 47,400 divyabdas = 47400*360 = 1,706,4000 civil years 1 Manu = 1M + 1 K it Y M KritaYuga = 308 448 million years = 856,800 DY 308.448 illi 856 800 1 Kalpa = 14 Manus + 1KritaYuga = 14*71.4 +.4 = 1000 MY = 12,000,000 DY = 4.32 billion years Y = solar or tropical year DY = 360 Y = divine year (Divyabda) KY = 432,000 = Kaliyuga MY = 10 KY = Mahayuga

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How old is the universe

As of Vaisakhapratipada of 2009 CE, May 1 we are in the second quarter of Brahma day (िद्वितय पराथर् ) called Sh B h d ), ll d Shweta V h Kalpa, seventh Varaha K l h Manavantaras named Vaivasvata and entered into the first quarter of the 28th Kaliyuga. Already 5110 years of this 28th KY have passed. so the time elapsed in this Kalpa is 6 Manus =1,850,688,000 Y = [6 (306,420,000+1,728,000)] [6*(306 420 000+1 728 000)] = 6 Manus (includes 6 Jala pralayas or sandhis, periods between Manavantaras) And 27 MY = 116,640,000 Y (27 * 4,320,000)=27/71.4M = 0.3781512605 M Add 1 Jala Pralaya(depending on origin of cycle) = 1,728,000 Y And 28th (Krta+Treta +Dwapara) = 3,888,000 Y (9*432,000) =0.9 MY =.9/71.4 = 0.012605042M 5110 Y of Kaliyuga = 5110 Y = 5110/4,320,000 MY = 1.1828703704 (10*-3) (10* 3) MY the current year 2009 CE = 1,850,688,000 + 116,640,00 +1,728,000 + 3,888,000 + 5110 = 1 ,972,949,110 Y or Solar years or 1.972949110 Billion years = 426 27 ( 4*7) + .9 +.001182703704 = 456.701182703704 M h Y 426+27+(.4*7) 9 001182703704 456 701182703704 MahaYugas
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Babylonian Astronomy - A very brief TimeLine Reign of Hammurabi Enuma Elish 1700 BCE Observation of Venus Ob i fV Kassite Dynasty 1500 – 1200 BCE Enuma Anu Enlil Nabunassar - record of eclipses 800 BCE Ashur bani Pal , the Assyrians 700 BCE Mulapin Assyrians, Chaldean Dynasty 600 BCE astronomical diaries Equal Sign Zodiac – regularization of calendar Persian Rule Seleucid dynasty (after Alexander) Planetary theory

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History of the Babylonians and the region of Babylonia (Babylon) Chronology And History is not adequate to fill in the gaps
An essential condition for adequate knowledge of an ancient people is the possession of a continuous historical tradition in the form of oral or written records This however in spite of the mass of contemporaneous records. This, however, documents of almost every sort, which the spade of the excavator has unearthed and the skill of the scholar deciphered, is not available for scientific study of Babylonian or Assyrian antiquity. From the far-off morning of the beginnings of the two peoples to their fall, no historians appeared to gather up the memorials of their past, to narrate and preserve the annals of these empires, to hand down their achievements to later days.

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The Kassites The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern tribe who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC (short chronology). They could have been the last migration out of India following the dessication of the Saraswati river. They had the longest dynasty , ruling for over 500 years contemporaneous with Asoka in India. It Is years, India possible they transmitted the Astronomical Knowledge from India. But this is to be treated as an assumption

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Greek Astronomy - A very brief TimeLine Hesiod 700 BCE Meton and Euctemon Parapegma 450 BCE Eudoxus (first planetary theory Hipparchus (solar and lunar heories) credited with discovery of Precession 150 BCE Ptolemy (Planetary theory) Pappus (commentary on Ptolemy) Theon of Alexandria, father of Hypatea (300 CE) Alexandria

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Babylonian Astronomy, Chaldeans, Kidinnu

Tablet with a list of eclipses between 518 and 465 BCE, mentioning the death of king Xerxes (British Museum) Kidinnu or Cidenas: famous Babylonian astronomer (fourth century BCE?), one of the most important persons in the history of science. The Greek geographer Strabo of Amasia (64 BCE c 23 CE) gives BCE-c.23 a description of the life of the Babylonian astronomers, whom he calls the Chaldeans.
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Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The problem of Indian Chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas Indic approach to creating knowledge –Vedic episteme or Pramana Vedic The Astronomical heritage ArchaeoAstronomy & Astrochronology The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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ArchaeoAstronomy & Astrochronology Use of Multiple disciplines ArchaeoAstronomy is the study of Archaeological artifacts to see y y g whether their Architecture reveals their age .e.g. in Angor Vat there is a particular alignment of the Suns shadow during the Vernal Equinox. There are many other examples in the world of such structures,including the pyramids, the Stonehenge etc. Astro-chronology is the retrodiction of astronomical observations during d i specific events using Pl ifi t i Planetarium software. W will show t i ft We ill h several examples of this.

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These correspondences are current. Correspondences at the time of Al Biruni will differ by about 14 degrees , (2009 – 1030)/71.3 = 13.7 degrees, due to precession of the equinoxes
Western Zodiac name Number Sidereal Sanskrit Deity Sector in deg,min Sidereal longitude Position of Meaning Yogatara in the lune of the nakshatra +0 29 + 0 19 9 28 5 54 5 23 -1 87 9 20 11 31 4 04 5 58 4 03 1 02 6 16 A Horse’s head Yoni or Bhaga Razor A wheel carriage The head of an antelope A gem A house h An arrow A wheel Another house A bedstead Another bed stead A hand 100

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

α Arietis, Hamal δ Arietis, Βοtein η Tauri, Alcyone α Tauri, Aldebaran 112 , Beta Tauri, ElNath α Orionis, Betelgeuse βG i i Geminorium, P ll Pollux δ Cancri, Assellus Australis ζ Ηydrae, 16 HYA α Leonis δ Leonis β Leonis γ Virginis, Prorima August 1,2009

Aswini (Asvayjau) Asvinau ApaBharani Krittika Rohini Mrigasirsha Ardhra Punarvasu P Pushya Aslesha Magha Purva Phalguni Uttara Phalguni g Hasta Yama Agni Prajapati Soma Rudra Aditi Adi i Brihaspati Sarpah Pitarah Aryaman (Bhaga) Bhaga g (Aryaman) Savitar

00 00 13 20 13 20 26 40 26 40 40 00 40 00 53 20 53 20 66 40 66 40 80 00 80 00 93 20 93 20 106 40 106 40 120 00 120 00 133 20 133 20 146 40 146 40 160 00 160 00 173 20

13 49 26 59 36 08 45 54 58 43 64.53 89 20 104 51 110 44 125 58 137 23 147 42 166 16

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αVirginis(spica)

Chitra

Indra (Tvastr)

173 20 186 40

179 59

6 39

A pearl

15. 16. 17.

π Hydrae β Librae, Zubeneschamali δ Scorpi,Dschubb

Svati Vishaka Anuradha

Vayu Indragni Mitra

186 40 200 00 200 00 213 20 213 20 226 40 226 40 240 00 240 00 253 20 253 20 266 40 266 40 280 00 280 00 293 20 293 20 306 40 306 40 320 00 320 00 333 20

194 48 205 29 218 42

8 48 5 29 5 22

A piece of Coral A festoon of leaves An oblation to the Gods

18. 19. 20. 21.

α Scorpi, Antares λ Scorpi, Shaula h l δ Sagittari. Kaus Media τ Sagittari . 40

Jyeshta Moola l Poorvashada Uttarashada

Indra (Varuna) Pitarah h Aapah Visvedevah

225 54 240 43 250 43 260 58

-0 46 0 43 -2 37 -5 42

A rich ear ring The tailof a f h l f fierce l lion A couch The tooth of a wanton elephant, The three footed step of vishnu A tabor t b A circular jewel Aa two faced image Another couch

22.

β Capricornus, Dabih δ capricornus, i Deneb algeidi λ Aquar,Hydor

Sravana

Visnu

280 11

0 11

23. 23 24. 25. 26.

Dhanishta Dh i ht (Sravistha) Satabhishaj

Vasavah V h Varuna Aja Ekapad

299 40 317 42 329 42

6 24 11 02 9 42

α Pegasi,Markab Poorvabhadrapad a (prosthapada) α Andromeda

27. η August 1,2009Piscium,Kullat Nunu

Uttarabhadrapad Ahirbudhya 333 20 (Uttara 346 40 Revathi ©Indic Studies Foundation Pusan 346 40 360 00

02 58

+2 58

A small sort 101 of tabor

The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Assumptions
Rate f Precession 956 years per naksatra (13 333 d R t of P i k t (13.333 degrees), ) Mean value of 25,812 years per revolution or 71.7 years per degree , 6453 years to precess from equinox to solstice or vice versa Currently , the equinoxes and solstices occur in the following nakshatra. These numbers may not be the most accurate , however , since the y Great cycle of Precession of 25812 years has been chosen to be the nearest integer that is commensurate with 27*4 (1^1 * 2^2 *3^3), i.e. is divisible by 27 and 4.This approximation allows us to deal consistently with integers in the table, the resulting percentage error is a very small number for the 25,812 years we consider. Vernal Equinox - Revathi or ζ Piscium 2156 CE Summer Solstice - Punarvasu β Gemin orium, 1917 CE Autumnal Equinox – Chitra, Spica, 1678 CE Winter Solstice – Purva Ashadha, delta sagittarii, 2395 CE. The next 2 tables give the retrodicted values of the 4 events in the year namely WS, VE, SS, AE for all 27 Nakshatras. We shall call this table the Retrodicted Nakshatra Event Table (RNET). The actual a ssumptions made by the Voyager program are far more accurate and this is just a simplified snapshot summarized for brevity.
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Nr 1

Nakshatra Aswini

Western Zodiac name α ,β Arietis

Winter solstice Feb 11, 7313 BCE, Dec 3, 18310 CE(25,623)

Vernal Equinox

Summer solstice

Autumnal equinox September 9, 11693CE Dec 26,14244 BCE (25937)

March 25,401 BCE, November 5, 20362 Feb 19,25098 CE BCE (25499) June 17, 5721 CE (26,083) April 4,1623 BCE April 8,2220 BCE,Feb 22,23291 ( ) CE(25511) April, 16,3247 BCE April 21, 3835 BCE April 30,5011 BCE May 7, 6048 BCE

2 3

Apabharani Krittika

δ Arietis, Musca η,π,Tauri,Pleiades, ,feb 22, 8947 BCE Alcyone 27 or 28 16738 CE, Dec 5 ( (25686) ) Tauri α Tauri, Aldebaran 112 β Taurii, El Nath N th α Orionis Betelgeuse β Geminorium, Pοllux δ Cancri Feb 28, 9654 BCE Dec 7, 15150 CE Mar 6, M 6 10608 BCE March 9,11038 BCE Dec 8,14739 CE Dec 10,13008 CE Dec 11,11936 CE

June 19,4786 CE November, 21891 15622 BCE BCE,June 19,4139 CE 10308 CE, (25928) p September 13 (26030) June 20,3442 CE June 21, 2531 CE June 20,2089 CE June 21,332 CE Sep 13,9904 CE SEP 14,8696 CE September 15,8911 CE September 18, 6517 CE September 19,5631 CE Sep 20, 5443 CE September 21,4132 CE September 21,2880 CE September 23, 2212 CE September 16,1185 CE 103

4 5 6 7 8

Rohini Mrigasirsha, (Jacobi Ardhrã Punarvasu Tisya or Pusya (Pargiter, Siddharth) Aslesha Magha Purva Phalguni Uttara Phalguni, Jacobi Hasta August 1,2009

May 17, 7414 JUNE 30, 790 BCE BCE(Sidharth p.73) May 20, 7953 BCE May 27, 8953 BCE July 3, 1149 BCE July 13 2324 BCE

9 10 11 12 13

α Cancri 1,2 α Leonis,Regulus δ Leonis β Leonis

Dec 13,11543 CE Dec 13,10465 CE Dec 15,9648 CE Dec 16, 8933 CE

May 30, 9306 BCE July 19, 3151 BCE July 24, 3903 BCE (Jacobi)Tilak Aug 2, 5271 BCE

June 4, 10131 BCE Γ Virginis. Porrima Dec 18, 7647 CE June 15, 11814 BCE ©Indic Studies Foundation

(1) 14 15 Chiträ Sväti α Virginis, Spica Pi Hydrae

WS Dec 20,6690 CE Dec 20 , 5654 CE

VE Jun 21,12973 BCE Mar 15, 11534 CE

SS Aug 8, 6284 BCE June 6, 18243 CE June 1,738 bce9 BCE (25632) Aug 20,8147 BCE

AE September 22, 349 CE Sep 28, 370 BCE

16 17 18 19

Visãkhã Anurãdhã Jyeshta Mula

β Librae. δ Scorpi , Jacobi α Scorpi, Antares λ Scorpi

Dec 20,4888 CE Dec 22, 3955 CE Dec 22, 3443 CE 12/22/2387CE

Mar 15,11409 CE Mar 16,10190 August 26, 9135 CE BCE July 11, 16303BCE August 29, 9667 BCE Mar18,8299 CE Sep 5,10766 BCE

October 8, 1847 BCE October 12, 2476 BCE October 14, 2921 BCE October 20, 3702 BCE ( (Jacobi) bi)

20 21 22 23 24 25

Pürvä Asãdhã Uttara AsädhA Sravana Dhanisthã(Sravishta) (1) Satabhisaj Purva Bhadrapada( Jacobi) Uttara Bhadrapadã Revathi

δ Sagittari τ Sagittari β Capricornus ,Dabih Δcapricornus Deneb al Geidi λ Aquarii α Pegasi (Markab) αΑndromeda (Alpharetz) η Piscium

12/21/1671 CE 12/16/935 CE 12/25/453 BCE Ja n 5 , 1861 BCE Jan 14, 3181 BCE 01/19/4072 BCE (Jacobi)

Mar 18,7828 CE July 24 18805 BCE Mar 19,6111 CE

October 27, 4682 BCE Sep 13,12236 BCE Oct 31 5484 BCE Jun 11,12268 CE Nov 10, 7228 BCE Nov 18, 8419 BCE Nov 26, 9604 BCE Dec 7,11412 BCE

Sep 9,11489 BCE

Mar 19 4512 CE Jun 24, 10903 CE 03/21/3303 CE 03/20/3092 CE Jun 28,10234 CE 06/16/8836 CE

26 27

01/30/5616 BCE

03/20/1837CE

06/16/7377 CE 06/16/6483 CE

Dec 19 13187 BCE 19, 09/09/12585 CE 12/19/13304 BCE 104

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12/1/19075 CE, 03/21/238 CE 02/05/6507 BCE ©Indic Studies Foundation

The Indic Intellectual Tradition Events described in the Samhitas, Aranyakas, Puranas, Brahmanas, Kalpa Sutras that lend themselves to Astro-chronological verification

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition Events described in the Samhitas, Aranyakas, Puranas, Brahmanas, Kalpa Sutras that lend themselves to Astro-chronological verification
-10,000 BCE Taittiriya Brahmana 3.1.2 refers to Purvabhadrapada nakshatra’s rising due east, a phenomenon
occurring at this date (Dr. B.G. Siddharth of the Birla Science Institute), indicating earliest known dating of the sacred Veda. - 8948 BCE Taittiriya Samhita 6.5.3 places Pleiades asterism (Krittika) at winter solstice, suggesting the antiquity of this Veda. -5776 BCE Start of Hindu king’s lists according to Greek references that give Hindus 150 kings and a history of 6,400 years before 300 BCE; agrees with next entry. -6000 BCE Rig Veda verses (e.g., 1.117.22, 1.116.12, 1.84.13.5) say winter solstice begins in Aries (according to D. Frawley), giving antiquity of this section of the Vedas. -5500 BCE Date of astrological observations associated with ancient events later mentioned in the Puranas (Alain Danielou). -4000 BCE Jacobi and Tilak, independently come up with the same answer for the age of certain mandalas of the Rg -3928 July 25th BCE: the earliest eclipse mentioned in the Rig Veda (according to Indian researcher Dr. Sri P.C. Sengupta). -4000 BCE – Origin of Luni Solar Calendar

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition Events described in the Samhitas, Aranyakas, Puranas, Brahmanas, Kalpa Sutras that lend themselves to Astro-chronological verification
-3200 BCE In India, a special guild of Hindu astronomers (nakshatra darshas) record in Vedic texts citations of full and new moon at winter and summer solstices and spring and fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly equally on the moon’s ecliptic (visual path across the sky). The precession of the equinoxes (caused by the mutation of the Earth s axis of Earth’s rotation) makes the nakshatras appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a 25,800-year cycle. Such observations enable specialists to calculate backwards to determine the date the indicated position of moon, sun and nakshatra occurred.

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“-10,000

The Indic Intellectual Tradition
References in the Veda – Samhita, Brahmana, the Aranyaka and the Upanishad (2)

-3139 BCE Reference to vernal equinox in Rohini (middle of Taurus) from some Brahmanas, as noted by B.G. Tilak, Indian scholar and patriot. Now preferred date of Mahabharata war and life of Lord Krishna - 222 BCE Reference to vernal equinox i Krittika ( l i d or early Taurus) f 2221 C f l i in i ik (Pleiades l ) from Yajur and j d Atharva Veda hymns and Brahmanas. This corresponds to Harappan seals that show seven women (the Krittikas) tending a fire. () -2350 BCE Sage Gargya (born 2285 BCE), 50th in Puranic list of kings and sages, son of Garga, initiates method of reckoning successive centuries in relation to a nakshatra list he records in the g Atharva Veda with Krittika as the first star. Equinox occurs at Krittikia Purnima. A complete Nakshatra list is in ubiquitous use by this date -1255 BCE King Suchi of Magadha sets forth Jyotisha Vedanga, dating it by including an astronomical note that summer solstice is in Ashlesha Nakshatra. -850 BCE The Chinese are using the 28 nakshatra zodiac called Shiu adapted from the Hindu 850 28-nakshatra Shiu, jyotisha system.” (Siddharth, p.87) .Prior to that they used a 23 nakshatra system. The Weber manuscript discovered around 1890 CE near Yarkand in Sinkiang Province, describes the 28 nakshatra system of the Atharva Veda, as described by an Indian scholar Pushkarasardi (see SB Roy Ancient India).

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Investigators who have commented on the Astronomical prowess (or lack)of the Indics
Anquetil du Perron William Jones Thomas Henry Colebrook Hallstead Thibaut William Brennand Bentley Albrecht Weber Jean Filliozat Van der Waerden Fritz Staal Abraham Seidenberg G R Kaye John Playfair Herrman Jacobi Claudius Ptolemy William Dwight Whitney
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Sudhakar Dvivedi Otto Neugebauer David Pingree Sheldon Pollock Kim Plofker Bhao Dhaji Hegel Rajesh Kochhar Ebenezer Burgess Jean Sylvain Bailly Roger Billard AlBiruni Saad Al Andalusi Hipparchus Aristarchus Victor Katz Kat Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Subhash Kak David Frawley Narahari Achar R N Iyengar K D Abhyankar Yukio Ohashi Gautam Sidharth Narahari Achar Ramasubramanian Sreeramula Rajeswara Sarma K V Sarma Michio Yano Srinivas M D ChristopherMinkowski Agathe Keller Setsuro Ikeyama Takao Hayashi
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition The VJ system of a 5 year Yuga was a very awkward system. In use since the Vedic era. And h d to do ith j A d had t d with yajnas

The Calendar during Vedanga Jyotish Era The Vedanga Jyotish attributed to Lagaddha is a relatively short document and is available in 2 rescensions the Yajur and the Rg. The Yuga is of five year duration.Commences on shukla Pratipada, in the month of Magha, when the Sunan the Moon are together in Sravishta later called Dhanishta and when the Uttarayana (WS) takes place. RNET gives us a date 0f 1861 B CE for this Number of Years 5 Number of sayana or civil days 5*366 = 1830 days Number of solar months = 60 Number of Lunar (synodic months) = 1830/29.53059= 61.96963894 Number of Lunar month (sidereal) = 1830/27.3 = 67 Number of intercalary lunar months 62-60 = 2 Tithis (lunar days) = 62*30 = 1860 Number of omitted or K h N b f itt d Kshaya Tithi = 1860 1830 = 30 Tithis 1860-1830 Number of nakshatra days 67*27 = 1809. A day had to be added after 5 years since 62*29.53059= 1830.8965 and to keep it consistent the additon of a day had to be omitted every 10th yuga’ Furthermore the phases of the moon would continuously change with p y g reference to the calendar days. So ther had to be a correction for that
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Probable date of Vedanga Jyotisha 1861 BCE
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VE in Markab,α Pegasi,Purva Bhadrapada, Bhadrapada 3092 ce

Markab

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VE in Uttara Bhadrapada, Alpharetz,α Andromeda,March 20,1837 CE

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Question is Revathi ζPiscium (not visible to naked eye)

ζPiscium

VE in ζPiscium, 477 CE, Revathi ?
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VE in α Arietis, Hamel, Ashvini are considered to be β,γ Arietis,401 BCE ,

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VE in Delta Arietis, Apabharani, 1623 BCE, April 4

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VE in Krittika, Alcyone, Pleiades,April8,2221 BCE

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VEin Aldebaran, Rohini, April 16,3247 BCE

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VE in Lambda Orionis, Mrigashira, April 26, 4542 BCE

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VE in Ardhra, Betelgeuse, April 30, 5011 BCE

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AE in BETELGEUSE, ARDHRA, September 14 , 8910 CE

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SS in Betelgeuse, Ardhra, June 20, 2089 CE

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The Nay Sayers
The majority of those who studied the Ancient Indic Episteme have applied a very severe yardstick and have concluded the glass is half empty or even in some cases completely empty (Whitney Neugebauer Albrecht empty,(Whitney, Neugebauer, Weber, David Pingree and many others) The latest to pronounce judgement is Kim Plofker on the use of Astrochronology usιng modern Planetarium software to retrodict past observed astronomical events. She claims that the absence of unambiguous events identification of accurately observed events, renders such methods useless. The few examples she gives do not support this all or nothing stance. In reality there is very little ambiguity in several instances which makes this method of dating events , at least as efficacious as Carbon dating and in many instance more accurate then Carbon dating. But even Kim Plofker try as she might is unable to conclude that India borrowed anything from Babylon and that ultimately we are reduced to arguing over probability and plausibility We have no rational objection to such a plausibility. stance, which is substantially at odds with the views of David Pingree who seemed to be considerably more certain.
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We have been meticulous in removing possible ambiguities in the data We have reconstructed the concordance of the 27 Nakshatras with IAU classified stars.There are 7 Yogataras that lie outside the lune of the individual Nakshatra. The Nakshatra is considered a region spanning an angular distance of 13 degrees and 20 minutes along the ecliptic of the solar system. We have simulated the dates of the 4 major events (VE, SS, AE, WS) and we are confident that the results reflect reality. It would require extraordinary h l fl li I ld i di odds to assert that all the dates so arrived at are mere coincidence

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Yogataras that lie outside the lune of a Nakshatra in our scheme Ashwini Apabharani Ardhra Jyeshta Purvashadha Uttaraashadha Revathi

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Our j O journey today will t k us t t d ill take to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The problem of Indian Chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas Indic approach to creating knowledge – Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage ArchaeoAstronomy & Astrochronology The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of the mathematics
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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Different Meanings of Sunya
Purely literary Speculative Referential Place Value Numeration Computable number Non scalar or higher mathematical entity

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The Present Decimal Place Value System
A positional numerical notation with a concrete zero symbol Plays the following 3 roles successfully Medial or internal -the classical internal role of a blank space e.g 205, 2005 etc. final or terminal -the more stringent role e.g. 250, 2500 initial -a superfluous role ordinarily, 025.. But in computers this role is also p y, p important

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Purna and infinity

् ् ु ॐ पूण र्मदः पूण र्िमदम पूणार्त पूण र्मदते | र् े पूण र् पूण र्मादाय पूणमवाविशते || ॐ शािः शािः शािः ||( Isa Upanishad) शािः, शािः,

That (pure consciousness) is full (perfect); this (the manifest universe of matter; of names and forms being maya) is full. This fullness has been projected from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is fullness. —Peace invocation—Isa Upanishad h d Contains in it the mathematical definition of infinity

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Rules for the arithmetic of the Zero First codified by Brahmagupta in Brahmasphuta Siddhanta y g p p

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition

Our journey today will take us to The Indian approach to Itihaasa The problem of Indic Chronology The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas g Indic approach to creating knowledge –Vedic episteme or Pramana The Astronomical heritage ArchaeoAstronomy & Astrochronology The concepts of Sunya and Infinity The nature of the mathematics

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The Indic intellectual tradition A Historical Perspective of Sunya

Even while conceding that the decimal place value system, the Occidental is loathe to accord the antiquity of this system, Quote Michel Danino, who is more receptive than most Occidentals has this to say
“There is always confusion when we speak of the invention of zero. As a symbol f nil value, it “ h l f h k f h f b l for l l was invented by the Babylonians long before there was any sign of it in India. The Mayans also had it. But it was only Indians who were able to turn it into a mathematical operator and integrate it in the decimal place-value system of numeral notation. This transformation took p place sometime in the 4th century AD. (See below.) In any case Aryabhata has nothing to do with y ( ) y y g it (in fact, we can prove that he knew of the decimal-place value system, although he does not use it explicitly in the Aryabhatiya).

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What kind of Math problems did the Sutrakaras tackle

geometry for practical use in the construction of alters and places of sacrifice. construction of squares and rectangles of equivalent squares and rectangles, construction of equivalent circles, construction of squares equal to the sum of two given squares or the difference of the two given squares. they knew the theorem which is today attributed to Pythagoras. Familiar with surds like sqrt 2 and transcendental numbers like PI complex numbers using the imaginary number ‘i’ or π1− For obtaining the diagonal , the rule given in the Sulva Sutras is to multiply the side of the square by

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The Indic Intellectual Tradition
The Indian Mathematicians of the ancient era primarily number theorists. Excelled in Diophantine Equations ax + by = 1: this is a linear Diophantine. X**n + y**n = z**n: For n = 2 there are infinitely many solutions (x,y,z), the Pythagorean triples. For larger values of n, Fermat's last theorem states that no positive integer solutions x, y, z satisfying the above equation exist. X**2 - n y**2 = 1: (Pell's equation) which is named, mistakenly, after the English mathematician John Pell by Leonhard Euler. He named it after studying the manuscripts of the Hindu mathematicians It was studied by Brahmagupta and much later by Fermat

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Example of B h i script E l f Brahmi i t

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So, who invented the Zero and the decimal place value system Was it Yajnavalkya ? Pingala perhaps ? Was it Panini ? Or Apastambha ? Or was it Aryabhata ? Or perhaps none of the above

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Apastambha Author of SulvaSutras References Books: G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991). Articles: R P Kulkarni, The value of p known to Sulbasutrakaras, Indian J. Hist. Sci. 13 (1) (1978), 32-41. G Kumari, Some significant results of algebra of preAryabhata era, Math Ed (Siwan) 14 (1) (1980) B5 B13 era Math. Ed. (1980), B5-B13. A E Raik and V N Ilin, A reconstruction of the solution of certain problems from the Apastamba Sulba Sutra Apastamba (Russian), in A P Juskevic, S S Demidov, F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin Studies in the history of Slavutin, mathematics 19 'Nauka' (Moscow, 1974), 220-222; 302.
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Our journey today will take us to The Vedic Infrastructure The Indic Weltanschauung or Darshana The Sad Darshanas The Indic approach to creating knowledge – Vedic episteme or Pramana The concepts of S h f Sunya and Infinity d f The Astronomical heritage The nature of the mathematics Concluding remarks
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Colonialism and its forms of knowledge
The command of Language and the Language of Command

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Sir William Jones learning Sanskrit from Indian Pundits
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What can we conclude from this high level overview What if anything is the essence of the message from the Ancient Indic
There are indeed common characteristics that transcend the various disciplines that the Indics studied. The ancient Indic was eminently practical , for instance the rules of the cord. The Indic took a Holistic view, in engineering parlance he was using a systems engineering approach The Indic was far from other worldly. In fact he did not believe in entombing the dead with artifacts, needed for the living or creating extravagant mausoleums Was he markedly different and unique from other Civilizations
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Kaun banega Karodepathi
Can the modern Indic maintain this historically prodigious pace of creating knowledge ?

इस ूंन का सवाल आप िक मिु  मॆ है ।

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ICIH2009, January 9-11,2009, IIC,Delhi
पुराणिमितोुत्तमाख्याियकोदाहरण पराणिमितोत्तमाख्याियकोदाहरणं धमार्थशास्तर्ं चेतीितहासः र्
History

ICIH2009
Civilization Geopolitics

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