Present Simple

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It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do. a daily event. is true now. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . This can only be done with Non-continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs. a hobby.USE 1 Repeated Actions Use the Present Simple to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. a scheduled event or something that often happens. The action can be a habit. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs) Sometimes speakers use the Present Simple to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. and will be true in the future. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Facts or Generalizations The Present Simple can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before.

Past Simple .

" "all day" or "all year. To make it clear that we are talking about a habit we often use expressions such as "always.USE 1 Completed Action in the Past Use the Past Simple to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to"..." ". 4th. These actions happen 1st." "for five minutes. 3rd...when I was a child" or ". --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .. Sometimes the speaker may not actually mention the specific time. 2nd." "never.. but they do have one specific time in mind.when I was younger" in the sentence. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 Single Duration The Past Simple can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a long action often used with expressions like "for two years." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 4 Habit in the Past The Past Simple can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past." "often. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions We use the Past Simple to list a series of completed actions in the past." "usually.

ACTIVE The car was repaired by Tom." or "When class began.. Some clauses begin with the word when such as "When I dropped my pen..." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE / PASSIVE Simple Past EXAMPLES: Tom repaired the car.IMPORTANT "When clauses" happen first Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are not complete sentences. PASSIVE . The examples below contain "when clauses.." These clauses are called "when clauses" and they are very important.

" Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably. but with time and practice the . These different meanings might seem too abstract at first. they often express two very different meanings.Future Simple ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Future Simple The Simple Future has two different forms in English. "will" and "be going to.

A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. PASSIVE . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action "Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. ACTIVE A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Yossi tonight. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise "Will" is usually used in promises. In the following examples there is no difference in meaning. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.differences will become clear. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Future Simple EXAMPLES: Tom will certainly finish the work by 5:00 PM. Often we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. PASSIVE Yossi is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. ACTIVE The work will certainly be finished by 5:00 PM. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan "Be going to" expresses that something is a plan.

Present Progressive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .

" "this month." "today. at this very moment." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ." "this century" and so on. Sometimes we use the Present Progressive to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress." "this year. we might not be doing it at this exact second. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always" The Present Progressive with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now. however. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now IIn English. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 Near Future Sometimes. Notice that the meaning is like Present Simple but with negative emotion.USE 1 Now Use the Present Progressive with Continuous Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now. now can mean "this second. speakers use the Present Progressive to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing.

PASSIVE Present Progressive Rules 1. Noa is writing the letter. Action taking place only for a limited period of time 3. Action arranged for the future . ACTIVE Right now. the letter is being written by Noa. Action taking place in the moment of speaking 2.ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Continuous EXAMPLES: Right now.

. The interruption is usually an action in the Past Simple. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.Past Progressive -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past Use the Past Progressive to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted.

PASSIVE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . you can also use a specific time as an interruption. However. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 4 Atmosphere In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the past. Remember to put the words always or constantly between "be" and "verb+ing.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption In USE 1." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Progressive EXAMPLES: The boy was helping the customer when the policeman came into the store. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always" The Past Progressive with words such as always or constantly expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. ACTIVE The customer was being helped by the boy when the policemancame into the store. the Past Progressive is interrupted by an action in the Past Simple. The actions are parallel. described above. The concept is very similar to the expression used to but with negative emotion. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 Parallel Actions When you use the Past Progressive with two actions in the same sentence. it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time.

Action going on at a certain time in the past 2.Past Progressive Rules 1. Action in the past that is interrupted by another action . Actions taking place at the same time 3.

Future Progressive -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future Use the Future Progressive to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted. The interruption is usually an action in the Future Simple. Remember this can be a real interruption or .

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 3 Parallel Actions When you use the Future Progressive with two actions in the same sentence. Yossi will be washing the cat. ACTIVE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Future Progressive Rules 1. you can also use a specific time as an interruption. These are Parallel Actions. described above. the Future Progressive is interrupted by an action in the Future Simple . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 4 Atmosphere In English we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere in the future. The action should be important enough to comment on 3.just an interruption in time. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption In USE 1. The action must have a beginning and an end . However. it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE FORMS Future Continuous EXAMPLES: At 10:00 PM tonight. Used for temporary actions going on now 2.

Present Perfect ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .

" "for two weeks" and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect." "when I lived in Japan." "that day" or "one day.USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now." "once. we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now." "never. "For five minutes. Action that is still going on 3." "already" and "yet. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with time expressions such as "yesterday." "several times." "before." "many times." We CAN use the Present Perfect with expressions like "ever." "when I was a boy. Finished action that has an influence on the present 5." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Duration From Past Until Now (Non-continuous Verbs) With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs. Putting emphasis on the result 2." "at that moment. Action that stopped recently 4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Present Perfect Rules 1." "so far." "one year ago." "last week. Action that has taken place once. The exact time is not important. never or several times before the moment of speaking .

Past Perfect ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

Although this is possible. it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past. it is usually not necessary. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. ACTIVE Many cars had been repaired by Tom before he received his mechanics license. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE / PASSIVE FORMS Past Perfect EXAMPLES Tom had repaired many cars before he received his mechanics license. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect Unlike the Present Perfect. PASSIVE .USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in Past The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-continuous Verbs) With Non-progressive Verbs and some non-progressive uses of Mixed Verbs.

Future Perfect -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. Action will be completed before another action or time in the future . It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-continuous Verbs) With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs. PASSIVE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Future Perfect Rules 1. ACTIVE My package will have been returned by the Post Office before I can pick it up. we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACTIVE / PASSIVE Past Perfect EXAMPLES: The Post Office will have returned my package before I can pick it up.

Present Perfect Progressive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Present Perfect Progressive Rules 1. Finished action that influenced the present . Putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result) 2. Action that recently stopped or is still going on 3.

Action taking place before a certain time in the past 2.Past Perfect Progressive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Past Perfect Progressive Rules 1. Sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple 3. Putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action .

To emphasize or show that it will be a long time 2. To emphasize the length of an action (Progressive) and show that it will have been going on for a long time before a future action .Future Perfect Progressive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Future Perfect Progressive Rules 1.

present and future tenses. → Legend Legend • • • • moment in time action that takes place once.English Tenses – Graphic Comparison Problems with the English tenses? Have a look at the time line. you will as well be able to use the past progressive correctly to express past actions. it might help you understand when to use which tense. As there is a similarity between past. If you know how to use the present progressive correctly to express present actions. there are just a few rules to keep in mind. never or several times actions that happen one after another actions that suddenly take place action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment .

period of time • • • actions taking place at the same time action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the result action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action Result Course / Duration • • .

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