Submitted by

Hafsa Siddiqua

Title
Telecommunication application with GIS platform

Internship conducted at
PTCL, GIS department, South Karachi, Karachi

Supervisor
Mr. Asif Gul AM GIS PTCL, karachi

From feb 01, 2010 to march 13, 2010

ABSTRACT
PTCL is highly progressive and career oriented organization where I improved my professional skills to work with GIS specialist on telecom application with GIS plateform.i got chance there to Understanding telecom network, Better handling of the map and attribute data and faster updating of spatial information, Estimate length and direction of cable network from one point to another point on the network for the existing cable network., Draw the route of a given lead-in cable and the associated pillars on the map, Optimize cable network along the roads and estimate the length of the cable to be laid down, Suggest new locations for erection of pillars for cable expansion, Generate fault/performance reports for lead-in cables, pillars and distribution points, Mark exchanges, cabinets/onus, dps, man hole, hand hole, splice, joints locations by using Arc GIS. Transfer CAD drawing to Arc GIS

CONTEXT

Objective Introduction  PTCL  PTCL network  Telegraphic GIS Task  I have learned  Task performed  Accuracy issue Conclusion

I joined PTCL GIS department for internship at Feb01, 2010 & completed at March12, 2010. I found GIS staff corporative & true helper. GIS department PTCL, Karachi was facing some facilities problems that time but AM GIS conveyed almost all knowledge about PTCL & its network, telegraphic GIS & guided me at any step while performing task as much as he could in that limited time & Tough situation. Objectives, What I have learned, performed tasks, felt accuracy error mentioned in this report.

OBJECTIVE
The prime objectives of training: o Understanding PTCL & its network o Better handling of the planning maps and attribute data and faster updating of spatial information o Estimate length and direction of cable network from one point to another point on the network for the existing cable network. o Draw the route of a given lead-in cable and the associated pillars on the map. o Optimize cable network along the roads and estimate the length of the cable to be laid down. o Indicate number of working tags, waiting tags, utilized tags and percentage of filled tags in the pillars from time to time. o Suggest new locations for erection of pillars for cable expansion o Generate fault/performance reports for lead-in cables, pillars and distribution points. o Mark exchanges, cabinets/onus, distribution points, man holes, hand holes, splices locations. o Transfer CAD drawings to Arc GIS

TASKS
I have leaned.
PTCL Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is Pakistan's largest converged services carrier providing all telecommunications services from basic voice to data, internet, IPTV, video-conferencing to consumers and complete range of infrastructure services to other carriers, operators and enterprise customers all over the country. PTCL operates through its o multiple state-of-the-art nationwide fiber optic backbones o digital exchanges o metro fiber o Long-distance telephone transmission facilities and international gateways. PTCL network is an advanced, international, facilities based communications network. PTCL NETWORK The data network is used extensively throughout the world to connect individuals and organizations. Data networks can be connected together to allow users seamless access to resources that are hosted outside of the particular provider they are connected to. Terminals attached to TCP/IP networks are addressed using IP addresses. TCP/IP are the fundamental protocols that provide the control and routing of messages across the data network. New technology has been introduced over landline connections by Pakistan Telecommunications Limited. This technology was brought to the scene a while ago. Obviously, purpose was to provide the customers with best of working as well as using experience. These are new fiber optic connections that have replaced the old simple copper wire connections. An optical fiber is a single, hair-fine filament drawn from molten silica glass. These fibers are replacing metal wire as the transmission medium in high-speed, high-capacity communications systems that convert information into light, which is then transmitted via fiber optic cable. In a telecommunication environment computers are connected through media to perform their communication assignments.

Before this technology, landlines were issued from old kind of cabinets, not practically old, but taking them as old in comparison with this new technology. Those cabinets were just directly connected to respective exchange through simple copper wires and they didn’t need any source to boost their signals up. But in present technology, these Fiber Optic cables have modernized cabinets named ONU which need some electricity source to connect to exchange, Pakistan telecommunication limited introduced a triple play service. Subscribers of that service can enjoy more than 100 TV channels, DSL and a regular phone service all just on one phone line. There are two types of telephone network offered by PTCL o A fixed line network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone exchange. This is known as the Public switched telephone network. o A wireless network where the telephones are mobile and can move around anywhere within the coverage area. Telecommunication network is made up of basic components that are present in each network environment regardless of type or use. These basic components include terminals or exchanges, telecommunications processors, telecommunications channels, computers, and telecommunications control software. o Exchanges are the starting and stopping points in any telecommunication network environment. Any input or output device that is used to transmit or receive data can be classified as a terminal component. A telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make telephone calls work in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. o Telecommunications processors are support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers by providing a variety of control and support functions. (i.e. convert data from digital to analog and back)

o Telecommunications channels are the way by which data is transmitted and received. Telecommunication channels are created through a variety of media of which the most popular include copper wires and coaxial cables. Fiberoptic cables are increasingly used to bring faster and more robust connections to businesses and homes. [1] Telecommunications control software is present on all networked computers and is responsible for controlling network activities and functionality. o In a telecommunication environment computers are connected through media to perform their communication assignments. o Telecommunications control software is present on all networked computers and is responsible for controlling network activities and functionality. TELEGRAPHIC GIS The telecommunications services have been computerized since about a decade and all this information is maintained in tabular form. The spatial information is being maintained in carefully hand drawn maps which are of several levels/kinds and innumerable. Whenever any changes are to be made in the telephone cables like diverting a telephone cable to another nearby pillar or erecting a new pillar, a lot of time is wasted in drawing the new maps or updating the already drawn maps. The personnel of the telephone department also have to take into consideration the existing telephone facilities that have been laid down i.e. they have to have the tabular information alongside while planning such changes. Hence, a need has been felt to explore the possibility of transferring the map information in digital format and to design and develop a software package to provide query based access using the available technology of GIS; where the spatial and non-spatial data could reside under a common umbrella. Geographical information system in telecom industry plays an important role. GIS can be a great planning and decision-making tool for telecom industries. GIS platform with a dedicated telecommunication application is the optimum solution since it can store the network inventory in a geographical manner. Telecom applications have specially designed data model, providing ability to build models of frequently used items like ports, cards, chassis, equipment, cables, structures etc. These models can be instantiated

directly or configured into frequently repeating combinations, which in turn can be instantiated on the map. GIS technology allows telecom to enhance o A variety of application ranging from engineering application, o Customer relationship management, o Workforce management and o Location based services. GIS helps telecom to create competitive advantage by o optimizing installation, o maintenance and o Tracking of network assets. GIS helps to analyze o location-specific information for network infrastructure management, o wireless coverage and o Assets management. Applications and solutions include: o Strategic and Corporate Planning o Network Roll-out and Site Acquisition o Network Planning and Optimization o Operations Support Systems o Facilities and Assets Management o Marketing and Sales o Customer Relationship Management Telecommunication networks are characterized by vast geographical expanse and large number of features. Continuously evolving telecom technology and tremendous competition has necessitated very tight financial and inventory controls, maximization of

utilization of installed physical inventory and high quality of uninterrupted service to the customers. GIS based Telecom applications are ideally suited to meet all of these requirements. A GIS based Telecom Application is not only capable of supporting standard GIS functions, but because of its specially developed telecom data model and functionalities, also supports various telecom inventory and operational service system related requirements. The database consists of spatial and non-spatial component. The spatial component includes coverages like o road o the locality map to serve as reference coverage o primary cable coverage and o Pillar location coverage The non-spatial component consists of o subscriber’s list( which includes detail of name, address, the associated pillar and the distribution point and his address in MDF) o pillar utilization data from time to time o Primary cable data with details on size, weight, tags etc. The spatial and non-spatial data have been appropriately linked to generate the required information. At the outset as the cursor is moved over locations of different telephone exchanges a pop-up window gives details of telephone exchange like the number of levels, no of pillars, primary cables, geographical area, no of subscribes etc. GISDATA enables wireless telecommunication organizations incorporate geographic data into o o o o o complex network design, planning, optimization, maintenance and Operation activities.

Task performed by using Arc GIS o Create master maps, locality maps, road maps, pillar location maps, junction & Access maps (with man hole, hand hole, splices exchanges, cabinets/onu, dps, (basically planning maps which contain Duct info i.e. total number of duct spare duct or fill duct, Cable information i.e. how many cables are passing through, type of cable and the distribution of every cable from exchange to cabinets then to DPs & then to the costumer. Every DP has 10 pairs, and carrying rest along with and again distributing some 10, 20, 50,100, pairs and so on. DP has Capacity of 10,20 Pair. Tag Box 30,40,50 Pairs usually used to avoid use of more that 2,3 DPs at a single point ( It depend on the requirement, for apartments or any big office needing 50 connections. etc ) o Edit an already existing map. o Import a map that has been created elsewhere in Arc/Info format and google earth o Import a scanned map o Cleaning and building of coverages o Creation of non-spatial table  Subscriber’s list (which include details of name, address, the associated pillar & distribution point and his address in MDF)  Primary cable data with details on size, weight, tags etc.  Duct details total no, spare & fill no.  Junction and access route length from each exchange.  Man hole & Hand hole no, landmarks & its distance.  Splices types info  Cabinets no. its origin exchange & its capacity  Dps no., routes. Serving homes & offices o Altering the structure of non -spatial table o Importing of non-spatial table from dbase format. o Cleaning and creation of topology of the coverages o Create a network for the entire map features

o Update the network of an existing network. This is useful if any updating has been done after the network was created. o Create bifurcating routes Felt about accuracy issue
Accurate geo-referenced map data is insufficient to derive maximum value from the Telco application. Accuracy of survey data is of utmost importance. Survey data with trench, man-hole & hand-hole details, number and alignment of ducts is migrated from AutoCAD platform. Correct models of span & ducts are populated. Cables are also drawn using models developed on Telco application. Further, cross-sectional views of the trench are added and cables are associated with ducts. Cable splicing / connection and slack loop addition is carried out and lastly, as built data of cable optical & run length is entered.

In case of Optical Fiber Cables (OFC), OTDR equipment is able to provide an optical distance with excellent accuracy. However, following factors affect accuracy of fault localization: o o o o o Fiber length of cable is generally 2-3% more than the cable length. Cable is blown in conduits, which have 'snaking', thus increasing the cable and fiber length. Slack loops of 10-20 meters are left in each chamber, approximately every kilometer. Line feature in the map does not consider differences in elevations, which add to the cable and fiber length. OTDR equipment can be 100 km away from the fault.

Unless the fault localization algorithm compensates for these factors, inaccuracies may add up to several hundred meters, defeating the whole purpose.

CONCLSION
Telecom professionals are turning to GIS to ensure their businesses operate at peak efficiencies. Telecom network inventory and connectivity involves complicated logical relationships, which are difficult to capture on CAD platform. Migration of such data to GIS platform is also very complex, error prone and does not lead to cost, efforts or time reduction. Therefore, network inventory is created directly on selected GIS platform, using telecom application. GIS is a perfect tool with which telecom operators may integrate various data from a variety of data sources and present it in an integrated and controlled manner via intranet GIS portals. if the telecommunications services be more efficient in terms of rendering services – existing and futuristic, and gaining more visibility to the planning issues faced by the telecommunications department with a view to increase the efficiency, which would ultimately lead to increase in the customer satisfaction.