Vaccination for malaria VACCINATION FOR MALARIA: A BRIEF ERVIEW Nimmus N1*, Amaritha P2 1.

Tropical Clinical Center, Djibouti City, Djibouti 2. Tropical Clinical Center, Pune, India

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Correspondence: Dr Nicholas Nimmus. Tropical Clinical Center, Djibouti City, Djibouti Email: nimmus4576@yahoo.com Nimmus N, Amaritha P. Vaccination for malaria: a brief review. Adv Trop Med Pub Health Int. 2013; 3(2): 75 - 77. ABSTRACT Mosquito borne infectious disease is an important group of disease worldwide. Vaccination is available for some tropical mosquito-borne diseases, especially for Japanese encephalitis virus infection and yellow fever. However, there is no available vaccine for malaria at present. In this article, the authors briefly review the issues on vaccination for malaria. Key words: Malaria, vaccination, prevention INTRODUCTION Generally, preventive medicine covers three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention 1. Concerning primary prevention, prevention from starting of the unwanted event, infection in this case, is focused. The primary prevention can be the control of vector, immunization as well as chemophophylaxis. Concerning secondary prevention, early detection and prompt treatment is focused. Identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have already developed risk factors or preclinical infectious disease is in this step. The efficiency of preventive treatments should lead toward the goal of zero infectious cases 2. Concerning tertiary prevention, the control of disability or sequelae, including physical, psychological as well as social items, is focused. Vaccination is available for some tropical mosquito-borne diseases, especially for Japanese encephalitis virus infection and yellow fever. However, there is no available vaccine for malaria at present. In this article, the authors briefly review the issues on vaccination for malaria. CLINICAL ASPECT OF MALARIA Malaria is a mosquito-borne parasitic infection. It can be said that malaria is a very important tropical mosquito-borne infectious disease. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Four species of Plasmodium, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae can produce the human disease in its various forms. . In human, malaria is an important and potentially deadly mosquito-borne disease characterized by cyclical bouts of fever with Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International 2013; 3(2): 75 - 77. 75

these symptoms are similar to a viral illness and can be mistaken for flu 8. malaria can be presented as asymptomatic case or mild symptomatic case. Angell and Cetron said that high-risk illnesses in travelers included childhood vaccine-preventable illnesses.1-2. hepatitis A and B. joint pains and diarrhea which suggest something other than a viral illness 8. fatigue and muscleache 8.7 million.Vaccination for malaria 76 muscle stiffness. EFFORT FOR PRODUCING MALARIAL VACCINE Although there have been many efforts for decades to produce a vaccine to combat this infection. Wernsdorfer and Wernsdorfer noted that drug resistance of malaria was the most formidable obstacle in the fight against the disease since it jeopardized the most elementary objective of malaria control. Symptoms of malaria generally take around six days to appear after infection 8. and typhoid fever 10. 3(2): 75 .4. most were among travelers 7. providing the impetus for the development of a malaria vaccine 12. Generally. 76 . malaria. Malarial infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. therefore. No potential vaccine has yet shown Advance Tropical Medicine and Public Health International 2013. few have been able to meet the challenges posed by the unusual interplay between this virus and its human host. According to the globalization at present. With an annual incidence of 300-500 million clinically manifest cases and a death toll of 1. as against 80% in 1950 5. malaria is still the most common infectious cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries in the tropic 9. malaria is still one of the most important communicable diseases 5. Wernsdorfer and Wernsdorfer mentioned that about 40% of the world's population lives in areas where malaria is endemic. namely the elimination of mortality and the reduction of suffering from malaria 11. the rates of disease may be reemerging in many tropical and non-tropical countries as evidence from an increased annual parasite index. Newman et al mentioned that nearly 1500 malaria cases occur each year in the United States. Wide range of malarial symptoms is described 8. Kano and Kimura said that the former species was likely to be seen in travelers coming back from African countries and the latter was mainly from Asian countries 6. Most symptoms are very vague and nonspecific 8. researchers first demonstrated that immunization with irradiated sporozoites could protect against malaria infection. The number of clinical trials has increased and some malaria antigens have been tested in endemic areas. shaking and sweating in the tropical countries 3 . In addition. Concerning the imported malarial patients in Japan. However. High fever is common. also progress rapidly to coma and death in the nonimmune patient 8. More than 40 years ago. chest pain. about 45% of patients are Plasmodium falciparum and another 45% Plasmodium vivax infections 6. an interesting topic for general practitioners all over the world. At present. today we are still without a highly effective malaria vaccine. Imported malaria in the traveler is now a big concern in traveling medicine. Despite encouraging trends in dramatically reducing malaria. however. the malaria becomes an emerging infectious problem not only to the tropical but also to the non-tropical countries. Thousands of fatal cases are reported worldwide every year. Some patients complain for a headache. tuberculosis. Some people presented with. Development of vaccine for malaria is therefore necessary objective for control of malaria. abdominal pain. The knowledge on the malaria is. the problem of drug resistant malaria is increase at present.77. despite considerable progress achieved during many years of research and development 12.

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