41 The People's Republic of China 1949-76

Introduction: China Under Mao 1949-76 ] 5

Summary diagram: China before 1949
Traditional China China 1911-49

. 1
Fall of the Qing dynasty

Profile: Mao Zedong (up to 1949)
Born in Hunan province Attended primary school Joined anti-Qing army in Hunan Trained as a teacher Joined the Hunan independence movement Worked as a librarian at Beijing University Helped to organise strikes in Hunan 1921 Became a founder member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1923 Joined Guomindang (GMD) 1924-7 Involved in planning CCP-GMD alliance against the warlords 1927-34 Created the Jiangxi Soviet 1930 Suppressed a mutiny in the Red Army at Futian 1934-5 Led the Long March to Yanan 1935-45 Created the Yanan Soviet 1942 Crushed opposition within the CCP 1945-9 Led the CCP to victory over Chiang Kaishek and the Nationalists 1949 Declared the creation of the People's Republic of China 1893 1901-6 1912 1912-18 1918 1919


Conformity - Deference - Obedience

Interna! turmoil - The warlords

Hierarchy Imperial authority


Mao in Jiangxi and Yanan

China: an enclosed society Disruptive impact of the West on China

Japanese occupation

Victory of the CCP in the civil war 194S-9

2 [ Mao's Career Before 1 949
'A clean sheet of paper has no blotches, and so the newest and most beautiful pictures can be painted on it.' This was Mao Zedong's poetic description of the opportunity that lay before the new China in 1949. But behind the fine words was a fierce resolution. The picture that Mao intended to paint would allow no space for brushwork other than his own. He intended to create China in his own image. He would continue to use the methods that had brought him to power in 1949. Mao had been shaped by the brutal world in which he grew up. The lessons that Mao learned as a young man in China were violent ones. All his experiences as a young revolutionary convinced him that unless he was prepared to use unyielding methods he could achieve litde. He despised his countrymen who were not willing to use extremism in pursuing their goals for China. In the end, as he saw it, it was force which made things happen. Mao believed in the dialectic as the explanation of life. That was why he had become a Marxist and a founder member of the CCP in 1921. He held that all change, all progress, resulted from suppression of the weaker by the stronger. It was a belief that characterised his behaviour in all the major episodes of his career.

Key question
What were the main influences that shaped Mao as a revolutionary?

Dialectic 0 The Marxist notion (!) that historical development occurs 3 to through a progressive series of conflicts between social classes. Marxist A believer in the theories of the German revolutionary Karl Marx (1818-83), who used the notion of the dialectic to explain history as a continuous conflict between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots', the exploiters and the exploited.


teenager, Mao played a small role as a volunteer soldier in Changsha in the Chinese revolution of 1911, which saw the collapse and abdication of the Qing. He then moved to Beijing where he furthered his education and in 1919 took up a post as librarian in Beijing University. It was there that he was introduced to Marxist ideas and developed the conviction that if China was to be truly regenerated it would have to undergo a profound social and political revolution.

Mao as a Chinese revolutionary 1911-27
Mao's belief was strengthened by his awareness that the 1911 revolution had brought China little benefit. Although a republican government had replaced the imperial system, it exercised only nominal power. Throughout China local warlords and factions struggled to assert authority. Mao recorded the savagery that became commonplace:
During my student days in Hunan, the city was overrun by the forces of rival war lords - not once but half a dozen times. Twice the school was occupied by troops ahd all the school funds confiscated. The brutal punishments'inflicted on the peasants included such things as gouging out eyes, ripping out tongues, disembowelling and decapitation, slashing with knives and grinding with sand, burning with kerosene and branding with red-hot irons.

Mao's early years
Mao was born into a relatively well-to-do landed family in Hunan province. He was what might be termed a 'natural rebel'. Doted on by his mother, he fell out with his father and refused to show him the respect traditionally expected of a Chinese son. As a

The barbarity Mao witnessed greariy affected him, but it was not the cruelty that moved him so much as his realisation that it was the strongest and most ruthless who always won. He concluded

the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was never as glorious as the propagandists made out. Mao's policy in the countryside 1945-9 One of the most remarkable features of the civil war period was the brutal treatment of the peasants by Mao's Communists in the areas they controlled. it is an act of violence. Between 1945 and 1949. Kill'. by a combination of political and military skill and brutal suppression. Another was. Chiang Kaishek was seen to be more intent on crushing his Communist enemies within China than resisting the Japanese invader. in the Korean War.000 who fled from Jiangxi.. troops that Mao led. beginning in 1931. revealed the calculated ferocity that marked his whole career. . but squeeze out of them the maximum information. Comintern During the next 7 years Mao helped to establish the Jiangxi Soviet. later to be They were tortured to make them speak and they were tortured on known as the Mao's orders. but the GMD-CCP unity was more apparent than real. One incident illustrates the type of horror he witnessed. body set up in He frequendy rejected the orders from Moscow that instructed the Moscow in 1919 to CCP to base its activities in the towns rather than the countryside. he Communist International. In October 1949 Mao triumphantly declared that a new Communist society had come into being . had formed a united front against the Soviet warlords. There is a document in the party archives which Mao People's Liberation approved which says. During the Yanan period Mao. women as well as men . the Nationalists and the Communists. aged 28. the march was certainly an important stage in the development of Chinese Communism. by which one class overthrows another'. They were forced to chant Maoist slogans and denounce the landlords who were publicly paraded before them. the locals were rounded up and made to attend an anti-landlord rally. the Soviet Union (USSR) was under the rule of Joseph Stalin. One of his most revealing sayings was. the showed himself unwilling to accept dictation from the Comintern. The journey to Yanan. In 1934 Chiang encircled the CCP's base in Jiangxi with a view to destroying it altogether. Anying. resistance against the Nationalists. While there. of the 100. the offshore island of Taiwan. Pie led a lonely and unhappy life in his father's shadow before dying in 1950. Nevertheless. What particularly disturbed him was The Long March 1934-5 Although the GMD became the official government of China in the early 1930s.6 | The People's Republic of China 1949-76 Introduction: China Under Mao 1949-76 \ 7 that the only way to gain power was through violence. He was impressed by the extreme methods used by the Bolsheviks in the Russian revolution that began in 1917. Army (PLA). In 1927 it launched a systematic extermination organised on campaign against them. This helps to explain why throughout his career he was so ready to use brutal means in crushing political opponents. was later elevated by CCP propaganda into one of the great epics of Communist folklore: the Long March. the CCP. Anying recorded in his diary that the barbarity was worse than anything he had seen or heard of while studying Soviet Communism in Stalin's USSR. The Yanan years 1935-45 Bolsheviks Communist revolutionaries who seized power in Russia in 1917. not on the workers in the towns.000 survived to reach their destination. 'all power grows out of the barrel of a gun'. this time by joining and eventually leading the besieged Communists in their escape north to Yanan in Shaanxi province. It is interesting that Mao sent his son. then from the dues they give you can go on to unearth others'. His attempt to come to terms with what he now saw in China caused him agonies of doubt. 3 © Rectification of conduct campaigns A series of ferocious purges by which Mao removed any member of the CCP he suspected of opposing him. He was 'so full of pain' that he wept. In the early 1940s he launched a series of'rectification of conduct' campaigns to consolidate his hold. In the notorious 'Futian incident' in 1930 he had no qualms in Red Army torturing and executing some 4000 Red Army troops whom he The title given to regarded as rebels. Some people froze to death standing up. the Communist [TJhey were brought out to be tortured. It was also while he was at Yanan that Mao wrote his major political works setting out his revolutionary ideas. Stalin's USSR Between 1929 and 1953. of many parts of the Chinese mainland. It was the middle of winter with temperatures well below zero. Kill. 'do not kill the important leaders too quickly. In one set of villages which the Red Army had seized. where he organised guerrilla principles. which took over a year to complete.. Mao thought his son needed toughening up. continuing the policies that they had followed during the Jiangxi and Yanan periods. At the same time he fought off attempts by the Comintern to dominate the party. succeeded in imposing his personal authority on the CCP. 7Z CD Mao at Jiangxi 1927-34 In 1924 China's two major revolutionary parties. scarcely 20. dedicated to achieving a peasant revolution. organise world-wide It was also during the Jiangxi period (1927-34) that Mao revolution. it was weakened by the Japanese military occupation. to take part in the suppression of the peasantry. Victory over the GMD 1945-9 With the surrender of Japan at the end of the Second World War in 1945. strategy meeting took place at Zunyi. committed fearful atrocities against the peasants in order to force them to join the struggle against Chiang Kaishek's Nationalists. A fierce 4-year struggle for supremacy ended with the complete victory of the Communists. Chiang and the GMD were driven from the Chinese mainland to their one remaining stronghold. Mao outmanoeuvred his opponents in the CCP and imposed on the party his idea that to be successful the revolution in China must be based on the peasants in the countryside. Again Mao survived. What Anying then experienced came close to unhinging him mentally. A system of The GMD's main aim under Chiang was to destroy the government Communists. It was during the March that a critical Anying (1922-50) Mao Anying was Mao Zedong's oldest son. 'a revolution is not a tea-party. Mao turned on the GMD in a renewal of the civil war that had lasted intermittently since the late 1920s. The climax came on the fifth day when the condemned landlords were kicked and punched to death as the crowds shouted 'Kill. Mao survived by taking his CCP forces to Communist the mountains of jiangxi province. For five days the villagers were not allowed to leave the unsheltered area they had been herded into.

Some of the worst excesses occurred in the countryside where millions of landlords were brutally dispossessed of their lands.. which were then redistributed among the peasants.::•-.:•:• „••-!• •„•:. Liu did as he was told.. to engage in their savage oppression. once the officials had served their purpose by providing the young PRC with the necessary continuity of administration. The great difference was that while this might be understandable in the GMD since it was the party of the exploiting propertied classes. It was enough for individuals to be charged by their neighbours with having belonged to the privileged classes for them to be publicly denounced and to have their property seized. From 1950 onwards an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty was systematically ^created by a series of 'antimovements'. This struggle placed great demands on the young PRC and made those who were less than whole-hearted in supporting it open to the charge that they were imperilling the nation's existence. For a short period this undertaking was honoured. Summary diagram: Mao's career before 1949 Born into a violent age Mao angered by China's weakness and subjection to foreign control Became a revolutionary and turned to Marxism Helped to found the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 Helped to organise the CCP-GMD alliance that destroyed the warlords.v. The vengeful atmosphere was inte'nsified by China's being drawn into the Korean War of 1950+-3 (see page 28). launched against those whom the CCP regarded as socially or politically suspect.. the officials and public figures who had previously served the GMD Nationalist government but had not fled to Taiwan were asked by the Communist authorities to stay in their posts. 1924-7 Escaped the White Terror by fleeing to Jiangxi where he set up a soviet. Both Communists and Nationalists treated the Chinese peasants with deep contempt. they were turned on and persecuted as class enemies. The 'anti-movements' The concept of class enemies was basic to the social and political strategies of the Communists in government. Mao's most demanding task was to bring stability to a nation that had been riven by decades of turmoil.. Their pleas of loyalty to Mao's new China were ignored.-. Anying described them as 'thugs' and 'the dregs of society'. His approach was a simple one. 1 w I Liu Shaoqi CD (1898-196S) A gifted part)' c organiser who was to become President ofthePRCinl959. All other parties were oudawed and the total obedience of the nation to the new government was demanded. Between then and his death in 1976. He declared himself guikless and told Liu Shaoqi to shoulder the blame.. 1927-34 Used brutal means to crush rivals in the CCP Introduction: China Under Mao 1949-761 9 Key question What basic changes occurred in China under Mao's leadership? 3 ] The Reshaping of China under Mao 1949-76 The consolidation of Communist authority 1949-57 During the Jiangxi and Yanan periods of the 1930s and 1940s. as he invariably did when his policies became excessive. Set out on the Long March to escape the GMD encirclement Created the Yanan Soviet 193S Led a military resistance to the Nationalists while at Yanan -jWrote his major political works and planned a peasant revolution while at Yanan Launched the rectification campaigns to suppress opposition within the CCP Defeated Chiang Kaishek and the Nationalists in the civil war 1945-9 Used terror tactics to control the countryside X Declared the creation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 . They were promised that if they pledged themselves to the new China they would suffer no retaliation for their past behaviour. he would tolerate no opposition to the CCP.:. Mao Zedong had remorselessly enforced his authority on the CCE His dominance became even greater with the creation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.". y-:j ::i. Mao and the CCP leaders began public campaigns against anyone in public life who opposed official policy. It was their embarrassment over this that led many members of the CCP to protest against the appalling things being done in their name in the countryside. •.. Initially.• ::. The Chinese people were encouraged to expose all who had co-operated with the former GMD government. Mao. but. confessing to the party that he had let things slide until corrected by Mao. But the adulation that was lavished on him could not hide the huge problems he faced as leader of the new China. it defied sense for the CCP a party that had come into being to liberate the people of China. -a PRC established under Mao Zedong: 1949 i 2 'Anti-movements' launched: 1951 Korean War: 1950-3 Removal of officials S Class enemies o Those reactionaries who refused to accept the new China that the Communist government was creating. simply blamed the mistakes on the failings of others. The reason why the savage policies of the CCP did not lose it the support of the peasants as a whole was that the record of the Nationalists was little better.••.81 The People's Republic of China 194S-76 the realisation that the party cadres carrying out the land policies were among the worst types of people in China. he was revered by the mass of the Chinese people as a living god.. China became a nation of informers..:•. Invoking the traditional Chinese duty of respecting authority. ••-• .

Although initially successful it failed to gain the support of workers in Changsha (capital of Hunan province) and was put down by Guomindang troops. 103 102 I . a share of Sun's influence. Then. The Communists controlled the countryside and gained recruits for the Red Army and support and intelligence from the peasant population. pp.has been unable to establish a sound currency Source: The Shanghai correspondent of an American j ournal. It was not until the crucial meeting during the Long March at Zunyi in January 1935. In November 1926 he was appointed secretary of the Peasant Movement Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. He avidly read the popular novels about earlier Chinese heroes and bandits and their struggles against corruption and bureaucracy. In the Civil War that followed the withdrawal of the Japanese. In 1924 he worked in Guangzhou as acting head of the Central Propaganda Department of the Guomindang Cat that time united with the Communist Party). the Communists under Mao's leadership and without foreign assistance were victorious. launched the Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Mao proclaimed the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949. in 1913 Mao enrolled in the Fourth Provincial Normal School in Changsha which merged with the Hunan First Normal School the following year. t * 7. Mao Zedong's rules of conduct were clearly followed and agrarian land reform took place in the areas under Communist control. one of the co-founders of the Communist Party. He graduated from there in the spring of 1918. An article written by Mao entitled 'A Study of Physical Culture' was published in the Neu/Youth magazine in April 1917. he still remame'd. in particular the youth of China (Red Guards) who had not experienced revolution. During the period of the Cultural Revolution the writings and thoughts of Mao Zedong were promoted and a strong personality cult evolved which was centred on Mao. Mao was dismissed from his post as political commissar of the Red Army. which to Mao indicated the presence of a Leninist Russian influence where 'elitism' and incentives featured.3 V U G used in this source AN ASSESSMENT OF JIANG'S GOVERNMENT and is leader of an incompetent and corrupt civil service Over the years Chiang has alienated every economic ina—peasants. Inspired by the Wuhan revolutionaries' action against the Qing he enlisted in the revolutionary army in Hunan in 1911. He assisted in establishing the NewPeople's Society in Changsha in 1918 which organised its members into studying progressive and revolutionary ideas.INVESTIGATION P f:rw:sriRiT o f CHANCI: CHINMN K T O L W C T J _ EtEVOUJTrONAIVi' IDEAS AND LEADERS the tatter's family circle.. However. The Long March ended with the establishment of a new Soviet (Red base) in Yanan in the far north-west in Shaanxi province. that Mao Zedong assumed the leadership role. another disciple of the late founder could claim. Mao saw this Leninist influence as revisionism and a betrayal of true Marxist principles.! evenhisownsoldiers. In 1921 he attended the First meeting of the Chinese Communist Party at Shanghai. Mao..and and army. this resulted in a right wing influence on policy. He ha! reforms. he was found a position as a librarian's assistant under LiDazhao. and this was not to his liking. His continual reading stimulated a great desire for further education. It was during 1919 and through his involvement with the May Fourth movement and the influence of LiDazhao that Mao began to take Marxism seriously. in 1927. when errors and failures to thwart the Guomindang's final and successful 'encirclement and suppression campaign' were discussed and criticism of Communist tactics made. He investigated peasant conditions and reported on the peasant movement. He was attracted to Sun's nationalistic ideas. Zhou Enlai. he went to Shanghai to occupy the position of Director of the Peasant Department of the Communist Party. Mao moved to Beijing in 1918 and with the help of his former teacher. Using the power of the masses. Mao led a peasant uprising in Hunan the following autumn in protest against the landlords' taxes. Zhu De and Wang Jiaxiang. It was during this time that Mao. the right to occupy his position . believed in city-based revolution. Thus the orthodox Marxists within the parry were defeated and political and military leadership fell to Mao. as well as undergoing energetic physical activities to train the body. even his own soldiers. After deciding to become ateacher. with would he have the right to speak in the name of Sun. At the age of eight he attended a traditional primary school where reciting Confucian teachings was the basis of education. who also focused on cities as the key to revolution. equal justice. Li was replaced in 1931 by Wang Ming and Bo Gu and the Bolshevik trained clique. Political control during the Jiangxiperiod to 1934 was initially in the hands of Li Lisan who. until this united front collapsed in 1941. Hunan province. a professor of philosophy (soon to become Mao's father-in-law). 'Mao Zedong Thought' was to provide the guidance for action (economic. From then unti| 1959 Mao concentrated his attention on bringing socialism to China. 1948 QUESTIONS 1 What qualities of Jiang's are revealed in these sources? 2 What leadership problems are identified? 3 How reliable is the information in these sources'? MAO ZEDONG Mao Zedong was born on 26 December 1893 in Shaoshan village. During this time Mao had studied both the 'old learning' of Chinese feudal culture and the modem 'new learning' of the western democracies. A World Flmcr. Mao believed strongly that the military arm was essentia! to achieving the political goal.Hehasrefusedtoundertakeland China into the waiting arms of the Communists.2. It united with the Guomirfdang in 1936 to fight die lapanese. From there under Mao's leadership the Communist Party launched its anti-Japanese war. In 1911 Mao secured aplace at the Xiangxiang Middle School in Changsha where he came into contact with the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yixian. Mao and his supporters fled to the Jinggangshan (mountains) on the border of the provinces of Jiangxi and Hunan. chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. with the able assistance of Zhu De. All these things have combined to deliver group in China—peasants. Mao and Zhu De opposed the Red Army attacking key cities—a strategy which had not met with success. Mao continued his work for the New People's Study Society's project to send students to study in France. A Chinese Soviet Republic was established there at Ruijin and Mao was elected to the standing committee of the politbureau. Mao read with interest ab out the reform movement of 1898 and the ideas of KangYouwei.workersibusinessmen. He was the eldest of three sons bom into apeasant family. otherwise many Source: Han Suyin. He left school at the age of thirteen to work on the land and assist his father with the accounts. Although the setback of the Great Leap Forward led to Mao's resignation as head of state. as an orthodox Marxist. He enrolled in the Dongshan Higher Primary School at the age of sixteen. with a call to 'never forget class struggle'. He became the secretary of the Hunan Regional Party Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. honed the Red Army into an effective fighting force using guerilla tactics and a strict code of behaviour to achieve its goals. political and social) during this period and the years immediately following his death. Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping were two students to benefit from this project. in the good old feudal way.

A mausoleum was built in the centre of T i a n a n m e n Square to house Mao's body. As events generally showed Mao's overall policies to be right. and was always panting and breathing heavily. They worked under him almost like a normal cabinet under a premier. All that he did for Chinahe did as a nationalist. Mao not only controlled and awed most of his Source: R. Sou cce: E.90-118 MAO ENJOYS A CHALLENGE *•• ! 7. Terrill. because the difference between night and day did • not exist for him. but I heard from others that on occasion he has something about him suggests a power of ruthless been roused to an intense and withering fury.Yct his manner of speech certainly captured the minds and imagination of his listeners. Whatever he did. Lin Biao and other generals were organizing! training and commanding the armies. and he smoked incessantly while he talked.. (Ross Terrill) Recollections of Li Yinqiao. Source: Quan Yanchi.decision when he deems it necessary. Emperor of the Blue Ants In 1936 Edgar Snow. Mao's own funeral i a r r a n g e m e n t s were ignored a n d his body. The Source: Obituary o F Mao in the Times. dav. old imperial system had disappeared in 191 l. WO used in this source Lin Biao: Sii?6 Lin Piao The most outstanding trait in Mao's character. as was his custom during the years of tumult.7 MAO'S STRENGTH The story of Mao is not one of steady. and he would not allow convention to inhibit his personality in any way. there was no need to question his supreme leadership.. like Lenin's. Not God. No one could keep a record of how many hours he worked a '••'. Marxism had to be remad e m a Chinese image before it could serve China's cause. but also established a perso ital hold over the nation—this explains why the disaster of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution did not result in uprisings against Mao's rule of the type that punctuated the Qing dynasty and the Republican period.1 MAO'S LIFESTYLE AND BEHAVIOUR In Mao's case the word 'rustic' can be used to describe some of his living habits which had their origins in his early life as the son of a Chinese peasant. He did not look healthy. Like the peasants he was a practical man. when confronting the enemy. But Mao the nationalist was also Mao the revolutionary who believed that revolution should be continuous.2 MAO'S LEADERSHIP DURING THE 1930s Mao was the accepted leader in his g roup of experienced soldier-politicians because by 1936 he had proved himself a master of political a nd military st rategy.. Mao Zedong Man.. the m a n .3. Mao. vain leader.. Wilson.pp. I have the impression that deep in his heart Mao . 13 Throughout the warjwifh the Kuomintang. was mummified for future > generations of Chinese to pay their respects. Mao could never have done this simply as an importer of Marxism. A winner all his life. but he did not pay much attention to his clothes. never admitted to feeling overwhelmed by his adversaries . Mao Tse-turtg. Source: G. 7. each full of meaning and usually clear and precise. as far as I know. Liu Shaoqi directed all underground communist activity in the vastness of Guomindang China. he ate when he was hungry. Zhu De. Snow.was his readiness totakeona challenge. Paloczt-Horvath. China in OUT time.Mao. which could be any time . A week of mourningwas announced 1 while Mao's body lay in state in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. isolating him' (Agnes Smedley) and: his place in the history of China and the world will be large. 73. 264 ed. His contempt for them originated in his confidence in his own strength and his conviction that they were doomed. He had a family.. these qualities which go to make a revolutionary and constitute his hopes and aspirations. Mao's bodyguard. I Source: QuanTfitnehkAfoo ZedongMan. 'the people's greatest saviour'. 7. The Dalai Lama.but he has a deep sense of personal dignity. 10 September 1976 Mao's bodyguard Li Yinqiao recalls more about Mao's personality. He did not work according to a schedule. Although t h e era of Mao. p. must have felt lonely sometimes. and restored the independence and status in the world of the oldest and largest polity. never conceding an inch. pushed the country into a process of transformation perhaps more trenchant than any previous sudden social change in any major nation. His dress was just the same style as everybody else's. inexorable progress against uncomprehending foes.3-4 DALAI LAMA'S OPINION OF MAO His appearance gave no sign of his intellectual power. N& Gctff. Mao's behaviour was often unconventional. as his writings attest.THE SP1SIT0F CHANGE CHINA IN REVOLUTION [NVESTlGAnON 6 REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS AND LEADERS . and slower stilt in speech. and once I noticed that the cuffs of his shirt were torn.3. give an insight into Mao. MAO'S NATIONALISM Mao's greatest service to China was to give his country what it longed for after a century of chaos and indecision—the revolutionary leadership. In these one can see the history and culture of a nation. Zhou Enlai dealt with foreign policy and was the number-one diplomat of the Red state. and gave the impression of kindness and sincerity.What had remained for Mao to attack was a social and economic order in which the hated class were not the capitalists but the landlords whose oppression of the peasants had fired Mao's earliest sense of injustice. p. and it was Mao who did it. 452-3 colleagues. but of the repeated exertion of will on the part of an original prejudiced. described Mao in the following way.• Tiananmen: WG T'ien An Men or Tien An Men Mao Zedong died in Beijing on 9 September 1976. but he didn't see them very often. the strategy and the doctrine that could inspire its rebirth... We were the only ones he saw every day. short of total victory.. Mao was a man of superhuman energy. His shoes looked as though they had never been polishSource: D. although it was usually a different colour. He was slow in his movements. He did not always eat at the dinner-table but wherever was convenient. he displayed enormous courage in the face of danger. He responded to the challenges from the Kuomintang with counter-challenges. and angry. described Mao in the following way after meeting with him in Yanan. an American journalist.. Such confidence and conviction often prompted him to do extraordinary things.nor retreated in the face of heavy odds against him. 7. to him the bes t clothes were the ones in which he felt the most comfortable ..33 SNOW DESCRIBES MAO He appears to be quite free from symptoms of megalo. he was sparing of words and spoke in short sentences. had ended with the singing of the 'East is Red' at the funeral rally 'His [Mao's] spirit dwelt within itself. Red Star Over Chim 104 105 . pp. the former religious leader of Tibet.. he never quit. I never saw him mania. as well as his spartan life-style as a revolutionary. He led a revolution that killed old China.

Guomindang reinforcements eventually caused the Communists to withdraw. with Zhu De. This support was crucial to the Communist victory in the Civil War. even if one feels Prime Minister] told some Japanese politician friends that what Tanaka said of Zhou in Mao's presence was on his return to Tokyo.•. consummate statesman and the most respected leader in the Communist Party. t During the Long March..'. 1939 Source: Sally and Richard Greenhill ) :•£••• * • 7.. JH •*®mm /Hoc Zedong and Zhu Be during the years of the Red Army command . Zhou was instrumental In negotiating the second united front with the Nationalists at Xian in 1936 and became the chief negotiator for the Communists and the Communist representative in Chongqing during the Second World War.' It was an interesting comment. V : * . a diplomat. In 1928 he attended the Sixth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party which was held in Moscow.--.Althoughinitially successful.:!•$ '. for peace talks with Jiang Jieshi.3. 4 What are Mao's strengths and weaknesses? 5 What was Mao's contribution to the revolution? fl 7. :.1k. In talks given at Nanjing and Shanghai.3. Zhou supported Mao at the Zunyi meeting in 1935 where the mistakes of previous military strategies were criticised. Zhou Enlai escaped to Shanghai. 390 QUESTIONS 1 What personal qualities of Mao do these sources reveal? 2 What leadership qualities did Mao possess according to these sources? 3 Are any of these sources likely to be more biased than others? Identify the biases of the writers..=-.'"'* ' ^^^^MlijfNMMtt ."•.:.-'•'• :• : .':..Tanaka (Japanese man. i^^"-"-. Zhou became Director of the Military Department of the Communist Party Centra] Committee in 1927. . China in our time. and remained there to further the negotiations after Mao's return to Yanan. On release from jail he travelled to France with many other Chinese students to participate in a Marxist work study program. ^ : > ^ ' ' & -V i .9 MAO AND THE PEOPLE 6 How is Mao presented in the visual evidence? I ZHOU EN1A1 Zhou Enlai. Mao took over the leadership of the party with the backing of Zhou Enlai and Zhu De. An active student protest leader he was arrested and jailed in 1920. Zhou succeeded Mao as political commissar of the Red Army. • . :'>-'. a clumsy secretary attending an outstanding congressSource: R. Zhou won over Chinese intellectuals and politicians (former Guomindang supporters) who were disgruntled with the Nationalist government. Zhou worked on US General George Marshall's committee of three which unsuccessfullyattempted to negotiate a cease fire settlement during the Civil War. He was invited back to Moscow in 1930 to address the Sixteenth Congress of the Communist Party Soviet Union. In 1945 Zhou accompanied Mao Zedong to Chongqing after the Japanese surrender. : £. -.V-.. p.8 MAO'S PRESENCE 'Zhou [Enlai] isa nobodybeforeMao'. He returned to Yanan injune 1943 after the breakdown of the second united front. ' . He Long and 30 000 troops. He moved to Jiangxi rural base in 1931 as the underground Shanghai Communists were under great pressureof exposure from the Guomindang secret police.':•. was born into a family of the gentry in Jiangsu province in 1898. Terrill.^ = '":'wi^^i! ' Source: David King Collection 106 w»liElti SI lit ^ • ' ^ ^ .'Me behaves in front of Mao like truer of himself in Moo's presence.THESPlRITOr-CHANOE CHINA IN REVOLUTION REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS AND LEADERS 73. • •. After graduahngfromTianjin Middle SchooIinl917he moved to Japan to continue his studies. Zhou fled to Wuhan and. Zhou had the respect of the Americans for his efforts.V:. On his return to Tianjin in 1919 he supported the May Fourth movement through publications and demonstrations.10 MAO AND ZHU DE ^ Illlllllf ^ . l a t ' 3 ^ : . Since that time 1 August has been celebrated as the birthday ofthePeopIe'sLiberationArmy.:* •. Shortly after this Zhou was lucky to escape death during the April 1927 purge of Communists in Shanghai.Ol':. launched a counterattack on the Guomindang at Nanchang in Jiangxi province on 1 August 1927. Zhou's troops were successful against the northern warlord Sun Chuangfang and were able to clear the way for Jiang's revolutionary army in Shanghai. Zhou returned in 1924 and his support of Sun Yixian's national revolution saw his appointment as the political director of the Huangpu Military Academy which was under Jiang Jieshi's command. 107 A young Mao talking wilh peastmtf. J i •.