li1i§lo)~;

A
A3 flow, 262

Aquifers, 141
AqLlltEl1'ClS, 141

temperature controls for,
479-84

Bedding planes, 68
Bed load, 126-27

Abrasion, 154, 437

Archaeology vs. paleontology, 335

Absolute instability, 504
Absolute niagnitnde, 588

Archean eon, 339
Arctic, global warming and, 604-5

Absolute stability, 503-4
Absorption, 476-77 Absorption spectrrnn, 559 Abyssal plains, 19, 389 Abyssal Zone, 415 Acceleration of falling objects, experiments on, 520 Accretion, 31 1-12 Accretionary wedge, 310 Active continental margin, 310, 389 Adiabatic ternperatnre changes, 498-99 Advection fog, 510 Aerosols, 452 Aftersbocks, 230-31 Agate, 66 Age of Earth, determining, 326 Aggregates, 29, 30, 78 Air, 452, 500-501 Airflow aloft, 550 Air-rnass, 552-54 cold, 554 described, 552-53 source regions of, 553
weather associated with,

Arctic (A) air mass, 553
Arétes, 165-66 Argentite, 76 Arid climate, 588 Aridity vs. drought, 182 Arrowheads, 66 Artesian wells, 144-46 Artificial levees, 137 Asbestos, 77 Assimilation, 61-62 Asteroid belt, 655 Asteroids, 11, 655-56 Asthenosphere, 14, 200, 251 Astrology, 623 Astronomical unit (AU), 618 Astronomy, 2, 612-33 eclipses of the Sun and Moon, 627-29 motions of Earth, 625-27 motions of Earth-Moon system, 627-29 positions in the sky, 622-25 Astronomy, ancient, 612-16 Golden Age of early astronomy,
613-14

temperatures in, world distribution of, 482-84 variable components of, 462-63 vertical structure of, 465-67 weather and, 460-62 Atmospheric stability, 502-6 absolute instability, 504 absolute stability, 503-4 conditional instability, 504-5 daily weather and, 505-6 types of, 502-5 Atomic number, 31 Atoms, 30-34 atomic number and, 31 bonding of, 32-33 chemical compounds and, 31 defined, 30-34 isotopes as, 34 mass number of, 34 models of, 30 orderly packing of, 29 periodic table and, 31 proton, neutron, and electron properties, 30-31 structure of, review of, 336 Aurora, 682 Automated Surface Observing
System (ASOS), 7

Bedrock channels, 127 Benson, Sally, 544 Benthic zone, 415 Benthos, 412 Bereron process, 513-14 Berms, 435 Big bang theory, 10, 350, 689, 703-5 Bingham Canyon copper mine, 46 Biogenous sediment, 395 Biological activity, in weathering, 87-88 Bioluminesce, 414 Biomass, 411, 597 Biosphere, 13 Biotite, 41, 61 Bituminous coal, 67 Black hole, 698, 699-700 Blizzard warning, 499 Blowouts, 183, 185 “The Blue Marble” view from Apollo l7, 11 Blue skies, 476 Body wave, 234 Bonding of atoms, 32-33 Bornite, 76 Bottom dwellers, 412 Bowen’s reaction series, 60-61
B18118, T'yCl'10, 617

553-54 Air-mass weather, 552 Air pollution, types of, 454
Air pressure, 526-28

mapping the stars, 614 measuring Earth's circumference, 613-14
Pt0l€II1y’S IT1OCl€l, 614-15

Autumnal equinox, 469 Axial precession, 625, 626-27
B

Braided streams, 128-29 Breakwater, 446 Bright-line (emission) spectrum,
669

Air temperature data, 478 Albedo, 475, 481-82 Ajexandrite, 44 A'lnvial channels, 127-29 Alluvial fan, 135, 181 Ailnvinni, 127 A§pine glaciers, 158-59, 171 Altitude, temperature changes based 011, 481 Aluminum (A1), 39, 40, 76 Amethyst, 44 A-1"I1P11ib01@i 41, 58, 51 Andean-type plate margins, 309, 3 10-11 Andesitic (intermediate) composition, 58, 60 Aneroid barometer, 528 Angle of repose, 103 Angular unconformity, 329 Anthracite coal, 67 Afltidillesi 301-2 Anticyclone, 533 Apaatar 77 Aphelion, 626 APh0TiC ZOIIB, 414 Appalachians, 313-15

Sun-centered universe, 614 Astronomy, modern, 616-22 Brahe and, 617 Copernicus and, 616-17 Galileo and, 619-20 Kepler and, 617-19 Newton and; 620-22 1411311116 C0881, 443 Atmaapharar 12-13: 450-62 air Pollution’ YYPBS Of» 454 air temp‘-3FaU~11'a data» 478 altar1118» 454 Cfl1‘b011 di0Xide in; 1'a5P0115a Y0’ 598-99 Composition Ofi 462-63 Ea1"[h'Sun relationship in’ 457-72 aV01UYi011 Of» 353 heating 01°, 477-73 heat transfer mechanisms in» 472-74 mal01' Companents Of’ 452 Ozone depletion in» 453: 465 of Planets» 639-40 Salar 1'adiati°ni1'11 in-Coming; 474-77

Backshm-8, 433 Backswamp, 135 Banded 11-on formations, 354 Bar, 132 Ba,-Chan dunes, 137 Bamhanoid dunes, 189 Barograph, 528 Baronqetrjc pressure, 528 Barometric tendency, 534 Barred spiral galaxy, 701 Barrier islands, 443 Basalt, 14 Basaltic composition, 58, 59, 60 Base level erosion, 130 Base level meanders, 132 Basins, 302 Batnolitns, 279 Bathymetry, 384 Bauxite, 76, 101 Baymouth bar, 443 Beach, 435 drift, 439 face, 435 nourishment, 447 sand movement on, 438-41 shoreline of, 435-36

Bright nebulae, 691 Brittle deformation, 298-99, 304-8 faults formed by, 304-7 joints formed by, 307-8 Buckyballs, 37 Building materials, 77-78 C Calcite, 39, 42, 77 Calcium (Ca), 39, 40 Calcium carbonate, 42 Calderas, 273-74 Calorie, 490 Cambrian period, 365 Capacity, 127 Caraballeda, Venezuela mud slide, 21 Carbon-14, 338-39 Carbonates, 39, 40, 42 Carbon cycle, 69 Carbon dioxide, global climate change and, 596-99 Carbonic acid, 89 Carbon nitride (C3N,,), 37 Cassiterite, 76 Catastrophism, 325

731

691 Dark silicates. 318-19 Compressional mountain. 198. 77 Cosmological red shift. 4 Crystallization. 460-62 Continental (c) air mass. 436-37 Circulation. 76 Chromium. See also Mammals influence on ocean current patterns. 416 Deflation. 513-14 condensation and. 177-82 climate of. 71. 588-90 driest on Earth. 66 Chilcyu (drilling vessel). 688 Country breezes. 6010-601 Cosmology. 672 Chromite. 55-56. 135 Density. 432 idealized global. 132-33. 58. 499. 430-31 Cumulus clouds. 17 stable interior. 272-73 Corona. 71 Cat’s-eye. 387 Continental slope. 373 Western North America. 595 classification. 680 Chrysoberyl. 17 Cirques. 57 Darwin. 44. 590-91 humid middle-latitude climates with severe winters (D). 38 Climate~feedback mechanisms. 205-9 Deep-ocean circulation. 388 Deep-sea hydrothermal vent biocommunities. 586-90 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). 178 geologic processes in. 178-80 mountainous landscape in. 390 oceanic plateaus. 506-8 Dark matter. 492 Depositional features of shoreline. 138 cold. 559 *}Coyclonic D‘tD(D_‘ winds. 481-82 fog and dew vs. 37. 132-35 alluvial fans. 697 Deltas. 280 Deep-ocean basins. 248 Deep-ocean trenches. 540 Coast. 473 Convergence. 89 in deserts.. 561-62 Cyclonic anticyclonic. Nicolaus. 165. 361-62. 371-75. Susan. 588 water’s role in. 161 natural levees. 16 debate over. 17 Continuous spectrum. 173 Channelization. 201. 339. 62-64. 300-304 on nonrotating Earth. 38. 309 Dendritic pattern. 65-67 cover. 137-38 Darl<~line (absorption) spectrum. 62 Crystal settling. 64. 542 Curie point. 11 1 Crevasse. 389. 144 Confining pressure. 677 Channeled Scablands. 22 development of. 593 volcanoes and climate changes. 179 . 362 flowering plants and. 657 Comets. 540-41 Covalent bonds. 313-15 Himalayas. 19. 371. major. See also Global climate change ancient. 186. 271. 16. 450 Chromatic aberration. 704 Citrine. 205. 556-57 Collier. 449-50 submergent. See Internal structure of Earth Compressional forces. 506-8 Condensation nuclei. 76 Coastline. 391 DeBari. 506-8 vertical development of. 68 Cenozoic era. 389-92 abyssal plains. 594-95 humid middle-latitude climates with mild winters (C). 299-300 Degenerate matter. 132-33. 44 convergence and. 204-5 Clouds. 56-57. 386 Continental mountain belt collisions Appalachians. 387 Continental volcanic arc. 507 highland. Texas. 148 Collisional mountain belts. 207. 533 yclonic flow. 14. 134 Color (mineral). principle ofl 327-28 Crust. 86. 19-20. 70. 394 Debris flow. 134 Crater Lake-type calderas. 151 Celestial sphere. 356-57 mountain belts. 186 Cross—cutting relationships. 68 Competence. 389 types of. 585-86 Conformable. 313-15 Himalayas. 313. 669 Chcmdm X-Ray Observatory (CXO). 52. 268-69 Cinnabar. 265 Climates. 109-10 Declination. 132-33 Desalination of seawater. 535-36 ircumference of Earth. 20.732 Index humid tropical (A).251 Ciyovolcanism. 214 Cut bank. 59 Chemical weathering. 299 Cross beds. 20 first on Earth. 62-64. 15. 389 deep-ocean trenches. 304-8 ductile. 265 Cone of depression. 33 Chemical compounds. 286. 199 nuée ardentes. 65 Coral atolls. 128 polar (E). 179-80 weathering in. 601 dry (B). 443 Depositional landforms. 183-84. 76. 207-8 volcanism at. 390 guyots. 530. 89 Chert. 286 Copernicus. 127 Composite cones. 44 Chalcocite. 406 Desertiiication. 37. 408 Deposition. 252 Coriolis effect. 390 Chapped lips. 128 utoff. 35-36 Cumulonimbus clouds. 387 Continental shelf. 537-38 Appalachians. 61 Crystal shape. 166 “ii Cirrus. 206-7 oceanic-oceanic convergence and. 513-14 Cold front. 314 Continental rift. 44 Caverns. 553 Continental-continental yclones. 185 Deserts. 150. 133 deltas. 500-501. 313. 582-83 Climatology of tornado. 314 terranes. 591-92 sand dunes in. 269-73 lahars. 208 Continental drift. 492. 278 Coma. 656-58 Compaction. 668 Convection. 17-19. 460. 532 elastic. 34 Crater. 9. 35 Columnar joint. 189 temperature changes in. 330-32 Corundum. 79 Cleavage. 203. 311-12 Collision-coalescence process. 506 adiabatic temperature changes and. 76 Circle of illumination. 613 Cementation. 506 Coquina. 504-5 Conduction. 88-90 carbonic acid. 44 Clay. 583-85 Climate system. 472-73 Conduit. 533 Convergent boundaries. 616-17 Copper. 179 of granite. Michael. 389 390 Cold air mass. 390-91 seamonts. 362 Chalcedony. 298-304 brittle. 32. 37. 298-99. 593-94 human impact on global. 183. 17. 194-96 evidence of. 613-14 ircum-Pacific belt. 273 Cratons. 208 oceanic-continental convergence and. 89 water in. 185 Cinder cones. 581-94. 514-15 Coal. 498-99 Dams. 624 Decompression melting. 432 Deep-ocean drilling. 705 Dark nebulae. 32. 102 Deep-sea fan. 328 Constellations. 498-99 Continental rise. 196-99 Continental margin. 18-19. 565 Closed system. 622. 269-71 Compositional layers of Earth. 533. 449-50 emergent. temperature changes based on. 31 1 Continents features of. rate of temperature change from. 391 Core. 39 Concordant. 77. 554 Cold clouds. 180-82 cities’ influence on. 178 Desert pavement. 433 classification oi. 199-200 world. 583-85 computer models of. flood-control. 533 Eastern North America. 506 Cup anemometer. 493 Chemical bond. 586 expansion of. 311-15 continental-continental Chromosphere. 357 Creep. 276 Condensation. continental drift and. 76 Chalk. 18-19. 680-81 Correlation of rock layers. 32 Chemical sedimentary rock. 508 warm. 677 Conchoidal fractures. 76 Chalcopyrite. Charles. 514-15 Deformation. 467 Circular orbital motion. 498 formations. 291 weather and. 433 Coast Ranges in California. 624 Contact (thermal) metamorphism. 506 Conditional instability. 67 Coarse-grained texture. 654 Crystal Beach. 298 rock strength and. 33. 65-66 convergence. 3 Chinook. 250.

349~50 stream. 300-302 anticlines. 537 dew and. 229 Ductile deformation. 9_11 external pmcesses Of’ 34 Mesozoic era. 228-55 aftershocks. 462 Elevation. 17-20 interior of. 4-5 steppes. 171 Dry adiabatic rate. 84 base level. 670 Doppler radar. 22 hydrologic cycle in. 397-98 from wind. 229. 452 Ecliptic. 137 causes of floods. 411 Flood basalts. 353 Big Bang theory and. 21 1 orientation of. 77 Flow. 249-52 notable. from earthquakes. 170. 353 of life. 239-40 Elastic deformation. 76 Domes. 298 Elastic rebound. 37. 30-31 Elements (atoms). 44 Fire. 136-38 artificial levees. 171 Estuaries. 228. 666-67 Fault-block mountains. 355-60 protoplanets and. 276 Disseminated deposit. 249-52 oxygen. 572 F Fall. 242-43 Fissure. 535-36 Equatorial system. 22-23 Earth system science. 39 Effervescency. 475 circulation on nonrotating. 5-8 Earth’s evolution through geologic time. 467-'72 as a system. 586 faults and. 305-6 reverse faults. 363 Euphotic zone. 22 energy sources for. 229-30 in central and eastern U. 371. highest at which Dolomite. 283 Extrusive (volcanic) rock. 304-7 continental rift and. Earth altering events. 306 thrust faults. 305-6 relative motion across. 175-76 temperature of crust. 413 Evaporation. 84-98. 691-92 Emission spectrum. 87 spheres of. 640 Eskers. 569-70 Double refraction. 21 motions of. 21-22 Eastern North America. 40. Cenozoic Dikes. measuring. 37 Fine-grained texture. 392 domes. 384 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon. 498 evaporation. 353-54 Paleozoic era. 350 timely. 274-75 Floodplain. 30 t'I1l fI 1 lectromagnetic radiation. 244 ”Earthrise” view from Apollo 8. 417 Divergence. 360-63 planetesimals and. 138 Flourite. 246-48 short-range. 450 . 232. 130 Eruption column. 572 Eye wall. 67 Evapotranspiration. 511-12 frontal. 329 Discordant. 201-2. 228. 204 volcanism at.Index wind deposits in. 182 Drumlins. 102-12 ground subsidence. Eukaryotes. 233-34 size of. 84 erosion. 586-90 low-latitude deserts and steppes. 588-89 middle-latitude deserts and seismology and. 245-49 long-range. 204-5 oceanic ridge system and. 136-37 channelization. 230-31 belts. 9 1 Diffused light. 398 Evaporite deposit. 369-71. 131 Emergent coast. 236-39 source of. 286 Divide. 239 Electrons. 118420 linked parts of. 365. 300-304 Dwarf galaxy. 229 humans can survive. glaciers and. 77 Earthflow. 59 Fiords. 448-49 internal structure of. 68 Eisinger. 449-50 Emission nebulae. 179 Epicenter. 305-6 normal faults. 339 Erosion. 301-2 basins. 510 caused by cooling. 429 Drinking seawater. 352-53 early evolution Of. 21-23 unique characteristics of. 308 Feldspars. 16. 347-78 atmosphere. 228-29 duck. 126 Distributary. 4-5 Floods and flood control. 166. 137-38 nonstructural approach. 44. 299. 669 End moraine. motions of. 326 albedo of. 350 Precambrian period. 59. 363-65 age of. 368 face of. 58. 543-45 dip-slip. 306 Discharge. 11 Earth science defined. 232 in Haiti. 2010. 511 upslope. 243-44 Earthquake prediction. 241 energy released by. 130 features of shoreline. 124 Disconformity. 2-3 human impact on. 167 in Indonesia. 261 Dew. relationship with. 473. 168 Energy resources from seafloor. 367-69 733 problems along U. 510-11 steam. Chris. 302 Donnellan. 511-12 radiation. 407 Drought vs. 55 Eye. and hold. 98-101 mass wasting. aridity. 274-75 Flint. 467-68 movement of features on. 132 Diurnal tidal pattern. 627-29 Earthquake destruction. 31-32 Eiements (weather and climate).S. 491 Evaporation fog. 441-42 major events leading to formation Of 9a1'1Y Earth» 350. 349.S. 495-96 Diamonds. 367. 233 defined. cover. 475 sun. 71 winds friction with surface of. 138 Energy sources for Earth. 536 Drift meters. 395 Differential stress. 184-89 wind erosion in. 138 100~year flood. locating. 249 Doppler effect. 14-15. 38-39. 350 Cenozoic era. 369-73 Diorite. 306 strike-slip. 339 Equatorial low. 655 groundwater. 239-40 safest place in house during. 468-69 Phanerozoic eon. 373. 38. 232 foreshocks. 626 Economic minerals. 72 Differential weathering. 77 Escape velocity. 241 Eluviation. 498 Dew~point temperature. 511 Folds. 66 Floaters. Andrea. 57. 306-7 Fault scarp. 243-44 interior of Earth and. 505. 246 era. 466 Eon. 39 Drainage basins. 245 plates. 4 problems associated with scientific inquiry and. 2004. determining. 499 Dry (B) climates. 8-9 natural hazards to. 354-55 . 510-12 advection. 60 Dip-slip faults. 624-25 Equinoxes. 469-72 Era. 274 Fissure eruptions. 143 Driest place on Earth. 669. 5 11-12 Evaporative salts. 56.. 120-21 Drainage patterns. 135-36 Drawdown. 58. 61 Felsic. 182-84 Detrital sedimentary rock. 242 landslides. 234-36 Epoch. 316 Faults. 240-44 fire. 101-2 Dissolved load. 701-2 El Nifio. 392 Earth early evolution. 11-17 studying from space. 2-3 people and the environment. 110 Earth-Moon system. 105. 510-11 Ephemeral stream. 244. 228. 311 Elliptical galaxy. 350. 105 astronomy used in probing origins of. 146-50 Environmental lapse rate. 64 Devonian period. 348 Earth’s orbit. 242 from seismic waves. 22 Environment flood-control dams. 230 lectrical charge. 120 Exfoliation dome. 278 Dinosaurs. 374-75 Focus. 589-90 Dry—summer subtropical climate. 97 Emerald. 120 causes of. 339 Fog. 58 Fibrous fractures. 204-5 Earthquakes. 242-43 External processes of Earth. 362 Echo sounder. 305. 234-36 waves triggered by. 372-73 oceans. 240-42 from tsunami. 204 seafloor spreading and. 591 scales of space and time in. 170. 6 Diatoms. 530-31 Earth system. 701 Dwarf planets. coasts. 231 frequency of. 22-23 cycles in. 627-29 weathering and soil. 533 Divergent boundaries. 305. 122. 43.

328 law of superposition. 492 Freezing nuclei. 96 Horns. 511-12 Frontal wedging. 214 Fossils. 496 chapped lips and. 342 structure of. 334-35 correlation and. 40. 433 Fossil magnetism. 477-78 He at transfer mechanisms. 174-77 chemical composition of atmosphere and. 76 Galileo. 605 Haiti earthquake. 324-45 correlation of rock layers and. 573-75 formation and decay of. 86 Fumarole. 701-2 irregular. 572-73 names given to. 556-57 occluded. 585-86 H Habit. 604-5 potential for surprises. 147. 169 Ground subsidence. 171-74 ice caps and. 142 Hubb1e’s law. 141 artesian wells. 242 Groundwater. 160. 493 relative. 263-64 Gas hydrate. 593 High relative humidity. 140-41 river flow contributed to. 197 Gneiss. 37. 619-20 Garnet. 614 Hematite. 160-61 retreating. 150. 77 Hanging valleys. 22 Greenland ice sheet. 594-95 temperature variations. 142-43 storage. 473-74 Heliocentric. 164-67 process of. 77 Gases extruded during volcanic eruptions. 43. 704 Hubble Space Telescope (HST). 313. 142-43 Glacial budget. 594-608 aerosols and. 228. 500 Frost we dging. 141 aquitards. 139 geologic work of. 149-50 distribution of. 44. 591-92 Humid subtropical climate. 702-3 Galaxies. 513 Front. 146 water dowsing and. 591-92 Humidity. 302-3 synclines. 341 Geology. 176 depositional work carried out by. 2 Hogback. 306 Half-life. 613 Geographic position. 260-61 Heat. 573 profile of. 324-30 geology today. 679 Graphite. 9. 229 Half-graben. 45 Global climate change. 472-74 conduction. 702 Galactic collisions. 333-34 Fossil succession. 325-26 Folds (cont) monoclines. 168 Glacial ice. 570-76 destruction caused by. 60 Galactic clusters. vs Gyres. 76 Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. 42-43. 420 Forecasting tornado. 146-50 geological roles of. 337-38 Halides. 426 Humid continental climate. 336-39 Ice Age. 35-36 Earth’s evolution through. 347-78 Hadean eon. 330-32 principle of cross-cutting relationships. 167-71 drumlins. 446 Ground moraine. 500. 419 Food web. 140 environmental problems associated with. 76 Graben. 170. 496-97 mixing ratio. 446-48 alternatives to. 602. explained. 326 inclusions. 301-2 Foliation. 516-17 fossils and. 74 Glacial striations. 447. size of. 557 stationary. 314 Historical geology. 138-39 karst topography formed by. 602-5 human impact on. 122 Granite. 162. 327 relative dating principles. 165. '77. 66. 150-52 importance of. 151 contamination. size of. 89 Granitic composition. 74 Gold. 571-72 season of. 171 eskars. 446 groins. 150-52 land subsidence caused by withdrawal. 555-57 cold. 446-47 Hawaiian-type calderas. 167-68 kames. 164-67 landforms created by. 43. 210 Freezer burn. 447-48 breakwater. 339-40. 59. 57 Glassy texture. 493-95 saturation. 303 Holocene epoch. 143-44 Hard stabilization. 600-601 projected changes/ effects of. 448 Gulf stream. 326-27 modern geology. 58 Granodiorite. 161-63 piedmont. 604 Glossopteris. 473 radiation. 212 Hot spring. 138-52 aquifers. 675-77 Gulf coast. 601-2 carbon dioxide and. 158-77 causes of. 530 Geothermal gradient. history of. 73-74 Food chain. 164 Glacial erratic. 166 Glaciers. 57 Glaze. 497 measuring. 335 Fracture. 141-42 permeability. 164-65. 172 The Great Stone Face. 42-43. 333-36 conditions favoring preservation. principle of. 167 Horst. 139 speed of. 573 names of. 287 Hot spot track. 702 spiral. 495-96 high relative. 497 Himalayas. defined. 168-70 Glacial drift. 590-91 Humid tropical (A) climates. 167-68 Glacial erosion. 506 Highland climate. 492-93 Humid middle-latitude climates with mild winters (C) climates. 327-28 principle of original horizontally. 351 dating.734 Index terminology and. 600 trace gases and. 68. 36-37 Hurricane Ike. 77 Gravitational collapse. 146-47 movement. 196-97. 289 G Gabbro. 306 Gradient. 472-73 convection. 575-76 . 567-70 Foreshocks. 603 sea-level rise. 58. 556 Frontal fog. 574 tracking. 231 Foreshore. 167-71 erosional work carried out by. 164-67 dating with radioactivity and. 473 Heating of atmosphere. 166 Hardness. 39 Fracture zone. 599 Global Warming» 447: 502-5 changing Arctic. 163 valley (alpine). 58. 516 Glen Canyon Dam. 164 Glacial troughs. 280 Geysers. 339-43. 4 Hurricanes. difficulties in. 2010. 159 Groin. 140-41 treating as nonrenewable resource. birth of. 342-43 need for. 397 Gemstones. 42 Halite. 13-17 Geostrophic wind. 333-36 Geologic time scale. 170. 14 Granules. 158-59 Glass rocks. in 21st century. 693-94 High. 141 springs. 197 of Mesoscmrus. 342 tree rings and. 472 Heat conduction. 165-66. 596-99 climate-feedback mechanisms. 90 Greenhouse effect. 44 General atmospheric conditions for tornado. 162 Glacial deposits. 590-91 Humid middle-latitude climates with severe winters (D) climates. 428-30 Guyot. 306 Hot spot. 141 porosity. 144-46 caverns formed by. temperature changes based on. 61. 339 Hail. 339 global warming and. 161 ice sheets and. 9 Horizon. 159-60. 59. 196-97 types of. 477-78 Greenhouse gases. 335-36 of Glossopteris. 319 Great Lakes. 2 Geology. 493 dew-point temperature. 492-97 in buildings during winter. 565 Geocentric. 143 wells. 700-702 elliptical. 590 Humid subtropics. 73. 171 glacial drift. 171 moraines. 273 Hawaiian-type volcanic eruptions. 170. types of. 328-30 Geosphere. 533 High cloud. 481 Geologic time. 557 warm. 212. 324 Precambrian time and. 330 unconformities. 700-701 Galena. 390 Gypsum. 72. 171 movement of. 446 seawalls. 599.

260 decompression melting and. 252 formation of layered structure. 39. 506. 32 Iron (Fe). 535 Krakatau eruption. 693. 258-59. 385 Marble. 84 Internal structure of Earth. 492 evaporation. 500 Interior drainage. 107 role of. 251. 86 salt crystal growth. 307-8 Iovian planet. 76 Manganese nodules. 103-4 water’s role in. 492 Lateral moraine. 124 Longshore bars. 76 Magnetometer. 280-82 composition. striking distance from 51011111 554 Light silicates. 390 Marine life zones. 170. 384-85 from space. 276 Mass number. 53 jlmenite. 642 Mariana Trench.1m9n11e= 75 Liquefaction. 281 Magma mixing. 9 Layered plate-mantle convection model. 279-80 7-1111511 5111131397 542-44 crust. availability of. 22. 76 Hygrometer. 55. See Internal structure of Earth Leaching. classifying. 32 ions. 439 Longshore currents. 593 Ice Caps. 14. 373. 318-19 gravitational collapse and. 15. 127 Meandering streams. 108 vegetation and. 215 Magnitude. 371. 87 . 68 Lithosphere. 103-5 damage caused by. jQhenneg. 151 Ice sheets. 180 Internal processes. 491 sublimation. 118-20 Hydrosphere. 239 Richter.252 Mantle plumes. 625 Mechanical weathering. 647-48 Marsupials. 56. 492 deposition. 12 Hydrothermal solutions. 413-14 water depth. 317-18 Isostatic adjustment. 373. 76 irregular fractures. 281-82 volatiles and. 237-39 moment magnitude. 44 181513913 55 let stream. 252 Interstellar matter. 34 Mass wasting. 668 Lightening. 554 Lake Missoula. 440 1»011851101'e 1131115111111» 439-41 ZOW. 52. 501 1101331 W111111 539-41 735 Magnetic reversals. 384-85 modern bathymetric techniques. 37 Irregular galaxy. 703 L18111 collection. 122 Land. 596 Mantle. 87-88 fro st wedging. 214 Magnetite. seismic waves and. 374-75 extinction of large mammals. 171 Kaolinite. 496 Hygroscopic nuclei. 105-8 rate of movement. 168 Lava. 545 Latent heat. 112 earthquakes and. 62 textures. 373 Manganese. 517-19 X60188.374 placental. 189 Longitudinal profile. 151 . 252 Laccoliths. 110 motion types. 15. 276-77 sills. 490 Lithification. 15 Low-latitude deserts and steppes. 279-80 Lahars. 159-60. 558-59 Life outside Earth’s solar system. 173 Lambert Glacier. 251 Lithospheric plates. 6 Laminar flow. 575 jnner gore. 97 Lead. 104 landslides and. 373. 52. 3 Kemeg. 251 experiments on composition and temperature. changes in elevation. 57 1-18111'Y9i-11: 9: 589 -1811119 13931» 57 Limestone. 220 Layers of Earth. 279 dikes. 72.643 core. 102-3 slope change through time. 458 Inclusions’ 323 jndex fossil’ 335 Industrial minerals. 374-75 marsupials. 691-93 bright nebulae. 395-96 Hydrologic cycle. 252 jnergenie Compounds’ 31 Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). 646-48 topography. 250. 691-92 dark nebulae. Newton’s. 374 Massive. Michael. 420 Z0688. 84. 280-81 generating from solid rock. 695-96 Mammals. 77 Karst topography. 56 1118t8r»34—35 M Mafic. 171 lee Shelf’ 153 Idealized global circulation. 76 Maria. 278 laccoliths. 252 probing. 266-67 Meander. 55_52 assimilation and magma mixing. 650-51 K Lava flows. 60 Magma. 670-71 113111116 01» 665 processes and. 55. 531 Ioints. 507 Interface. 553 Mars. 286-87 Intrusions. 55_57. 702 Localized convective lifting. 280 partial melting and. 110. 43. 214-16 Magnetic time scale. 373. 60-61. 102-8 controls and triggers of. tsunami after. g1’249_52 Kemetiite. 237-39 Main-sequence stars. 506 Hypothesis. 412-15 shore. 537-38 jdeajized Weather. 53 Kijppen classification. 242 La Nina. 105-7 oversteepened slopes and. 14-15. 280 Kuip BI bi-111. 559_50 :gne0uS reek. 55 ionic bonds. 702 island arc. 14. 414 sunlight. 74-75 Infiltration. 650 rings of. 200. 20 Lava tube. 540 incised meanders. 52. 692-93 Intertidal zone. 286 Isobar. 648-51 moons of. 112 deaths caused by. 86-88 biological activity. 127-28 Mean solar day. removal of. 398 Mann. 132 jnelinetjen of the exte. 279 intrusive (plutonic) rock. 75 jmpeet etetete. 207. distance from. 267-68 :(i11e1'wh3]e5. 474 jnjend flooding. 529 jsostasy. 40. 55-55 formation of. 212. 442 Marine west coast climate. 39. 76 Life cycle of middle-latitude cyclone. 249-50 mantle. 66. 414 lntraplate volcanism. 184 Longitudinal dunes. 14-15. 637 Iupiter. 695 Hydrogenous sediment. Lower mantle. 490-92 condensation. 34 J Iade. 58-60 compositions of. 3 jltensjty’ 236 Kaibab Formation. 280-81 geothermal gradient and. 646-47 water ice on. 103 processes. 22 jntet-gevemmentaj pane] on Climate Change (IPCQ). 42. 250. 65. 14-15.Index Hydrogen fusion. 236 Magnitude scales. 16. 250. 42. 317-18 15911191111: 473 Isotopes. 272-73 Lake-effect snow. temperature changes based on. 6-7 I :Ce’ 490 Ice Age glaciers’ 171_74 jee Cap Climate. 263 Law of superposition. 103 Mauna Loa. 57 C1-ygtalljzatjgnl 52. 414-15 Marine organisms. 479-81 Land breezes. 411-12 Marine terrace. 657 I. 271. 591 Maritime (m) air mass. 170 Kilauea. 251. 169.216. 286-87 Mapping the seafloor. 533-89 1411131 913111359: 529 -111131 1118111319115» 542 -111131‘ 11191191151 528 Lunarreg0hth. 76 Magnesium (Mg). 241 Liquid water. 78 nature of. 276-80 batholiths. 317-19 compressional forces and. 200-201 Local Group. 52. 326-27 Laws of motion. 1 10. 61-52 classifying. 150-52 Kepler. 103 snow avalanches and. 61 Magnesite. 319 P1'111C1P1e 91: 317 vs.40. 540 Landslide s. 61-62 Magmatic differentiation. 32-33 Ionic compounds. 113 infrared. 87 sheeting. 533 LOW ClOL1ClS. 584. 374 from reptiles to. 262-63 Lava plateaus. 278 stocks.

625-27 anatomy of. 42. 417-20 Nuée ardente. 73-74 tenacity. 558-59 Mid-ocean ridge. 302-3 Monsoon. See also Metamorphism foliated. 35-36 climb to top of. 438-41 Natural levee. 410 comparing to continents. 42-43 Normal fault. 452 Nearshore zone. 237 Mohoroviéic discontinuity [Moho). 38 magnetic. 32 Mineral strength. 467-68. 41 '7-20 food chains. 418 Oceanic-oceanic convergence. 197-98 North Pole ice. 426-28 influence on climate. 74 nonfoliated. 19-20 biocommunities. 170 Motions of Earth. 319 fault~block mountains. 414 metamorphic agent. 76 Mercury barometer. distribution of youngest mountains. major. 408-10 with depth. 10. 626-27 revolution. 300 Mount St. 409. 538 Moon. 206-7 Oceanic feeding relationships. 410-15 marine life zones. 75-77 -Metallic substances. 655 Neritic zone. 133 Naturally occurring crystalline. 698 Newton. tools made by. 76 Molybdenum. 600 Nekton. 628 seeing in daytime. 416 polar.15 diversity of. 73 Microcontinent. 169. 369. properties of. 433-37 of tides. 449-50 of erosion problems along U. 653 Nonrenewable resources. 34-35. 34-39 crystal shape or habit. glacial. 76 Native silver.S. 177 surface. 445-48 of shoreline. 559 Ocean acidity. 311 Neptune. 3 12 Oceanic plateau. 37. 329 Nonfoliated texture. 626 rotation. See also Isostasy Observatories on mountaintops. 38 strength (See Mineral strength) taste. 654-55 Saturn. 392-93 elevated position of. 258-59 Movement of features on Earth. 589-90 Middle-latitude or mid-latitude cyclone. 316 Occlusion. 390 Oceanic ridge. 450-53 Metamorphic rock. 76 Moment magnitude. ocean basins. 45 treating groundwater as. 311-12 Mountainous desert landscape. 658 Meteorites. 560 Moonstone. 37. Helens. 28 Mineral resources. 397-98 metamorphic agent. 417 tropical. 70 Monoclines. 57 Native elements. 382 Ocean productivity. See Ro ck-forming precession. 559-60 life cycle of. 32 Molybdenite. 411-12 Ocean floor. 432 glaciers and. 17 continental drift and. 636-37 Negative-feedback mechanism. 409 factors affecting. 654-55 rings of. 426-32 Ocean current patterns. 61. 45 Neap tides. 38 fracture. 625-26 Mountain belts. 36-37 coasts. 41. vertebrates. 72 confining pressure as metamorphic agent. 72 heat as metamorphic agent. 657 Ocean life diversity. 415. 74-75 textures. 270 Numerical date. 415-17 deep-sea hydrothermal vent 30-34 characteristics of. 38-39 Mercury. 29. 20. 146 Nonsilicates. 46-47 Minerals. 38 odor. 169.10 idealized weather of. 493. Earth’s. 170 valley trains. 433 Nebulae. 506-7 Midd1e~latitude deserts and steppes. 389-92 mapping. 414 Ocean layering. role of. 214 North America. 69-73 chemically active fluids as Model. 168 Megafloods. 200. 558-60 airflow aloft. 411-12 oceanic feeding relationships. 658-59 Meteorology. 38 N Native Americans. 659 Meteoroids. 76 Natural gas. 383 density variations in. properties of) terranes and. 691 Nebular theory. 70-71 regional. 409-10 Medial moraine. 382-401 continental margins. 358 North American Cordillera. 44 Moraines. 557 Oceanography. 393 movement of. 370-71 Metallic bonds. 385-86 Neptune. 386-92 deep-ocean basin. 40. 239 sediments (See Seafloor sediments) seismic reflection profiles. 326 minerals Mineralogy. 620-22 Nickel. 360-61 reptiles as first terrestrial feel. 76 Native platinum. 305 Normal polarity. 196-97 Mesosphere. 392-93 provinces of. 412-15 marine organisms. 17-20 oceanic ridges. 38 optical. 36-37 Moisture. 77-78 food webs. 410 Ocean basins continental margins. 204 Oceanic zone. 493 Molecules. Mud slide. 70 defined. 72-73 Metamorphism. 53. 160 Nuclear fusion. 109 deep-ocean. 408-10 evolution of. 57. 417 Oceans 34 natural resources. 527 Mesosaurus. reasons for. 448-49 of ocean circulation. 339. 37. 13 Nonconformity. 43. 20 Ocean circulation acidity of. 651 Uranus. 46-47 glacial ice as. 168-70 kettles. 77 Ocean density variation. 28 Minerals. 180-82 Mount Everest. 419 Meteor. 30. 173 Mercury. 211-12 Ocean dynamics of coast. 33 Metallic mineral resources. 644 38 effervescency. 44 Native gold. 415 groups (See Rock-forming minerals) isotopes and radioactive decay. 418-19 tropic levels. adding or subtracting.__ _ 736 Index g density and specific gravity. 408-9 ocean layering and. 426-31 of sand movement on beach. 7 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. 410. 654-55 moons of. 23. 309-11 (See also Collisional mountain belts) temperate. 45-47 properties of (See Minerals. 29 continents vs. 420 transfer efficiency. 452 Mixing ratio. 71-72 contact or thermal. first person to features of. 31 of shore. 658 Mica schists. 430-31 geography of. 641-44 eclipses of. 69-70 differential stress as Mohs scale. 11. 29. 627-29 Neutrons. 397 Ocean drilling. 69-75. sea vs. 540 Mountain building. 21 Mineral groups. 17 Mountain breezes. 18-19 deep-ocean basins. 2. 22. 392 Milky Way Galaxy. 36 Mixed tidal pattern. 650 Noctilucent clouds. 29-3 1 atoms as building blocks of.17 . Sir Isaac. 354-55 rocks. 384-85 oceanic ridge. 382-83 productivity in. 386 resources from. 392-93 Middle clouds. 248 renewable vs. 10. 630 Moons Jupiter. 673 Obsidian. 76 Oceanic—continental convergence. 30 use of term. 21 Muscovite. 211 system. 308-19. 32. 506 Natural resources. 170 outwash plains. 36-37 cleavage. 45-47 mineral resources. 682 Nucleus. 30-31 Neutron star. 2 phases of. 207-8 Meteor shower. making of. nonrenewable. 39 hardness. 415. 211 Mudflow. at subduction zones. 58 Occluded front. 467 Mesozoic era. 72-75 Nonmetallic mineral resources.

386 Psychrometer. 407 Outer core. 411 Piedmont glaciers. 672-74 light detection. 189 Parcel. 507 divergent. 639 Iovian. 626 Planetary nebulae. 679-80 Photosynthesis. 449 Pahoehoe flow. 628 Photic zone. 360-61 Paleozoic era. 529-30 Pressure tendency. 55 Qqrerurorof-_qutons. 360 paleomagnetism as evidence. 212 magnetic reversals and. 675 frontal wedging. 282. 500 Osmosis. 365. 40 Potassium feldspar. 371. 41 1 Plants flowering. 101-2 Ore minerals of important metals. 365. 677 Hubble Space Telescope (HST). 41. 675 Radiometric dating. 212. 356-57 making of North America. 217. 360 Pressure centers. 529 Pressure-gradient force. 339 Periodic table. 468-69 CJKOCOCO lriginal horizontally. 61. 64 nrientation of Earth. 518-19 processes that generate. 397 Old Man of the Mountain. 275-76 Polar (P) air mass. 69 Paricutin. 172 Point bar. 512-15 from warm clouds. 201-11 convergent. 339 Proton-proton chain reaction. 465-66 Pressure gradient.Index seawater. 16-17. 338 Radio telescopes. 77 Quartzite. 501 orographic lifting. 414 Pennsylvanian period. composition of. 666 Radioactive decay. 361-62 Mesozoic era. 234 Principal shells. 336 half-life and. 534 Prevailing wind. 44. 41. deepest explored. 682 Orbiting observatories. 61 Precambrian period. 339 supercontinents of. 504 slippery roads after long dry periods. 138 Pelagic zone. 510-11 Ixygen (0). 15. 6 water in clouds. 533 Pressure changes. 463. 622 Phanerozoic eon. 538 winds. See also Small solar system bodies atmospheres of. 677 Ordovician period. 218-21 Ocean trenches. 216. 216-18 Plates boundaries separating. 90 Olivine. 496 Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). 128 Ptolemaic system. 76 trganic compounds. 675-77 leistocene epoch. 6?? Compton Gamma Ray polar wandering and. 160-61 Pipe. 128 txides. 16. 407-8 737 Parent material. 121 measuring. 682 Protons. 6 Radial pattern. 31 Irganic sedimentary rock. 42. 248 Permafrost. 214 Paleontology. 201-11 cessation of. 675 Rain. 373. 513-14 forms ofi 515-17 global distribution of. 500-501 tort cloud. 338-39 radiometric dating. 537 Polar front. 637 Protostar. 342. 546 Pacific coast. 414 Photosphere. 673-74 reflecting. cyclonic and anticyclonic. 9. 212. 201. 660 Potassium (K). 67 Pegmatite. 336. dating with. 181 Phases of the Moon. 555 txbow lake. 372 Perturbation. 214 Population of world. 220-21 . 32 Offshore zone. See also Continental drift boundaries of. 535-38 of continents. 309. 196. 370. 10 Observatory (CGRO). 367-69 Pangaea. 358 Radiation pressure. 500 Project Mohole. 46 Ore deposits. 209-1 1 Plate-mantle convection. 262-63 Paleomagnetism. 9 Positive-feedback mechanism. 338-39 Radio interferometer. 355-60 Earth’s moon. 170 rverrunning. 373 from cold clouds. 164 Provinces of ocean floor. 195-98.44. 214 seafloor spreading and. 203. 339. 74. 58 Quartz. 76 Pyroxene. influences of. 360 radiocarbon dating. 593 Polar easterlies. 76 Plate motion. 75 Orogenesis. 537 Pyroclastic material. 465 C) DC) ‘)t1CUC'3t*1Izone internal structures. 41. 338 soil and. 141 Permian extinction. 641-44 formation of (Nebular theory). 111. 533-38 rainiest places on Earth. 218-20 Panthalassa. 350. 636 Planets. 363 Prominence. 367-69 early life-forms. 638 dwarf. 514. principle of. 674. 46 created by weathering. 698 Pumice. 11. 695 Protosun.252 lutgassing. 221 glaciations and. 201. 205-9 Precipitation fog. 636-37 Radar interferometry. 221. 465 planetary impacts. Dec. 200-201 motion of. 57. 542 Octet rule.15 Radiocarbon dating. 204-5 transform fault. 353 lutwash plains. 94 Parent rock. 639-40 Quaternary period. 537 Polar high. 281 Passive continental margin. 473-74 Radiation fog. 57. 39. 58. 31 tpaque minerals. 268-69 Partial melting. 312 Plate boundaries. 21 1-12 Primary productivity. 264 Pyrolusite. 5 Protoplanets. 44 Perihelion. 339. 499 circulation. 60 Plate tectonics. 61 Plane of the ecliptic. 637. 658 lpal. 538 weather generalizations about. 415 Polar wandering. 58. 337-38 importance of. 648-55 overview of. 404-7 temperature variations in. 367 Ore. 433 Olil. 196 Parabolic dunes. 40. 58. 311-12 Orographic lifting. 5 Porosity. 220 future. 614-16 Pulsar. 39. 500-501 convergence. 553 Polar (E) climates. 216-21 drivers of. high and low. 140-41 Porphyritic texture. 22. 61 Placental mammals. 76 Iaya lake. 214-16 ocean drilling for evidence. 2004. 672-73 refracting. 41. 516 Plateaus. 636 first continents. 500 localized convective lifting. 34 Radioactivity. 358-60 Precious gems. 174 lucking. 270 Physical geology. 216-21 volcanoes and. 214-16 £9 tinum. 600 data. 31 Principle of original horizontally. 626 Period. 350. 374 Plagioclase feldspar. 265. 40. 353-54 Izone. 22 KUCUCDCDCU tptical telescopes. 368 Pentlandite. 463. 465 Photon. 512 Predictions. 29. 7 vertebrates move to land. 533-35 models. 41. in Cenozoic era. 462. 14. 135 Radiation. 30-31 (cxo). 264 Pycnocline. 44 Precipitation depletion. 276 Pluvial lake. 206. 666 Photophores. 35 lpen system. 327 Processes that lift air. 415 Primary (P) Waves. 10. 675-77 Chandra X-Ray Observatory Cenozoic era. 644-48 Plankton. 16. 339-40. 16 Westerlies. 387 Peat. 61 100-year flood. 94-95 water vapor emitted from. 390 measuring. 211-16 hot spots as evidence. 2 Phytoplankton. 604 Permeability. 336-39 atomic structure and. 76 Peridotite. 198. 310. 201-2. 360-63 Prokaiyotes. 58. 409 Pyrite. 16-17 lithospheric. 58. 200-224. 512 TRMM data showing rainfall in Malaysia. 410 Physical environment. 169. 283-87 Plate tectonics model. 203. 214 Proterozoic eon. 333. 335 Paleozoic era. 672 world’s largest. 640-41 terrestrial. planetary. 367 Pangaea formation during. 43 Planetesimals. 327 lutonic (intrusive) rock. 175 major plates and. 210. 692 Polar ocean productivity. 413 Photochemical smog. 102 Pyroclastic flow.

127 asteroids. 368 Silurian period. 558-60 thunderstorm. 126 suspended load and. 310-11 Siiicates. 40 Soil.738 Index W Rock salt. 40 potassium (K). 40 relative abundance of. 68 Silver. 39. 177. 306. 39. 52-53 defined. 70 Reflection nebulae. 217-18. 21. 405 Seasons. 39. 468. 108 Snow eaters.41 silicon (Si). 692 Reflectivity of Earth’s surface. 70 temperature. 40 vs. 233 Seismology. 438-39 organic. 94 components of. 69-75 wave refraction. 493 Kilauea. 436-37 Shubin. 468. 186-87 Sleet. 475 sea. 396 types of. 126 Salt crystal growth. 62 Sedimentary rock. 299 time. 186." 480 Sills. factors that affect. 184 Salinity. 39. 73. 40. global warming and. 39 Rock gypsum. 214-16 temperature changes. 125-26 Runoff. 127-29 stream erosion. 7 Scientific law. 40 iron (Fe). 76. 39. 229. 7-8 Rain shadow desert. 615 Reverse fault. 40 listed. 30. 186 Slow movements. 64 Santa Ana. 108-9 Rock strength. 300 Rotation. 93-96 as interface. 492-93 Saturn. 250 destruction from. 39. 433-37 beaches. 64. 541 Sodium (Na). 130-32 stream channels. 266-67 Shore. 268 Sea arch. 513 Snow avalanches. 439 Sandstone. 87 Shield. 40. 121-22 sediment transportation. 540 Seafloor sediments. 651 rings of. 444-45 marine life zones distance from. 197 igneous. 127 competence and. 441 River flow contributed to groundwater. 604 Shoreline. 472.12 Slump. 187-89 wind deposits and. 186-89 in deserts. 446-47 Seawater composition of. 237-39 shaping stream valleys. 126 Severe storms hurricane. 17 Shield volcanoes. 366 Sidereal day. economic minerals. 44 Running water. 68 creep. 122-25 work of. 120 Rutile. 476 Rockslide. 442 Sea stock. 126-27 bed load and. 670 drainage patterns. 94 plants and. 108 Small solar system bodies. 135 Red giant. 286 record-high temperature in. 11 1. 493-95 Relative motion. 55-62 metamorphic. 393 Right ascension. 40 Salt flats. 696 Red sunsets. 441 oxygen (O). 40 Seawall. 62-69 Scenarios. 436-37 features of. 398 Sand dunes. 126 and. 39-45 aluminum (Al). 39. 500. 441-45 Renewable resources. 73. 68 calcium (Ca). 604 Sea level changes. 240-42 Scales of space and time. 20. 1 18-38 base level and stream erosion. 672 Regional metamorphism. 1 1 1 solifluction. 40 longshore transport. 92 parent material and. 62-63 lithification and. 87 Secondary (S) waves. 408 Secondary enrichment. 92-93 Seismic gaps. Neil. 445-48 depositional landforms. 101 Ridge push. 234 Seismograph. 390 Sea salt. 655-56 comets. 597 wind as. 74 Scientific inquiry. 452 Semiprecious gems. 127 Sediment transportation. 64-67 color of. 90 Silicon (Si). 136-38 Sea ice. 68 formation of. 94-95 classifying. 219-20 Slate. 40 sodium (Na).. 625 Rhyolite. 651-53 moons of. 164 Rock-forming minerals. 8-9. 130 Sea breezes. 439 detrital. 564-70 Shale. 52-53 alternative paths. 326-330 Relative humidity. 52-53. 74 River systems. 9 Scientific methods. 126-27 capacity and. 135-36 floods and flood control. 299 cyclone. 92 animals and. 655 Sand in ocean. 602. 40 silicates. 132-35 drainage basins. 39. 139 Sahara Desert intraplate volcanism in. 395-96 Seafloor spreading in divergent boundaries. 151 Slab pull. 601 Scheelite. 247 Seismic reflection profiles. 590 Settling velocity. 126-27 global warming’s effect on. 5 river systems. sources of. 266-68 Regolith. 656-58 meteoroids. 53 basic cycle. 693. 65-67 classifying. 45 Retrograde motion. 299 rock type. mass wasting magnesium (Mg). 22. 414 stabilization of. 39. 624 Rime. 234 Sediment. 540 Sapphire. 516 Slide. 651-53 dissolved load and. 299-300 theory. 102 Sinld1ole (sink). 438-41 longshore bars. 92 Relative dating. 63 Sediment deposition. 64 Sedimentation. 63 compacted. 243-44 (See also Tsunami) Seismogram. 447-48 Renewable energy biomass as form of. 435-36 circular orbital motion. 58. 118. 41. 177 Refracting telescope. 29. 40. 570-76 middle-latitude or mid-latitude Rectangular pattern. 53. 219-20 Rift valley. 40. 40 nonsilicates. 120-21 in plate tectonics model. 7-8 Scoria. 59 Richter scale. 493-95 moisture. 64. 42-43 rip currents. 110-1 1 chemical. 404-6 Saltation. 433 evolution of. 52-53. 204 Sheeting. 67 Sand and gravel. 76 Schists. 447 rise. 62-64. 55 Rock flour. 467. 278 Siltstone. 52-81 continental drift and. 121-22 Rock cycle. See also Geologic time scale Scattering. 214 Revolution.S. 516 greatest accumulations in U S 516 measuring of. 5-8 hypothesis. 518 snowiest city in U. 189 types of. 233-34 Semiarid climate. 267-68 Manna Loa. 52. supercontinents and. glaciers and. 52. 385-86 Seismic waves. 658-60 Snow. 562-64 tornado. 264 Scoria cone. 69 cemented. 66 Rocks. 52. 97-98 climate and. 439 Sand movement on beach. 517 Rip currents. 125 streamflow. 625 Sidereal month. 44 Saturation. 404-7 drinkability of 407 saltiest water in the world. 105 Slip face. 475 confining pressure. 62-69 carbon cycle and. 359-60 Relocation of buildings. adding or subtracting. 52-53 sedimentary. 625 Rubies. 588 Semidiurnal tidal pattern. 75-78 rock cycle and. 210. 204. 94-95 . 42 Silicon—oxygen tetrahedron. 52 magma. 70. 442 Reflecting telescope. 39. 368 satellite images of. 672-73 Reflection. 76 Seamount. 89. 6-7 formation. 442 wave. 64 features of. 39. 306 Reverse polarity. 395-97 climate data in. 66 scientific methods. 439-41 perpendicular to shoreline. 44 resources from. 574 Sea stack. 62-64. 628 Sierra Nevada.

450 S11bP91a1' 19W: 537 Vettettette. 449. 168 Time. 466-67 Stratovolcano. 467 Thieler. 358-60 climate of. temperate ocean productivity in. 122 turbulent. 599. 44 Spiral galaxy. 677 Stress. 301-2 Thermosphere. 680-81 death of. 21-22 T Tebtttett 275 Tate’ 77 Teetettte plates. 306 Thunderstorm. 52. 451 ‘Tidal waves. 511 Stellar evolution. 614 States of water. 696 Thermal (contact) metamorphism. 490492 ice. '70. 38 Spectroscope. 680 corona. 309-11 volcanic island arcs. 189 Sulfur. 12-13 biosphere. 490-92 liquid water. 469-72 Solurn. 21. 493_95 scales of. 198 sea level changes and. 490 Stationary front. 431 Theory. 455 hottest etty in U_3_. 76 Spheres of Earth. 359-60 Supercooling. 395 Texture. See also Geologic time rock strength and. 358-59 rate of formation. 453. 696 sunspots. 694-95 Stellar remnants. 40. 490 chromosphere. 311-12 nature of. 122 laminar. waves in. 201. 669 bedrock. 37. 388 Subrnergent coast. 452-53 tidal ranges. 122. 127-29 drift meters. 37 Spreading centers. 476-77 reflection. 311 North American Cordillera. 668-69 Speed of wind. changes. 564 occurrence. 592 Subduction zones. 269 Surf. 474-77 absorption. stellar birth. 13-17 hydroshere. 451-52 tidal patterns. 1 1 1-12 Stratosphere. 10. 72 glassy. 130 Streamflow. 682 solar flares. 44 . 124»-25 channel characteristics. See also Tsunami Tides. 475 scattering. 150 Star dunes. defined. 56-57. 562 Tidal current. 126 Swimmers. scales of. 555 ef Eetthre et-ttet’ 71 gteeteet eentteet between Tidal patterns. 41 1-12 Sylvite. 628 System. 122 Stream valleys. 426-28 upwelling. 350. 350. 682 structure of. Einstein’s. 124 Surface wave. 13 geosphere. 450-51 tidal currents. 8-9 Specific gravity. ehengee tn. 42. 10. 98-101. 96-97 Stars Sun. 56. 70-71. globe} eltmete ehettge end. 481-82 altitude. 680 Sunlight. 679-81 Tenacity. 100 process of. 234 Surf zone. 699 Superposition. 358 Supercontinents. 588-90 Stocks. 127-29 alluvial. 453 Spinels. 451-52 ‘Tidal deltas. 309 Sublimation. 696 main-sequence stage. 55-56 Solifluction. 36 Terrae. 97 Soil texture. 429 gulf stream. 636-63. 545 Stratus. 9 Thermal energy. 453 tidal cycles. incoming. 93 texture. 492 Sttmmet and Winter. 122 gradient characteristics. 205 Tempetetttte. 453 Tidal cycles. 457 tn Alaska’ 593 tn desert. 479 teek Sttength end. 536 Thrust fault. 700-701 Spit. 681-82 Solar eclipse. 311-12 vs. 696. 678-83 Temperature controls. 694-97. 195. 130-31 VHHBY Widening: 131-32 Synodic month. 697 Earth's relationship with. 90 Spiculei 580 flow velocity. 479-81 Soil erosion. temperate ocean productivity in. 481 739 structure. 72-75 porphyritic. 636 Solar radiation. 636-37 Solar Wind. 452 Stabilization of shore. 299 causes of. 502 Subtropical high. 627»-29 interior of. 490 latent heat. 132 valley deepening. 93 water vapor. 442 Spectroscopy. 682-83 cloud cover. 698 white dwarfs. monthly. 316 Terrestrial planets. 93 time and. 100 chemical pollution and. 513~»14 foliated. 57. 10. 553 Southern Oscillation. 428-30 ocean current patterns. 58. 417 Spring equinox.4251 Temperate ocean productivity. 697-700 black holes. 71 Thermocline. 426-32 Solstices. 642 Terranes. 122 discharge. 363 Subarctic climate. 94 topography and. 300 Springs. 695. 443 Stable platform. 327 Supersaturation. 142-43 hot Springs: 142 Submarine canyon. 10. 454 hetteet end tewest teeet-ded at Bet-thte etttfeee. Rob. 695-96 protostar stage. 58 nonfoliated. 469 Andean-type plate margins. 413-14 Sunspots. 569 Suspended load. 97 Sonar. 481 land. 453 Till. according to Storm surge. 8-9 (See also Geologic time scale) Tin. 555 world distribution of. 417 development of. 698. 59 See also Planets. 693-94 mapping. 384 Sorting. 312 orogenesis. 68 Stratified drift. 309. 279 Supercontinent cycle. 629 Solar flare. 35 Stream channels. 679-80 prominences. 255. 697-98 Steppe climate. 57. 437 Surviving tornado. stages of.Index profile. 76 Tombolo. 306-7 Stromatolites. 142-43 geysers. 56 nebular theory. 122-25 changes from upstream to downstream. 537 Sulfates. 130-32 changing meanders. 12 Spheroidal weathering. 311-12 accretion.59 fine-grained. 76 Titanium. 453 Tidal flats. 58 vesicular. 432 Space. monthly. 43 Sulfides. 472. 127 Source regions for air masses. 455-57 due te tetettve humidity. 100 Soil Taxonomy. terrains. 417 Summer solstice. 7 Theory of relativity. 407 Thermohaline. 479-81 water. 443 Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). 445-48 Stable air. 98-100 sedimentation and. 450-53 Splintery fractures. 451 tidal waves. 513 Supergiants. 699-700 neutron stars. 682 Solar nebula. 574 Strata (beds). 557 Steam fog. 695 red giant stage. 95-96 classifying. 17 Stalactite. 699 photosphere. 168 Supernova. 644-48 burnout and death. 677. 469 meeeepheter 457 Stt-eteephetet 455457 thetmeephetet 457 ttepeephet-et 455 Topaz. 42. 467-72 eclipses of. 562-64 lightning and. 298 Strike-slip faults. 680 Solidification. 150 Stalagmite. 127 Stream erosion. 77 Summer. 562-64 Sphalerite. 452-53 Tidal range. 482-84 Spring tides. 56-56 coarse~grained. 437 Surface ocean circulation. Small solar system bodies formation of. 58. 310-11 mountain building at. 475 Solar system. 43 Tempetetttte Changes. 693 Terrigenous sediment. 98 rates of. 506 Streak. 204 Spring. 11-17 atmosphere. 479-84 albedo. law of. 481-82 geographic position. 77 Synclines. 681-82 surface of.

261-62 U Ultramafic composition. 436 erosion caused by. 209-11 Volcanic (extrusive) rock. 186-89 Wind erosion. 341 Trellis pattern. 653 rings of. 32 Valley breezes. 121 Wave-cut cliffs. 568 watches. 553 Tropical depression. 644-46 Vertebrates Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (Paleogene). 418 Tropical (T) air mass. highest on Earth. 44 Zone of accumulation. 269-73 shield volcanoes. 273-74 fissures. 273-74 Volcanic landforms. Cenozoic era. 274-75 pipes and necks. 5 atmospheric stability and dail 505-6 Y Yazoo tributary. 56 Volcanic eruptions. 568 Trace gases and global climate change. 585-86 White dwarfs. 143-44 artesian. 653-54 %% -1 P“! '_l 41 it L [41 41 4 J _ ore deposits created by. 77 Vent. 244 Tundra climate. 460 air-mass. 570 occurrence of. 184-89 loess. 286. 265 Venus. 44 Yellowstone-type calderas. 13. 536 Wind turbines. 207. 650 temperature changes based on. 76 Turbidity current.466 Tsunami. 508 Vesicular texture. 184. 417 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). 511 pwelling. 86-88 Zircon. 266-68 Volcanoes. 162. 263-64 Hawaiian-type. 420 Vtfhole-mantle convection. 12 in solar system (liquid). 697-98 White shark. 89. 264 styles of (See Volcanic structures) Vesuvius. 472 Winter solstice. 439 Waves characteristics of. 436 Wave refraction. 183-84. 280-82 monitoring volcanic activity. 697-700 Unsaturated zone. 307 Transform fault boundaries. 260 Visible light. 388 Turbulent flow. 507 Water table. 91 in deserts. 187-89 Travertine. 122 Turquoise. 243-44 defined. 474 Unconformities. 288-90 intrusions and. 574-75 Wind deposits. 275-76 Volcanic neck. 58. 90-91 of silicate. 372 reptiles as first terrestrial. 35 Transpiration. 76 anium. 261-62 Volcanic island arcs. 283-87 V Valence electrons. 370-71 W Warm clouds. 121 Transverse dunes. 460 Weathering. 259.5_ 740 Index galactic clusters. 533 energy from. 565-67 forecasting. 86. 140 Zone of wastage. 214 217 Tornadoes. 76 World population. 541-43 Santa Ana. 514-15 Wegene1"s hypothesis. 585 Tropical storm. 101-2 chemical. 540 solar. 76 Jranus. 552-54 associated with air masses. 702 galactic collisions. 236 Triassic period. 258-59 plate tectonics and. 564-70 atmospheric pressure associated with. 184 Wind damage. 569 tornado occurrence and development of. 90-92 rock characteristics and. precipitation from. 499 Wolframite. 84-92. 183. 169. 688-89 stars. 260. 469 Winter storm warning vs. 567-70 general atmospheric conditions for. 414-15 Waterfalls. 460-62 front. 272 viscosity. dating with. 691-93 size of. 573 Tropical wet and dry climate. 479-81 Vertical development of clouds. 185 by deflation. 469 Troposphere. 536 local. 163 Zooplankton. 258-94 climate changes and. warm and cold. 260-61 lava extruded during. 490-92 in chemical weathering. 436 Wave period. 170 Vapor pressure. 367-69 mammals. 91-92 Z Zinc. 90 rates of. 437-38 Wave height. 536 factors affecting. 44 Warm front. 182-89. 162. 570 Trophic level. 502 Jpslope fog. 441 Wave-cut platform. 56 Vesuvius. 441 Wave erosion. 6 Tropical rain forest. 371. 462. 183. 276-80 Krakatau eruption. 565 warnings. 700-702 history of.553-54 Wind abrasion. 88-90 climate and. Alfred. 20. 76 mechanical. 418-19 Transform fault. types of. 374-75 Permian extinction of. classifying. 135 Yellow quartz. 565 surviving. 390 Tri-state tornado. 158-59 Valley trains. 540 Valley glaciers. 469 Tropic of Capricorn. 243-44 after Krakatau eruption. 185 Winds. 415. 52. 179-80 distribution of. 389 Water depth. 203. 185 desert pavement and. 492 Variable stars. 540 cyclonic and anticyclonic. 201. 688-91 big bang theory. 653-54 moons of. 259. 273 magma and. 186 sand dunes. 703-5 fate of. 89 in deserts. 264-70 cinder cones. 12 in surf zone. 60 Ultraviolet. 273-76 basalt plateaus. 268-69 composite cones. . on Earth. 362 Wet adiabatic rate. 259-73 gases extruded during. 55 Volcanic structures. 179 differential weathering and. 436 Wavelength. 431 aninite (pitchblende). 694-97 stellar remnants. 593 Tungsten. 537. 262-63 nature of. 680 speed of. 291 hazards of living with. 370. 16 Trieste. 417. 195-200. 90 spheroidal. 689-90 interstellar matter. 372-73 evolution from a fish-like ancestor. 499 Wet tropics climate. 696 Vein deposit. 529 breezes. 437 Weather. 280 damage from Indonesian earthquake. blizzard warning. 518-19 Wegener. 90 Weather radar. 163 Zone of saturation. 586 Tropic of Cancer. 260 volatiles and. 136 Triangulation. 567 climatology of. 280 living on or near. 275-76 and climate. 101-2 products of. 66 Tree rings. 647-48 Water in clouds. 274-75 calderas. 540-41 chinook. 537 Transfer efficiency. 538 Western North America. 309. 182-84 blowouts and. 490 from plants. 144-46 Westerlies. 288-89 Mount St. 411 . 201. 599 Trade winds. 282. 369. 572 Tropical ocean productivity. 373. 529-31 highest wind speed recorded on Earth. 120. 539-41 measuring. 243 warning system. 35 Transparent minerals. 474 Volatiles. Helens vs. 565 profile of. 565 destruction by. 140 Unstable air. 5 Wind vane. 325 Universe. 541 Winter. 565 most destructive on record. 140 Water vapor. 556 Water. See Continental drift Wells. 259-62 pyroclastic materials extruded during. 220-21 Translucent minerals. 16. 131 Water ice on Mars. 2004. 693-94 stellar evolution. 555-57 patterns in United States. 328-30 Uniformitarianism. See also Running water changes to state of. 272 Viscosity. 260. 702-3 galaxies. Kilauea. 31. 705 Volcanic ash.