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trSwf ( 30) jo*kwf/ 2008 ckESpf?

Arm_ynfuGef_rLepfygwD A[dk0g'_zefhcsda&;Xmeu xkwfa0onf

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trS w f (30) =o*k w f / 2008
(1) 'Dwywfrm S jynfwi G ;f a&;udy k J OD;pm;ay;xm;ygw,f? Edi ki fw H umha&;&mawGukd a&;ae&if rwlwmawGukd a&;&awmhr,f? a&;&if xdr/d cwfr/d yGwr f /d &Srd jzpfawmhr,f? 'ga=umifh wrif f epfw@kd &@J aemufq;kH wdu k y f /JG (1988) u pcJw h hJ vlxe k @J a&Smifxm;ygw,f? NLD eJ@ ppftm%m&Sip ppfty kp fw k @kd &@J tqH;k tjzwfwu kd y f JG wdu k & f awmhr,ft h cse dr fm S pnf;vH;k nD!w G E fi kd o f r# tiftm;pk tm;vH;k eJ@ nD!w G c f siv f @kd jzpfygw,f? tcsi;f csi;f jiif;aecHa k e=u&r,ft h cse d f r[kwy f gb;l ? wdu k y f JG 0ifz@kd toifjh yif&r,ft h cse d f jzpfv@kd ygy? J (2) uef@uu G r fa J y;=uzd@k rdrw d @kd vkyc f =hJ uygw,f? etz u npfenf;aygi;f pHo k ;kH +y;D twnfjzpfatmif vkyo f m G ;ygw,f? Edi ki fw H umrSma&m jynfwi G ;f rSmyg etz &J@ npfywfru _ kd zGic hf svu kd E fi kd y f gw,f? tJ'g[m tjrwfyg? tJ't D jrwfukd wd;k cs@J =uzd@k “jynfo@l tiftm; (People Power) pnf;±H;k a&;” tqdðk ycsuu f kd wifjyxm;ygw,f? b,fvv kd y k =f urvJqw kd mudv k nf; wifjyxm;ygw,f? yd+k yD;jynfp h o kH m G ;atmif 0di k ;f 0ef;}uHq=uapcsiy f gw,f? pmeJ@ ‘twGi;f ydi k ;f !‡E d i _d ;f =u&if’ tusKd ; &Sr d m S yg? pmeJ@yJ jyefvnfaqG;aEG;ygr,f? (3) vufeufui kd a f jratmufwyfz@JG (A U/G) udp[ P m Auy &J@ }uHqcsuf jzpfygw,f? ‘}uHq csu’ f eJ@ ywfouf+yD; &Si;f vif;atmif aqmif;yg;owfowfa&;+yD; wifjyygw,f? oabmwlol &So d vdk rwlov l nf; &Sr d m S yg? 'Dup d u P a kd wmh ‘rwlwmcGv J y k ’ f zd@k qw kd hJ (rl) t&yJ vky& f r,fv@kd xifygw,f? r&Si;f vd@k xyfar;&if &Si;f vif;ygr,f? tm;vH;k wl&r,fv@kd oabmrxm;yg? (4) 1988 - 1990 umvrsm;wkef;u rdrdwdk@rSm tzG@J tpnf; rrsm;yg? ‘&&if& r&&ifcs’ tawG;tac:ay:rSm nD!w G c f =hJ uygw,f? tck tJ'v D kd r[kwa f wmhyg? tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ovdk tawG;tac:vnf; rsm;ygw,f? tawG;tac:udpr P m S jywfjywfom;om;&S=d uzd@k vdt k yfv@kd jywfom;xif&m S ;atmif a&;ygw,f? tckumv[m ‘t±H;_ ay;a&;0g'’ udk qef@usi& f r,fh umvvd@k owfrw S y f gw,f? ppfe@J awmfve Sa f &;udk jzwfoef;ch=J u&wJh (0g&if}h u;D rsm;) &J@ aumif;arG rSeo f r#ukd qufc+H y;D rsKd ;qufopfrsm;u csw D uf=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? tdr k if;rpGr;f jzpfae=uolrsm;udk }uH@cdkifwJh &yfwnfcsuftarGay;cJh=uvdk@ *k%fðyav;pm;ygw,f? rsdK;qufopfawG&J@acwfrSm atmifyGJ&atmif csDwuf=uzdk@ oEMdXmefjyif;jyygw,f? 0dkif;0ef;vkyf=u&if atmifjrifr,fvdk@ ,Hk=unfygw,f? tajctaeeJ@ tcsuftvufawGu udk,fhbufrSm &Sdaeygw,f? ppftm%m&Sip f epf rkcsusq;kH &r,f?

1

_ynf o l h t m%m

zGwf_rD;eJhzGwfudk csnfjuzdkh Arm_ynfuGef_rLepfygwD a_yma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol.xkwf_yefcsuf trSwf (1à2008) (28 - 2 - 2008)

(1)

“qENc, H y l” JG udk oef;a&$ppfty kp fu k rwwfomvd@k vky& f wm jzpfygw,f? 'DtcGit hf a&;udk vufrvGwy f gapeJ@? ppftm%m&Sip f epfoufwrf; (46) ESpr fm S 'DtcGit hf a&;rsKd ; (2) cgyJ &cJw h m jzpfygw,f? yxrwcgwe k ;f u ae0if; ppfty kp fu k kd u|ea f wmfw@kd tvJx;kd Edi kw f t hJ ajctae r&Sc db hJ ;l ? tck oef;a&$ppfty kp fu k kd tvJx;kd Edi kw f hJ tajctae &Sdaeyg+yD? (2) etz vkya f eyHa k wG rw&m;ygb;l ? twdu k t f cHawGukd zrf;xm;w,f? ‘5§96 wif;bkw’ f eJ@ xkz@kd jyifaew,f? jynfwi G ;f jynfyu qENc, H y lu JG kd apmif=h unfa h vhvmcGihf r&Sb d ;l ? ‘qENc, H y l’ JG vkyr f ,f& h uf ra=unmbJxm;+yD; olw@kd waumifwnf; ajy;aew,f? vlxu k kd csn+f yD;wky+f yD; yg;pyfyw d f em;ydw+f yD; tEdi k, f z l @kd vkya f ew,f? 'gayrJh ‘zGwu f kd zGw+f rD;eJ@ csnw f e hJ nf;’ u|ea f wmfw@kd vlx}k uD;u vky& f ygr,f? ol@Oya'rSmu ‘qENc, H y l’ JG ysujf ym;atmifvy k& f if axmif (3) ESpf csr,fyJ ajym0Hw h ,f? ‘uef@uu G r f’ J ay;&if ta&;,lr,fv@kd rajym0Hb h ;l ? 'ga=umifh - rJ±u kH o kd m G ; uef@uu G r fa J y;=u? - DASSK vGwa f pcsio f vm;/ rif;udE ki kd v f w G a f pcsio f vm;/ rJ±u kH o kd m G ;uef@uu G r fa J y;=u? - 1990 v$wa f wmfac:apcsio f vm;? NLD trwfawG vGwa f pcsio f vm;? jynfya&mufawG &ifaumh jyefvmapcsio f vm;? rJ±u kH o kd m G ;=u? uef@uu G r fa J y;=u?

2

_ynf o l h t m%m

udk,fhjurRmudk,fzefwD;zdkh uefhuGufrJay;jupdkh Arm_ynfuGef_rLepfygwD a_yma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol.xkwf_yefcsuf trSwf (2à2008) (26 - 4 - 2008)
(1) NLD . “txl;a=unmcsut f rSwf 7§04§08” udk u|ea f wmfw@kd jywfjywfom;om;axmufcy H gw,f? tcse dr fw D ,f vd@k vnf; ,lqygw,f? (2) ‘tajccHOya' r&Sw d mxuf &Sw d mu aumif;w,f’ vd@k ppftpd;k &ua&m/ ol@aemufvu kd a f emufygrsm;uyg ajyma[m a&;om;ae=uwm awG@&ygw,f? 'g[m olwdk@a&;qGJxm;wJh ‘tajccHOya'’ rSm csdK@,Gif; tm;enf;csua f wG trsm;}u;D &Sa d ea=umif;udk wzufvn S e hf @J 0efca H ewm jzpfygw,f? ‘jynfv;kH u|wq f ENc, H y l’ JG rSm jynfov l x l u k uef@uu G r fa J wGay;+y;D y,fcsrm S udk tpd;k &dr}f u;D pd;k &dra f ea=umif;udv k nf; jyowm jzpfygw,f? olwdk@a&;qGJxm;wJh ‘tajccHOya'’ rSmjzifh&if b,ftcsufawG b,ftcsufawGuawmh aumif;uGua f wG&y dS gw,f qdw k mudk &Si;f rjyEdi kb f J ‘r&Sw d mxuf &Sw d mu aumif;w,f’ vk@d om ajymae&wm jzpfygw,f? tJ'a D vm*spf (,kwa dW A') rSm;ygw,f? ‘aq;raomufba J ewmxuf aq;aomufwm aumif; w,f’ qd+k yD; tqdya f q;udk ZGww f u kd a f ewJa h vm*spy f J jzpfygw,f? (3) jynfov l x l r k m S tm;vH;k axmufcE Hi kd w f hJ ‘tajccHOya'’ &Sy d gw,f? tJ'gu ‘1947 tajccHOya'’ f @kd yJ jzpfygw,f? trsKd ;om;nD!w G a f &;tajccHe@J a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f? acwfe@J tnDðyjyif (update) vkyz vda k umif;vdy k gvr dr hf ,f?

3

_ynf o l h t m%m

uyfab;udkausmfvGefzdkh uefhuGufrJay;jupdkh Arm_ynfuGef_rLepfygwD a_yma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol.xkwf_yefcsuf trSwf (3à2008) (10 - 5 - 2008)

(1) yxrqH;k taeeJ@ em*pfre kw f i kd ;f '%fcjH ynfor l sm;enf;wl Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwu D vdu _ v f 0 JS rf;enf;&yga=umif; azmfjyvdw k ,f? (2) 'Dtcse d[ f m wrsKd ;om;vH;k twGuf tr*Fvmtcse d f tr*Fvmumv jzpfw,f? uyfab;'%foifh jynfoa l wG u,fq,fun l a D &;vkyi f ef;udk OD;pm;ay;aZmufcsvy k& f r,ft h cse dv f nf; jzpfw,f? 'gayrJh 'gawGukd vspv f sL±_+y;D 'Dae@rm S yJ etz u ol@ppftm%m w&m;0ifjzpfa&; wckwnf;udo k m &nfp;l +yD; qENc, H y l JG vkyv f u kd w f ,f? tem*wfumvwckv;kH tarSmifz;kH atmif vkyv f u kd jf cif;ygy? J rJqEN&i S f jynfoa l wG[m enf;rsKd ;pHk tuGuc fs npfywfwm cHae=u&w,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf b0eJ@&if;+y;D jynfoa l wG qENra J y;ae=uyg+yD? (3) ppftpd;k &&Sa d eor# 'kur Q sKd ;pHk qufcp H m;ae=u&OD;r,fqw kd m jynfoa l wG od=uygw,f? aemuf 2 ywf t=umrSm xyf+yD; uyfab;oifjh ynfoa l wG rJay;=u&ygO;D r,f? vlr' _ u k a Q wGu uif;a0;zd@k q& kd ifawmh oGea f tm+yD; uef@uu G r fy J J ay;=uygv@kd wdu k w f e G ;f vdu k y f gw,f?

4

_ynf o l h t m%m

ta_ccHOya'» twnf_yK_cif;ESifhywfouf^yD; Arm_ynfuGef_rLepfygwD a_yma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol.xkwf_yefcsuf trSwf (4à2008) (31 - 5 - 2008)

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etz [m olw@kd &@J qENc, H y lr JG m S axmufcr H J 92²48 &w,fv@kd r±Sur f a=umufa=unmoGm;yg+yD? 'D*%ef;[m olw@kd qENc, H y lv JG y kr f ,fv@kd ra=unmrDuwnf;u qH;k jzwfowfrw S x f m;+y;D jzpfwhJ ta&twGujf zpfygw,f? 'Dta& twGuu f kd npfv@kd wzH/k +cdr;f ajcmufv@kd wenf;/ atmufvrf;enf;rsKd ;aygi;f pHe k @J aoewfaxmufum t&,lcw hJ m jzpfygw,f? olw@kd vc kd siw f mudk jrpf0u|e;f ay:u aygavmay:aewJh tavmif;awG/ iwfjywfae/ a&m*gb,awG usa&mufaewJh 'kuo Q nfawGukd paw;+y;D &,lvu kd w f m jzpfygw,f? etz u qENc, H y lu JG kd usi;f ywm[m a±S@quf+yD; olw@kd vy k c f siw f mawG vkyv f @kd &atmif uke;f aygix f ;kd vdu k w f mom jzpfygw,f? olw@kd &@J &nf±, G c f su[ f m rsKd ;quftqufquf qufc=H ur,fh olw@kd tm%mudk w&m;0if twnfjzpfatmif/ cdi kc fa hH tmifvy kw f m jzpfygw,f? 'Dvv kd y kz f @kd twGuf 'Dtqifu h kd ausmv f m $ ;Edi ko f m G ;+yDr@kd usew f m awGukd b,favmufw&m;rJr h hJ ZGwa f &mt"rRyg wGe;f vkyy f gawmhr,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf&@J tus,c f sKyo f ufwrf; udk wESpw f ;kd vdu k w f m[m txif±m S ;qH;k om"u jzpfygw,f? 'g[m qENc, H y lt JG vGef ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;udk ud, k p f m;ðyr,fh yxrOD;qH;k pHuswhJ xdyw f u kd w f ;kd r_jzpfygw,f? etz [m jynfov l x l e k @J Edi ki fw H umtmabmfyi kd ;f udk xdyw f u kd w f ;kd / rdu k r fu kd ± fi kd ;f ±di k ;f &ifqi kd a f jz±Si;f zd@k qH;k jzwfxm;yg+yD? 'DvdktajctaerSm jynfolawG/ twdkuftcHtiftm;pkawGtaeeJ@vnf; xdxda&mufa&mufjyifqif =u&ygawmhr,f? jyifqifr± _p dS m G vkyw f meJ@ jyifqifrr _ ±Sb d J vkyw f mwd@k rm S uGmjcm;r_±y dS gw,f? ud, k x fh uf tiftm; tqrwef}uD;wJh ppftpd;k &eJ@&ifqi kd & f mrSm wyGw J ;kd / wyGjJ ywf pOf;pm;vkyv f @kd rjzpfygb;l ? vlwef;pm; vl@tv$m toD;oD;u o¿meftrsKd ;rsKd ;aom wdu k y ft JG qifq h ifu h kd qifEjJ$ zwfoef;=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? 1? 'DtwGuf jynfoa l wGbufu jynfo@l tiftm;(People’s Power) udk pnf;±H;k &ygawmhr,f? wjcm;enf;vrf; a±G;cs,p f &mr±Sy d gb;l ? ppfty kp fu k kd olw@kd em;vnfwp hJ um;eJ@ya J jymrS jzpfawmhrm S yg? ppfty kp fe k m;vnfwhJ pum;qdw k m[m vufeufe@J tefww k m&,f/ jynfo@l tiftm;eJ@ tusyu f i kd w f m&,f ESpr f sKd ;yJ±y dS gw,f? 'DEp Se f nf;udk wòyifeufwnf;qifEv J$ @kd vnf;&w,f/ wckcsi;f qifEv J$ @kd vnf; &ygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dae@tajctaerSm b,fenf;udy k J vkyv f y k f ajratmuf (,l*s) D v_y± fm S ;r_uawmh ta&;ygwt hJ cef;u ygae&rSmjzpfygw,f? 2? ‘jynfo@l tiftm;’ (vlxv k y _ & f m S ;r_}uD;) jzpfaerS tpm;xd;k p&m &Smae&vd@k && dS if (1988) wke;f uvdy k J xdyy fi kd ;f rSmjiif;cH+k yD; usm;pm;cH vdu k & f wm jzpfom G ;vdrr hf ,f? 'ga=umifh tckuwnf;u (csuc f si;f ) tpm;xd;k p&m jyifqifxm;&r,f? Auy uawmh ‘1947 tajccHOya'’ eJ@ “NLD-CRPP” udk tpm;xd;k p&mtjzpf oabmxm; Edi ky f gw,f? 'Dae&mrSm bma=umihf 'DEp Sc fu k kd a±G;w,fqw kd mudk enf;enf;±Si;f jyzd@k vr kd ,f xifygw,f? “NLD-CRPP” udk a±G;wm uawmh ody± fi S ;f zd@k rvdb k ;l xifygw,f? “NLD-CRPP” ESpz f @JG pvH;k rSm 1990 ckEp S f a±G;aumufyw JG e k ;f u vlxu k olw@kd ukd tm%mukev f a J$ y;xm;+y;D vd@k jzpfygw,f? ‘1947 tajccHOya'’udk wifjywmuawmh ud, k b fh ufu tEdi k& f &if wufvmwJt h zG@J - Oyrm ,m,Dtpd;k &w&yf - [m b,fz@JG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'tay: tajccH+y;D vkyr fm S vJ 5

qdw k hJ vufawG@jy\emeJ@ &ifqi kd & f ygr,f? 'DawmhrS rdrw d @kd rm S zG@J pnf;yHt k ajccHOya' r±Sa d o;ygb;l / tajccHOya' r±Sa d o;bJe@J ,m,Dtpd;k & vkyy f gr,fqw kd mrsKd ;ajymvd@k rjzpfygb;l ? Auy taeeJ@ ‘1947 tajccHOya'’[m +y;D jynfp hw kH ,fv@kd r,lqygb;l ? Jw hJ hJ 'gayrJh 'DtajccHOya'[m Armjynfordi k ;f rSm wckwnf;aom jynfov l x l & k @J tm%may;tyfr_(mandate) eJ@ a&;qGc Oya' jzpfygw,f? vGwv f yfa&;wdu k y f& JG @J t±Se d t f [ke/f wdu k y f0 JG ifco hJ a l wG&@J pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfre _ @J a&;qGc Jw hJ m jzpfygw,f? aemuf+y;D vwfwavmtaetxm;rSm jynfov l x l t k =um;/ ud, k b fh ufu tiftm;pkawGt=um;rSm jy\em}u;D }u;D rm;rm; rjzpfay:atmif xde;f xm;Edi kp fr G ;f ±Sr d ,fv@kd Auy u ,H=k unfv@kd wifjywm jzpfygw,f? ud, k b hf ufu tenfusom G ;&if 'DOya'udk ðyjyifwm/ wd;k cs@J wm/ topfa&;qGw J mawG vkyo f m G ;vd@k &ygw,f? 3? aemufta&;}u;D wJh tcsuu f awmh ‘trsKd ;om;nD!w G a f &;’ wnfaqmuf&mrSmvnf; wyfrawmfukd csex f m;vd@k r&bl; qdw k mygy? J 1944 ckEp Sw f e k ;f uvdy k J jzpfoihw f ,f? jzpfvnf; jzpfEi kd y f gw,f? wyfrawmfxr Jm S 'Dae@vuf±dS jzpfysua fe wmawGukd róuufrESpòf r@oa l wG/ tajymif;tvJwckca k wmh jzpfrv S @kd oabmaygua f ewJo h a l wG renf;bJ±w dS ,fqw kd m tm;vH;k yJ odygw,f? ±Spa f v;vH;k wke;f u OD;armifarmifajymwJh “E_wq f w d a f ewJt h rsm;pk}u;D ” qdw k hJ toH;k tE_e;f [m 'Dwyfrawmfom; awGe@J rS xdu k o f ihw f myg? olw@kd ukd ajymvmatmif/ bufajymif;vmatmif vky& f ygr,f? aemuf+y;D xdyy fi kd ;f xJuae wcse dr fm S rS bufajymif;zd@k qH;k jzwfoa l wGuv kd nf; pmemem;vnf&ygr,f? u|ea f wmfw@kd &@J a±S@rm S vufawG@rjzpfraevky& f r,hf vkyi f ef;&yf}uD; wnf±a dS eyg+yD? 'gukd jynfov l x l t k m;vH;k / twdu k t f cH tiftm;pktm;vH;k aoaocsmcsmpOf;pm;+yD; nD!w G r f u _ kd OD;wifum pwifjyifqif taumiftxnfazmf oGm;=uygp@kd ?

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6

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tdENd,=ynfuGef=rLepfygwD (rmhufpf0g'D). 19 }udrfa=rmufygwDuGef*7ufodkh ay;ydkhaom o0%fv$m
obmywdtzG@J tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygw( D rmhup f0 f g') D

A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD ae@pJG 2008ckEp S /f Zefe0g&D 20&uf? ta=umif;t&m? ? *k%ðf yo0%fvm $ ay;yd@k jcif;? cspc f ifav;pm;aom&Jabmfrsm;cifAsm;'Dae@vkd urBmw h OD;wnf;aom tiftm;vGeE fi kd i f }H u;D u ol@vufwa H wGukd wurBmvH;k ae&mtES@H qef@wef;aecse dE fi S hf rmhup f0 f g'u t±Se dt f [keE fi S hf jyefvnfxºuzd@k jyifqifaecse dr fm S usi;f yonhf &Jabmfw@kd . *k%a f &mifajymifaom wq,fu h ;kd }udra f jrmuf ygwu D e G * f &uftm; vdu _ v f p JS m G *k%ðf ytyfyga=umif; azmfjycGiðhf yapvdy k gonf? u|ea f wmfw@kd onf tdE, dN jynf uGejf rLepfygwD (rmhup f0 f g') D ESihf ordi k ;f wav#muftwlvufwa JG v#mufvr S ;f cJ=h u+y;D aemifwi Gv f nf; wufvr S ;f oGm;=urnf[k TuGe* f &ufwi G f *k%, f p lm G ajym=um;vdy k gonf? e,fcs@J orm;rsm;. tm±Swu kd E f i S hf urBmtEH@S wi G f t±G,t f pm;trsKd ;rsKd ;aom ppfyr JG sm; zefw;D &ef wd;k Iwd;k I óu;yrf;vmr_rsm;udk wGe;f vSe& f eftwGuf tdE, dN Edi ki fE Hi Sw hf ±kwE fi kd i fw H @kd . tcef;u¾wd@k rm S ta&;ygonf[k u|ea f wmfw@kd ,lqygonf? Edi ki fr H sm;t=um;wGif tar&duefu ajcxd;k / aoG;xd;k vkya f eonfqa kd omtcsur f m S tm;vH;k odae=uaom tcsujf zpf+y;D tdE, dN ESiw hf ±kww f @kd t=um;rSmvnf; tvm;wlyifvy ka f eygonf? 0g±i Sw f efrS eD,u kd e Gr f sm;onf Armjynfta&;udk urBmv h O l ;D a&trsm;qH;k Edi ki f }H u;D ESpc ft k =um;wGif cavmufqefp&mudpt P jzpf toH;k csaeum renf;aom Armhtwdu k t f cH tiftm;pkrsm;vnf; T0Jxw J i G f ygra d e=uygonf? ArmEdi ki fw H i G f ppftpd;k & tESpE f p S q f ,fe;D yg; wnf±a dS ejcif;rSm ,if;wd@k tm;±SI d r[kwy f g? twdu k t f cHrsm;. tm;enf;csua f =umiho f m jzpfygonf? q,fpE k p S a f v;ckru wnf+rJaeaom ppftm%m±Sip f epfukd òzcsz@kd qv kd #if twdu k t f cHtiftm;pkawGtwGuf vrf;!$ejf zpfrnfh bHv k y ki f ef;pOfw&yf vdt k yfonf[k u|ea f wmfw@k d ,H=k unfygonf? ppftm%m±Sip f epfuk d tm%mwufuwnf;u zsuo f r d ;f Edi ka f &;twGuf pGe@f vw $ r ft _ rsKd ;rsKd ; ðyvkyc fw hJ y hJ gww D &yftaeeJ@ Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw[ D m twdu k t f cHtiftm;pkawG t=um;rSm 'Dt,ltqudk ys@H E@HS atmif vH;k yrf;aeygonf? rdrw d @kd taejzifh bHv k y ki f ef;pOfw&yfr±Sb d J ud, k v hf rf;ud, k a f v#mufae =uv#if ppftpd;k &.vrf;jyajryHk taumiftxnfay:oGm;ygvr dr hf nf? rnfo@dk yifjzpfap Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwo D nf etz . vrf;jyajryHk taumiftxnfay:onfjzpfap/ ray:onfjzpfap jynfov l x l u k kd pnf;±H;k vH@_ aqmf+y;D ppfty kp f /k ppftpd;k &ESihf ppf tm%m±Sip f epfw@kd ukd qufvufwu kd y f0 JG ifom G ;rnfom jzpfygonf? aemufq;kH taejzifh Armjynfjynfor l sm;. 'Dru kd a&pD&±Sa d &;wdu k y ft JG wGuf &Jabmfw@kd axmufct H m;ay;onhf twGuf aus;Zl;wifa=umif;azmfjyvdy k gonf? - tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygw( D rmufp0 f g') D . *k%a f jymifaom wq,fu h ;kd }udra f jrmufue G* f &uf atmifjrifygap? - tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygw( D rmufp0 f g') D t"Ge@f ±n S y f gap? - tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygw( D rmufp0 f g') D ESihf Armjynfue G jf rLepfygww D @kd t=um;rS tprf;oyfc+H y;D jzpfaomqufqa H &; t"Ge@f ±n S y f gap? A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD 7

tdENd,=ynfuGef=rLepfygwD. t}udrf 20 a=rmufuGef*7ufodkh ay;ydkhaomo0%fv$m
od@k obmywdtzG@J tdE, dN uGejf rLepfygw/D t}udrf 20 ajrmuf uGe* f &uf rS A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD 2008ckEp S /f rwfv 23? ta=umif;t&m? ? *k%ðf yo0%fvm $ ay;yd@k jcif;? cspc f ifav;pm;tyfaom &Jabmfrsm;cifAsm;u|ea f wmfw@kd ygwD pwifxa l xmifuwnf;u vufwc JG sw D ufca hJ om vlwef;pm;nDtpfur kd sm;. uGe* f &ufukd tvdu _ v f q JS ;kH E_wq f ufvu kd y f gw,f? u|ea f wmfw@kd tm; ,ckuo hJ @kd uGe* f &ufwufa&muf&efEi S hf o0%fvm $ ay;yd@k &ef awmif;cH zdw=f um;jcif; cH&onft h wGuf vGep fm G rS *k%, f r ly d gonf? TuGe* f &uf atmifjrifI a±S@vmrnfE hp Sr f sm;twGuf rSeu f efaom vrf;a=umif;w&yfukd csrw S E fi kd r f nf[k u|ea f wmfw@kd cdi kr f mpGm,H=k unfygonf? urBm+h ir d ;f csr;f a&;udk xde;f odr;f &mwGif tdE, Nd Edi ki fE Hi S hf w±kwE fi kd i fw H @kd . tcef;rSm vGep fm G rS ta&;ygonf[k u|ea f wmf wd@k ,lqygonf? e,fcs@J orm;rsm;onf TEdi ki f }H u;D ESpc ft k =um; oyfv#Kd +y;D a&aESmufig;zrf;vky& f ef enf;rsKd ;aygi;f pHu k kd ±Sm}u=H u ygvr dr hf nf? ,if;wd@k onf +ir d ;f csr;f +y;D o[Zmwjzpfonfh ywf0ef;usiw f i kd ;f wGif rke;f yifpu kd u f m tuGt J +yr J sm;zefw;D ygvr dr hf nf? Tok@d aom tajctaeatmuf wGif tdE, Nd Edi ki fE Hi Sw hf ±kwE fi kd i fw H @kd t=um;wGif nyfaeaomArmEdi ki fr Hm S urBmt h 0ef;t0di k ;f tv,fwi G f txD;usejf zpfaeonfukd awG@&ygonf? xd@k jyif “tm%m±Sir f sm;.tajccHpcef;”/ “21 &mpk.zufqpfEi kd i f” H ponf* h% k y f' kr f sm; qufwu kd & f &Sa d eygonf? ArmEdi ki f. H aoe*FAsL[mt& ta&;ygaom yx0Dtaetxm;a=umifh ArmEdi ki f. H ta&;rSm tar&duefty kp f ;kd olvw l ef;pm;tzd@k Edi fk i fw H um ta&;rsm;udu k i kd w f , G & f mrSmvnf;aumif;/ orRwa±G;aumufyJG twGuv f nf;aumif; toH;k wnfv h o S nfh 0g'jzef@csp d &mwck jzpfaeygonf? Tonftm;vH;k rSm ud, k u f sKd ;rSwyg; rnfonhf t&mudr k S acgi;f wGi;f wGir f xm;aom ppftm%m±Sir f sm;a=umihf jzpfysua f ejcif;jzpf+y;D Armjynfor l sm;.qENEi S hf vH;k 0qef@usif zDvmjzpfygonf? Armjynfwi G f ppftm%m±Sip f epfukd zsuo f r d ;f +y;D *k%o f e dE fi S jhf ynfp ha kH om/ ºu,f0csr;f omaom/ aoG;pnf;nD!w G a f om/ 'Dru kd a&pD±a dS om Edi ki fa H wmfw&yfukd xlaxmif&efrm S u|ea f wmfw@kd .rGejf rwfaomwm0ef[k ,lrw S x f m;ygonf? Tod@k jzifh u|ea f wmfw@kd Ei kd i fo H nf ppftm%m±Sip f epfukd z,f±m S ;+y;D aemufwi G f a'o+ir d ;f csr;f a&;ESiu hf rBm+h ir d ;f csr;f a&;wd@k ukd ydr kx kd a d &mufpm G tusKd ;ðyEdi ky f gvr dr hf nf? To0%fvm $ yd@k jcif;udk tcGia hf umif;,lum &Jabmfw@kd .ygw/D ygw0 D ifrsm;ESihf tdE, dN Edi ki f jH ynfor l sm;tm; Armjynf jynfor l sm;. 'Dru kd a&pDta&;awmfyt kH wGuf taxmuftulðycJo h nfrsm;udk aus;Zl;txl;wif±y dS ga=umif; azmfjytyfygonf? tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygwD t"Ge@f ±n S y f gap? tdE, dN jynfue G jf rLepfygwE Di S hf Armjynfue G jf rLepfygww D @kd t=um;rS nDaemifqufqa H &; t"Ge@f ±n S y f gap? A[dkpnf;±Hk;a&;aumfrwD ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD

8

Arm=ynf u G e f = rLepf y gwD . wif = ytqd k = yKcsuf

_ynf o l h t if t m;(People Power) pnf;@Hk;a&;udk b,fvkdvkyfjurvJ

tydkif; (u) (1) NLD eJ@ “oef;a&$ppfty kp f” k &J@ “aemufq;kH wdu k y f” JG pae+yD? oef;a&$ ysO;f rem; ajymif; wm[m tJ'D “aemufq;kH wdu k y f ” JG twGujf yifwm jzpfonf? olu ae0if;vdk rD;aowm r[kwv f @kd ol@wyfukd olpp k nf;wm jzpfonf? “Edi ki fa H &;òr@awmf” &efue kr fm S aev#if ol@=oZm xlaxmifz@kd cufonf? ol@trde@f tm%mudk zDqefaewJh ppfty k p f 0 k ifxy d o f ;D awGukd udi kz f @kd rvG,? f &efue kr fm S u ppfty kp f0 k ifta[mif; ‘t+ir d ;f pm;’ rsm;vnf; &So d nf? rqv xdyo f ;D (a[mif;) rsm; &So d vdk e0w xdyo f ;D (a[mif;) rsm;vnf; &So d nf? Adv k c f if!e G @f tiftm;pkrsm; vnf; &So d nf? NLD acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;qdw k muvnf; ‘0g&ifh ppfty k p f 0 k if (a[mif;)’ rsm; jzpfaeonf? tJ'y D* k Kd~ vfawG pkpnf;rdom G ;v#if ol@twGuf tEW&m,f&o dS nf? 'ga=umifh ysO;f rem; ajymif;oGm;wm jzpfonf? aemufwckuvnf; &efue ko f nf Edi ki fa H &;òr@awmf jzpfonf? vlxt k ºkH ur_rsm;. A[dc k suf jzpfonf? vlxt k ºkH ur_u b,frm S yJ ponfjzpfap &efue kw f i G f (aemufq;kH awmh) pkpnf;avh &So d nf? ‘1300 jynfh ta&;awmfy’ kH up+yD; ,ck 2007 rSm jzpfom G ;wJh “oHCmh ta&;awmfy” kH txd tJ't D wdi k ;f jzpfco hJ nf? &efue ko f nf b,fawmhrqdk ‘Edi ki fa H &;òr@awmf’ jzpfaevdrr hf nf? 'ga=umifh &efue k r f m S rae&Jv@kd ysO;f rem;ajymif;ajy;wm jzpfonf? aemufta=umif;wcku vrf;jyajryHk (RM) . ta&;t}u;D qH;k tqifr h sm;vky& f ef jzpfonf? tqifh (4) (qENc, H y l) JG ESihf tqifh (5) (a&G;aumufyo JG pf) vkyv f #if ysO;f rem;uae wnfwnf+idr+f idru f y G u f E Ji kd z f @kd jzpfonf? uyfab;}uD; qdu k a f ewmawmif olw@kd u tqifh (4) +yD;atmifyJ vkyfcJhwmudk=unfhv#if &Sif;ygonf? ‘qENcH,lyGJ’ rSm pdwfóuuf&v'f xGuv f mrS (twnfjzpf+y;D a=unm+y;D umrS) oef;a&$ ysO;f rem;u xGuv f m+y;D uyfab;oifh 9

_ynf o l h t m%m
a'orSm c%xGu+f yD; rsuE f m S jyonf? aemuftqifh (5) (a&G ; aumuf y G J o pf ) twG u f ysOf ; rem;jyef + yD ; wyfwi G ;f ajymif;vJae&mcsxm;a&;awGukd vkya f eonf? 'D vkye f nf;u ae0if;vkye f nf; jzpfonf? ae0if;vdk rD;raovd@k oef;a&$u (2) ESpf tcsdef,l+yD; vkyfae&jcif; jzpfonf? ae0if;uawmh ‘qENcH,lyGJ’ +yD;+yD;csif; ‘a&G;aumufyGJ’ vky0 fo hH nf? oef;a&$ rvky& f? J tcse d, f & l onf? ae0if;uawmh ige@J twl ‘rqv’ xJu b,foa l wG wyfuxGuc f /hJ b,fol awGae&pfchJ qdw k mudk ydi ky fi kd E fi kd E fi kd f vky0 fo hH nf? aemuf ae0if; vky0 fw hH mu ol@ ‘tajccHOya'’ u rqv wygww D nf;&Sw d hJ ‘tajccHOya'’ a=umifh jzpfonf? ‘tajccHOya'’ u twkduftcHygwD rxm;yg? oef;a&$&J@ ‘tajccHOya'’ uawmh wrsdK;jzpfonf? ‘pnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk 'Dru kd a&pDpepf’ vkya f e&onf? ,da k ygu[ f mayguf r&Sa d tmif [dy kw d ' fq D @kd vy kx f m;&onf? ae0if;u zqyv *d% k ;f uGJ (2) ckpvH;k a&m/ ‘yrnw’ udy k g wnf&c dS i Gr hf ay;bJ zsuo f r d ;f xm;+y;D jzpfonf? oef;a&$uawmh NLD udk usKH ;oGi;f &OD;rnf? h w hH hJ NLD wufºuwJh NLD udk csKyfaESmif zrf;qD;um aysmn udk pnf;±Hk;&OD;rnf? 'gawGa=umifh (2) ESpf tcsdef,lwm jzpfonf? (2) NLD udk 1948 ckEp Sw f e k ;f u zqyv qd& k , S v f pfawGu CPB udk vkyc fo hJ vdk oef;a&$u NLD tay: vkyc f sia f eyHk &onf? 1948 wke;f u rwfv (12) &ufrm S vlty ke f @J &rf;um; (+cr d ;f ajcmuf) cJo h vdk oef;a&$ uvnf; NLD udk +cr d ;f ajcmuf aeonf? [dw k e k ;f u vlty ku f CPB (A[d) k tem;udk roD0y hH g? tckawmh pGr;f tm;&Siv f t l y ku f NLD (A[d) k tem;udv k m+y;D &rf;um;cJ+h yD? aemufwqifw h ufv#if 1948 rwfv (28) uvdk vkyz f @kd yJ usea f wmhonf? [dw k e k ;f u CPB udk A[da k &m e,fyg odr;f usKH ; +yD; zrf;onf? tck NLD udk tJ'v D v kd y kr f ,f rxifyg? NLD A[dk acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm; (0g&if}h uD;rsm;) udk csex f m;+y;D wufºuwJt h iftm;pktm;vH;k udz k rf;wm vkyE fi kd f onf? tckuwnf;u uGuu f sm;uGuu f sm; vkya f e+y? D A[du k txl;a=unmcsufawG xkwfwmudk OyuQmðyxm;onf? wufºuolawGu tJ'x D w k jf yefcsuu f kd vlxx k jJ zef@z@kd rajymeJ@ vuf0,fxm;v#iy f if zrf;aeonf? NLD rsm;&J@ vkyu f u G u f usO;f vSonf? ygonf? cs;D usL;*k%ðf yygonf? rlay:rSm }u@H }u@H ci kd c fi kd f &yfwnf jyaewmxufvnf; ydv k y k E f i kd r f nf rxifyg? Oya'a=umif; t& oef;a&$w@kd ukd &ifqi kd r f nfqw kd muawmh ‘zGic hf sonf’ h wefz;kd yJ &Sy d gvr dr hf nf? rm&S,a f vmacwfwi G f oef;a&$ yg;pyfu Oya'xGua f ewm jzpfygonf? tydkif; (c) f siv f #if jynfo@l tiftm; (PP) pnf;±H;k & (1) NLD udk umuG,c ygrnf? jynfwi G ;f NLD u “(PP) pnf;±H;k a&;” udk vlxx k J qif;+yD; (ajAmif) vkyE f i kd r f m S r[kwy f g? jynfwi G ;f eJ@jynfyu 'Dru kd a&pDtiftm;pkrsm;uyJ vkyE fi kd y f gonf? jynfwi G ;f tvkye f @J jynfytvky/f O/G tvkye f @J U/ G tvkyu f kd cGx J m;&ygrnf? a&maxG;xm;vd@k rjzpfyg? wckyJ em;vnfr_ ,lxm;csiy f gonf? wOD;udw k OD; tawG;tac:t& acszsuw f m rvky=f uzd@k jzpfygonf? (2) ESpa f wmh atmifx h m; apcsiy f gonf? Auy u atmifx h m;ygrnf? uGejf rLepf0g'eJ@ vpfb&,f0g'u &nfwnfcsuf - tjrif - enf;em tpp t&m&m uGjJ ym;ygonf? rwlEi kd w f mudk wlatmif!a d‡ ev#if tcse d u f e k ± f r kH u &efjzpfwwfygonf? (2) ESpq f w kd hJ tcse d u f bmrSr=umyg? tcsi;f csi;f jiif;cHx k ;kd ESua f eygv#if oef;a&$ ppf tkyp fu k ‘a&G;aumufyo JG pf’ udk at;at;aq;aq; vkyo f m G; ygvr dr hf nf? ‘a&G;aumufyo JG pf’ +yD;vd@k ‘v$wa f wmf’ ac:v#if “2008 tajccHOya'” tm%mwnfawmhrnf? tm%m wnf+yq D v kd #if NLD (Oya'wGi;f ) &yfwnfz@kd rjzpfEi kd a f wmhyg? tnHc ht H ±H;_ ay;+yD;‘Oya'wGi;f &yfwnfr’ _ ,lv#iu f m; &yg vdrr hf nf? NLD acgi;f aqmif}u;D rsm; vkyr f nfrxifyg? }u@H }u@H cdi kc fi kd f &yfwnf=uygvr d r hf nf? xdo k @kd &yfwnfv#if yk'r f 404/ 405/ 406/ 407/ 408 wd@k jzifh tusyu f i kd v f r d r hf nf? 'ge@J rvHk avmufv#if yk'r f 409 t& Oya'opfjyXmef;+yD; NLD udk tjywfui kd v f r dr hf nf?

(2) vmrnfw h u kd y fo JG nf NLD eJ@ SPDC . aemufq;kH wdu k y f JG jzpfovdk 1988 u pcJa h om vlxt k ºkH ur_. t±H;_ tEdi k f ,wd jywfq;kH jzwfcsuu f srnfh wdu k y fv JG nf; jzpfonf? 'ga=umifh T wdu k y ft JG wGuf u|ea f wmfw@kd jyif&ygrnf? Auy wygww D nf;vkyv f @kd ratmifjrifEi kd y f g? b,f tzG@J tpnf;jzpfjzpf wzG@J wnf;vkyv f @kd ratmifjrifEi kd y f g? tm;vH;k (3) NLD u rlawGay:rSm }u@H}u@Hci dk c fi k d f &yfwnfaewmudk tm;& 0di k ;f +y;D vky=f urS atmifjrifrm S jzpfygonf? cGjJ crf;cGjJ crf; vkya fe 10

_ynf o l h t m%m
=uvd@k rjzpfyg? rwlwmudk c% (,m,D) ab;z,fxm;oifh &Sy d gonf? ygonf? vlxx k q J if;+yD; v_y& f m S ;Edi ko f r l sm;udk tðrawrsm; kr fm S ‘tðrawau'g tjzpf arG;jrL&ygrnf? U/G . aqmify' tydkif; (*) arG;jrL - a&&Snjf r‡KyfEHS - tcgtcGia hf umif;uda k pmif’ h jzpfoifh vuf a wG @ vk y f i ef ; rsm; wif j ycsuf ygonf? ‘tðrawau'g’ rsm;udk Edi ki fa H &;vrf;pOfjzifh arG;jrL &ygrnf? U/G pnf;urf;udk vdu k e f map&ygrnf? vufawG@ (1) a&S@wi G f (jynfwi G ;f rSm) vlxx k J vkyE fi kd w f mu ajratmuf U/G vkyi f ef;rsm;jzifh prf;oyf&ygrnf? U/G . oabmrSm f wckyJ &Sa d wmhrm S yg? U/G vkyi f ef;rSm A/S (vufeufui tvkyf (U/G tvky) kd w f u kd y f) JG eJ@ rwlyg? (ajray:vkyi f ef;) eJ@vnf; pkðyH+yD; vky=f uv#if vdi k ;f csi;f ryl;rdz@kd odyt f a&;}uD;ygonf? rwlyg? rxifay:avaumif;av &efo@l ukd vSnjhf zm;Edi ka fv - Armjynfu e,fajrcyfusO;f usO;f yJ jzpfygonf? U/G vkyf =uv#if wOD;eJ@wOD; xdawG@r=d urSm rkcsjzpfygonf? xdawG@rd =uv#if tjrefcm G =uzd@k vdy k gonf? tòyiftqdi k f tvkt,uf rvky=f uzd@k vdy k gonf? ‘zd&ifºur,f/ xd&ifcsr,f’ tawG;tac: - ESpa f ygi;f rsm;pGm tpd;k &tqufqufu Edi ki fa H &; taoG; onf? pdkufxl=uzdk@ vkdyggonf ta&mif&o dS r l sm;&J@ pm&if;udk rSww f rf;wifðypkxm;wm &Sy d g ‘zd&if (jym;) r,f/ xd&if (0yf) r,f’ onf? 'ga h =umifh vla[mif; (0g&if) h eJ@ vlopf (rsKd ;qufopf) tawG;tac:udk qef@usif&ygrnf rsm;udk a&maxG;+yD; (,l*su D vmyfpnf;) (vH;k 0) rzG@J oify h g? &ygrnf ¡ta&;awmfy' kH a D &jrifv h mv#if tvdt k avsmuf yl;aygi;f rdom G; rSmyg? 1988 =o*kwv f wke;f uvdk 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfykH wyfom;a[mif;awGe@J 88 rsKd ;qufawG wyl;waygi;f wnf; jzpfom G ;rSmyg? avmzd@k rvdy k g?¢ - vlx}k u;D a=umufaewm r[kwy f g? xGu& f yfvrf; rjrifv@kd aumif;av jzpfygonf? wH@k qi kd ;f aewm jzpfygonf? 'Dvy kd J jzpfavh&a dS =umif; ordi k ;f u Armjynfrm S t*Fvy du f v kd e kd v D ufxufuwnf;u t}udr}f udrjf ycJz h ;l yg+yD? A[d& k @J AsL±du k a&pD,EW&m; aumif;aumif;vnfywfcw hJ m jzpfyg - tawG;tac:trSm;uda k y;+yD; ‘xGu& f yfvrf;jy’ ae=uvd@k onf? A[d. k tm%mudk e,fpe Ge f ,fzsm;txd jzef@=uufxm; vnf; rjzpfyg? tawG;tac:rSm;qdw k mu “ppfty kp fv k y ko f r# Edi kc fy hJ gonf? iH@k cH - olw@kd ay;or#wif;wdr” f qdw k hJ tawG;tac:u t"du 1989 Auy òyuGc J se du f p+yD; ppftm%m&Sip f epf&@J trSm;yg? tckacwfrm S avmuf tawG;tac: vlxx k jJyef@v, G w f m tm%monf aus;vufawm&Gm e,fpe Ge f ,fzsm;txd jzef@ b,fwe k ;f urS r&Sz d ;l yg? toHvi $r hf ' D, D mawGu tawG;tac: =uufxm;Edi kc fy hJ gonf? &Gmodr& f m G i,ftxd A[d. k tm%m trSefjzpfap/ trSm;jzpfap jzef@jzL;ay;aewm jzpfygonf? pl;&Sygonf? t}uD;qH;k ppfwyfukd xlaxmif+yD; Edi ki ft H ES@H jzef@ tawG;tac:trSeu f kd rsm;rsm; (ajymEdi ko f r l sm;u) ajymap =uufxm;Edi ka f eygonf? ol@twdi k ;f twmt& acwfrq D ufo, G f csiy f gonf? a&;ud&, d mrsm;udk (ppfwyfwi G) f wyfqifxm;Edi ko f jzifh tcse df - ‘zd&ifºur,f/ xd&ifcsr,f’ tawG;tac: pdu k x f =l uzd@k vky d g ESihf wajy;nD owif;pHu k kd A[du k &aeygonf? onf? ‘zd&if (jym;) r,f/ xd&if (0yf) r,f’ tawG;tac:udk t=urf;zufz@kd vnf; t+rw J rf;avhusihf Zmwfwu kd f qef@usi& f ygrnf? xm;ygonf? xd@k a=umifh rdrw d @kd U/G vkyi f ef;u uspv f spa f erS ‘a&&Snjf r‡KyfE’ HS Edi kr f m S jzpfygonf? (2) ra=umufoa l wG trsm;}uD;&Sy d gonf? ‘0g&if}h uD;rsm;’ U/G . toufonf v#Kd @0u S a f &; jzpfygonf? v#Kd @ ra=umufyg? ‘88 rsdK;qufrsm;’ ra=umufyg? NLD &J@ 0Sua f &;udk tðrawau'gawGom xde;f odr;f rSm jzpfygonf? wufºuolrsm; ra=umufyg? wjcm;ra=umufoa l wGvnf; tckacwfavmuf rdrw d @kd txJrm S [muGua f ysmu h u G f &Sw d mudk 11

_ynf o l h t m%m
(Auy taejzif) h rñuHcz hJ ;l yg? &efou l rdrt d wGi;f xd;k azmuf +yD; owif;,lzdk@ tvGefvG,faeygonf? rdrdwdk@twGif; ‘owif;ay;’ jr‡KyfE& HS efvnf; &efo@l twGuf tcGio hf mae ygonf? 'ga h =umifh rdr. d U/G vkyi f ef;udk ‘oHr%dpnf;urf;’ jzifh xde;f odr;f zd@k ta&;}uD;ygonf? ‘taysmw f rf;qefwm’ vpfb&,fuswm (ud, k e f @J rqdi kw f mudp k yfp/k odor#ukd tukef av#mufajymaewmudk qdv k o kd nf) udk jywfjywfqef@usi& f ygrnf? udk rD;cd;k ºuufav#muf vdu k w f wfygonf? &efoa l xmufvr S ;f a&;awG taeeJ@ toHvi $o hf r#ukd rysur f uGue f m;axmifz@kd wm0efay;xm; jcif;cH&avh &Sy d gonf? rdrw d @kd &a J bmfawGu toHvi $w hf mwdi k ;f udk (t+rw J rf;) em;axmifwm vkya f vhr&Sd ayr,fh olw@kd u t+rw J rf; em;axmifygonf? +y;D awmh cGjJ crf; pdwjf zmum owif;a&aomufjrpfvu kd a f vh &Sy d gonf? vdu k v f #if ay:avh&y dS gonf? txufrm S wifjycJo h vdk wdi k ;f jynfuusO;f - A[dt k m%mu wjynfv;kH tEH@S jzpfaeawmh rdr& d @J U/G ay:oGm;wwfygonf? (3) U/G udk wyfaygif;pkjzifhvkyfr&? tckacwfrm S u Edi ki f }H uD;awGwi kd ;f u Armvdk toH ygwt D zG@J tpnf;wckwnf;rSmyif tvkyu f kd vdi k ;f v$iy hf gonf? wcsKd @u ñuH&mvl0ifajymzd@k awmif tcef;zGihf xm;ygonf? rD'D,mqdkwmuvnf; owif;rsm;zdk@/ rSefzdk@/ jrefz@kd yJ OD;pm;ay;=uwmqda k wmh &or#owif; v$iw hf wfyg onf? rdrw d @kd u owdtrsm;}uD;&Sr d S awmfumusygvr dr hf nf?

txl;vkyi f ef; Armed U/G udk zGx ‹J m;rS jzpfyggrnf rnf? 'grS “xd&ifcs” vd‹k jzpfygvdrr hf nf?

(4) v#dK@0SufqufoG,fa&;pepfeJ@ 0Sufpmpepf aumif;rGef &rnf? v#dK@0SufqufoG,fa&;pepfaumif;awG (rdrdrSm aum Edi ki fw H umrSmyg) &Sy d gonf? rdrw d @kd twGi;f rS Edi ki fa H &; &yfwnfr_aumif;+yD; xufjrufolawGudk a&G;cs,fxm;+yD; olw@kd ukd ‘0Sup f mpepf’ aumif;aumif;wDxi Ga f p&ygrnf? avxJukd v$ix hf w k v f u kd & f wJh udpw P i kd ;f rSm ‘0Sup fm pepfaumif;’ &Sr d S jzpfygrnf? ‘twd0 k u S ’ f pepfaumif; &S& d k @kdvnf; ‘txmoabm’ oH;k zd@k aygi;f pHk cGx J m;&ygonf? vdi k ;f yl;v#if emwwfygonf? Auy rnf? wcgw&H txmeJ@ ajymqdz Gx f m;&ygrnf? . ,l§*sD ordi k ;f wGif ñuHc& hJ onfrm S vdi k ;f awGy;l aevd@k cHc& hJ wDxi wmcsn;f jzpfygonf? vdi k ;f wvdi k ;f wnf;rSm opPmazmuf wa,mufay:v#if tm;vH;k xdue kw f wfygonf? vdi k ;f awGy;l +y;D tydkif; (C) ±_ya f eawmh wEG,i f ifwpifyg vdi k ;f tm;vH;k xdue ky f gonf? ygww D ckwnf; vkyw f mrSmawmif vdi k ;f yl;rSm a=umuf (1) tcgtcG i f h a umif ; rk c say:rnf ? &v#if wyfaygi;f pke@J U/G vkyy f gu vdi k ;f awG b,fvy kd ;l +yD; Edi ki fw H umhtajctae aumif;ygonf? ppfty kp f& k @J b,frm S opPmazmufay:rvJqw k d mudk &ifwxdwx f w d e f @J ae&yg Zmwd±y k e f @J t}uHw;Hk ^m%fw;kH obm0u yGiu hf saeygonf? vdrr hf nf? em*pfre k w f i kd ;f &J@ qd;k usKd ;awGu a&&Snt f pGr;f jyaeawmhrm S Auy rSm toHv$ifh±Hk&Sdwkef;u U/G tvkyfeJ@ jzpfygonf? toHv$ih f vkyi f ef;udk jywfjywfpnf;jcm;xm;ygonf? U/G 1988 wke;f u Edi ki fa H &;acgi;f aqmifawG r&Si;f Edi kf vkyfief;eJ@ toHv$ifhvkyfief;udk wm0efcHwOD;wnf;u cJw h hJ udp}P uD;udk vlxu k (1990) rSm &Si;f ay;cJ+h yD;+yD? NLD udi kx f m;apygonf? U/G vkyi f ef;u &wJo h wif;wdi k ;f udk udk tcGit hf m%mtyfc+hJ y;D +y? D ‘1990 a&G;aumufy’ JG uvnf; toHvi $± hf u kH rv$iy hf g? òr@awGay:rSm jzpfwo hJ wif;udk &efo& l @J oef;a&$w@kd vkya f y;cJw h myJ? ‘1990 a&G;aumufy& JG v'f’ [m pme,fZif;awGrm S ygvmrS toHvi $y hf gonf? U/G u &wJh oef;a&$w@kd &if0rSm pdu k 0 f ifaewJh "m;wacsmif;yJ? tckawmh owif;udk v$ir hf y d gu &efo@l axmufvr S ;f a&;u owif;Zmpfjrpf olw@kd u aoG;±l;aoG;wrf; qGE Jw k z f @kd óu;pm;aewm jzpfonf? 12

_ynf o l h t m%m
rdrw d @kd u tJ'" D m;udk pdu k +f rJpu kd a f eap&rnf? (2) ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;a=umifh vlxktHkºur_awG ay:Edkif f ef;udk wd;k cs@Jvy ka f e=u&rnf? tðraw ygonf? rdrw d @ku d U/G vkyi au'grsm; arG;jrLae&rnf? Armwjynfv;kH rSm a'giv f u kd a f &m/ jym;vdu k y f g arG;jrLae&rnf? tcsut f csmòr@wi kd ;f rSm/ puf±kH wdi k ;f rSm/ a'owdi k ;f rSm tðrawrsm; &Sa d eatmif vky& f vdrhf rnf? 'gukd ‘jyifqifcse d’ f [k Auy u oH;k ygonf? jyifqifcse df (tajccHtm;jzif) h jynfp h +kH yDqv kd #if vlxt k ºkH ur_ukd wjynfv;kH taxGaxGtHkºur_}uD;tjzpf w[kefxdk; ajymif;ypfEdkifyg+yD? &efue kr fm S yJ a'owckrm S yJ (tcse dq f ) JG tHºk uaevd@k rjzpfyg? rkcs acsre _ ;f cHvu kd & f vdrr hf nf? jyifqifcse dr fm S aumif;aumif;jyifqif xm;v#iu f m; tHºk ur_r;D awmufrsm;udk wjynfv;kH jyef@E@HS atmif vkyE fi kd r f nf? ‘jynfv;kH u|wt f axGaxGtºkH ur_’ ay:vmv#if (tjrefq;kH ) t±H;_ tEdi k jf ywfatmif wdu k & f rnf? (zdvpfyi kd f PP eJ@ eDayg PP wd@k ukd avhvm&rnf) &ufyi kd ;f twGi;f t±_;H tEdi k jf ywfrS jzpfrnf? 'gukd A/S umv u u|ea f wmfw@kdu av; (4) jref wpf (1) aES; [k twda k umuf ac:onf? jyifqifwmrSm aES;csia f ES;ygap? wdu k y f0 JG if+yq D v kd #if awmh jrefjrefjywfap&rnf qdw k mudk aqmify' kv f y kx f m;wm jzpfonf? jref&rnfa h v; (4) csuu f jrefjrefwu kd y f g/ jrefjref Edi ky f gap/ atmifo;D atmifyi G hf jrefjref&atmif,y l g/ jrefjref wdu k y fu JG kd tqH;k owfyg pwmawG jzpfonf? Edi ki fa H &;wdu k y fr JG m S awmh tcsuf (4) csuf rvdb k ;l xifygonf? “a'gia hf phatmif jyifqif - jrefjreftEdkif,lvdkufyg” qdkwmyJ jzpfvdrfhrnf xifygonf? rm;ud@p ku f kd jrefjrefyJ tEdi k& f vdu k w f mrSm tar&duef u ol@ukd [m0di k& f o D @kd ac:xkwo f m G ;vd@k vnf; jzpfonf? eDayg u bk&ifuawmh eef;awmfxu J ‘t±H;_ ay;’ vdu k w f m jzpfonf? (tckawmh eef;ucGmcJ& h +yD?) 1988 =o*kwfvu u|efawmfwdk@u ae0if;udk jrefjreft±H;_ ay;atmif rvkyE fi kd c fy hJ g? ,m,D (=um;jzwf) tpd;k & zG@J +yD; tm%mudk rodr;f ydu k E f i kd c fy hJ g? a'guw f marmifarmif tcse dq f a JG ewmudk u|ea f wmfw@kd u ydw k u G r fo d nf? 'ga=umifh ae0if;u t±H;_ ray;±Hr k u (e0w) udk tm%modr;f cdi k ;f (wpn) udk ygwz D @JG ci kd ;f +yD; at;at;oufomqif;oGm;wm jzpfonf? 'Dwcg tJ'v D kd rjzpfap&yg? NLD-CRPP &Sa d e+yD? 1990 v$wfawmfudk tjrefac:&rnf? jynfya&mufa&m/ jynfwi G ;f &Sa d &m tm;vH;k ygap&rnf[k Auy u jrifygonf? tajccHOya'r&Sdao;vdk@ topfa&;qGJ&OD;rnf qd+k yD; tcse d q f r JG ae&atmif Adv k c f sKyfatmifqef; a&;qGc Jw hJ hJ ‘47 tajccHOya'’ udk (,m,D) ,lo;kH &rnf xifygonf? tm%mjy\emrSm tjywfajz&Si;f +yD;v#if eDayg rSmvdk ‘wdi k ;f ðyjynfðyv$wa f wmf’ ac:zd@k jyif&rnf? tm;vH;k udk (tm;vH;k ud) k !‡E di _d ;f um 'Dru kd a&pDzi Ga hf y;wm vky& f ygrnf? tm%mr&Sb d J tajccHOya'a&;qGa J ev#if pm&Guf ay:u ‘tajccHOya'’ yJ jzpfaevdrr hf nf? ppfty kp fu k kd av#mr h wGuo f ify h g? olw@kd u ‘wefjyef awmfvSefa&;’ vkyfEdkifonf? vkyfvmv#if tjywfESdrfeif; acsre _ ;f ypfEi kd & f rnf? ppfty kp fu k kd wyfrawmf (Edi ki fa H wmfppfwyf) eJ@ cGjJ cm; +yD; xm;Edi k& f rnf? oef;a&$ppfty k p f e k @J aphpyfaqG;aEG;zd@k rjzpf Edi ka f yr,fh wyfrawmf (jynfcspr f sKd ;csp) f rsm;eJ@ aphpyfaqG;aEG; &vdrr hf nf? ppfty kp fu k Edi ki fa H wmfppfwyf (wyfrawmf) udk trde@f ay;aewmudk qH;k cef;wdi ka f p&rnf? Tum; t=urf;zsi;f }uHqcsuf jzpfygonf? f ef;udk taxGxv G y ki f ef;eJ@ txl;vkyi f ef;qd+k yD; (3) U/G vkyi cGjJ cm;pnf;±H;k &ygrnf? - taxGaxGvy ki f ef;u jynfov l x l t k iftm; (PP) udk pnf;±H;k wm jzpfygonf? - txl;vkyi f ef;u vufeufui kd f ,l§*sD vufa&G;pif wyfz@JG zG@J z@kd jzpfygonf? txl;vkyi f ef; Armed U/G udk zG@J xm;rS jzpfyg rnf? 'grS “xd&ifcs” vd@k jzpfygvr dr hf nf? pGr;f tm;&Siw f @kd / }u@H z@HG w@kd xJu acgi;f rmxdyo f ;D udk vufpm;acs&vdrr hf nf? ‘'DyJ,if;’ +yD;uwnf;u vufeufudkif ,l§*sD zG@J xm;rS jzpfawmhrnf[k Auy u twGi;f ydi k ;f rSm jyifqifchJ ygonf? NLD . ‘t=urf;rzufa&;’ eJ@vnf; xdyw f u kd f rwdk;csifvdk@ (}udwf+yD;yJ) jyifqifygonf? vufeufudkif wdu k y fo JG ¿mefukd t&efa&G;vrf;tjzpf xm;ygonfavmufyJ u|ea f wmfw@kd ajymcJy h gonf? tckawmh rajymr+yD;vd@k ajym&ygonf? A U/G udk jyifv#if vky& f r,ft h vkya f wG rsm;ygonf? “ppfpw d p f pfaoG; wufºuwJh vli,frsKd ;quf” rsm;eJ@yJ vky& f rSm jzpfygonf? vufeufu jy\emr[kwfyg? vla&G;rSefzdk@u ta&;}uD; ygonf? ud, k u f csn;f yJ cHae&v#i/f pGr;f tm;&Siv f y k o f r#ukd iH@k ca H e&v#if b,foy l jJ zpfjzpf xGuv f rf;ydwo f vdk cHpm;=u 13

_ynf o l h t m%m
k yHa k tmcJy h gonf? usq;kH '%f&m& axmifwef;tuscH &rSm jzpfygonf? 'Dawmh u,fwif&i Sa f r#mw f t hJ awG;tac: vlxu &wmawG renf;yg? od@k aomf acgi;f aqmifrw _ m0ef rauscy hJ g? 0ifrm S jzpfonf? dS gonf? vufawG@Ei kd i fa H &;rSmu u,fwif&i Sr f &Sy d g? ud, k hf acgi;f aqmiftm;vH;k rSm wm0ef&y 1990 usawmhvnf; 'Dru kd a&pDrc k s&&r,fq+kd yD; ud, k u f , kd f u,f&rSm jzpfygonf? yHa k tmcJjh yefygonf? 'Dwcgvnf; acgi;f aqmifawG wm0ef (4) A U/G vkyv f @kd aoG;acsmif;pD;rSm r[kwy f g? rvkyb f a J erS rauscJhyg? aemufawmh vlxu k xGu& f yfvrf;ydwo f vdjk zpf+y;D (xm0&) wpdrp hf r d a hf oG;acsmif;pD;aerSm jzpfygonf? e0w G ;ygonf? OD;wifO;D / a':atmifqef;pk=unf etz acwfrSm aoG;wpdrfhpdrfhpD;aewm enf;a&mhvm;? rwufrºujzpfom S +hf y;D pdw" f mwfwifay;ygonf? 'Dwcgawmh oef;a&$ tm%modr;f pu pD;cJo h nf? 'Dy, J if;rSm pD;cJo h nf? aemufq;kH wd@k e,fvn J if;enf;’ vkyv f u dk y f gonf? NLD udk tawmif 2007 oHCmhta&;awmfyt k H xd aoG;wpdrp hf r dp h f ;D xGua f eygonf? u ‘'Dy, aemifrm S vnf; pD;ygvr dO fh ;D rnf? tvuf csKd ;ovdk vkyv f u kd y f gonf? ‘oHCmhta&;awmfy’ kH jzpfawmh ‘'DyJ,if;enf;’ u &efukefa&mufvmygonf? J if;enf;’ udk tefwz k @kd tck (PP) pnf;±H;k a&;vrf;pOfukd (5) t=urf;rzufbJ vd& k myef;wdi ka f &mufrnfqv kd #if u|ea f wmf ‘'Dy, f m jzpfygonf? wd@k axmufcy H gonf? od@k aomf Armjynf&@J ordi k ;f u tJ'v D kd wifjywm jzpfygonf? Auy . }uHqcsuo di _d ;f vdy k gonf? jzpfz@kd tajctaeray;cJy h g? ud, k u f rpD;apcsia f yr,fh tkyp f ;kd tm;vH;k eJ@ !‡E wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwf }udwf+yD;!‡dEd_if;zdk@ jzpfygonf? olu pD;apcsiv f #if pD;aerSmyg? JG mudk ajAmifvy kv f @dk r&rSe;f odygonf? twGif;0ef±Hk;rSm aoG;acsmif;pD;cJhvdk@yJ Armjynf uGejf rLepfe@J vufww vGwfvyfa&;ordkif;rSm jynfwGif;ppfjzpf+yD; aoG;acsmif;pD; acgif;aqmifr_ vkaewm r[kwfyg? 'ga=umifhyJ cJ& h wm jzpfw,fqw kd m rarhoify h g? ‘1990’ u vlx& k @J tm%mtyfEi S ;f jcif;cH&wJh NLD-CRPP jynfwi G ;f ppfvnf;rjzpf/ t&Snw f nfww hH hJ jynfwi G ;f udk a&S@wef;wifaejcif; jzpfonf? tajccHOya'rSmusawmh +ir d ;f csr;f a&;vnf;r& jzpfaewJh vuf&t dS ajctaeu a&&Snf Adv k c f sKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;wJh wdi k ;f ðyjynfðyv$wa f wmfu csrw S f wnf&a dS erSm r[kwy f g? xm;wJh ‘47 tajccHOya'’ udk ,m,DtoH;k ðy&ef wifjyae oef;a&$ppfty k p f u k vnf; jrpf0u|e;f ay:jyefvnf wm jzpfygonf? xlaxmifa&;udk vkyE fi kd r fm S r[kw? f aoG;pkyr fe _ @J zdEy Sd c f sKyfcs,f vpfb&,f'r Du kd a&pDatmifjrif&ifvnf; Auy u r_awG rsm;&if olye kx f wwfygonf? w&m;0ifci G& hf wmavmufyJ jzpfEi kd r fe S ;f odygonf? ‘ppftm%m oef;a&$u, kd w f i kd v f nf; ae0if;&J@u=H urRmrsKd ; rwd;k &Sip f epf’ ðywfusv#i& f +yDq+kd yD; T}uHqcsur f sm;udk wifjyae bl;vd@k rajymEdi ky f g? ae0if;rSm Adv k t f e k ;f ausmjf rifh &Sc do hJ vdk wm jzpfygonf? oef;a&$rSm ydk+yD;&Sdygvdrfhrnf? ppfwyfudk trdef@ay;EdkifwJh wu,fv@kd ‘2010’ ckEp Sr fm S ppftm%m&Sip f epfukd tm%m rJo h m G ;v#if ae0if;xuf oef;a&$u ydc k& H ygvr dr hf nf? tpwke;f wdu k z f suf rypfEi kd v f #iv f nf; Auy u ppftm%m &Sifpepfukd tuket f pif¹cif;csur f &Sd zsuo f r d ;f Edi ko f nftxd (6) aemufqHk;wifjycsifwm? tvHrvSp J wrf;wdu k y f0 JG ifom G ;rSm jzpfygonf? (1988) u 'Dwcgawmh 'Dru kd a&pD&ap&r,fq+kd yD;
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14

±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH uD; tESpE f p S q f ,fajrmufonhf tcgor,wGif Tta&;awmfy}kH uD; ay:ayguv f ma&;twGuf óud;pm;&mrSmESihf o,faqmiftaumiftxnfazmf&mwGif usq;kH oGm;=uaom tmZmenftaygi;f wd@k tm; OD;!$wt f av;ðyvdu k y f gonf? ±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH uD;onf rqv ppftm%m±Sir f sm;tm; eef;ay:uqif;oGm;apjcif;/ Edi ki fa H &; ygwr D sm; ay:ayguv f mjcif;/ 1990 ckEp S f a±G;aumufyJG jzpfay:vmapjcif;ponhf taumiftxnf ±Sa d om atmify& JG v'frsm;udo k mru jynfov l x l t k aejzihf ppftm%m±Sir f sm;tm; qef@usiw f u kd y f0 JG if&ef rdru d , kd r fr d, d =kH unfcsu/f &Jpr G ;f owWE di S hf vkye f nf;vky[ f efaygi;f pHw k @kd uv kd nf; &±Sa d pcJy h gonf? ±Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk}uD;onf jynfolrsm;tm; wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom todawGtjyif oifcef;pmrsm;vnf; ay;tyfco hJ vdk ppftm%m±Sir f sm;udv k nf; woufrarhatmif jyif;jyif;xefxef owd ay;cJo h nf? 'if;wd@k ukd ,ae@wi kd f aoG;avajcmufjcm;aeatmif wkev f y _ a f pcJo h nf? todtrSwðf yonfjzpfap/ rðyonfjzpfap ,ae@ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;onf ±Spa f v;vH;k .tquf[k qd+k rJqE kd i kd o f nf? tm%mudk ,lxm;aom ppftm%m±Sir f sm;onfvnf;aumif;/ ppftm%m±Sir f sm;udk z,f±m S ;vdo k r l sm;onfvnf;aumif; ±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfyu kH csex f m;cJa h omjy\emrsm;udk t"duxm; ajz±Si;f ae=u&onf? etz tzd@k ±Spa f v;vH;k tarGtESpr f sm;tm;vH;k udk azsmufzsuy f pfa&;rSm t"duvkyi f ef;}uD; jzpfovdk twdu k t f cHrsm;taejzifh ±Spa f v;vH;k toD;tyGir fh sm;ESihf tpOftvmrsm;udk xde;f odr;f umuG,a f &; rSm t"duvkyi f ef;}uD; jzpfaeayonf? ESpb f ufpvH;k wGif ±Spa f v;vH;k umvu acgi;f aqmifrsKd ;qufrsm; avsme h nf;oxufavsmo h m G ;+y? D od@k aomf ±Spa f v;vH;k rwdi kr fu D wnf±c dS a hJ om jy\emrsm;uawmh enf;enf;rS avsmr h oGm;? ArmEdi ki f. H pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra _ &;/ ynma&;/ use;f rma&;/ ,Ofaus;r_a&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f a&;/ tbufbuf wd;k wufa&;twGuf ±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH uD;rSm t+yD;rowfEi kd c fw hJ hJ wdu k y fa JG wGukd atmify& JG wJt h xd qufwu kd z f @kd vw kd ,fqw kd mudk ArmEdi ki fo H m;wdi k ;f odae=uygonf? od@k aomf ±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH u;D u ay;cJa h om todynm/ oifcef;pmrsm;udk rSer fe Su f efuef aygi;f csKyo f ;kH oyf+y;D ±Spa f v;vH;k ta&;awmfy}kH u;D wke;f uxuf ravsme h nf;aom ZGv J @kH vESihf pGe@f vw $ r fr _ sm;udk ðyvkyE fi kd r fo S m atmify& JG Edi kw f ,fqw kd mudk +yD;cJw h t hJ ESpE fp Sq f ,fordi k ;f u txift±Sm;jyoaeayonf?

15

_ynf o l h t m%m

rm,mtif*svkd (Maya Angelou) udk 1928 ckEp S /f {+yD 4 &ufae@u/ tar&duefEi kd i f /H rpfp& l jD ynfe,f/ pde@f v;l 0pPrm S arG;zGm;cJy h gw,f? i,femrnfu rm*&uf *|efqif (Marguerite Johnson) jzpfygw,f? oloHk;ESpforD;t±G,frSmyJ tazeJ@tar uGo J m G ;+y;D olw@kd armifEr S ESpa f ,muf[m òr@d i,fav;wck±dS tzGm;qDrm S oGm;ae&ygw,f? 'Dtcse dr fm S yJ tJ'w D e k ;f u tar&duefOya'u cGiðhf yxm;wJh tom; ta&mifcjJG cm;r_'%fukd cH&ygawmhw,f? ol[m 16 ESpf orD;t±G,u f p+y;D yifyifyef;yef;eJ@ ud, k 0 hf rf;ud, k a f =umif;cJa h yr,fh tqdt k u/ oDcsi;f a&;/ uAsma&;/ jyZmwfa&; pwmawGukd tvGe0 f goemygcy hJ gw,f? avhvmvdu k p f m;vkyu f i kd c fv hJ @kd 50 pkEp Sy fi kd ;f up+y;D emrnf&vmcJy h gw,f? 1960 ckEp Sr fm S ol[m tD*sp/f *gempwJh tmz&duwdu k u f Edi ki fa H wGrm S oGm;ae+y;D wzufu olrsm;udk oifay;/ wzufrSmawmh oludk,fwdkifuvnf; tmz&du,Ofaus;r_udk avhvm vdkufpm;cJhygw,f? ol*gemrSmaewkef; tar&duefvlrnf;v_yf±Sm;r_ acgif;aqmif r,fvu f e Gt f w d u f p f f (Malcolm X) eJ@ rdwa f qGjzpfcy hJ gw,f? tJ'a D emuf olw@kd t=um; tjyeftvSep f mawGa&;om; tjrifzvS,& f if; rm,m[m &ifu h suv f mcJy h gw,f? 1964 ckEp S r f m S rm,m tar&duefukd jyefvmcJy h gw,f? &nf±, G c f suu f r,fvu f e Gt f w d u f p f& f @J tmz&du - tar&duaoG;pnf;a&;tzG@J (Organization of African American Unity) wnfaxmifrr _ m S ulnz D @kd yJ jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh oljyef a&muf+yD; bmrSr=umvdu k b f ;l / r,fvu f e G t f w d u f p f t f owfc& H +yD; ol@tzG@J tpnf; opfvnf; rzG@J jzpfawmhygb;l ? 'Daemufrm S rm,m[m rmwifvo l muif;eJ@w+JG yD; vkyu f i kd c fy hJ gw,f?

16

_ynf o l h t m%m

Million Man March Maya Anjelou
The night has been long, The wound has been deep, The pit has been dark, And the walls have been steep.

vloef;csDwhJ csDwufyJG
rm,mtif * svd k
nwmuvnf;±Snf '%f&muvnf;euf usi;f uvnf;arSmif eH&a H wGuvnf;rwfygb? d a0;uGmwJa h omifurf;ay:/ aoaewJt h jyma&mifaumif;uifatmufrm S igq h u H spa f wGuq kd +JG yD; rif;eJ@rvSr;f wJq h u D a kd c:oGm;w,f rif;vufawGuw kd y ka f ESmif/ ypyfuy kd w d q f @kd rif;[migu h kd ac:awmifrac:Edi kb f ;l ? rif;bmrSrwwfEi kd /f igvnf;bmrSrwwfEi kd f uHq;kd csia f wmhordi k ;f rSm rif;[m t&Suq f w kd q hJ w k q H y du f & kd cJw h ,f? igajymw,f - nwmuvnf;±Snf '%f&muvnf;euf usi;f uvnf;arSmif eH&a H wGuvnf; rwfygb? d 'gayrJh tck/ twdw0 f ^ d mOfawGu G ESpa f ygi;f rsm;pGm/ &mpkEp S a f ygi;f rsm;pGm ork'& N mawGjzwf/ yifv,fawGjzwf+yD; igw@kd ut kd av;teufajymjyaew,f? olw@kd u- pnf;vH;k =uwJ/h ud, k v hf r l sKd ;ud, k u f muG,=f u rif;wd@k twGuf [dt k a0;}uD;rSmay;qyfae=uw,f aus;u|ep f epf&@J aESmifóud;awG[m igw@kd vw G v f yfa&;twGut f }ur d }f ur da f y;qyfae=u&w,f vd@k bk;d ab;awGu owday;cJw h ,f? nwmuvnf;±Snf '%f&muvnf;euf usi;f uvnf;arSmif eH&a H wGuvnf;rwfygb? d 17

Under a dead blue sky on a distant beach, I was dragged by my braids just beyond your reach. Your hands were tied, your mouth was bound, You couldn’t even call out my name. You were helpless and so was I, But unfortunately throughout history You’ve worn a badge of shame.

I say, the night has been long, The wound has been deep, The pit has been dark And the walls have been steep.

But today, voices of old spirit sound Speak to us in words profound, Across the years, across the centuries, Across the oceans, and across the seas. They say, draw near to one another, Save your race. You have been paid for in a distant place, The old ones remind us that slavery’s chains Have paid for our freedom again and again. The night has been long, The pit has been deep, The night has been dark, And the walls have been steep.

_ynf o l h t m%m
The hells we have lived through and live through still, Have sharpened our senses and toughened our will. The night has been long. This morning I look through your anguish Right down to your soul. I know that with each other we can make ourselves whole. I look through the posture and past your disguise, And see your love for family in your big brown eyes.

igw@kd awGjzwfoef;cJw h /hJ jzwfoef;aewJh i&Jb0awG[m igw@kd &@J tm±Ha k wGukd xufjrufap igw@kd &@J yi kd ;f jzwfcsuu f kd cdi kr f mapcJw h ,f? nwmuvnf;±Snf 'Dreufawmh rif;&J@emusn;f r_ujkd zwfoef;+yD; rif;&J@Ev S ;kH om;txd ig=unhr fw d ,f? igw@kd Ep S a f ,muf twl±a dS ejcif;tm;jzifh igw@kd [m tjynfw h ckjzpfEi kd w f ,f? rif;&J@u, kd [ f eftaetxm;eJ@ rif;[efaqmifxm;wmudjk zwfoef;+y;D rif;&J@t!da k &mifrsuv f ;kH }uD;awGxu J rif;&J@ ud, k r hf o d m;pktay:xm;±Sw d a hJ rwWmudjk rifrw d ,f? igajymr,f - vufcy k w f ;D yg/ 'Dae&mrSm twlpp k nf; &atmif igajymr,f - vufcy kw f ;D yg? wOD;eJ@wOD;arwWmeJ@qufqH &atmif igajymr,f - vufcy kw f ;D yg? rodusKd ;EGv H y kw f ,fqw kd hJ atmufwef;usru _ ae vrf;cG& J atmif vufcy kw f ;D yg? igw@kd twlxu G v f @kd &ifxr Jm S ±Sw d mawGukd azmfxw k & f atmif igw@kd twlw+JG yD; ud, k 0 fh ^ d mOfu, kd jf yefqef;ppf&atmif igw@kd twlw+JG yD;@k ud, k 0 fh ^ d mOfu, kd o f ef@pif=u&atmif vufcy kw f ;D yg? ud, k v f ufoef@pifwmuaecGmvdu k y fg ud, k o fh rki d ;f ud, k f zH;k uG,a f ewmud& k yfvu kd y fg vufcy kw f ;D yg? 0d^mOfawGukd ºuGua f v#mufay:uaejyefac:yg vufcy kw f ;D yg? wd@k pum;0di k ;f xJukd aysm± fi $r f _ tdyc f ef;xJukd rGe& f nfr_ rD;zda k csmifxu J kd =uifemr_ uav;awGqu D kd *±kpu kd r fa _ wG zdwa f c:vdu k y f g? emusic f g;oD;wJo h rdi k ;f xJrm S yJ bd;k ab;awGu wd@k ukd owday;w,f wd@k [mjyefxvmr,fh a±S@uc kd sw D ufaeolawGjzpfw,fw? hJ igw@kd jyefx+rJ xvmw,f?
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

I say, clap hands and let’s come together in this meeting ground, I say, clap hands and let’s deal with each other with love, I say, clap hands and let us get from the low road of indifference, Clap hands, let us come together and reveal our hearts, Let us come together and revise our spirits, Let us come together and cleanse our souls, Clap hands, let’s leave the preening And stop impostering our own history. Clap hands, call the spirits back from the ledge, Clap hands, let us invite joy into our conversation, Courtesy into our bedrooms, Gentleness into our kitchen, Care into our nursery.

The ancestors remind us, despite the history of pain We are a going-on people who will rise again. And still we rise.
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18

em*pfve Gf Edik if a H &;
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‘obm0em*pf’xuf ‘ppftkyfpkvk vy k fr,fh em*pf’u ydk+yD;t0ef;t0dkif; us,fygvdrfhr,f

21

ndKhrd+if;awmifwef;rsm;rSonf v$wfawmfcef;rqDodkh
xG u f a wmf r l e ef ; ucG m +yD eDaygEi kd i f& H @J Oya'ðyv$wa f wmfa&G;aumufyu JG kd 2008 ckEp S { f +yDv 10 &ufae@u usi;f ycJy h gw,f? 'DOya'ðy v$wa f wmf[m oufwrf; 2 ESp& f r dS m S jzpf+yD; tJ'o D ufwrf;twGi;f zG@J pnf;tkyc f sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'udk a&;qG& J rSm jzpfygw,f? ud, k p f m;vS,f pkpa k ygi;f 601 OD; &Sr d m S jzpf+yD; 575 OD;udk jynfol awGu a&G;jc,fwifjrm ‡ ufw,f? usef 26 OD;uda k wmh 0ef}uD;csKyf u cef@tyfrm S jzpfygw,f? eD a ygOya'ðyv$ w f a wmf & J @ yxrt}udrftpnf;ta0;rSm eDaygEdkifiHudk orRwEdkifiHtjzpf a=unmcJ h w ,f ? eD a ygbk & if *smeif'&mudk eef;awmfu xGuf cGmzdk@ v$wfawmfu qHk;jzwf cJw h ,f? tJ't D rde@f ukd bk&ifu vnf; vufcc Hw hJ ,f? eef;awmf ucGm+y;D omreft&yfom;tjzpfyJ eDaygEi kd i fr Hm S qufaexdi ko f m G ;rSm jzpfw,f? tJ'e D ef;awmfua kd wmh jywdu k t f jzpfxm;&Sr dm S jzpfygw,f? &mpkEp S e f @J cs+D yD; eDaygEi kd i fu H kd tkyp f ;kd vmwJh oufO;D qHyi kd b f & k ifpepf tqH;k owfom G ;cJy h g+yD? eD a yge,f a jr/ jynf o l e J @ pD ; yG m ;a&; eDaygEi kd i f[ H m uke;f wGi;f ydwE fi kd i f jH zpfw,f? av;axmifp h yfpyfy& kH +dS yD; pwk&ef;uDvr kd w D m 147˜000 us,0 f ef;w,f? e,fajr&J@ 75µ[m awmifwef;awG jzpfw,f? tem;oH;k buf[m tdE, dN Edi ki fe H @J e,fajrcsi;f qufpyfaew,f? e,fpyft&Snf 1˜746 uDvr kd w D m&Sw d ,f? awmifxx l yfwhJ ajrmufbufrm S awmh w±kwjf ynfwA d ufa'oeJ@ e,fajrcsi;f qufpyfaew,f? uDvr kd w D m 1˜100 &Sw d ,f? 2003 ckEp S f oef;acgip f m&if;t& vlO;D a& pkpa k ygi;f 23 oef;ausm& f w dS ,f? tck 2008 ckEp S r f m S awmh 29 oef; ywf0ef;usi& f r dS ,fv@kd cef@re S ;f =uw,f? trsm;pku aus;vufrm S aexdi k =f uw,f? òr@jyrSm aexdi ko f u l 15µ r#om &Sw d ,f? trsm;pkjynfoa l wG[m v,f,mpdu k y f sKd ;a&;eJ@ toufarG;=uw,f? 22

_ynf o l h t m%m
eDaygukd tvsm;vdu k o f ;kH ydi k ;f ydkif; ajymavh&Sdw,f? tdENd,EdkifiHeJ@ e,fajrcsif;uyfaewJh awmifbufqHk; tydi k ;f u ajrqD=oZmaumif;+yD; w±di k ;f (od@k r[kw) f vGijf yifa'ovd@k ac:w,f? eDaygvlOD;a& pkpkaygif;&J@ 48µ [m tJ'a D 'orSm aexdi kw f ,f? trsm;pk[m ra'qD (Madhesi) awG jzpfygw,f? tv,fydkif;awmifukef;a'ouawmh awmifawGxx l yfw,f? tjrifh rDwm 600 uae 4˜000 ywf0ef;usif&SdwJh awmifawG jzpfw,f? 'Dtv,fyi kd ;f rSm òr@awmfcwWref'& l +dS yD; eDaygEi kd i f& H @J Edi ki fH a&;udk v$r;f rd;k xm;wm 'Dtv,fyi kd ;f yJ jzpfygw,f? ajrmufbufqHk;tydkif; uawmh {0&uftygt0if tjrifhqHk; awmifawG wnf&+dS y;D w±kwjf ynfwA d uf a'oeJ@ xdpyfaew,f? eDaygEdkifiH&J@ taemufbuf[m awmifxlxyf+yD; wdi k ;f jynf&@J tqif;&Jq;kH a'oawGvnf; jzpfw,f? uGejf rLepfawGukd tcdi kr f mqH;k axmufca H ewJh a'oawGvnf; jzpfw,f? eD a ygEd k i f i H & J @ pk p k a ygif ; jynfwi G ;f xkwv f y kr fw _ efz;kd (GDP) [m 2005 ckEp S r f m S tar&duefa':vm 39 bDvsH &Sw d ,f? tJ't D xJrm S v,f,mu 40µ/ 0efaqmifr_u 40µ eJ@ pufr_ vufru _ 20µ toD;oD; jzpf=uw,f? eDaygEi kd i fr H m S tvkyv f ufrhJ rsm;w,f? tvkyftudkifvnf; &Sm;yg;w,f? 'g a=umifh eDaygEi kd i fo H m;trsm;tjym;[m tdE, dN Edi ki fb H ufom G ;+yD; tvkyv f y k =f u w,f? tck aemufydkif;rSmawmh rav;&Sm;eJ@ yifv,fauG@Ei kd i fa H wGtxd xGu+f y;D tvkyv f y k =f uw,f? rav;&Sm;eJ@ yifv,fauG@Ei kd i fa H wGrm S tvkyv f y ka fe wJ h eD a ygEd k i f i H o m; pk p k a ygif ; [m 700˜000 avmuf &Sw d ,f? tdE, dN ppf wyfeJ@ +Adwdo#ppfwyfawGrSm oGm; tr_xrf;aewJh a*g&cg;ppfom;awG vnf; &Sw d ,f? eDaygEi kd i f[ H m tJ'D ppfr_ xrf;awGqu D wESpa f ':vm oef; 50 0ifaiG&&Sw d ,f? rav;&Sm;eJ@yifv,fauG@ Edi ki fa H wGrm S oGm;tvkyv f y ka f ewJh vlawG jyefy@kd wa hJ iGygaygi;f &if a':vm 1 bDvsH avmuf &Sw d ,f? wOD;csif;0ifaiG[m a':vm 300 atmuf jzpfw,f? qif;&Jcsr;f om uGm[r_}uD;w,f? eDaygtdrfaxmifpk pkpkaygif;&J@ 10µ &SdwJh tcsrf;omqHk; rdom;pkawGu pkpkaygif;EdkifiHh"eOpPm&J@ 39²1µ udk xdef;csKyfxm;w,f? eDayg tdrfaxmifpk pkpkaygif;&J@ 10µ &SdwJh tqif;&Jq;kH rdom;pk0ifawG ydi kq f i kd w f m u pkpkaygif;EdkifiHh"eOpPm&J@ 2²6µ yJ &Sw d ,f? eDaygEdkifiHrSm qif;&Jcsrf;om uGm[r_}uD;wJhtjyif vlrsdK;cGJjcm;r_/ ZmwfcjJG cm;r_awGvnf; }uD;w,f? eDayg Ed k i f i H tk y f p d k ; ol v l w ef ; pm;awG [ m tEG,o f ;kH pku vm=uw,f? awmifay: a'ocH tcG i f h x l ; cH a wG j zpf w J h eD 0 g (Newars) ¡eDaygvO l ;D a&pkpa k ygi;f &J@ 5µ &S+d yD; t"dutm;jzifcwWref'LrSm tajc ðyw,f¢eJ@ Zmwfjrifa h wGjzpfwhJ A[ef; (jA[R%) ¡vlO;D a&&J@ 12µ¢ eJ@ cwW, d (vlO;D a&pkpa k ygi;f &J@ 19µ) wd@k jzpfw,f? tv,fvm $ rSm *smem*swD (37µ) &S+d yD; atmufqHk;rSmawmh Zmwfedrfhwvpf (13µ) &Sw d ,f? 1999 a&G;aumufyt JG +y;D rSm A[ef;/ cwW, d / eD0g tEG,a f wGu tpd k ; &&mxl ; pk p k a ygif ; &J @ 75µ eJ @ v$wfawmfae&mpkpkaygif;&J@ 61µ udk &,lcw hJ ,f? w±dkif;a'orSmaexdkif=uwJh ra'qDawG[m rlvZmpfjrpft& tdE, dN EG,z fm G ;awGjzpfw,f? e,fpyfwzufrm S &Sw d hJ aqGrsKd ;om;csi;f awGe@J eD;eD;uyfuyf qufqr H a _ wG&w dS ,f? ajr,mydi kq f i kd r f _ t&eJ@ ya'o&mZfajr&Sip f epf qufqa H &; awG euf ± d _ i f ; r_ a =umif h ra'qD a wG twGi;f rSm vlwef;pm;yÉdyuQjyif;xef w,f? 'gayrJh usee f a D yga'ocH awmif ay:om;awGjzpfwhJ A[ef;/ cwW, d / eD0ge@J *smem*smwpfw@kd u olw@kd tay: ,Of aus;r_t&/ vlr_a&;t& cGJjcm;ESdrfcs qufqr Ha _ =umifh tJ'v D w l ef;pm; yÉdyuQ awG[m arS;rSe d o f m G ;&w,f? olw@kd ukd eDaygEdkifiHom;vdk@ oabmrxm;bJ tdE, dN Edi ki fo H m;awGv@kd oabmxm;=u wm jzpfw,f? eDayga&S;OD;ordkif;eJ@ tdENd, - eDayg cspf = unf a &;pmcsKyf 1768 ckEp S r f m S a*:&cg;a'o (rsufarSmufacwfeDaygtaemufjcrf;) tkyc f sKyfol em&m,ef&m S ;[m cwWref'l òr@awmfudk odrf;ydkufEdkifcJhw,f? usef tpyfòyifbufe,fajrawGuy kd g atmif Edi kv f u kd w f ,f? 'Dve kd @J 'Dae@acwf&@J eDayg EdkifiHawmf pwifarG;zGm;vmcJhw,f? vuf&Sdawmf0ifrdom;pkawG[mvnf; tJ'b D & k ifu qif;oufvmwmyJ jzpf w,f? tapmydi k ;f eDaygEi kd i fa H wmf[m uuf&SfrD;,m;eJ@blwefwdk@txd us,f d #ta&S@tE d, dN ajymw,f? 'gayrJh +Adwo uk r ` % D e J @ jzpf y G m ;wJ h 1814 - 16 ppfyt JG +yD;rSm eDayg[m tckvuf&e dS ,f ajr tus,t f 0ef;tjzpf avsmusom G; cJw h ,f? 1846 ckEp S r f m S +Adwo d #vv kd m; ol *sef;A[m'l;u eef;wGif;tpkvdkuf tðyv H u kd f vlowfy}JG u;D ðyvky+f y;D &mem rif;qufukd xlaxmifcw hJ ,f? jyifyurBm eJ@ Edi ki fa H &;t&pD;yGm;a&;t& tquf jzwfxm;wJa h y:vpDukd usio hf ;kH cJw h ,f? e,fcsJ@ppfyGJtwGuf opPm&Sd a*:&cg; 23

_ynf o l h t m%m
ppfom;awG &&Sv d mwJh +Aw d o d #uvnf; 'gukd oabmusci G ðhf y xm;cJw h ,f? 1947 ckEp S f tdE, dN jynf vGwf vyfa&;&S+d yD;aemufrm S rS &memrif;quf [m ðywfusom G ;cJw h ,f? &memtpd;k &udk jynfyrSmzGJ@pnf;cJhwhJ eDayguGef*&uf ygwu D bk&if}wdb0 k %f&@J axmufcr H e _ @J vufeufui kd y fe ku f efcw hJ ,f? 'gukd a'vD u axmufcHtm;ay;cJhw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ &memtpd;k &vnf; ðywfusom G ;cJw h ,f? 1951 ckESpfrSm a'vD&J@aphpyfay;r_eJ@ bk&ife@J ue G* f &ufygww D @kd [m =um;jzwf tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;cJhw,f? tm%mcGJa0,l cJ=h uw,f? 'Daemufrm S tdE, dN Edi ki f[ H m eDaygEdkifiHtay: awmufav#muf qdo k vdk ESpc fa G y:vpDusio hf ;kH vmcJw h ,f? wzufrm S bk&ifpepfukd xde;f odr;f xm; vd+k yD; wzufrm S vnf; ygwp D' kH r Du kd a&pD udk tm;ay;wJh avSeHESpfbuf eif;wJh ay:vpD jzpfw,f? 1949 w±kwjf ynfrm S uGejf rL epfygwD tm%m&vmw,f? aemuf r=umcif wd A uf t a&;ay:ayguf vmw,f? 'DtcgrSm tdEdN,eJ@eDayg wd@k [m vHðk cHa&;t&pd;k &drr fa _ wG jzpfvm cJw h ,f? eDaygu ol@jynfwi G ;f u uGejf rL epfawGukd w±kwjf ynfu tm;ay;ulnD rSmudk pd;k &drv f mw,f? tdE, dN uvnf; eDaygEi kd i fr Hm S w±kw=f oZmv$r;f vmrSmudk rvdv k m;bl;? 'ga=umifh 1950 ckEp S r f m S ESpE fi kd i f +H ir d ;f csr;f a&;eJ@csp=f unfa&;pmcsKyu f kd csKyfqv kd u kd w f ,f? 'DpmcsKyfrm S e,fajr wpnf;wvHk;wnf;&Sda&;eJ@ vGwfvyf a&;udk ESpfEdkifiHpvHk;u tjyeftvSef todtrSwfðyav;pm;a&;/ ESpfEdkifiH jynfoe l @J ue kp f nfawG tuef@towfr&Sd ESpfedkifiHtwGif; tjyeftvSeful;oef; oGm;vmr_udk cGifhðya&;/ a'owGif; vHðk cHa&;twGuf ESpE f i kd i f H tjyeftvSef 24 wd k i f y if ! ‡ d E d _ i f ; a&;/ eD a ygEd k i f i H a wmf umuG,a f &;eJ@ wyfrawmfukd tdE, dN u tultnDay;a&;eJ@ wEdi ki f& H @J vðkH ca H &;udk xdyg;+cdr;f ajcmufr& _ v dS m&if usew f Edi ki fH u vufcr H m S r[kwb f ;l pwmawG yg&dS w,f? 1950 ckESpfaESmif;ydkif;awGeJ@ 1960 ckEp S a f wGrm S awmh eDayge@J w±kwf jynfwdk@&J@ qufqHa&;awG wdk;wuf aumif;rGefvmw,f? wzufrSmawmh tdENd,eJ@qufqHa&;[m qkwf,kwf usqif;vmw,f? tdE, dN &J@a'owGi;f =oZm}uD;xGm;vmr_ukd eDaygu rESpòf r@ jzpfvmw,f? 1975 rSm qpfuif;udk tdE, dN Edi ki fw H i G ;f odr;f oGi;f vdu k w f t hJ cg eDaygu ajAmifqef@usifuef@uGuf cJhw,f? eDaygEdkifiHtwGif; tdENd,ukef oG,fa&;eJ@pD;yGm;a&; v$rf;rdk;vmwm udkvnf; rausreyfjzpfvmcJhw,f? 'Daemufrm S awmh eDaygu ESpE f i kd i f H +idr;f csrf ; a&;eJ @ cspf = unf a &;pmcsKyf u d k jyefvnfjyifqifzdk@ ajAmifawmif;qdk vmcJw h m tcktcse d t f xd jzpfw,f? eD a yguG e f j rLepf y gwD r sm; eDaygjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk 1949 ckESpfrSm pwifxlaxmifw,f? 'gayrJh aemufyi kd ;f rSm tpdwp fw d t f r$mr$m òyuGJcJhw,f? 1980 ckESpfawGrSmqdk&if uGejf rLepfygwa D ygi;f 15 cktxd &Sw d ,f? 1990 ckESpfrSm ay:aygufcJhwJh yxr t}udrjf ynfo@l vy _ & f m S ;r_ ta&;awmfykH }uD; (eDaygrm S First Jan Andolan vd@k ac:w,f) t+y;D rSmawmh uGejf rLepfygwD awG twGi;f rSm ta&;}uD;wJh aygi;f pnf; r_Ep Sc f k jzpfcw hJ ,f? wygwu D awmh eDayg uGejf rLepfygwD (nD!w G a f omA[dk CPN -Unity Centre) jzpfw,f? aemuf wygwDuawmh eDayguGefjrLepfygwD (nD!w G a f omrmhup f f vDeif) ¡CPNUML¢ jzpfw,f? CPN(UC) uawmh t,l tqa&;&mrSm yd+k y;D jyif;xefw,f? jynfo@l 'Dru kd a&pDopfawmfve Sa f &;udk tqH;k wdi kf qifEz J$ @kd &nfre S ;f csux f m;&Sw d ,f? CPNUML uawmh tv,ftvwfus w,f? aemufyi kd ;f 1995 ckEp Sr fm S CPN (UC) xJuae+yD; tpkwpku eDayg uG e f j rLepf y gwD (armf 0 g'D ) ¡ CPN hJ ,f? (Maoist)¢ udk xlaxmifcw yxrt}ur d jf ynfo@lvy _& fm S ;r_ta&;awmfyk H (Jan Andolan I) 1990 ckEp S f azazmf0g&v D rSm vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfyHk}uD;w&yf ay:aygufcJhw,f? 'gudk yxrt}udrf jynfol@v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;awmfyHkvdk@ ac:=uw,f? 'Dta&;awmfykH ay:ayguf apwJt h a=umif;tcsua f wGuawmh w±kwv f ufeufawGukd eDaygu wifoi G ;f wJt h wGue f @J eDayg - tdE, dN ESpE f i kd i fH t=um;arSmifcu kd e ku f ;l wmawGukd rESr d f Edkifvdk@qdk+yD; &m*spf*ENDtpdk;&u eDayg tay: ukeo f , G a f &;ydwq f @k dru _ k d vkyw f ,f? 'ga=umifh eDaygrm S pD;yGm;a&;usyw f nf; r_awG jzpfvmw,f? e,fpyfyw d x f m;wm jyefzi Gv hf matmif a'vDe@J ajyvnfatmif rajz&Si;f Edi kw f t hJ wGua f =umifa h &m eDayg oufO;D qHyi kd b f & k ifpepf wckv;kH tay: rSmyg vlx[ k m rauseyfra _ wG wd;k yGm; vmw,f? 'gt h jyif 1980 aESmif;ydi k ;f awGrSm EdkifiHwumrSmay:aygufcJhwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_awGu eDaygòr@jy ynmwwfrsm;eJ@ wufºuv_y& fm S ;olawG twGuf tm;wufz, G & f m jzpfapcJw h ,f?

_ynf o l h t m%m
t}uD;qHk;vuf0JygwD}uD;ESpfckjzpfwJh armfpudv k v kd m;wJh eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (rmhup f 0 f g') D eJ@ yDuif;vdv k m;wJh eDayg uGefjrLepfygwD (rmhufpfvDeif) wdk@ t=um; tvkyw f w l v JG y k z f @kd oabmwl nDcsuf &vdu k w f m[mvnf; ta&;ygwhJ ta=umif;tcsuf jzpfw,f? usew f jcm; vuf0Jtpkav;awGeJ@aygif;+yD; vuf0J nD!w G a f &;wyfO;D zG@J vu dk w f ,f? 1989 ckESpftwGif;rSm eDayguGef*&ufygwDeJ@ aygif;+yD; nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pkqkd+yD; zG@J w,f? 1951 ckEp Sw f e k ;f u &memtkyp f ;kd r_ukd òzcscw hJ hJ ESpy f wfvnfae@u, kd +l yD; 1990 ckEp S f azazmf0g&v D 18 &ufae@rm S “'Dru kd a&pDjyefvnfxa l xmifa&; ta&; awmfy” kH (Movement for the Restoration of Democracy -MRD) udk pwifr,fv@kd a=unmcJw h ,f? óuwif jyifqifpnf;±H;k xm;wJt h wdi k ;f vlxu k vnf; wufwufºuºuyg0ifqENjycJ=h u w,f? ausmif;om;/ q&m/ tpdk;& 0efxrf;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;eJ@ aq;buf tr_xrf;awG pojzifh e,fy,fpHku tus,t f jyef@yg0ifvm=uw,f? 'Dvy _f &Sm;r_}u;D udk tdE, dN tpd;k &aum/ vef'ef eJ@ 0g&i Sw f efuyg axmufc=H uw,f? 1990 ckEp S f {+yD 6 &ufae@rm S 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_&J@tvSnfhtajymif;w&yf jzpfcw hJ ,f? bk&ifb& D if'&mu tpd;k & opfz@JG pnf;+y;D MRD acgi;f aqmifrsm;eJ@ aphpyfaqG;aEG;r,fv@kd a=unmvdu k w f hJ tcgrSm vlxk 5 odef;avmuf[m atmif y G J c H z d k @ twG u f vrf ; rsm;ay: xGufvmcJh=uw,f? tJ'DvlxkxJu tpdwt f ydi k ;f w&yfu bk&ife h ef;awmfqD csDwufwJhtcgrSm ppfwyfu ypfcwf cJhw,f? aemuftjcm;ae&mawGrSm vnf; ppfwyfu ypfcwfwmawG vkyc f hJ w,f? 'Dvy dk pfcwfwmawGa=umifh b,f avmuf a oa=uovJ q d k w m twd tus rod&yg? 'gayrJh vlxkuawmh t}uD;tus,f a'gotdk; aygufuGJcJh awmhw,f? vlx& k @J a'goudk xdwv f ef@ oGm;wJh bk&if[m tav#mhay;vmcJh w,f? 'Dvt kd av#mr h ay;&ifvnf; ol@&@J EdkifiHhzcif}uD;qdkwJh taetxm;udkyg qH;k ±H;_ oGm;rSm jzpfw,f? {+yDv 13 &ufae@rSmawmh Edi ki fa H &;ygwa D wG ydwy f ifxm;wmudk jyef vnfy,fzsufvdkufw,f? EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;awG jyefv$wfay;vdkuf w,f? eDaygue G * f &ufygwe D @J uGejf rLepf awGygwJh =um;jzwftpdk;& zGJ@pnf;ay; w,f? 1990 ckEp S f Ed0 k ifbmvrSmawmh zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'topf w&yf u dk csrSwfEdkifcJhw,f? bk&if&J@ tm%mawGukd av#mc h sypfxm;w,f? 'gayrJh wpdww f ydi k ;f omjzpf+yD; auseyf tm;&p&m r&Sy d g? tESpo f m&tm;jzifh bk&ifpepf quf&a dS ew,f? bk&if[m eDaygb& k ifh wyfrawmf&J@ ppfOD;pD;csKyf qufjzpfaeqJ jzpfw,f? 'ghtjyif tjcm;ta&;ay: tm%mawGvnf; qufui kd x f m;wke;f jzpfw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;&J@ atmifoD;atmifyGifhawGtjzpf EdkifiH a&;ygwDawG v_yf&Sm;cGifh&vmcJhw,f? t&yfbuf tzGJ@tpnf;awG/ acgif; aqmifawG ay:ayguv f mw,f? vlrsKd ; pkawGe@J Zmwfer da hf wG[m todpw d " f mwf jrifr h m;vm=uw,f? cGjJ cm;ESr dc hf s qufqH r_udk t+yD;wdkifzsufodrf;ypfr,fqdkwJh ydi k ;f jzwfcsua f wG &Sv d m=uw,f? wzuf rSmvnf; qif;&Jcsrf;omuGm[r_[m yd}k uD;vmw,f? jynfwi G ;f pD;yGm;a&;[m vnf; wH@k qi kd ;f aew,f? 'ga=umifh jynfy xGut f vkyv f y k o f a l wG rsm;vmw,f? tdENd,/ ta&SS@eJ@ta&S@awmif tm&S EdkifiHawGtjyif tm&yfEdkifiHawGtxd xGuftvkyfvkyfolawG tvGefrsm; vmw,f? tJ'v D kd jynfyxGut f vkyv f y kf ol a wG u jyef y d k @ wJ h a iG p k p k a ygif ; [m (w&m;0ify@kd wma&m/ w&m;r0if yd@k wm yg) wdi k ;f jynfpp ka k ygi;f xkwu f e k f GDP &J@ 25µ txd&w dS ,fv@kd cef@re S ;f =uw,f? 1991 ckESpfrSm trsdK;om; v$wa f wmf a&G;aumufyJG usi;f yw,f? 1959 aemufydkif; yxrqHk;t}udrf jzpfw,f? 'Da&G;aumufyr JG m S v$wa f wmf udk,fpm;vS,fpkpkaygif; 205 OD;&SdwJh teuf eDayguGef*&ufygwDu 110 tEdkif&w,f? topfzGJ@pnf;vdkufwJh eD a yguG e f j rLepf y gwD (nD ! G w f a om rmhufpfvDeif) CPN-UML u 69 ae&m tEdkif&&Sdw,f? csKyfajym&r,f qd& k if 1990 ckEp S u f ae 2002 twGi;f rSm tpdk;&tajymif;tvJ 13 }udrf jzpfcJhw,f? wdkif;jynf&J@&ifqdkifae&wJh jy\emawGukd ajz&Si;f ay;cJE h i kd w f mrsKd ; r&Sv d b S J tm%myGp J m;vky& f yfawG/ ygwD A[dkðyv_yf&Sm;r_awGudkom awG@jrifcJh &w,f? 'ga=umifh awmfve S a f &;qefwhJ vuf00 J g' tm;aumif;vmcJw h ,f? armf 0 g'D r sm; eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (nD!w G f aom A[d) k xJu armf0g'a D wGuawmh 1991 ckEp Sa f &G;aumufyy JG vufazmif;udk toHk;cs+yD; eDaygEdkifiH&J@ t&if;tjrpf uswhJ jy\emawGjzpfwhJ ajr,mðyjyif r_/ wvpfawGukd ESr d c f squfqr H /_ vdic f JG jcm;qufqHr_eJ@ tzdESdyfcH vlrsdK;pkrsm; ta&; pwmawGukd ygvr D efEi kd i fa H &;eJ@ ajz&Si;f Edi kr fm S r[kwq f +kd y;D zGic hf sc=hJ uw,f? ypPn;f rJ@e@J v,form;wd@k &@J tm%m&Sif pepfukd tajccHwhJ ‘'Dru kd a&pDawmfve Sf 25

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a&;’ qifE$Jzdk@ wGef;aqmfcJh=uw,f? olwdk@[m a&G;aumufyGJrSm 9 ae&m tEdkif&cJhw,f? 'gayrJh 'DygwDxJu aemif (1995 ckESpf) rSm eDayguGefjrL epfygwD (armf0g'D) jzpfvmr,fhtpk uawmh a&&Snfjynfol@ppfyGJ qifE$Jzdk@ twGuf }udw+f yD; Edi ki fa H &;t&/ pnf;±H;k a&;t& óuwifjyifqifr_awG vkyfae cJy h gw,f? armf0g'Dwdk@&J@ vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ 1996 ckESpfrSm eDayguGefjrL epfygwD (armf0g') D u awmif;qdc k suf 40 wifygw,f? oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepf zsuo f r d ;f +yD; orRwEdi ki fx H a l xmifa&;/ ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfzsufodrf;a&;/ vlrsKd ;cGjJ cm;r_- ZmwfcjJG cm;r_ zsuo f r d ;f a&; pwmawG yg0ifygw,f? awmif;qdk r_awGr&wJt h wGuf 1996 ckEp S f azazmf 0g&D 13 &ufae@rSm armf0g'DawG[m vufeufui kd w f u kd y fu JG kd pwifqifEv J$ u kd f ygw,f? 'Dvkd vufeufui kd w f u kd y f JG qif E$JvdkufwJhtcsdef[m EdkifiHwumhtajc taeu tcG i f h o mwJ h tajctae r[kwfyg? qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@ ta&S@ Oa&myEdi ki fa H wG òyuGr J j_ zpfxm;wJt h cse df jzpfygw,f? urBmrSm uGefjrLepf0g' aemufqkwfae&wJhtcsdef jzpfw,f? 'gt h jyif tapmydi k ;f u t&Se da f umif;ae wJh yD±l;armf0g'DawG&J@ vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;[mvnf; olwdk@ acgif; aqmif *GeZ f mvufpf tzrf;cH&+y;D t}u;D tus,ftxdemoGm;wJh tcsdefvnf; jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJ h jynf w G i f ; rS m awmh vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ qifE$Jzdk@twGuf tcGio hf mcsua f wG&a dS ew,fv@kd armf0g'D 26 awG u ,l q ygw,f ? 1990 'D r d k ua&pDawmfve Sa f &;t+yD;rSm vlx[ k m wdk;wufr_awGjrifawG@&r,fvdk@ ar#mf vifc h =hJ uw,f? 'Dar#mv f ifc h sua f wG[m rSm;,Gif;aea=umif; oufaojyEdkifzdk@ twGuf armf0g'a D wG[m ygvr D efxu J kd vnf; 0ifa&mufc=hJ uw,f? 1990 ckEp Sf v_y& f m S ;r_}uD;t+yD;rSm &&Sc dw hJ hJ oabm wlnc D su[ f m ppfre S w f hJ oabmwlnD csufawGr[kwfa=umif;/ vlxktusdK; pD;yGm;awG ryga=umif; 3 ESpfvHk;vHk; tcsdef,l &Sif;jycJh=uw,f? olwdk@[m ygvD r ef x J r S m vnf ; 'D v d k y J wd k u f y G J 0ifcJh=uw,f? opPmtazmufcH&+yD jzpfa=umif; vlxu k kd &Si;f jycJ=h uw,f? 3 ESpfqufwdkuf v_yf&Sm;jyifqif+yD;wJh tcgrm S eDaygjynfwi G ;f tajctae[m vufeufui kd w f u kd y fq JG ifEz J$ @kd &ifr hn S v hf m +yDv@kd wGuc f su+f yD; vufeufui kd w f u kd y f JG udk pwifvu kd w f m jzpfygw,f? vufeufui kd w f u kd y f JG ppcsi;f rSm vkya f oewftenf;i,fe@J trmcH au'g w'gZifavmufyJ &Sw d ,fv@kd qdy k gw,f? tprSm a'ob%fawGukd 0ifwdkufw,f? v,form;awG&J@ aiG acs;pmcsKyfawGukd rD;±d@_ zsuq f ;D w,f? &J pcef;av;awGukd 0ifwu kd w f ,f? vufeuf i,fawG pkaqmif;w,f? e,fpyfuae yda k cwfrw D v hJ ufeufawG 0,f,E li kd v f m cJhw,f? 'DaemufrSmawmh eDaygbk&ifh wyfrawmf&@J c±di kX f mecsKya f wGua kd wmif 0ifp;D Edi kc fw hJ ,f? pufaoewfawGe@J 'H;k ypfavmifcsmawG odrf;,lEdkifcJhw,f? 2005 ckESpfrSm eDaygEdkifiH&J@ c±dkif 75 ck&SdwJhteuf 73 c±dkifrSm v_yf&Sm;Edkif vmcJw h ,f? aus;vufa'o&J@ 80µ udk xdef;csKyfxm;Edkifw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? cef@rSef;csufwckt& 2005 ckESpfrSm vufeufui kd f ajymufusm;wyftiftm; 10˜000 &S d + yD ; jynf o l @ ppf t if t m; 20˜000 &Sw d ,fv@kd qdw k ,f? wzufrSm armf0g'DawG[m vufeufui kd w f u kd y fq JG ifEa J$ eovdk Oya' wGi;f rSmvnf; olw@kd &@J ajratmuf ,l*sD hJ ,f? tvkyo f rm;/ v_y& f m S ;r_awG &Sc dw v,form;/ vlrsKd ;pkrsm;/ Zmwfer d r hf sm;/ ausmif;om;/ ynmwwfe@J trsKd ;orD; qdi k& f m toif;tzG@J rsKd ;pHr km S 0ifvy _& f m S; ae=uw,f? armf 0 g'D a wG [ m tck v d k tiftm;awmifw h if;vmwJt h wGua f =umifh eDaygEi kd i fa H &; a&pD;a=umif;xJrm S ol@ukd tqifa h e&mray;vd@k rjzpfb;l qdw k mudk usef e D a ygEd k i f i H a &;tif t m;pk a wG u odjrifvm=uw,f? 'gudk tdENd,EdkifiH uvnf; todtrSwfðyvmcJhw,f? 'ga=umifh 2005 ckESpfrSm (7) ygwD Edi ki fa H &;r[mrdwt f zG@J (SPA) eJ@ armf 0g'DawG aphpyfaqG;aEG;yGJudk tdENd,u =um;0ifaqmif&Gufay;cJhwm jzpfyg w,f? armf0g'a D wGom tiftm;r&S& d if tckvkd ta&;xm;aqG;aEG;rSm r[kwf ygb;l ? ud, k r hf m S tiftm;r&S& d if Edi ki fa H &; tqifa h e&mvnf;&Sr dm S r[kwb f ;l qdw k m udk jyowJh om"uwck jzpfygw,f? eef ; wG i f ; aoG ; acsmif ; pD ; r_ 2001 ckEp S f Zefe0g&v D 1 &uf ae@rm S cwWref'e l ef;wGi;f rSm aoG;acsmif; pD ; owf j zwf r _ } uD ; jzpf a y:cJ h w ,f ? tdra f &S@rif;om; 'Dyif'&m[m ol@&@J rb d jzpfol bk&ifb& D if'&meJ@rz d & k m;uda k &m usefnDeJ@ESrjzpfolawGudkyg aoewfeJ@ ypfowfcJhw,fvdk@ qdkw,f? ol@ZeD; avmif;udk zcifjzpfoe l @J rc d ifjzpfow l @kd u oabmrwlwt hJ wGuf tckvkd ypfowf jcif ; jzpf w ,f v d k @ qd k w ,f ? tJ ' D

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vkyE f i kd a f &;eJ@ armf0g'a D wG&@J jynfo@l vw G a f jrmufa&; wyf rawmfe@J eDayg bk&ifw h yfrawmft=um; ppfrufwu kd f aejcif; udk ‘oifa h wmfwE hJ i kd i fw H um&J@ }uD;=uyfr’ _ eJ@ tqH;k owfa&; pwmawG ygw,f? 2006 ckEp S f rwfvrSm armf 0g'a D wGe@J SPA wd@k [m 'kw, d t}udrf jynfo@l vy _ & f m S ;r_ ta&;awmfy}kH uD;udk {+yDv 6 &ufae@rm S pwifqifEz J$ @kd oabmwl=uw,f? 1990 ckEp S f yxrt}udrf jynfo@l vy _ & f m S ;r_ta&;awmfykH wdu k y f t JG &Se d f tjrifq h ;kH ae@&ufukd txdr;f trSwðf y a&G;cs,v f u kd w f m jzpf ygw,f? enf;y&d,m,ft& 'Dwu kd y f u JG kd SPA u emrnfcH OD;aqmifz@kd armf0g'y D gwu D wdu k w f e G ;f ygw,f? SPA u wEdi ki fv H ;kH {+yD 6 &ufae@up+y;D taxGaxG oydww f u kd y f }JG uD; qifEz J$ @kd Ed;_ aqmfvu kd w f ,f? {+yD 6? av;&uf=umtaxGaxGoydww f u kd y f }JG uD; pwifw,f? wEdi ki fv H ;kH twdi k ;f twmeJ@ yg0ifvmw,f? {+yD 7? taxGaxGoydww f u kd y f & JG @J 'kw, d ae@ukd qufqifE=J$ uw,f? {+yD 8? tpd k ; &u vrf ; ay:rxG u f & trd e f @ xkww f ,f? vlxu k remcHbJ vrf;ay:xGu=f uw,f? eDayg ykvy da f wGu vl 3 'gZifausmf zrf;qD;vdu k w f ,f? eDaygtaemufbuf ydc k &mrSm eDygppfwyfuypfv@kd vlwOD;aoqH;k w,f? {+yD 9? SPA u taxGaxGoydww f u kd y fu JG kd &uf tuef@towfr&Sd qufvufqifEz J$ @kd qH;k jzwfw,f? qENjyol wOD; xyfaoqH;k w,f? {+yD 10? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfyHk[m t&Sdef ydjk rifv h mw,f? tpd;k &Xmersm;/ yk*v ~ u d b%frsm;/ ukr% ` r D sm; rS tvkyo f rm;rsm; uef@uu G c f sw D ufyr JG m S yg0ifvm=uw,f? Edi ki ft H ES@H rm S vlxa k xmifaygi;f rsm;pGm[m tpd;k &&J@ umzsL; trde@f ukd zDqef+yD; csw D ufqENjy=uw,f? {+yD 11? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_udk tpdk;&u rD;ukef,rf; ukef zdEy dS òf zcGr J a _ wG ðyvkyv f mw,f? *ke* f bl (Gongabu) [m ppfajrjyifvdk jzpfoGm;cJhw,f? *kef*bleJ@ cwWref'lrSm qENjyvlxu k kd tcsuf 200 ausmf ypfcwfcw hJ ,f? vltenf; qHk; 190 ausmf '%f&m&&SdcJh=uw,f? aoG;ajrtusqHk; ae@wae@ jzpfw,f? {+yD 12? vlxkqENjyyGJ qufjzpfw,f? wEdkifiH vHk;rSm vlxktajrmuftjrm; csDwufqENjycJh=uw,f? ykvy d u f ypfv@kd vlwOD; aoqH;k jyefw,f? vlxq k ef@usia f &; vky& f yfukd uef@uu G w f t hJ aeeJ@ bef'&m/ ppfw0rfrS v,f orm;awGu eDaygb& k ifw h yfrawmfukd oD;ESa H wG ta&mif;&yf vdu k w f ,f? {+yD 13? eDayga&S@aersm;tzG@J &@J uef@uu G q f ENjyyGJ udk ykvy dw f yfz@JG u eHygww f w k a f wGe@J 0if±u kd òf zcGw J ,f? aoewf eJ@ ypfcwfwmvnf; vkyw f ,f? a&S@aeav;OD; aoewf'%f&m &w,f? trsm;tjym;vnf; tjcm;'%f&mawG &=uw,f? a&S@ae 72 OD;udk zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f vdu k w f ,f? {+yD 14? uef@uu G q f ENjyolawGu eDaygEp So f pfu;l yGJawmfudk rusif;ybJ ae=uw,f? cwWref'lrSmusif;ywJh tpd;k &r[kww f hJ tzG@J tpnf;aygi;f csKyf}u;D &J@ uef@uu G c f sw D uf yGr J m S vltrsm;tjym; tzrf;cH&w,f? {+yD 15? vufeufrq hJ ENjyolawGukd ykvy dw f yfz@JG u t=urf;zufwdkufcdkufw,f? aoewfeJ@vnf; ypfcwfwm a=umifh vl 40 avmuf '%f&m&=uw,f? '%f&m&wJh txJrSm 0ef}uD;a[mif;awGvnf; yg0ifw,f? SPA eJ@ armf0g'a D wGu bk&ife@J awG@qp kH um;ajymzd@k y,fcsvu kd w f ,f? {+yD 16? 'Drdkua&pD vdkvm;wJh qENjyyGJawG t&Se d jf r‡iz hf @kd tpDtpOfopfawGukd SPA u a=unmw,f? 'gt h jyif rdwa f qGEi kd i fr H sm;/ tvª&i Sr f sm;eJ@ Edi ki fw H um todi k ;f t0di k ;f taeeJ@ vlxw k u kd y fu JG kd qufvufaxmufct H m;ay;zd@k yef=um;vdkufw,f? pnf;rsOf;cHr[kwfwJh bk&ifhtpdk;&udk b¾ma&;tulawGray;zd@k vnf; arwWm&yfvu kd w f ,f? {+yD 17? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Xme[m v_yf&Sm; r_}u;D &J@ tcsKyu f i kd c fv H u kd & f w,f? jynfxa J &;0ef}u;D &J@ ud, k a f &; t&m&Sdtygt0if jynfxJa&;XmerS tvkyform;awGu uef@uu G q f ENjyyGJ ðyvky=f uw,f? A[db k %frS 0efxrf; 12 OD; u tpd;k &aiGxw k a f iGoi G ;f vkyi f ef;awGukd vkya f y;zd@k jiif;qef =uw,f? 'DaiGawGukd vlxv k y _& f m S ;r_ukd ESr de f if;&mrSm oH;k rSm jzpfwt hJ wGua f =umifv h @kd ta=umif;jyw,f? {+yD 18? tkyc f sKyfa&;,EW&m;&J@ toJEv S ;kH vd@k qd& k r,fh 0ef}u;D csKy± f ;kH twGi;f 0eftzG@J / tpd;k &tzG@J 0ef}u;D Xmersm;eJ@ trsKd ;om;pDru H e d ;f aumfr&Sir f S 0efxrf;awG uef@uu G q f ENjyyGJ xJrm S yg0ifvm=uw,f? ykvy d v f ufcsue f @J qENjyolwOD; aoqH;k jyefw,f? {+yD 19? taxGaxGoydww f u kd y f JG 14 &ufajrmuf ae@ jzpfw,f? Edi ki fo H rdi k ;f rSm t&Sn=f umqH;k oydww f u kd y f JG jzpfvmw,f? SPA acgi;f aqmifrsm;u awmif;qdc k sua f wG r&rcsif; qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifoGm;r,fvdk@ a=unmw,f? 29

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eD a ygqEN j yvl x k u d k t=urf ; zuf ò zcG J a epOf
oydwfwdkufyGJ}uD;twGif; ae@pOfeJ@tr# vlxku ydkydkyg0if vmvd@k t&Se dy fa kd umif;vmw,f? eDaygb& k ifwyfu ypfcwfv@kd vlEp SO f ;D aoqH;k w,f? {+yD 20? tpd;k &u t=urf;zufòzcJa G ewJ=h um;uyJ vlxkaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm[m umzsL;trdef@udk zDqef+yD; csw D ufqENjyyGa J wG qufqifE=J$ uw,f? 'Dae@rm S qENjyol av;OD; aoqH;k w,f? {+yD 21? 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;twGuf trnfpm&if; wifoi G ;f zd@k SPA udk bk&ifu urf;vSr;f vdu k w f ,f? bk&ifh urf;vSr;f csu[ f m odya f emufus+yD; vdu k a f vsmwmvnf; odye f nf;vGe;f w,fv@kd q+kd yD; SPA u y,fcsvu kd w f ,f? {+yD 22? bk&if&J@vSnfhjzm;wJh urf;vSrf;csufudk wH@k jyefuef@uu G z f @kd twGuf axmifaomif;csw D hJ vlx}k uD;[m vrf;awGay:xGuv f m=uw,f? {+yD 23? EdkifiHtESH@rSm vlxkcsDwufqENjyyGJawG qufvufjzpfym G ;w,f? vlxw k oef;ausmt f xd yg0ifw,fv@kd qdw k ,f? bk&ifu h rf;vSr;f csuu f kd tar&duef/ +Aw d e d /f w±kwe f @J Oa&myor*~w@kd e@J twl óuqdc kw hJ hJ tdE, dN [m ol@&yfwnf csuu f kd ajymif;vdu k w f ,f? t"duawmif;qdc k sua f wGjzpfwhJ ygvr D efjyefac:ay; a&;/ tajccHOya'opfa&;qGz J @kd Oya'ðyv$wa f wmfusi;f ya&; pwmawG ryg0ifwt hJ wGua f =umifq h +kd yD; SPA u bk&if&@J urf;vSr;f csuu f kd y,fcsvu kd w f ,f? {+yD 24? 19 &ufae@ajrmufqENjyyG}J uD;udk vlxu k qufqifEw J$ ,f? ygvr D efjyefac:ay;r,fv@kd noef;acgir fm S 30 a=unmvdkuf+yD; vlxk}uD;eJ@ SPA udk bk&ifu t±H_; ay;vdu k w f ,f? {+yD 25? vlxk}uD;[m vrf;awGay:xGuf+yD; atmifyc JG =H uw,f? {+yD 21 &ufae@u '%f&m&cJw h v hJ w l OD; 'Dae@rm S aoqH;k oGm;w,f? tzrf;cHxm;&olawGukd v$wa f y; w,f? {+yDv 6 &ufae@u pcJw h w hJ u kd y f [ JG m {+yDv 24 &ufae@rm S tqH;k owfom G ;cJw h ,f? pkpa k ygi;f 19 &ufyJ =umyg w,f? atmifyc JG w H hJ 25 &ufae@uy kd g xnfw h u G & f if vlxk v_y& f m S ;r_[m &uf 20 =umygw,f? aumif;aumif; tcse d, f l jyifqifxm;wma=umifh wdu k y fu JG kd tjreftqH;k owf Edi kc fw hJ m awG@&w,f? nD!w G w f w hJ yfaygi;f pkuv kd nf; wnfaqmufEi kd c f hJ wma=umifh acgi;f aqmifrw _ ckwnf;atmufrm S tm;aumif; aumif;eJ@ wdu k y fq JG ifEi kd c fw hJ m jzpfygw,f? wyfaygi;f pkxy J gwhJ tzG@J tpnf;awG[mvnf; ol@twdi k ;f twmeJ@ ol jynfoa l wG =um;rSm pnf;±H;k xm;Edi k =f uwma=umifh wdu k y f x JG r J m S trsm; wumh jynfov l x l }k u;D yg0ifvm=uwm jzpfyg w,f? jynfo@l tiftm;udk tjynft h 0azmfxw k f wdu k y f0 JG ifEi kd c fw hJ ma=umifh atmify& JG cJw h m jzpfygw,f? Oya'ðyv$ w f a wmf a &G ; aumuf y G J p epf 'kw, d t}udrjf ynfo@l vy _ & f m S ;r_ ta&;awmfy}kH uD; a=umifh bk&if*smeif'&m[m eDaygue G* f &ufygwa D cgi;f aqmif uGKd if&mvmacgi;f aqmifwhJ =um;jzwftpd;k &tzG@J ukd tm%m

_ynf o l h t m%m
v$a J y;cJw h ,f? uGKd if&mvmacgi;f aqmifwhJ =um;jzwftpd;k & tzG@J e@J armf0g'y D gww D @kd aphpyfaqG;aEG;=uw,f? oabmwlnD csuf &w,f? oabmwlnc D sut f wdi k ;f armf0g'a D wGu typf tcwf&yfp+J y;D ukvor*~&@J uy Gu f r Ja _ tmufukd vufeufawG tyfw,f? Oya'abmiftwGif; 0ifvmw,f? =um;jzwf tpd;k &tzG@J xr J m S vnf; armf0g'a D wG 0ifygw,f? Oya'ðyv$wa f wmfukd 2007 ZGev f rSm usi;f yzd@k oabmwln=D uw,f? a&G;aumufyu JG kd pepfEp S r f sKd ;aygi;f +yD; usi;f yzd@k oabmwln=D uw,f? wrsKd ;u rJqENe,ftvdu k f ta&G;cs,fcHudk,fpm;vS,favmif;awG 0ifta&G;cH=u+yD; rJtrsm;qH;k &wJv h u l tEdi k& f wJp h epf jzpfw,f? (first-pastd pepfu tcsKd ;usu, kd p f m;ðy the-post) vd@k ac:ygw,f? 'kw, a&G;aumufcw H p hJ epf (Proportional Representation) jzpfygw,f? Oya'ðyv$wa f wmfrm S ud, k p f m;vS,O f ;D a& 480 xm;+yD; w0ufpD (240) udk pepfwrsdK;pDeJ@ a&G;cs,f=uzdk@ oabmwlnc D =hJ uw,f? eDaygue G* f &ufygwe D @J eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (UML) wdk@vdk Oya'abmiftwGif;awmufav#mufaevmcJh=uwJh ygwDawGtzdk@ (first-past-the-post) pepfu ydk+yD;tcGifh tvrf; omygw,f? olw@kdygwa D wGu Oya'abmif twGi;f rSm pnf;±H;k zG@J pnf;xm;r_awGu &S+d y;D om;jzpfw,f? 0ifta&G;cs,c fH r,hf ud, k p f m;vS,a f vmif;awG[mvnf; vlxe k @J &if;ES;D +y;D om; jzpfw,f? rsuE fm S rpdr;f awmhb;l ? aemuf+y;D ygwb D ¾maiGvnf; awmifw h if;w,f? armf0g'y D gwt D zd@k awmh tJ'b D ufawGrm S olwdk@xuf tm;enf;aew,f? 'ga=umifh aemufydkif;rSm armf0g'a D wGu a&G;cs,r f ,fp h epfEp Sr f sKd ;rSm ta&twGuf ajymif; vJay;zd@k awmif;qdc kw hJ ,f? 'Dup d P tjyeftvSea f phpyfaqG;aEG; ae=uwma=umifa h &m a&G;aumufyO JG ya'topf a&;qG& J rSm twGua f =umify h g e*dk owfrw S x f m;wJa h e@rm S a&G;aumufyJG rusi;f yEdi ka f wmhyg? taustvnf aqG;aEG;=u+yD;aemufrm S a&G; aumufyu JG kd 2008 ckEp S f {+yDv 10 &ufae@rm S usi;f yzd@k / Oya'ðyv$wa f wmf ud, k p f m;vS,f pkpa k ygi;f udk 601 OD;xm;zd@k oabmwlc=hJ uw,f? rJtrsm;qH;k &wJo h l tEdi k& f wJp h epf (first k p f m;vS,f 240 OD;udk a&G;+yD; tcsKd ; -past-the-post) eJ@ ud, usu, kd p f m;ðypepfe@J 335 OD;uda k &G;zd@k jzpfw,f? usef 26 OD;udk a&G;aumufy+JG y;D aemuf tpd;k &tzG@J u cef@tyfrm S jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh pepf 3 rsKd ; a&maew,fv@kd vnf; ajymEdi ky f gw,f? (first-past-the-post) eJ@ a&G;cs,z f @kd twGuf eDayg

jynf o l ‹ tif t m;ud k tjynf h t 0zmf x k w f wdkufyGJ0ifEdkifcJhwma-umiffh

wEdi ki fv H ;kH rSm rJqENe,faygi;f 240 xm;&Sw d ,f? ygwD toD;oD; rS ud, k p f m;vS,a f wG[m tJ'r D q J ENe,fawGrm S wOD;csi;f pD 0ifa&muf,SOfòyifta&G;cs,fcH=uzdk@ jzpfw,f? rJqENe,f twGi;f u rJqEN&i Sa f wGu rdród uufEp So f ufwhJ ud, k p f m;vS,f udk rJay;=u+yD; rJtrsm;qH;k &wJh ud, k p f m;vS,u f tEdi k& f rSm jzpfygw,f? tcsdK;usudk,fpm;ðypepftwGufawmh ygwDwdkif; [m rdrdygwD&J@udk,fpm;vS,favmif;pm&if;w&yfudk a&G; aumufya JG umfr&Sio f @kd wifoi G ;f &ygw,f? tJ'u D , kd p f m;vS,f pm&if;rSm tenf;qH;k 34 OD; yg0if&rSm jzpfygw,f? ud, k p f m;ðy pepfe@J a&G;cs,r f ,fh pkpa k ygi;f ud, k p f m;vS,f ta&twGu& f @J 10µ wifoi G ;f &r,fv@kd owfrw S x f m;wm jzpfygw,f? ud, k f pm;vS,a f vmif;pm&if;[m tJ't D a&twGux f uf rsm;csif vnf;rsm;vd@k &ygw,f? tJ'u D , kd p f m;vS,a f vmif; pm&if;rSm trsKd ;orD;OD;a& tenf;qH;k oH;k yHw k yHy k g&r,fv@kdvnf; owfrw S f xm;w,f? aemuf+yD; b,fty k p f a k wGukd b,fE& S mcdi kE f e _ ;f tcsKd ;tpm;yg0if&r,fv@kd vnf; owfrw S x f m; ygw,f? Oyrm pkpa k ygi;f ud, k p f m;vS,a f vmif;pm&if;&J@ 13µ [m wvpf (Talit) ud, k p f m;vS,a f wGtwGu/f 37²8µ [m tzdEy dS c fH Zmwfer d e hf @J wi kd ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pk ud, k p f m;vS,f awGtwGuf jzpf&r,f pwmawG jzpfygw,f? rJqEN&i Sw f i kd ;f [m (first-past-the-post) twGuf w}udrfrJay;&+yD; tcsdK;usudk,fpm;ðypepf (PR) twGuf w}udrr f a J y;&rSm jzpfygw,f? (first-past-the-post) pepf twGur f r d r d q J ENe,ftwGi;f 0ifta&G;cHwhJ ud, k p f m;vS,f avmif;awGxu J rdrE dp So f uf&m wOD;udk rJay;a&G;&rSmjzpf+yD; (PR) pepftwGuf a&G;aumufy0 JG if ygwa D wGtxJu rdrd óuufEp So f uf&mygwu D kd rJay;&rSm jzpfygw,f? 31

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Oya'ðyv$ w f a wmf a &G ; aumuf y G J & v'f e J @ ajz&S i f ; &r,f h j y\emrsm; 2008 ckEp S { f +yDv 10 &ufae@rm S eDaygEi kd i fO H ya'ðy v$wa f wmfa&G;aumufyu JG kd usi;f ycJw h ,f? armf0g'a D wGu rJ S pkpa k ygi;f OD;a& 240 trsm;pk&+yD; ud, k p f m;vS,t f rsm;pk&cJy h gw,f? a&G;aumufy& JG @J aemufq;kH &v'fuawmh FPP pepfrm teuf armf0g'a D wGu 118 OD;/ eDaygue G * f &ufu 36 OD;/ eDayg uGejf rLepfygwD (UML) u 33 OD;/ Madhesi People's k hJ ra'qDygwu D 30 OD;eJ@ usey f gwa D wGu 20 OD; &&Sy d gw,f? (PR) pepfrm S armf0g'a D wGu Rights Forum (MPRF) qdw pkpa k ygi;f rJ&@J 29²3µ &&Sw d t hJ wGuf tcsKd ;us ud, k p f m;vS,f 100 OD; &&Sw d ,f? eDaygue G * f &ufu 21²1µ eJ@ ud, k p f m;vS,f 73 OD;&&S+d yD; eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (UML) u 20²3µ eJ@ ud, k p f m;vS,f 70 OD; &&Sy d gw,f? 'ga=umifh Oya'ðy v$wa f wmfrm S eDaygarmf0g'a D wGu pkpa k ygi;f ud, k p f m;vS,f 218 OD;/ eDaygue G * f &ufu pkpa k ygi;f 109 OD;eJ@ eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (UML) u 103 OD; toD;oD; &&S=d uw,f? eDaygarmf0g'a D wGu v$ww f mfrm S ud, k p f m;vS,O f ;D a& trsm;qH;k &ayr,fh wygww D nf;eJ@ tpd;k &zG@J Ei kd w f mawmh r[kwy f g? 'ga=umifh usey f gwa D wGjzpfwhJ eDaygue G * f &uf/ eDaygue G jf rLepfygwD (UML)/ ra'qDygwD pwmawGe@J aphpyf aqG;aEG;+yD; !Ge@f aygi;f tpd;k &zG@J &rSm jzpfygw,f? tck 'Daqmif;yg;a&;aecse d t f xdawmh tpd;k &rzG@J Ei kd a f o;yg? eDaygwyfrawmfjyefvnfz@JG pnf;a&;[mvnf; ta&;}u;D jy\emw&yfjzpfygw,f? ,cifea D ygb& k ifw h yfrawmfukd tckawmh eDaygwyfrawmfv@kd trnfajymif;vJ+yD; jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dru kd a&pDt&yfom;tpd;k &udk wm0efcw H hJ wyfrawmf w&yfjzpfatmif ðyjyifwnfaqmuf&ygr,f? armf0g'w D yfom;a[mif;awGe@J aygi;f pyfz@JG pnf;&rSm jzpfygw,f? aemufajz&Si;f &r,fjh y\emawGuawmh ajr,mjy\em/ zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpx k a l xmifa&;/ vlrsKd ;eJ@Zmwf cGjJ cm;r_yaysmufa&; pwmawG jzpfygw,f? 'Djy\emawGtm;vH;k udk ajyvnfapr,fh zG@J pnf;tkyc f sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'w&yfukd 2 ESpt f wGi;f 'DOya'ðyv$wa f wmfu a&;qG& J rSm jzpfygw,f? ed*Hk; eDaygEi kd i fr Hm S ESpa f ygi;f ESp& f mausmf tkyp f ;kd cJw h o hJ ufO;D qHyi kd b f & k ifpepfuawmh ysuo f O k ;f oGm;yg+yD? jynfov l x l u k a&&SnZ f e JG bJe@J vH;k yef;wdu k c fu kd c f =hJ u&wm jzpfygw,f? vufeufui kd w f u kd y ft JG ygt0if wdu k y fo JG ¿mefrsKd ;pHe k @J wdu k y f0 JG ifc=hJ u &wmyg? csKyfajym&&ifawmh jynfoa l wG&@J pr G ;f tm;eJ@om bk&ifpepfukd ðzwfcsEi kd c fw hJ m jzpfygw,f? tm%m&Sia f wGukd jynfo@l tiftm;eJ@om wdu k y f0 JG ifatmifyq JG ifEi kd r fm S jzpfygw,f? jynfo@l tiftm;udk rpnf;±H;k Edi kf ao;oa&G@ atmifye JG @J tvSr;f a0;aeOD;rSmom jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh etz ppftm%m&Sip f epf wdu k z f sua f &;twGuv f nf; Armjynf jynfoa l wGpnf;±H;k a&;udo k m aZmufcsvy ka f qmifom G ;oifa h =umif; Ed;_ aqmfvu kd & f ygw,f?

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32

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ArmjynfrSmjynfwGif;ppfjzpfw,f? tdENd,rSm rjzpfbl;? bmha=umifhvJ?

(1) yxrqH;k pOf;pm;&rSmu ‘2’ Edi ki f& H @J ordi k ;f a=umif; jzpfpOfy? J b,fwe k ;f u b,fae&mrSm uGjJ ym;oGm;=uovJqw kd mudk &Sm=uzd@k y? J jzpfpOfu=kd unf& h if t*Fvy d& f @J udv k e kd jD zpf=uyHc k si;f wlw,f? t*Fvy d& f @J tkyc f sKyy fp kH epfcsi;f uvnf; wlw,f? wlrm S ayg? h t*Fvy du f Armjynfukd tdE, dN jynf&@J jynfe,fwcktjzpf oGwo f i G ;f xm;vdu k w f myJ? jynfe,ftjzpf ae&wm ESpf (50) ausmw f ,f? t*Fvy du f oD;jcm;cGa J y;wmu (1937) usry S? J cGa J y;+y;D awmhvnf; tkyc f sKyfyp kH epfu ody+f yD;uGmjcm;vSwm r[kwb f ;l ? 'gu tkyc f sKyfob l ufu jzpfpOfy? J tkyc f sKyfca H wGbufu jzpfpOfuvnf; wlaewmyJ? tdE, dN Edi ki fa H &;&J@ tawG;tac:eJ@acgi;f aqmifra _ emufukd ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;u vdu k a f ewJjh zpfpOfy? J bmrS ruGjJ ym;bl;? tdE, dN Edi ki fa H &;udk pHtjzpfxm;+yD; vdu k v f y ka f ewm jzpfw,f? b,fwe k ;f u b,fae&mrSm jzpfpOfuo JG vJqw kd m pOf;pm;=unfa h wmh (1942) rSm uGw J ,f? Armjynfu zufqpfu|ef jzpfawmh uGo J m G ;wmyJ? tdE, dN u zufqpfu|er f jzpfcb hJ ;l ? t*Fvy d& f @J u|ey f J awmufav#mufjzpfaewmyJ? *syefppf±;_H oGm;+y;D Armjynfu t*Fvy du f |ef jyefjzpfawmhvnf; wlom G ;=ujyefa&m? tdE, dN uGe* f &ufygwe D @J zqyv [m Edi ki fa H &;tawG;tac:rSm jyef+yD;wlom G ;=uw,f? uGejf rLepfawGvnf; (CPI eJ@ CPB) wl=uwmygy? J vGwv f yfa&; &yH& k enf;txd wl=uwmyJ? 'gjzihf bmha=umifh Armjynfu jynfwi G ;f ppfjzpf+y;D tdE, dN rSm rjzpfovJ? 'gukd quf+yD; tao;pdwp f Of;pm;=u&r,f? (2) t*Fvy d u f tdE, dN udk vGwv f yfa&;ay;&awmh wdi k ;f jynf (2) jcrf; cG+J yD;rS ay;wmyJ? Armjynfrm S tJ'v D kd rvkyE f i kd b f ;l ? vkyE fi kd w f hJ tajctae r&Sw d ma=umify h? J Armjynfu wdi k ;f jynfi,fi,fuav;yg? tdE, dN &J@ jynfe,f}uD;wckavmufawmif r&Sb d ;l ? +y;D awmhvnf; w±kwjf ynf}u;D eJ@ wqufwpyfwnf; jzpfaewJh &Sr;f jynfva kd e&mrsKd ;udk oD;jcm;wdi k ;f jynfwck zefw;D ay;+y;D &yfwnfaeapzd@k qw kd mudk rvky0 f b hH ;l ? w±kwjf ynfrm S jynfwi G ;f ppf&@J Zmwfor d ;f ydi k ;f a&mufae+yD? (KMT) ±H;_ +yD; (CPC) Edi ka f wmhrm S aocsmae+yD? oHvi Gt f a&S@bufqw kd muvnf; t*Fvy dt f y kc f sKyfa&; a&mufvw S m r[kwb f ;l ? tdE, dN u cGx J u G v f u kd w f hJ ygupPwefqw kd mu wdi k ;f jynf}u;D yJ? bmoma&;t&uvnf; [dELN - rlqvif pnf;jcm; xm;+yD;om;? &Sr;fjynfuawmh Ak'b < mom0ifawGy? J ArmeJ@ wbmomwnf;yJ? bmoma&;t& pnf;jcm;vk@d r&bl;? 33

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34

(6) Armjynfrm S vdk ppftm%&Sip f epfxa l xmifz@kd qdw k muvnf; tdE, dN rSmjzpfz@kd rvG,b f ;l ? tdE, dN ppfwyf}uD;u t*Fvy d c f sec fw hJ hJ ppfwyfy? J acgu± f ;kd usKd ;+yD;om;

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ppfwyfy? J Armjynfrm S vdk awmfve Sa f &;tpOftvm&Sw d hJ ppfwyfr[kwb f ;l ? Edi ki fa H &;xJ 0ifrpGuE fi kd b f ;l ? tdE, dN ppfwyfuvnf; ouU&mZf (1857) rSm wyfwi G ;f ykeu f efrv _ y k +f yD;uwnf;u Edi ki fa H &;eJ@ cyfuif;uif;aecJh wmyJ? Edi ki fa H &;ygwa D wGuvnf; wyfwi G ;f rSm 0ifrpGub f ;l ? Armjynfuawmh ppfwyfu Edi ki fa H &;xJ wav#mufv;kH 0ifpu G a f ewm jzpfw,f? ppfwyfuvnf; (BIA) (BDA) (PBF) awGukd a&maESm+y; D zG@J pnf;xm;&wm jzpfw,f? (jynfwi G ;f ppfjzpfawmh yd+k y;D 0ifpu G z f ufvmw,f? ppftm%m&Sip f epf wnfaxmifwt hJ xd jzpfw,f?) (7) tdE, dN rSm t*Fvy d x f u G o f m G ;awmh tm%m&vdu k w f mu uGe* f &ufygw? D tJ'y D gwu D (1885) uwnf;u zG@J xm;wJh oufwrf;&Sn0 f g&ify h gw}D uD; jzpfw,f? (1919) ckEp Sr fm S *ENa D cgi;f aqmifawmhrS [kr± R ;l (Home Rule) awmif;+yD; wdu k y f JG 0ifw,f? ‘vGwv f yfa&;’ awmif;wmu (1929) aemufyi kd ;f usry S? J Armjynfzufqpfu|ejf zpfwE hJ p S f (1942) ckEp Su f sawmhrS ‘tdE, dN udk vufvw $ y f g’ (Quit India) aºu;a=umfow H if+y;D wdu k y f0 JG ifwmyJ? (tJ'w D e k ;f u Armjynfu BIA awmfve Sa f &; vkya f e+yD) 1947 rSm vGwv f yfa&;&awmh tm%m&uGe* f &ufygwu D ygwo D uf (60) ausma f e+yD? uGe* f &ufygwu D ‘Oya'wGi;f wdu k y f ’ JG yJ wav#mufv;kH wku d a f ewm jzpfw,f? a&G;aumufy0 JG ifw,f? (1937) ckEp S f a&G;aumufyr JG m S qd& k if (14) jynfe,f&w dS t hJ euf (11) jynfe,frm S tEdi k& f w,f? ygupPwef ‘cGx J u G a f &;tawG;tac:’ u (1940) uwnf;u ay:wmyJ? Armjynfu Edi ki fa H &;jzpfpOfe@J Edi _ ;f ,SO=f unfz h @kd yg? Armjynfu 0HomEkygw[ D m tdE, dN uGe* f &ufygwu D kd twk,w l myJ? 'gayrJh uGe* f &ufygwv D kd oufwrf;r&Snb f ;l ? Armjynfrm S oufwrf;&Snw f y hJ gwD &Sm;w,f? ‘zqyv’ tm%m&awmh zqyv u (4) ESpo f m;yJ &Sa d o;w,f? uGejf rLepfe@J uGx J m;wmuvnf;&Sa d wmh qd& k, S v f pfO;D ausm+f ir d ;f u zqyv udk tydi kp f ;D csiw f myJ? OD;Ek&@J acgi;f aqmifru _ vnf; r}uH@ci kd b f ;l ? Adv k c f sKyfatmifqef;vdk rD;aowmr[kw± f r kH u ol@pw d " f mwfuvnf; jy'g;vdy k J tajymif;tvJjrefw,f? 'gukd t}uH}uD;wJh OD;ausm+f idr;f u toH;k csvu kd w f myJ jzpfw,f? (8) 1948 rSm ‘jynfwi G ;f ppf’ rjzpfoify h gb;l ? 'gayrJh zdEy dS w f m jyif;xef&if/ +yD;awmh (zdEy dS c f& H olu) rdr& d @J ,H=k unfcsuu f kd rpGe@f vw $ E fi kd & f ifawmh jynfwi G ;f ppfukd a&Smifvv J$ @kd r&ygb;l ? tm%m&So d u l vkyo f r#ukd acgi;f iH@k ca H e&if c%awmh wnf+idrf ovdk &Sy d gvr dr hf ,f? =um&Snq f & kd if rcHEi kd w f o hJ u l ykeu f efygvr dr hf ,f? (9) (2008) ckEp S r f m S (1948) uvdk tajctaeeJ@ taetxm; &Sa d evd@k 'Dup d }P uD;udk udi kv f u kd w f m jzpfygw,f? ordi k ;f ynm&Sio f a k woD a'guw f moef;xGe;f odcsic fw hJ u hJ p d /P wcsKd @Ei kd i f jH cm;^m%f}uD;&Sia f wG pl;prf;aewJh udpu P kd tcka&;vdu k y f gw,f? jynfwi G ;f ppfqw kd m[m tkyp f ;kd ole@J tkyp f ;kd cHawG&@J qufqa H &;eJ@ t"duoufqi kd y f gw,f? Edi ki fa H &;jzpfay:r_ordi k ;f eJ@ oufqdkifygw,f? pdwfqENeJ@ roufqdkifygbl;? vlrsdK;&J@ZmwdpdwfeJ@vnf; roufqdkifygbl;? ‘aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;’ vdkyJ ‘jynfwi G ;f ppf’ qdw k mu (2) bufuvkyr f S jzpfygw,f? wzufowfvy kv f @kd r&yg? (10) Armjynfrm S jzpfaewmu “jynfwi G ;f ppf r[kwb f ;l ? aomif;use;f r_ukd w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;twGuf ESr de f if;aewmyJ” vd@k tcktxd ajymaeol a&;aeolawG &Sy d gw,f? 'gu oD;jcm;jy\emyg? 1988 u jzpfpOfukd rdrw d @kd u ‘vlxt k axGaxG tHºk ur_’ vd@k jrifayr,fh e0w§etz eJ@ ppfty kp f0 k ifa[mif;awGuawmh ‘rif;rJp h ±du k a f omif;use;f r_’ vd@k jrifae=u/ a&;ae=u/ ajymae=uwmygy? J 'Djy\emu a&&Snw f nf&r dS m S yg? &yfwnfrj_ y\emvnf; jzpfygw,f? tckwifjywmu oabm±d;k eJ@ tjzpfre S o f c d sio f a l wGtwGuf wifjyaqG;aEG;wmyg? tdE, dN rSmvdk rjzpf&aumif;vm;qd+k yD; rausrvnfjzpfaeolawG pOf;pm;zd@k aqG;aEG;wmvnf; jzpfygw,f? 35

ppftkyfpk oHo&m
etz [m olw@kd &@J vrf;jyajryHt k wdi k ;f olw@kd &@J z@JG pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'udk twnfðy+yD; wJa h emuf r=umcifrm S a±G;aumufyJG qdw k mudk usi;f yawmhr,f? 'Dvv kd y k w f mawG&@J t"du &nf±, G c f su[ f m urBmt h jrifrm S olw@kd u, kd o f w l @kd ppftpd;k &qdw k hJ tjzpfuae w&m;0if vlxk wifajrm ‡ ufxm;wJt h pd;k &qdw k hJ *k%u f & kd csiv f @kd jzpfygw,f? tvG,a f jym&if olw@kd ou d m Q udk jri ‡w hf if csiv f @kd jzpfygw,f? wdi k ;f jynf&@J tm%mudk ppfty kp fw k pku tkyp f ;D xm;oa±G@ b,fvv kd y ki f ef;pOfyJ a=unm a=unm/ b,fvt kd pd;k & o¿mefe@J yJ zG@J pnf;xm;w,fqq kd kd ppftm%m±Sip f epfqw kd hJ tESpo f m& t&yJ ay:xGufvmrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DvdktcgrSm ppftkyfpkqdkwm bmvJqdkwmudk ±Sif;xm;zdk@ vky d gvr dr hf ,f? [kwy f gw,f? ppfty kp fq k w kd m ppfwyfxu J jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh ppfwyf±w dS i kd ;f ppfty kp fk ±Sw d m r[kwy f gb;l ? Edi ki fw H i kd ;f vdv k r kd m S ppfwyf±y dS gw,f? 'gayrJh tkyc f sKya f &;pepf yHr ke Su f saewJh Edi ki fr Hm S ppfty kp f k ±Sc dy J gw,f? txl;ojzifh wyf&@J tcef;u¾udk ±Si;f ±Si;f vif;vif;cGjJ cm;xm;wJh Edi ki fa H wGrm S ppfty kp f& k ,fv@kd wnf±c dS y J gw,f? Armjynfrm S zqyv xJu qd± k, S v f pfawG[m jynfwi G ;f ppfukd rzefw;D cJ& h if o&JarG;ovdk Adv k a f e0if;wd@k ppfty kp fu k a kd rG;zd@k vdc k sir fv S c kd r hJ m S yg? 'ga=umifh Armjynfrm S ppfty kp fa k y: ayguw f m[m jynfwi G ;f ppfe@J wdu k ± fu kd q f ufpyfaew,fq& kd ifrrSm;ygb;l / ppfty k p f q k w kd m ppfwyfxu J vd@k qa kd yr,fh wcgwavppfwyfjyifbufrm S (tenf;qH;k emrnft&) a&mufaeol (olawG) u ppfwyfxr J m S ±Sa d ewJv h e l @J aygi;f +yD; ppfwyfukd jc,fv, S /f wdi k ;f jynfukd jc,fv, S a f ewmrsKd ;vnf; ±Sw d wfygw,f? tvG,q f ;kH Oyrmjy&&if Adv k a f e0if;tem;,l oGm;+yq D +kd y;D wyftjyifuae jc,fv, S v f y ku f i kd a f ewmrsKd ;yg? 'ga=umifr h @kd ppfty kp fx k r Jm S yg0ifoa l wG [m ppf0wfe@J csn;f [kwc f sir f[ S w k r fm S vd@k vnf; ajym&if&ygw,f? 'gayrJh olw@kd [m ppfwyftay:rSm wenf;r[kww f enf;eJ@ =oZmanmif;olawG jzpf&ygr,f? Ed@k r[kw& f if ol@toH;k 0ifr[ _ m ,m,D acwWr#om jzpfygw,f? olw@kd u, kd w f i kd u f ppfty k p f t k ay:/ ppftpd;k &tay:/ ppftm%m±Sip f epf tay: b,favmuf}uD;yJ opPm±S/d tvkyt f au|;ðyaeygap ppfty k p f 0 k ifjzpfz@kd uawmh ppfwyf tay:rSm =oZmranmif;vd@k uawmh urf;em;opfyifxuf odyr f ydy k gb;l ? 1958 ckEp S u f pvd@k

36

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Armjynf & J @ ppf t pd k ; &eJ @ ppf t k y f p k tqufqufxr Jm S t&yfom;wcsKd @ ygyg w,f? 'gayrJh olw@kd ukd ppfty k p f 0 k ifawG vd@k ac:vd@k r&ygb;l ? 'g[m orRwjzpfchJ wJh a'gufwmarmifarmiftygt0if jzpfygw,f? olwdk@[m ppftkyfpkuae wufqw kd ufc& hJ ovdk xGuq f x kd u G o f m G; &wmcsnf; jzpfygw,f? ppftkyfpku toH;k csoa l wGv@kd om ac:Edi ky f gw,f? ppftkyfpk&J@ t"dutiftm; [m vufeufui kd p f pfwyfyJ jzpfygw,f? tm%m[m aoewfajymif;xJu xGuf w,fqdkwJh pum;udk tem;vnfqHk;/ oabmtayguq f ;kH vlawGxr Jm S olw@kd xdyu f ygygw,f? 'ga=umifh ppfwyfukd csKyfui kd E f i kd o f r l S ppfty k p f x k y d o f ;D jzpfyg w,f? 'Dxy do f ;D [m wjcm;ppfty kp f0 k if awGukd b,fvw kd m0efawGca JG y;/ wd;k ay; ygap ppfwyfwckv;kH tay:/ txl;ojzifh wdu k c fu kd a f &;wyftm;vH;k tay: =oZm wnfcGihfawmh vHk;0ray;ygbl;? etz ppftkyfpk&J@zGJ@pnf;yHktydk'f (342) rSm “EdkifiHawmforRwonf trsdK;om; umuG,fa&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;aumifpD. tqdkðyaxmufcHcsufjzifh wyfrawmf umuG,a f &; OD;pD;csKyfukd cef@tyfwm0ef ay;&rnf”vd@k xnfx h m;ygw,f? wyfukd “ppfa&;tjrif”±Sw d hJ Edi ki fa H wmforRw&J@ vufckyfxJu tvGwfrcHygbl;? tJ'D orRwudk twdi k ;f rodtcGit hf m%m ay; tyfxm;wm[m ppftm%m±Sip f epf&@J vuQ%myg? ppfty kp fq k v kd @kd tkyp fw k ckv;kH / tkyp f0 k iftm;vH;k wajy;nD tm%mawG ±Sa d e=uw,fv@kd awmh ratmufarhyge@J ? ppfty k p f w k ckrm S eHygww f pf wOD;wnf; om ±Sy d gw,f? ppfty k p f q k w kd may:vGif apzd@k twGuf “ae0if; -pef;,kppftpd;k &”/ “apmarmif - cif!e G @f ppftpd;k &”/ “oef;a±$-armifat;ppftpdk;&” po jzifh ac:qdkavh±Sdayr,fh tc&muswJh tqH;k tjzwfay;Edi kw f hJ wu,ht f m%m [m wOD;wnf;vufxr J m S om±Sw d m jzpfygw,f? aemuf+yD; ppfty kp fr km S eHygwf wpfuvG& J if usew f mawGukd eHywfpOf xd;k xm;avhr±Sy d gb;l ? 'gu eHygw0 f rf;&J@ tpDtpOfjzpfygw,f? eHygwE f p S q f w kd m jyifytuJcwfrsm;u owfrSwfwmyJ jzpfygw,f? olw@kd csi;f todtrSwf rðy ygb;l ? eHygww f pf em;oGm;&if eHygwE f p S f vd@k xifxm;olawGu qufco H jl zpfvm avh odyr f ±Sw d m awG@&ygw,f? ud, k u hf kd enf;enf;ycH;k ,SOv f mr,f/ ol@u, kd o f l eHygwE fp S jf zpfw,f/ 'grr S [kwf eHygw0 f rf; }uD;&J@om; jzpfw,fqw kd mrsKd ; ajymoH awG =um;vm&+yq D & kd ifawmh tJ'v D [ l m r=umbl ; / ðywf o G m ;wmygyJ ? Ad k v f atmif}uD;/ axmufvSrf;a&; rsufrSef wifOD; pwmawG[m txif±Sm;qHk; om"uawGygy? J wcgwavrSm 'kw, d vd@k txifc& H ol[m vufawG@tm;jzifh eHygwf0rf;&J@ rD;zdkacsmifuufbdeuf avmufawmif tm%mr±Sw d m awG@& wwf ygw,f? 'g[m Armhorkdif;rSm yxrqHk;ppftkyfpkvdk@ ac:&r,fh Adkvf ae0if;wkd@&J@ qdk±S,fvpfygwDtEG,f ppftkyfpkrSmxJuwnf;u av;pm; vdu k e f mcJ=h uwJh xH;k wrf;pOfvm jzpfyg w,f? ppftkyfpkawG[m tm%m r&rDwe k ;f u Edi ki fa H &;pum; odya f jymavh r±Sy d gb? l olw@kd u, kd o f w l @kd Edi ki fa H &;udk pdwr f 0ifpm;av[ef/ Edi ki fa H &;orm;awG udk rESpr f òr@d av[efawGawmh azmfjyavh ±Sdygw,f? 'gayrJh tm%modrf;+yD;+yD qd& k ifawmh Edi ki fa H &; pum;awGrajym rjzpf/ ajym&ygawmhw,f? udk,fbm

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37

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udk,fusdK;pD;yGm;udk A[dkðywmeJ@ tJ'DtwGuf ta&;t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh tm%mudk vufrv$wfwmygyJ?
a=umifh tm%modr;f w,f/ bma=umihf tm%mudk qufxdef;w,f pojzifh EdkifiHa&;ta=umif;awG jy&ygw,f? tm%mudk &moufyefrpGe@f vw $ a f wmh bl;vdk@ qHk;jzwfxm;olrsm;uvnf; bma=umihf vky& f w,fqw k d mudk ta=umif; jy&ygw,f? olrsm;,Hw k mr,Hw k m ta&; r}uD;yg? olw@kd tzd@k wckca k jymp&m±Sz d @kd yJ ta&;}uD;ygw,f? Armjynfordkif;rSm tm%modr;f r_ oH;k cgvy kc fw hJ mrSm oH;k cg pvH;k wdi k ;f jynfukd vufrwifav; u,f wifvu kd w f ,fv@kd ajymwmawG wlae wm[m rSwa f vmufom;avmuf jzpfyg w,f? Adv k a f e0if;u tm%mudk vuf rv$wa f wmhb;l qH;k jzwfawmh rqv vrf;pOfqw kd mudk a=unm±Hr k u tn rn oabmw&m; qdkwmudkawmif azmfxw k v f u kd y f gao;w,f? Adv k o f ef;a±$ wd@k uawmh vrf;jyajryHq k w kd meJ@ pnf; urf;±SdwJh 'Drdkua&pDqdkwmudk wifyg w,f? ol w d k @ avawG b,f v d k y J uGjJ ym;yap/ ppfty k p f w k i kd ;f rSm wlnw D hJ tcsuw f csu± fa dS eygw,f? tJ'guawmh tJ't D pk&@J u, kd u f sKd ;pD;yGm;udk A[dðk ywmeJ@ tJ'DtwGuf ta&;t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh tm%mudk vufrv$ww f mygy? J olw@kd 38

&J@ aoe*FAsL[majrmuf ajcvSr;f wdi k ;f Oyrm - vrf;jyajryHk ‘7’ csu/f zG@J pnf;yHk tajccHOya'pwm - [m tJ't D m%m udk xdef;odrf;umuG,fa&;om jzpf ygw,f ? 'D a e&mrS m taotcsm axmufjyzd@k vdw k mu ppftm%m±Sif pepf q d k w m ppf w yf a umif ; pm;a&; r[kwb f J ppfwyfxu J xdyq f ;kH tpkav; wpkjzpfwJh ppftkyfpkaumif;pm;a&; oufoufom jzpfygw,f? wcsKd @Ei kd i fa H &; orm;awGuom tm%mudpu P kd owd rxm;rdbJ ±Sa d umif;±Sr d ,f olw@kd uawmh enf;enf;rS rsua f phrvnf/ em;ra,mif ygb;l ? aemufaxmufjyoifhw,f xifwhJ tcsuw f csuu f awmh ppfty kp fk twGi;f xdyo f ;D tajymif;tvJawGygy? J ppfty k p f x k y d o f ;D wdi k ;f vdv k y kd J aowyef oufqHk; xdyfoD;vkyfoGm;csifwmyg? olwdk@twGif; a±Sma±Sm±ª±ªtm%mv$J ay; w,fqw kd m tifrwefrS ±Sm;ygw,f? tm;vHk;rwwfomvdk@csnf;om jzpfyg w,f? emrnf}uD;vSwhJ urBmausmf ppf tm%m±S i f } uD ; awG j zpf w J h csD v D u yifEa kd ±S;/ pydeu f z&efup kd olawGukd =unhf yg? aorS eef;pGe@f oa l wGcsn;f jzpfygw,f? tif'e kd ;D ±Sm;u ql[mwde k @J Armjynfu Adkvfae0if;wdk@uawmh jynfolvlxk wdu k y fa JG =umifh Ekwx f u G a f y;&wm jzpfyg w,f? ql[mwd[ k m uGejf rLepfqef@usif a&;twGuf ol@ukd toH;k rvda k wmhwhJ tcsdefrSm tar&duefpD;yGm;a&;tay: trsm;}uD; rSc Da kd e&wJt h avsmuf tar &duefu tcsujf yvdu k w f meJ@wòyi de f uf EkwfxGufoGm;wmyg? tomw=unf Ekwx f u G w f ,fqw kd m tifrwefrS ±Sm;yg w,f? olw@kd taeeJ@ 'Dvkd &moufyef tm%mvufrv$wfEdkifwm&J@ t"du ta=umif;&if;awGxJrSm wckuawmh

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xpfaiga h ewmvm;? tm;vH;k yJ jzpfEi kd w f mcsn;f ygy? J 'gayrJh t"dutusq;kH u “eHygw0 f rf; tm%m&Si}f uD;” u bm E_wr fe d @f rS ray;ao;vd@k tm;vH;k u xGur f ajym0H=h ubJ tmap; xnfc h& H ovdk jzpfae=uwmyg? =unf;wyf/ a&wyf/ avwyfe@J &Jwyfu ppfAdkvf}uD;awG[m tajctaerSefudk odae=u wmyg? 'DtjzpfrsKd ;u ppftm%m&Sip f epf &Sa d eor# &Sa de rSmyJ? 7 &ufZv l i kd w f e k ;f uvnf; 'Dvy kd J jzpfcw hJ ,f? 1974 75 - 76 wke;f ua&m 88 wke;f uyg 'Dvy kd J jzpfcw hJ myJ? tckacwfu (1962 - 88) wke;f ueJ@ rwlygb;l ? IT acwfyg? *vdb k ,fvu kd a f Z;&Si;f acwfyg? jynfyudk Arm jynfom;awG oef;eJ@cs+D yD; a&mufaewJa h cwfyg? tJ'a D wmh Edi ki f jH cm;rD', D mawGu owif;rsKd ;pHk ay;=uwm rqef;ygb;l ? u,fq,fa&;u b,frm S a&mufaerSe;f rod? vuf awG@rm S pm;p&mr&Sv d @kd vk=u,uf=uwJo h wif;awG xGuv f m cJw h ,f? wurBmvH;k u 0di k ;f 0ef;zd@k / ulnc Di Ga hf y;zd@k awmif;qdk ae=u+yD? tavmif;awGu awmify& kH myHk tjyef@tES@H ? etz ajz&Si;f enf;u vG,w f ,f? ‘tavmif;awG ig;pm;oGm;vdrhf r,f’ wJ? h ‘pm;p&m r&S& d if tke;f oD;cl;pm;/ ig;zrf;/ u%ef; zrf;pm;’ vd@k ajymolu ajymw,f? etz owif;pmu “Edi ki fH wumrS vª'ge;f onfh acsmu h vufrsm; rpm;&v#iv f nf; {&m 0wDom;wd@k ud, k t hf m;ud, k u f ;kd touf&i SE fi kd y f gonf? v,f =um;ajrmif;=um;xJrS ig;rsm;/ zm;rsm;ESihf tavhus ayguf aeonfh r_e d m;wd/k u!Gww f @kd cl;pm;+yD; &Sio f efEi kd o f nf” vd@k a&;ygw,f? olw@kd apwemuawmh &Si;f vdu k o f nfjh zpfjcif;? 'Dve kd @J vlawGu iwfjywfzsm;em+y;D wwdwx d yfao ae=u&w,f? u,fq,fr,fo h u l kd ar#ma f e=uw,f? etz uawmh 'Dva l wG&@J toufuu kd i kd +f y;D Edi ki fw H umeJ@ tavmif; tpm;vkyf aps;qpfaeqJyg? tjrwfxkwfyHk tuGufuawmh jrifw,f? olwdk@wawG bmrS rvkyw f wf - bkwx f i kd x f i kd a f er,f xifovm;? igh 5 vH;k twGuf vkyw f wfw,f? olw@kd twGu/f wyftwGu/f pm;azmf pm;buf ukr% ` D (AsL±du k &uft&if;&Si) f awGtwGu/f }uH@z@HG awGtwGuf/ tqifhqifh etz awGtwGuf vkyfydkifcGifh tvDvD pm;ayguz fi Ga hf y;oGm;wm awG@&w,f? tvdv k a kd e&if; tjrwfxGufoGm;wm 2 csuf &Sdw,f? wcku rdbrJh uav;awG trsm;}uD;&Sw d mudk Edi ki fa H wmfu apmifa h &Smuf xdef;odrf;&r,fajym+yD; uav;ppfom;pkEdkifwJh[m&,f/ aemufwcsufu jynfolawG&J@ usyfaiGawG bDvsHeJ@csD+yD; a&ðryfysup f ;D oGm;rSm jzpfw,f? 'Dtwdi k ;f xm;&ifvnf; aiG a=u;azmif;yGr_ wpHw k &moufomEdi kw f ,f? 'grr S [kwf 0gZD puf±kH t&Se d jf r‡iv hf nfywfEi kd y f gr,f? yxrqH;k tvkw}f uD;}uD;pm;Edi kz f @kd ajcoGuv f uf oGuf vkyv f u kd w f m wck&w dS ,f? em*pfup d P &ufyi kd ;f yJ =um ao;w,f? ypPn;f qH;k ±H;_ r_pm&if; uwdu k u f ±du k v f y k w f ,f? a':vm oef; 11000 avmuf xdcdkufepfemoGm;yg+yD? 'ga h =umifh ay;=u/ urf;=u/ acs;=u/ iSm;=uygv@kd }udw+f yD; ud, k p f m;vnfvw $ f rsu& f nfcx H ;kd w,f? 'Dup du P kd zH;k xm;wmyg? urB m h b %f u 10 ES p f w d w d taºu;rqyf v d k @ xyf + yD ; racs;Edi kb f ;l vd@k cgvw $ v f u kd r f S 'Dowif;ay:vmw,f? (aemuf ydi k ;f ukv/ tmqD,/H etz 3 yGiq hf i kd f A[dt k zG@J u pm&if;wGuf =unh=f uawmh xdcu kd q f ;kH ±H;_ wJh wefz;kd [m a':voef; 4000 &Sw d ,fv@kd tajzxGuw f ,f? iwf}u;D usre S ;f vlow d myJ tzwf wif+yD; t&Suu f a JG wmhwmayhg?) emrnf,z l @kd vnf; rarhb;l ? olrsm;ypPn;f ud, k hf aumif;r_ vkyc f si=f uw,f? qefa0csiw f v hJ l &,u ±H;k uwqifh a0&r,f trde@f xw k w f ,f? 'Dawmh apwem&Sia f wGu ud, k hf qef ud, k jf yefo,fom G ;=uw,f? wjynfv;kH u apwem&Sif &[ef;&Siv f a l wGu enf;vrf;aygi;f pH& k m S +yD; 'kuo Q nfawGukd uln=D uwm awG@&w,f? olw@kd tultnDawGa=umifh 'kuQ onf trsm;tjym; toufqufEi kd =f ujcif; jzpfw,f? ud, k f wdi ku f , kd u f s aiGvy kt f m; az;rr_vy kv f m=uwJo h l awmfawmf rsm;rsm;udk zrf;+yD;±H;k wifc& H wmawmh qd;k vGe;f ygw,f? Edi ki fw H umu tultnDay;csiw f o hJ a l wGuawmh av#ma h y;=u&w,f? 'Dve kd @J ypPn;f awGrm S etz 'kAv kd c f sKyf }uD;wa,muf&J@emrnf (avb,fvf) uyf+yD; ydk@ay;cJh=u &w,f? urBmp h m;eyf&u d m Q tpDtpOf (WFP) u axmufyhH wJh ypPn;f awGukd etz u tukeo f r d ;f ,lom G ;vd@k tpDtpOf awG &yfqi fkd ;f xm;&a=umif; a=unmoH xGuv f mwmvnf; &Sw d ,f? tultnDay;wJh t[m&jznfh bDpupfaumif;awG udk ppfwyf*a kd 'gix f x J nf/h tnHp h m; jynfwi G ;f jzpfawGe@J vJay; wm/ qeftaumif;pm;awGukd ('gu rif;óuufp;kd óuuf 'k u Q o nf a wG e J @ vm;vm;rS r xd k u f ) qef n H h / qef y suf / rdw _ ufawGe@J vJay;wmawG vkyc fw hJ ,f? t&yfom;xJrm S awmif u,fq,fa&;ypPnf;awGudk tm%mydkifawGeJ@ 47

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eD;pyfoa l wGyJ &=uw,f? wcsKd @u 3 - 4 }ur da f wmif&=uw,f? tjrwfxw k v f u kd y f a kH wGuawmh aemufyi kd ;f rSm ydk ay:vmygw,f? ukvor*~vo l m;csi;f pmemaxmufxm;r_ qdi k& f m t}uD;tuJ *|e[ f r k ;f [m Zlvi kd v f aemufq;kH ywfrm S Armjynfvmw,f? 3 &uf=um avhvm+yD;aemuf nnf; wGm;ygw,f? a':vmuae FEC aemuf usya f iGajymif;+yD; aiGvv J , S & f wma=umifh 20µ avmuf epfemae&a=umif;/ oabmu 'kuo Q nfawGukd aiG 100 ay;&if etz u (20) &+y;D 'kuo Q nfu (80) om &ygawmhw,f? (apmapmuvnf; tvªypPnf;awG&J@ wefzdk;ay:u 10µ tcGef,lw,fqdkwJh owif; xGuc fa hJ o;w,f?) o,f,y l @kd aqmifc (txl;ojzifh ava=umif;) uvnf; }uD;ygw,f? vmulwJh EdkifiHjcm; 0efxrf;awG&@J vpmvnf; 'D 80 xJu usc& H ygO;D r,f? b,f avmufrS rusea f wmhyg? uarBm'D;,m;udk ulnw D e k ;f uvnf; 'Djy\emay:zl;ygw,f? pm&if;t& rsm;+yD; vufawG@ tusdK;cHpm;r_uawmh ‘ZD;uGufacgif;jzwf bmusefawmh rwke;f ’ qdw k mrsKd ;yg? Zlvi kd f (25) &ufae@rm S urBmp h m;eyf&u d m Q tpD tpOf WFP u wGujf yawmh ydq k ;kd ygw,f? aiGa=u;vJv, S r f_ pepfa=umifh epfem&r_[m 25µ awmif &Sw d ,fqa kd wmh urBmh tzG@J tpnf;}u;D awGvnf; etz &J@ acgi;f yHjk zwfc& H r_u rvGwf - *|e[ f r k ;f vnf; tjyeftvSef vlom;csi;f pmem axmuf xm;r_rcH&? WFP vkyi f ef;vnf; ta[modujH zpf? jynfwGif;jynfy rauseyfcsufawG odyfrsm;vm awmhrS wqifp h D av#ma h y;w,f? tmqD,u H wqifh vmwJh ypPn;f vufcr H ,f jzpfvmw,f? jynfwi G ;f rSmvnf; q&m awmf}uD;awG/ rD', D morm;awG/ tEkynm&Sia f wG/ pma&; q&m/ uAsmq&mawG/ obifynmonfawGrt S p vlwef; pm; vl@tv$mtoD;oD; aiGa=u;/ &dum Q eJ@ vdt k yfr,fh ypPn;f toH;k taqmifawG pkaqmif;+yD; 'kuo Q nfawGqD ta&muf oGm;=uw,f? wm;wmqD;wm - zrf;wmqD;wmawGvnf; cH=u&w,f? aemufusrS ypPn;f awG b,fae&mrqdk oGm;yd@k Edi kw f ,f jzpfvmw,f? 'gawmif cGiðhf ycsuf ,l&ygao;w,f? tcsdefu (4) ywfavmuf =umoGm;yg+yD? a'oqdkif&m tm%mydi k f tzG@J tpnf;awGuwqifh vª&r,fqw kd t hJ pm; ‘rnfor l qdk ud, k w f i kd u f , kd u f s oGm;a&mufv' ª ge;f Edi ky f gonf’ jzpfvmw,f? jynf0ifcGifh ADZmawGvnf; tawmftoifh av#ma h y;vm&awmhw,f? wcsdefwnf; olwdk@vkyfaewm wck&Sdao;w,f? 48 olw@kd tawmfu|r;f wJv h y ke f nf;yg? rkew f i dk ;f ulna D &;twGuf qd+k y;D aiGca JG iG!p ‡a f wG vkyc fw hJ ,f? vkyi f ef;&Sia f wG/ pm;aomuf qdi ky f i kd & f i Sa f wG/ aps;onfawGutp ol@cw GJ rf;eJ@ol vª=u& ygw,f? (ud, k a hf pwemeJ@u, kd v f =ª uwmuwydi k ;f ) 'Dcw JG rf; awGu jynfromru e,fpyftxd a&mufygw,f? +idr;f tzG@J awGvnf; rvGw? f ‘ol}u;D bk&m; &Gmom;aumif;r_’ tvkyc fH =u&w,f? olw@kd bmawGwm0ef,c l =hJ uovJ? avab;oifh jynfoa l wGum bmawG&ovJ? wae&meJ@ wae&mawmh rwlyg? wtdra f xmif qefE@kd qD 7 vH;k / qD 10 usyo f m;/ =uufoe Ge f D 2 vH;k / tmvl; 3 vH;k &wJa h e&m&So d vd/k wcsKd @u ,rf,rfacguq f x JG y ka f v;eJ@ +y;D oGm;w,f? tcsKd &nfyv k if;eJ@ wif;wdrv f u kd & f olawGvnf; renf;bl;? òr@e,fwe,frm S awmh wtdra f xmif owWKtd;k 1 vH;k / yef;uef 2 csy/f rD;aoG;zdk (1) zd/k rD;aoG;wyd\m/ ZGe;f (2) acsmif;/ aomufa&cGuf (1) vH;k a0wm awG@vu kd & f w,f? tpd;k &u wdu k ± f u kd z f i Gx hf m;wJh pcef;awGrm S awmh rdom;pkwpk wywf qef (1) jynfEe _ ;f a0ygw,f? r&vdkufwJhol/ ravmufiwJholawGu tiwf rcHEdkifvdk@ awmif;&rf;pm;awmh ‘òr@e,femrnfysufw,f? rvky& f bl;’ vd@k }ur d ;f armif;wm cH&w,f? 'kuo Q nfawGqu D jyefawmif;pm;ae&wJh ppfom;awGusawmh ‘wyfrawmf emrnfysuw f ,f? rvky& f bl;’ vd@k rwm;ygvm;? 0ef}uD;csKyfodef;pdefu befuDrGef;eJ@awG@awmh “u|ea f wmfw@kd tjynft h 0ulna D eygw,f? u,fq,fa&; vkyi f ef;awG +yD;oGm;yg+yD? jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&; vkyi f ef; awGyJ usey f gawmhw,f” vd@k ajymygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dr h wdi kc f if w&ufuyJ ‘tulypPn;f awGu 'kuo Q nfawG&@J 4 yHk 1 yHq k D om a&mufygao;w,f’ vd@k befur De G ;f u ajymxm;cJw h myg? (wvjynfw h t hJ xdvnf; avab;oif' hu k o Q nfawG&@J w0uf [m Edi ki fw H umulnr D _ r&ao;bl;vd@k qdy k gw,f?) ‘olc;kd cd;k cH&&if usew f m&Sa d o;w,f? tdrr f ;D avmif &if bmrSrusea f wmhb;l ’ qdw k p hJ um;yHw k ck &Sw d ,f? ckem*pf a=umifh a&v$r;f cH&awmh vlawmif rusew f t hJ r da f xmifawG axmifaomif;cs& D w dS m ñuH=u&yg+yD? 'Davmuf ajymifwvif; cgom G ;wJh 'kuo Q nfawGukd 'Davmufav; a0ay;wm[m qify h g;pyfEr S ;f yuf±o kH m &Sa d wmhrayg? h 'gukd tjynft h 0ulnD aeygw,fv@kd olr@kd ajym&Jyav?

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aemufq;kH (Zlvi kd f 25) WFP wGuc f sujf ywJh tajc tae=unf& h awmh jy\emawG[m }uD;+rJ}uD;aeqJqw kd m awG@&w,f? olwdk@taeeJ@ 'kuQonf 7 odef;ausmfudk tultnDay;Edi kc f +hJ yD? (tm;vH;k &Sw d mu 2²4 oef;) 'gayrJh uGi;f qif;=unfv h u fkd a f wmh tdra f xmifonfawG&@J 34µ rSm 1 &ufpmyJ pm;p&m usefawmhw,f? rdom;pk 40µ rSm pm;p&m r&Sw d mhyg? 45µ uawmh aemufwywfpmavmuf usea f o;w,f? wcsKd @ae&mawGrm S pm;p&m vH;k 0jywfae+yD? rdom;pk 89µ &J@ toH;k p&dw[ f m tpm;tpmtwGuf jzpfae +yDv@kd nnf; ygw,f? ajymcsiw f mu jyefvnfxa l xmifa&; udpa P wG rpOf;pm;Edi ka f o;bl;qdw k mygy? J wjcm; +cr d ;f ajcmufra _ wGvnf; &Sa d o;w,f? a&S@v (=o*kw) f twGi;f tultnDawG &yfqi kd ;f awmhr,fqw kd mwd@k / vlO;D a& (1) oef; pm;zd@k a':vmoef; (60) vda k =umif;/ &[wf ,mOfcawG rwefwqrsm;aewma=umifh x&yfum;awG/ avmf&u D m;awGe@J o,f&awmhrm S jzpfa=umif;/ rd;k &moDr@kd uke;f vrf;c&D;u tqifracsm&if tpm;tpmjywfom G ;Edi ka f =umif; wd@k ygygw,f? 'kuo Q nfawGuawmh jynfwi G ;f jynfy taumif }u;D }u;D awG vm=unfr hm S uda k wmif a=umufae=uw,f? u,f q,fa&;twGuv f @kd awmh ajym=uyg&@J ? 'gayrJh wacguv f m wcg'u k a Q &muf=u&vd@k yg? tedXm±Ha k wG rawG@apcsiv f @kd q+kd y;D [dka&$@'Dajymif; vkyf=u&w,f? avSarSmufaoolawGao jzpf=u&w,f? tawG@cc Hi G& hf wJh olawGu vufty kc f s& D w,f? ay;w,fqdkwJhypPnf; jyeftodrf;cH&w,f? ray;wJhol yg; t±dkufcH&r,fvdk@ t}udrf;cH&w,f? q&m0efawGvnf; racsmif? em;=uyfawG vnfyif;csw d /f wJa&S@rm S &yfjy/ vrf; ovm;jy/ "mwfyt kH ±du k c f jH y&eJ@ o¿mefup da P wG tom;ay; ae&w,f? apwe&Sia f wG vª'ge;f xm;wJa h q;awG jyefor d ;f oGm;vd@k tvkyu f xGuc f si+f yDv@kd nnf;nL=uw,f? 'D'kuQawGudk etz u b,fvdka0r# cHpm;=u ygovJ? ‘rkew f i kd ;f u rqd;k ygb;l ? qif±u kd x f m;wJh AG' D , D a kd cG a=umifh olw@kd ou d m Q us&wmyg’ wJ? h &J@ wGuc f sur f t _ & {u (2) ode;f a&ðryfc& hJ m rd;k pyg; pdu k { f u 85µ ysup f ;D w,fv@kd od&w,f? tar&duef pdu k y f sKd ;a&;0ef}uD;Xme xkwjf yefcsuf t& ‘xdcu kd c f& H r_u wEdi ki fv H ;kH pyg;xGu& f r dS . _ 60µ eD;yg; &Sa d =umif;/ oda k vSmifxm;wJh qefwefcse d f (1) oef; q f ;kH ±H;_ a=umif;’ od&w,f? ukvor*~u ‘{&m0wDwi kd ;f rSmawmh 'DEp S f rd;k pyg; pdu k y f sKd ;zd@k rjzpfEi kd ’ f [k cef@re S ;f ygw,f? ('gawGukd wefjyefwmvm;rod? etz owif;pm u rd;k pyg;{u 2²2 oef; pdu k y f sKd ;+y;D jzpfa=umif; azmfjycJy h gw,f?) etz &J@ pdw& f if;apwemeJ@ vky& f nfui kd & f nfukd odae=uwJo h a l wGuawmh &ifav;ae=uygw,f?
FAO

tajccHOya'rl=urf;udk ZGwftm%moHk; twnfðyvdkufvdk@ EdkifiHa&;xdyfwdkufwdk;r_awG pvmyg+yD ?

(3) wdkif;jynf&J@uH=urRm

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