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**Huaying Zhou Southwest Electronics & Telecom Technology Research Institute,
**

Abstract—A suitable and dynamic neighbor cell list will increase the soft handoff success rate thus decrease the drop probability. Thus it is significant to design an effective neighbor cell list generating algorithm. The conventional algorithms generate the list by simply putting all the neighbor cells together. That will increase the pilot search time, so the handoff success rate reduces. This paper presents a dynamic neighbor cell list generating algorithm based on vote model. Besides, it is optimized by using the handoff statistical information to make the vote-coefficient adaptive by itself. Keywords-component; neighbor cell list; dynamic; vote; votecoefficient

**Chengdu 610041, China Email: smilewine@126.com
**

However, it may not solve the neighbor cell list build problem just accept and reject the cells by sorting the pilot strength of the Active Sets. In this paper, an algorithm of dynamic neighbor cell list planning is provided, in which the vote model is used to solve the neighbor cell acceptance and rejection problem. In section 2, the algorithm model is described first, then a neighbor cell build algorithm based on this model and an improved one using statistical information are proposed. Finally, section 4 summarizes chief contributions of this paper and gives the problems to be studied. II. DYNAMIC NEIGHBOR CELL LIST BULID ALGORITHM

I.

INTRODUCTION

The 3rd mobile communication systems, such as cdma2000, WCDMA, adopt the Mobile Assistant Handoff (MAHO) method. In this method the mobile measures the pilot strength of the neighbor cells’ and compares them with the pilot strength of the cell in use. If the pilot strength of the neighbor cells’ is higher than that in use, the mobile reports this result to the base station for the handoff decision-making. Pay attention that in this process the mobile only measures those pilots in the neighbor cell list which the base station notified. Thus if the neighbor cell list built by the base station is incomplete, the mobile can not find those stronger pilots. Unfortunately, these stronger pilots will be strong disturbers toward CDMA systems. It is obvious that a suitable and dynamic neighbor cell list will increase the soft handoff success rate thus decrease the drop probability. That is the reason why it is so significant to research a better neighbor list generating algorithm. Two neighbor list generating algorithm are commonly used in nowadays CDMA systems. A simple algorithm generates the neighbor cell list by inserting all of the cells bordering upon the cell which pilot are in the Active Set. This algorithm only adapts to the small system because upon a large-scale system it will generate a very large neighbor cell list which will highly increase the mobile searching time. In an improved algorithm, the stronger pilot takes priority of inserting its neighbor cells into the list after sorting all the pilots in the Active Sets by their strength. While the number of neighbor cells in the list is reasonable, the neighbor cells of those weaker pilots can not be added in the list and will be discarded. This improved algorithm is more reasonable than the simple one by considering the difference of the pilot strength which reflecting the probability that the mobile moves into neighbor cells.

A. Outline A reasonable neighbor cell list should include the cells which the mobile will possibly move into, thus it is actually a problem that forecast the direction which the mobile move to. The pilot strength is the crucial factor in a handoff decisionmaking process for it indicating the signal quality which the mobile can acquire and the probability of the mobile communicate with each cells at a certain extent. Consequently, it is reasonable to build the neighbor cell list using the strength information of pilots in Active Set. The algorithm presented in the paper not only considers the pilot strength information, but also introduces the weighted average and statistic average. That make the neighbor cell list built even more accord with actual instance. B. Algorithm prototype The primary idea of the model is that each member in set A votes its own neighbor cells for being added into the final neighbor cell list according to its pilot strength firstly, then all of the elected cells will be sorted by their votes. The details are as follows: Members in set A (α1, α2…αN) can take part in voting and the “voting strength” are decided by their characteristics respectively, Each αi can vote β1i…β2i …βpi at the same time. Every selected βqn obtains the same votes. If βqn =βqm, that means βqn is elected by αm as well as αn, so the final votes that βqn (i.e. βqm) obtained is the sum of the votes which αn and the αm given.

978-1-4244-3693-4/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

Thus in the algorithm not optimized. The more the N is. is a function of its strength. namely the votes a pilot can give. For certain cell K may be a neighbor cell of pilot αi as well as pilot αj. If the times proportion that mobiles have completed handoff from cell A to cell B or from cell A to all neighbor cells exceeds a certain gate. In this paper. The more the S is. Among those. The “voting strength” of a pilot. For example. namely the votes αi can give βj. is defined. β2i…βpi selected by αi can obtain more votes if the αi has greater “voting strength”. It obvious that there are two factors may affect the final votes the cell K obtained. the optimized algorithm will automatically adjust the “vote strength” according to the statistical information. β22…βp2… β1N. The improved algorithm is more applicable for the actual system. Take this idea into account. Another factor is the number of the pilots which votes for the cell K. so the priority of cell B searched by the mobile will be increased too. as well as the success rate of handoff.e. Then take the first M cells in the sorted objects according to actual requirement. A vote process is accomplished C. the βqn has more votes and priority in being sorted if it selected not only by αn but also by αm.Olofsson proposed to build the neighbor cell list considering the statistical information [1] [2]. Algorithm Optimization The algorithm can be optimized by taking the statistical information of the actual system. such as β1i…β2i …βpi. Besides. Besides the virtues mentioned before.Magnusson and H. the algorithm presented in this paper not only considers the strength information of pilots in Active Set but also the times that a certain cell selected by summing all the votes it got. one pilot is very strong but its NAB/Ntotal is 0. β12. another pilot is very weak but its NAB/Ntotal is 1. cell B will still be set as a neighbor cell of cell A. namely W i=f (S i). pilots than only by one pilot.The details are as below: The base station receives a request of the mobile to perform a handoff and gets a new Active Set. Then the “vote strength” Wij that pilot αi can vote for pilot βj. Each pilot (αi) in the Active Set all votes for its neighbor cells. Here the new Active Set can be regarded as the set A in the model and each pilot in the Active Set namely α i has vote qualification. It is . the more the votes will be. the votes that the pilot in Active Set can give the cells actually bordering upon is the same. W i=f (S i). S. If mobiles in cell A performed handoff more frequently to cell B evidently in a certain period such as on and off duty. In extreme instance. It is obvious that the mobile has more probability to move into a cell which selected by several ⎛ N ij ⎞ ⎛ N AB ⎞ g⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟ = SLOPE * ⎜ ⎜N ⎟ ⎟ + INTERCEPT ⎝ total ⎠ ⎝ total ⎠ ⑸ Here SLOPE and INTERCEPT are parameters stayed to be set by using pilot strength and statistical handoff information. i. Sort all the selected cells by their votes obtained descending. the more the votes will be. In this paper. choose all the cells whose votes bigger than zero to make a neighbor cell list. The same pilot αi gives its every neighbor cells equal votes. Wi = f (S i ) ⑴ Here the f (. However. theβ1i. cell B will not be regarded as a neighbor of cell A for g (NAB/Ntotal) is small owing to few handoff times for cell A to cell B (NAB ). One is the strength S of the pilot who vote for cell K. so these objects have priority in being sorted. β2N…βpN by their votes obtained. the algorithm presented in this paper is more advanced. D. Obviously. That will be analyzed in Section 4 by the emulate results. Compared with the algorithm mentioned before. cell B should be set as a neighbor cell of cell A.) is an increasing function of the pilot strength. g (NAB/Ntotal) is defined as: Wk = ∑ f (Si ) i =0 N ⑶ Here N is the number of the pilots in the Active Set which votes for the cell K. Whereas in the actual system the probability of the mobile moving into differ neighbor cells is also different owing to the influence of path and barrier. That is just the conclusion the algorithm presented in this paper reached. it is defined as follows: f (S i ) = Si + BASE ⑵ ⎛ N ij Wij = g ⎜ ⎜N ⎝ total ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ f (S i ) ⎠ ⑷ Here BASE is an important parameter of this function and how it is set will highly decides the performance of the algorithm. the votes should be the sum of the votes all the pilots have given. Here Ntotal is the total times that mobiles have performed handoff from the cell (pilot is αi) to its neighbor cells. Described previously. The base station calculates the times Nij that mobiles have performed handoff from a cell (pilot is α i) to another cell (pilot is βj). Neighbor Cell List build algorithm This paper presents a neighbor cell list build algorithm . β21…βp1. Calculate the number of the votes which all the selected cells separately. in the improved algorithm.Sort all of the selectedβ11. mobiles rarely perform hand off from cell A to cell B due to some nature cause although cell A borders cell B in fact. That will increase the priority of cell B to be set as a neighbor of cell A. the “vote strength” that cell A can give to cell B will be increased due to the increasing of g (NAB/Ntotal).

that is to say the “vote strength” f (S i) may be a negative or zero. III. In former deducibility. BASE is a parameter used to modify the pilot strength tin order to confirm the “vote strength” of every pilot. SLOPE and INTERCEPT should to be values defined in (9) and (10). (7) can be coefficient dynamic generating algorithm in case of 2 to 4 pilots in the Active Set. The adaptive vote-coefficient dynamic generating algorithm run randomly a million times. and then a simulation derived from it can be done. Every sector’s neighbor cells are all the sectors bordering upon it and the number will range from 7 to 10. INTERCEPT * (S i + BASE ) = (SLOP + INTERCEPT ) * (S j + BASE ) ⑺ In view of unitary requirement.neighbor cell list length at 2 pilots in Active Set Figure-1 cell arrangement Figure2 to Figure4 show the average of the neighbor cell number respectively built by simple algorithm (algorithm I). cells that added into the final neighbor cell list become more and more. select the last ten thousand times to average. the dynamic generating algorithm and the adaptive vote- . SLOPE + INTERCEPT * NEIGH _ NUM = 1 ⑻ Finally. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS The cells are configured as Figure-1. The length of the neighbor cell list which resulted from the adaptive vote-coefficient dynamic generating algorithm varies more slowly than the dynamic generating algorithm while the parameter BASE is increasing due to the change of BASE has little effect on the neighbor cell list length considering statistical info. It is suitable that BASE is set as 15dB. The result is derived form adaptive vote-coefficient dynamic generating algorithm is more average. 2. SLOPE = S i + (NEIGHNUM − 1)S j + NEIGHNUM * BASE S j + BASE Si − S j ⑼ INTERCEPT = S i + (NEIGHNUM − 1)S j + NEIGHNUM * BASE ⑽ NEIGHNUM in (9) and (10) is the number of neighbor cells of a certain pilot. As a result. Two conclusions can be made form the simulation. The latter two dynamic algorithms take precedence over the simple one (algorithm I). and ⑷ ⑹ simultaneously. which means Wi = W j Considering ⑵ concluded. Along with the increase of BASE. It is a little probability that the pilot strength adds BASE more than zero while the BASE is set a quite small value.reasonable to make this two pilots have equal “vote strength”. 1. Thus there are few cells that got votes great than zero and the length of final neighbor cell list is short. the “vote strength” f (S i) increases as well. This characteristic is very useful in the actual system. It is obvious that the results got by the latter two dynamic algorithms are not the same when BASE is set to be different value whereas the simple one is independent of the BASE because the pilot strength is not used. NEIGH_NUM of all pilots are equal in default and it may be set as the average of different neighbor cells of all pilots in Active Set. (7) is necessary. 12 simple insertion dynamic adaptive dynamic vote 10 Length of neighbor-cell list 8 6 4 2 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 BASE (dB) 15 16 17 18 Figure 2.The location of mobile and the pilot strength are set random. The handoff gate T_ADD is -14dB and the value of the pilot strength reported by mobile is -9dB~-16dB.

pp. This paper presents a dynamic neighbor cell list generating algorithm based on vote model and optimizes it by using statistical information. Zhang and J. “Soft handoff modeling in CDMA cellular systems. CONCLUSION 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 BASE (dB) 15 16 17 18 The suitability of the neighbor cell list has more effect on the success rate of the handoff. Kwon and D. K. May 1997. That will improve the handoff quality by reducing the mobile search time. Oct 1996. if a certain cell A that bordering the cell B.neighbor cell list length at 4 pilots in Active Set The value of BASE also has effect on the error rate of generating neighbor cell list.pp. Holtzman. "Analysis ofHandoff Algorithms using Both Absolute and Relative Measurements". So it is reasonable to set BASE as 15dB. (Phoenix.Magnusson ， “ A Concept for Dynamic Cell List Planning in a Cellular System ”， 7th IEEE PIMRC . Oct 1997. whose pilot is the highest in Active Set is not included in the final list. N. M.” in Proceedingsof the 47th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. pp 223-227. vol. 82-86. By means of simulations it has been shown that the adaptive vote-coefficient dynamic generating algorithm is able to reduce the average of the list without loss of exactitude. J. It is inaccurate to exclude the cell which mobiles often handoff to into the neighbor list owing to little BASE value.OlofssonDynamic and S. Figure 6 shows the result that the adaptive vote-coefficient dynamic generating algorithm respectively runs at 2 to 4 pilots [2] [3] [4] . namely cell A and cell B have a public border in figure 1.Olofsson，“Dynamic neighbor cell list planning in a micro cellular network” ， IEEE 6th International Conference on Universal Personal Communications. Figure 4.12 simple insertion dynamic adaptive dynamic vote in Active Set a million times. IEEE VTC 94. an error occurs.Magnusson and H. In this simulation. vol. REFERENCES [1] S. It is obvious that the error rate decreases as the increase of BASE and it is zero when BASE is big than 15dB. 1994. 100 10 Length of neighbor-cell list 8 90 80 70 Error Rate (%) 2 pilots 3 pilots 4 pilots 6 4 60 50 40 30 2 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 BASE (dB) 15 16 17 18 20 10 0 10 11 12 13 14 BASE (dB) 15 16 17 Figure 3. 1.Error Rate IV. thus it is significant to design an effective neighbor cell list generating algorithm. Sung. H. 1.neighbor cell list length at 3 pilots in Active Set 14 12 Length of neighbor-cell list 10 8 6 4 2 0 simple insertion dynamic adaptive dynamic vote Figure 5. The algorithm has been used in a cdma2000 experiment system and performs well. AZ). 138 – 142. K.

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