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UMTS Fundamentals
Training Document
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Training Document
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Declaration
I confirm, that the software made available to me during the courses from the
Networks Academy for training and practice purposes, will not be further copied
outside of the training.
Furthermore I assure that no software will be copied on to the traing PCs, without the
explicit consent of the trainer.
With my signature on the attendance list, I confirm that I will adhere to the both of the
above requests.
© 2007 Nokia Siemens Networks GmbH The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents is not permitted
without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or
registration of utility model or design, are reserved. Technical modifications possible. Technical specifications and features are
binding only insofar as they are specifically and expressly agreed upon in a written contract.
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Warnhinweise
In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangsläufig bestimmte Teile der Geräte unter
Spannung. Einige Teile können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen.
Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu
Körperverletzungen und Sachschäden führen.
Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die
Anlagen installiert und wartet.
Beachten Sie bitte die nötigen Sicherheitsanforderungen und leisten Sie durch ein
problembewusstes Verhalten Ihren Beitrag zur Verhütung von Unfällen jeglicher
Art. Gefahren für Leib und Leben / Leben und Gesundheit bzw. Verletzungen, die
aus sicherheitswidrigem Handeln resultieren können, sind von einer Haftung
durch die Network Academy ausgeschlossen.
Warnings
High voltages are present in certain parts of this equipment. Some parts can also
have high operating temperatures.
Non­observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in
personal injury or in equipment damage.
Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die
Anlagen installiert und wartet.
Therefore only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the
system.
Please ensure the necessary safety requirements are met and, by demonstrating
a responsible attitude, play your part in avoiding accidents of any kind. Danger to
life and limb, life and well being or injuries that could result from actions adverse
to safety are excluded from any liability on the part of the Network Academy.
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Atención
Algunos elementos de este equipo presentan tensiones altas. Incluso algunos
componentes pueden presentar alta temperatura.
No observar estas condiciones y las instrucciones de seguridad puede causar
dańos personales, así como dańos al equipo.
Por lo tanto el sistema debe ser instalado y mantenido por personal cualificado.
Tenga presente los requerimientos de seguridad y contribuya a la prevención de
accidentes de toda índole, actuando consciente de los problemas que pudieran
surgir. El 'Networks Academy' no se responsabiliza por dańos y perjuicios
resultantes de actuaciones contrarias a los aspectos de seguridad y que pongan
en peligro la salud y la vida de las personas involucradas.
Attention
Des tensions élevées sont inevitablement présentes à des points spécifiques de
cet équipement électrique. Certains éléments peuvent aussi avoir en service des
temperatures élevées.
La non­observation de ces conditions et des instructions de sécurité peut
engendrer des dégats personnelles ou un endomagement du matériel.
Pour ces raisons seulement le personnel formé et qualifié est permi d'installer et
de maintenir le système.
Veuillez tenir compte des exigences de sécurité nécessaires et contribuer à la
prévention des accidents de toutes sortes par un comportement conscient des
risques. L'Academie Networks décline toute responsabilité pour les dangers
menaçant le corps et la vie / la vie et la santé et/ou les blessures pouvant
résulter d'actes contraires à la sécurité.
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Foreword
The training materials that are handed out are meant for training purposes only.
The accompanying document is not a replacement for the official system
documentation, and is not meant for self­study. The official system documentation
is the only licensed reference work for carrying out work in the field. This student
file is your own property.
At the end of the course, your course conductor will give you some course
evaluation sheets. We ask you to fill out these sheets and would be pleased to
receive suggestions for course improvement regarding the carrying out of the
courses and material used.
We at Nokia Siemens Networks wish you successful training.
Training Management
Course
overview
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This workbook consists
of 8 chapters and 441
pages total.
Content List
8 pages
1
Overview of UMTS Technology and Its
Evolution
45 pages
2
UMTS Network Architecture
63 pages
3
Principles of UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access (UTRA)
95 pages
4
UMTS Identity and Traffic Management
70 pages
5
Signaling Protocols Overview
73 pages
6
UMTS Services and Applications
33 pages
7
NSN Products
54 pages
8
UMTS
Fundamentals
Training Document
1-1
Content List
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Content List
Contents
1 Course Description................................................................................... 2
2 Learning Element Objectives................................................................... 4
2.1 Learning element 1 - Overview of UMTS Technology and Its
Evolution......................................................................................................4
2.2 Learning element 2 – UMTS Network Architecture.................................... 4
2.3 Learning element 3 – Principles of UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access) ............................................................................................. 5
2.4 Learning element 4 – UMTS Traffic Management......................................5
2.5 Learning element 5 – Signalling Protocols Overview................................. 6
2.6 Learning element 6 – UMTS Services and Applications............................ 6
2.7 Learning element 7 – NSN Product Solution.............................................. 6
3 Course Programme...................................................................................7
4 Learning Environment Requirements..................................................... 8
1-2
Content List
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1 Course Description
  
Course Name UMTS Fundamentals
Level Introductory
Target group
Persons requiring underpinning
knowledge on 3G networks, like
service personnel, development
personnel, technical sales consultant,
etc.
Objectives
After the training, the participant will
be able to:
• Briefly explain an overview on
3G/UMTS and list the motivation,
standard and basic evolution towards
3G
• Know the complete Network
Architecture of UMTS rel 99,4,5 and
beyond, know the interfaces and
briefly explain the network element
functionality as well
• Explain basic of air interface and the
path to WCDMA. Explain the
principles and key elements of UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Transmission
(UTRA) and UMTS radio resource
management, and describe their
effects on network planning
• Outline the functions of the different
management layers within traffic
management.
• At an overview level, explain all the
signalling protocols in every interface
on UMTS Network Rel. 99, 4, 5 and
beyond.
• List and give examples of 3G
services and how they are
implemented into a UMTS network
• Know NSN Product Solution
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Content List
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Duration 3 days
Delivery method
Instructor Led Learning: Classroom
training
Max. number of participants 16
Prerequisite courses
GSM Introduction (TM2100) or
GSMBASE, and GPRS/EDGE
Introduction (TM2110) or
GPRSBASE, or 2G SYSTRA
Underpinning knowledge & skills
GSM/GPRS knowledge, general
communication knowledge
Learning elements
Overview of UMTS Technology
and Its Evolution
UMTS Network Architecture
Principles of UTRA (UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access)
UMTS Identity and Traffic
Management
Signalling Protocols overview
UMTS Services and Applications
NSN Product Solution
Vocabulary
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Content List
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2 Learning Element
Objectives
2.1 Learning element 1 - Overview of UMTS
Technology and Its Evolution
After completing this learning element, the participant should be able to:
Theory:
Describe the principle of cellular system and the advantages of moving it
toward digital technology
Know 3G UMTS Motivation and specification process for UMTS
Outline the evolutionary path of GSM to UMTS technology and list at least
three significant events in the evolution of CDMA networks
Explain existing GSM service concept and UMTS service concept
2.2 Learning element 2 – UMTS Network
Architecture
Theory:
List the four main network subsystems of UMTS Rel.4, Rel.5 and Rel.6 and
beyond
Explain various network interfaces in the UMTS Network
Identify and list the requirements of UMTS mobile terminals
List and identify the network elements used within the radio access network
(RAN), in terms of the name and function
List and identify the network elements used in core network
List and identify the need for comprehensive network management in UMTS
network.
Explain IN (Intelligent Network) and its functions in 3G network
Explain briefly what IMS (IP Multimedia Service) is and how it works
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Content List
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2.3 Learning element 3 – Principles of UTRA
(UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access)
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
Theory:
Understand the terms carrier, spreading and power density in UMTS
Explain principles of radio duplex; TDD and FDD, and multiple access
method; FDMA, TDMA and CDMA
Understand the use of scrambling and channelization codes, both in up link
and down link
Briefly explain comparison of MC-CDMA, WCDMA, and TD-SCDMA
List and identify the structure of the UMTS air interface
List and explain the key functions and tasks in Radio Resource Management
List the roles of Radio Resource Management on network performance
Explain the main characteristics of HSDPA and HSUPA
  
2.4 Learning element 4 – UMTS Traffic
Management
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
Theory:
Explain and list the databases used in traffic management within the UMTS
network
Name the characteristics of a bearer
Explain the area identifiers used in UTMS, and their hierarchy
Explain identities related to subscriber in UMTS
List the general procedures for the mobile to gain access to the network
 Explain about RRC state and location information, and also to identify how
the network selection is made
List the procedures used to maintain mobility management and connection
management as well in the network
Explain functionality of UMTS session management, and mention related
procedures and its state
With the help of the material, describe how the session management of real
time and non-real time bearers are handled through the network
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Content List
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2.5 Learning element 5 – Signalling Protocols
Overview
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
Theory:
Know the concept of signalling and its bearer.
List and explain in briefly Transport Plane, Control plane and the User Plane
signalling protocols
Know signalling protocols on UMTS Network rel 4, 5, and beyond.
  
2.6 Learning element 6 – UMTS Services and
Applications
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
Theory:
List the available services in UMTS network
List the services and applications that IMS could provide
List the GSM services that can still be supported in the UMTS Networks
Explain briefly how various services like SMS, MMS, and streaming (audio
and video) work in UMTS network
Explain the new services in the UMTS network
2.7 Learning element 7 – NSN Product
Solution
After completing this learning element, the participant will be able to:
Theory:
List NSN Product Solution in BSS, SSS, and OSS as well.
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Content List
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3 Course Programme
  
Morning Afternoon
Day1
Introduction
Overview of
UMTS
Technology
and Its
Evolution
UMTS
Network
Architecture
Lunch
UMTS
Network
Architecture
Day2
Principles of
UTRA
(UMTS
Terrestrial
Radio
Access)
Lunch
UMTS Traffic
Management
Day3
Signalling
Protocols
Overview
Lunch
UMTS
Services and
Applications
NSN Product
Solution
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Content List
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4 Learning Environment
Requirements
  
Training room Projector, White board, and Flip Chart
Hardware N/A
Software version N/A
Functionality N/A
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/
Overview of UMTS
Technology and Its
Evolution
Contents
1 Overview of UMTS Technology and Its Evolution................................. 3
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................3
1.2 Cellular System: Advantages of Digital Technology................................... 5
1.3 3G UMTS Motivation and Specification Process for UMTS..................... 20
1.4 Evolution of UMTS Technology................................................................ 28
1.5 Existing GSM and UMTS Service Concept .............................................. 31
1.6 Appendix....................................................................................................38
2 Exercises..................................................................................................40
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................43
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1 Overview of UMTS
Technology and Its
Evolution
1.1 Module Objectives
The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining the basics of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS).
Topics to be covered in this module include visualizing the whole network and
identifying the elements of each subsystem.
  
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Identify the principles of cellular system
Identify and list the components in 2G
Identify the motivation factors for 3G
Identify the specification process
Explain GSM and UMTS service concept
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1.2 Cellular System: Advantages of Digital
Technology
In the following section, we will discuss the principle of cellular system and the
advantages of it moving towards digital technology.
There are three different generations as far as mobile communication is
concerned as discussed below:
1. First Generation (1G)
2. Second Generation (2G)
3. Third  Generation (3G)
1.2.1 First Steps & First Generation (1G)
The first generation, 1G, is the name for the analogue or semi-analogue
(analogue radio path, but digital switching) mobile networks established after the
mid-1980s, such as Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) and Advanced Mobile Phone
System (AMPS). These networks offered basic services for the users, and the
emphasis was on speech and services related matters. 1G network were mainly
national efforts and very often they were specified after the networks were
established. Due to this, the 1G network was incompatible with each other.
Mobile communication was considered some kind of curiosity, and it added value
service on top of the fixed networks in those times.
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The following figure describes the First Generation Communication System:
Fig. 1 First Generation Communication System.
The history of mobile communication starts with the transmission of information
via High Frequency (HF) in the late 19th century. Even after HF speech
transmission became possible in the first decade of the 20th century, it needed
further 40 years, before the first mobile networks for private user started
operation.
1.2.1.1 Simplex / Duplex Transmission
Simplex transmission means to be a communication "one-way street".
Transmission in only one direction (to or from the mobile user) is possible at a
certain time. Simplex transmission is used e.g. for radio and TV transmissions.
Simple mobile communication systems use the so-called Semi-Duplex
Transmission, i.e. at a certain time it is only possible to transmit data in one
direction, but the direction can be changed (used in ancient mobile systems and
walkie-talkies). Duplex transmission is used for simultaneous, bi-directional
information exchange. Modern telecommunication systems are based on duplex
transmission.
1.2.1.2 Single Cell Systems
The first mobile networks offering duplex transmission car phone telephone
service to private user started operation in the late 1940's in the USA and in
Europe during the 1950's. These systems have been created as Single Cell
Systems. Single Cell Systems provide service in the service area (cell) of several
Base Stations BSs, but every cell is far remote from others to prevent
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interference between different users (resulting in disruption of the connections).
Every single cell was totally independent from the others.
This caused the several problems, for example:
low system capacity
no "Handover" possible
no seamless service areas
no call toward the mobile user without knowledge of his current location
The following problems were also encountered by the first mobile services:
poor service and speech quality
manual switching (operator needed)
heavy, cumbersome, massive, expensive equipment (only for car phone)
Single Cell Systems have been used until the m1990's, becoming less and less
important with the introduction of the cellular systems at the end of the 1970's.
Cellular system is illustrated in the following figure:
Fig. 2 Single Cell System
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1.2.1.3 Principle of Cellular Systems
According to a cellular principle a large number of Base Stations (BS) that
provide full service coverage, their cell areas overlap each other significantly. To
prevent interference between subscribers using the same frequency, only part of
the available frequency range is used in a cell. The same frequency range is only
permitted to be used in another cell sufficiently distant from this first cell (re-use
distance).
The area in which the entire "set of frequencies" is once used is known as the
cluster. The number of calls that can be made at the same time in a particular
area is no longer determined by the available frequency range but by the size of
the available cells.
Cellular Systems are the prerequisite for:
Roaming
Handover
Enhanced network capacity
Cellular Systems were tested in many countries at the end of the 1970's. In 1979,
AMPS started commercial operation in the USA and the Nippon Telegraph &
Telephone Company - Mobile Telephone System (NTT-MTS) in Japan. Both
systems operated in the 800-MHz range. In the beginning of the 1980's, the NMT
system was launched in the 450-MHz range and later in the 900-MHz range in
the Scandinavian countries.
NMT was the first cellular system allowing International Roaming. In 1985 the
Total Access communication System (TACS) was introduced in Great Britain in
the 900-MHz range. Some of the European Countries where NMT and TACS
Systems were introduced in the 450- MHz range are:
Italy: The RTMS system.
Germany: The C450 system
France: The Radiocom2000 system
The introduction of the cellular system principle for mobile communication in the
late 1970's made it possible to increase the number of mobile subscriber from
less than 1 million world-wide to more than 500 million between 1980 and 2000.
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The following figure explains the principle of cellular system:
Fig. 3 Principle of cellular systems
1.2.1.4 Limitations of the 1G
Cellular 1G systems transfer analog information over the radio or air interface.
Shortly after introduction of the first "analog" mobile communications systems, it
became evident that the exponential growth in subscriber numbers in mobile
communications would quickly saturate the capacity. A further problem entailed
the frequently poor speech quality and service availability of the "analog"
systems.
The large numbers of historically evolved, incompatible analog standards in
Europe at the end of the 1980's also represented a barrier in a converging
European market. As early as the beginning of the 1980's it became clear that a
new, uniform cellular system/standard at European level had to be developed.
The first system in the so called second mobile communications generation (2G)
deriving from this initiative was the GSM Standard. The 2G systems differs from
the 1G system in the respect that the 2G systems transmit digital information.
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1.2.2 Second Generation (2G) Mobile Systems
1.2.2.1 2G Cellular Systems
Global System for Mobile Communication ( GSM)
In 1990 the GSM Standard was ratified as first 2G standard. Commercial
operation of GSM systems started in late 1991. Originally planned as a European
system, GSM spread all over the world, serving 2/3 of all mobile subscriber in
2001. The GSM radio interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and
FDMA/TDMA for multiple access. GSM systems are existing in the 900, 1800 and
1900 MHz frequency range.
Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System ( D-AMPS)
D-AMPS (also refered as IS-136 or US-TDMA) was conceived in 1991/1992 in
America as an enhancement of the 1G AMPS standard. The D-AMPS radio
interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and FDMA/TDMA for multiple access.
The 800-MHz band (824-849/869-894 MHz) is used in conjunction with AMPS.
D-AMPS was extended in 1995 to the 1900-MHz frequency range. AMPS and
D-AMPS serves some 10% of the world-wide mobile subscriber in 2001.
Japanese Digital Cellular ( JDC) / Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)
PDC, originally titled as JDC is used in Japan only. Commercial operation started
in1993/1994. The PDC radio interface uses FDD for duplex transmission and
FDMA/TDMA for multiple access. PDC is used at the 900-MHz band
(810-826/940-956 MHz) and 1500-MHz band (1429-1441, 1501-1513). In 2001
some 70 million subscriber used PDC in Japan.
Interim Standard-95 ( IS-95)
IS-95 CDMA was developed at the beginning of the 1990's on the basis of CDMA
technology. Commercial operation started 1995. The IS-95 radio interface uses
FDD for duplex transmission, which is different to GSM, D-AMPS, and PDC.
CDMA for multiple access frequencies in the 800-MHz and 1900-MHz bands are
used globally and also in the 1700-MHz band in Korea. IS-95 CDMA are used all
over the world, serving some 100 million subscriber in 2001.
1.2.2.2 Development of the GSM Standard
In 1978, the Conférence Européene des Postes et Télecommunication (CEPT)
reserved 2 x 25 MHz in the 900-MHz band for a future European mobile
communications system. A team of experts – the “Groupe Special Mobile” (GSM)
– was set up in 1982 to develop this standard. The objective was to create a
binding, international standard for cellular mobile communications systems in
Europe. In 1988, the new-founded European Telecommunication Standard
Institute (ETSI) took over standardization work and finished work on the standard,
which has been re-named to Global System for Mobile communication (GSM).
The standardization of GSM900 and GSM1800 is finished in year 1990 and 1991
respectively. Commercial operation started late 1991. In the following 10 years,
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GSM became the quasi-world standard for mobile communication, serving some
2/3 of all mobile subscriber in 2001 (some 550 million).
GSM Adaptations / The GSM family
GSM 900: 890 - 915 for up link and 935 - 960 MHz for down link. effectively
2 x 25 MHz used world-wide.
E-GSM: Extended GSM. An additional 2 x 10 MHz can be made available in
EGSM on national decision. 880 - 915 MHz / 925 - 960 MHz, 2 x 35 MHz.
GSM1800, formerly Digital Cellular System (DCS1800) : 1710 - 1785 MHz
/ 1805 - 1880 MHz, effectively 2 x 25 MHz used world-wide.
GSM1900, formerly Public Cellular System (PCS1900): 1850 - 1910 MHz /
1930 - 1990 MHz, effectively 2 x 60 MHz. Developed especially for the
American market.
GSM Railway (GSM-R): 876 - 880 MHz / 821 - 825 MHz, effectively 2 x 4
MHz. GSM-R is the GSM adaptation for railway systems.
GSM450: 450.4-457.6 MHz / 460.4-467.6 MHz, effectively 2 x 7.2 MHz
GSM480: 478.8-486 MHz / 488.8-496 MHz, effectively 2 x 7.2 MHz. GSM450
& GSM480 have been defined to re-use 1G frequency ranges by GSM.
GSM850: 824-849 MHz / 869-894 MHz, effectively 2 x 25 MHz. GSM850 has
been defined to replace North American 1G AMPS systems by GSM.
1.2.2.3 GSM Evolutionary Concept
The GSM Standard was originally intended to include all specifications on its
ratification. However, in 1998 it became clear that not all planned services and
half rate speech could be offered within the specified deadlines. This led to a
crucial decision that GSM was not to be declared as a closed, immutable
standard, and need to be further developed in phases. This evolutionary concept
provides flexibility for modifications and technical innovations and allows GSM to
be adapted to market requirements and the latest technical developments.
GSM Phase 1
The standardization ratified in 1990 for GSM900 and in 1991 for GSM1800 is
referred to as GSM Phase 1. Phase 1 of the implementation of GSM systems
includes all central requirements for the transmission of digital information.
Speech data transmission is of core importance. Data transmission is likewise
defined at rates of 0.3 to 9.6 kbit/s. GSM Phase 1 has only a few Supplementary
Services (SS) such as call forwarding and barring.
GSM Phase 2
Work on GSM Phase 2 was completed in 1995. In this phase, supplementary
services, in particular, with features comparable to ISDN were added to the
standard. Technical improvements were also specified such as half-rate speech.
An important aspect of Phase 2 was the declaration of downward compatibility –
i.e., all Phase 2 networks and terminal equipment must retain compatibility with
the Phase 1 networks and terminal equipment.
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GSM Phase 2+
Phase 2+ indicates ongoing development. The GSM Standard will not be fully
revised; instead, individual topics can be separately treated. The Standard has
been updated annually since 1996 (Annual Releases '97 – '99). The current
topics relate to new supplementary services, services for special user groups,
improved voice codecs, IN applications and high data rate services.
The milestones in GSM evolution are explained in the following figure:
Fig. 4 Evolution of GSM
1.2.2.4 Advantages of the Digital Transmission
Mobile communication followed the trend set in fixed networks in the mid-1980's
under the term Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Following are several
advantages that are correlated with the introduction of 2G digital transmission:
1. Network Capacity: Compression of digitized speech information can
considerably increase the capacity of mobile communication networks.
Speech compression must be weighed against a reduction in speech quality
however. Compression in speech from 64 kbit/s (digital fixed network
transmission) to 2.4 – 13 kbit/s is used in the different 2G systems for
transmission over the air interfaces.
2. Security Aspects: Unlike analog signals, digital information can be very
easily ciphered, preventing unauthorized eavesdropping of user data.
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3. Supplementary Services: Digital data transmission greatly simplifies the
transfer of signaling information thereby allowing the introduction of a wide
range of supplementary services not confined to just pure speech and data
transmission.
4. Cost Factor : Digital devices are less expensive to produce than analog
devices thanks to better options for the use of large-scale integrated
microelectronic components. Purchasing costs, as well as operating and
maintenance costs, are lower and opened the way for the 2nd generation to
the mass market.
5. Miniaturization: Microelectronics for digital information transmission allows a
HW reduction that is relatively simple compared to analog HW elements. In
this way, the size and weight of Mobile Stations MS could be reduced very
much from 1G to 2G, allowing turning over from car phone to handhelds. The
weight of handhelds decreased during the 1990's from more than 500g to
less than 100g.
6. Transmission Quality: During transmission across the air interface the
signals experience considerable fading, distortion and corruption. Digital
signals can be treated easily with redundancy, can be better regenerated and
offer therefore significantly better transmission quality than analog signals.
Analog signals can only be amplified (including all disturbances).
The following figure explains the Advantages of the digital transmission:
Fig. 5 Advantages of Digital data transmission
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1.2.3 Third Generation (3G)
The third generation, 3G, is expected to complete the globalisation process of the
mobile communication. Again there are national interests involved. Also some
difficulties can be foreseen. Several 3G solutions were standardised, such as
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), cdma2000, and Universal
Wireless Communication-136 (UWC).
The 3G system UMTS is mostly be based on GSM technical solutions due to two
reasons. Firstly, the GSM as technology dominates the market, and secondly,
investments made to GSM should be utilised as much as possible. Based on this,
the specification bodies created a vision about how mobile telecommunication will
develop within the next decade. Through this vision, some requirements for
UMTS were short-listed as follows:
The system to be developed must be fully specified (like GSM). The
specifications generated should be valid world-wide.
The system must bring clear added value when comparing to the GSM in all
aspects. However, in the beginning phase(s) the system must be backward
compatible at least with GSM and ISDN.
Multimedia and all of its components must be supported throughout the
system.
The radio access of the 3G must be generic.
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1.2.4 Basic GSM
1.2.4.1 GSM network elements
The GSM radio access network called Base Station Subsystem (BSS) consists of
the following elements:
1. Base Station Controller (BSC) is responsible for radio path and radio
resource management.
2. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is the network radio terminal forming the air
interface that the MSs (Mobile Stations) use for network access and
communication purposes.
3. Transcoding and Sub-Multiplexer Unit (TCSM) is the channel coding
converter making it possible to use more effective channel coding within the
BSS (transcoding), and thus enables saving in transmission costs (through
sub-multiplexing).
Network Switching Subsystem (NSS), the switching part of the GSM network,
contains the following elements:
1. Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) performs the traffic path connections and is
responsible for the majority of the connection management related entities.
2. Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains subscription and security information
of the active subscribers located in the radio network part. The nature of the
data the VLR contains is not stable: when the subscribers change their
location(s), the VLR data changes respectively.
3. Home Location Register (HLR) is the static data storage of the subscription
information. The HLR also contains the subscriber location information, but
the accuracy of this information is on the VLR level.
4. Authentication Centre (AuC) maintains security information of the
subscriptions.
5. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) maintains security information related to
the mobile equipment, not to the subscription.
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The following diagram illustrates the Basic GSM network:
Fig. 6 Basic GSM network – principle diagram
Preceding figure presents a very basic GSM network made strictly according to
specifications. That is, all possible open and proprietary interfaces are included.
The network described above is always the first step when a new/old operator is
starting its GSM cellular business.
The subscribers in this kind of network have all the basic services available:
Speech, circuit switched data up to 9.6 kbit/s, Facsimile.
Call forwarding, call barring, in-call services (Wait, Hold, Multi-Party)
The GSM Technical Specifications define certain interfaces, which make it
possible to add some value to the system. Through these interfaces, the
operators connect the Value Added Service (VAS) platform(s) into use. A typical
VAS platform consists of two elements: Short Message Service Centre (SMSC)
and Voice Mail System (VMS). In other respects the GSM network is the same as
in the previous phase.
The Short Message Service (SMS) has proven its potential in commercial use.
Originally, the SMS was not seriously considered as a service at all and thus it
was very cheap to use. However, the subscribers adopted this service and
nowadays a remarkable share of the traffic in the GSM networks is SMS based.
Another issue is the capacity offered. In this phase the capacity of the network is
drastically increased, and a clear difference between the analogue and digital
technology in this respect becomes evident.
1.2.4.2 GSM phase2+ and Intelligent Network (IN) services
The control of the services provided by the basic GSM is relatively good.
However, these services are not very flexible. In other words, the basic GSM
offers “mass service for mass subscribers”. To change the situation, the IN is
integrated to the cellular network. The IN platform provides the operator the tools
for creating completely new services, as well as full access to modify existing
ones, even on a subscriber basis.
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The following figure illustrates GSM – Intelligent Network:
Fig. 7 GSM – Intelligent Network
IN Services
Fraud management is a very essential issue for the operators. To address such
issues, the basic GSM has two databases AuC and EIR. However, these
registers cannot guarantee that the subscribers pay their bills. IN is maybe the
most common and flexible way to create a service called Prepaid, where the
prepaid customers have their own account (paid in advance) with a call credit
balance. During each call the account balance is regularly checked. When the
balance is ‘0’, it is not possible to establish any calls. Naturally, the subscribers
are able to buy more airtime, thus increasing their account balances.
The IN has the following advantages:
Possibility to differentiate and compete with services.
Customer segmentation from the operator’s point of view.
Better utilisation of the service platform: VAS components used in IN services.
1.2.4.3 GSM to Packet Core
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is the way to transfer packet data over the
GSM air interface. This requires HW/SW changes in the existing network
elements, and some new elements as well. The term IP backbone refers to the
part of the network handling packet switching and connections to the Internet and
other data networks.
The basic packet switched data core consists of two major elements: Serving
GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). In
addition to these, the IP backbone contains other routers, firewall servers, and
Domain Name Server (DNS).
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The following diagram illustrates the GSM and packet switched data core network
elements:
Fig. 8 GSM and packet switched data core
The traffic through the packet core is not equal when comparing to the MSC side,
the packet core traffic uses free air interface slots and thus the capacity of the
packet connection varies all the time. This is the basic reason why the 2G packet
traffic does not have exact Quality of Service (QoS) classification in use. It is said
that 2G packet connection QoS is ‘best effort’.
From the operator point of view, the packet connections increase traffic anyway
and the time slots not used by circuit switched services are in effective use.
Fast wireless access to the Internet is enabled. Theoretically, bit rates of 150
kbit/s in optimal circumstances are possible. A subscriber can expect data rates
of about 30 to 40 kbit/s. Packet data transfer does not waste the capacity as the
High Speed Circuit Switch Data (HSCSD) does on one physical channel. WAP
and SMS will be utilised very effectively in the context of different services either
provided by the operator or a 3rd party.
EDGE
Within the existing knowledge and technology, it is possible to further enhance
the transferred bit rates up to the level of 384 kbit/s for circuit switched services,
and to a level of up to 473 kbit/s for packet switched services. This is achieved by
introducing a new modulation scheme (8PSK), combined with sophisticated
coding methods over the air interface.
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These methods are backward compatible with the existing GSM methods, and
they form a concept called Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution (EDGE).
Please note that issues like availability of timeslots, and transmission quality,
affect the bit rates that can be obtained.
The EDGE network is explained in the following figure:
Fig. 9 EDGE
This step will probably be the end point for several operators due to the licensing
policy (country-specific regulations). On the other hand, some operators may skip
this phase and move on to the next step in this development path. EDGE utilises
everything built in the GSM, including the multiple access method used in the air
interface such as Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
The spectral efficiency does not change because the channel coding methods
experience remarkable changes in EDGE: same kinds of time slots are still in
use, carrying traffic like they have been carrying in a normal GSM. Also from the
network planning point of view, the use of radio frequencies will not change. The
changes in the system are related to transmission and multiple time slot
allocation required in PSTN connections.
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1.3 3G UMTS Motivation and Specification
Process for UMTS
1.3.1 UMTS Development
The European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) Global Multimedia
Mobility (GMM) Report from 1996 pointed the way for the development not only
of UMTS, but also of GSM. GSM was to be further evolved in the GSM Phase 2+
in such a manner that its capabilities progressed toward UMTS.
The GSM network and protocol structures were developed so that they can be
used as a platform not only for high level GSM services, but also for UMTS.
UMTS will continue the GSM success story. The existing infrastructure of the
GSM operators will be more intensively used, and also for UMTS. This reduces
the financial risks involved in the introduction of UMTS. In other words, the 2G
investments will continue to be utilized.
The experience gained by GSM with regard to the core network and the
Protocols and procedures (for example, the MAP protocol, call control, mobility
management, handover, etc.) will also be used either directly or in a modified
form. Using these Protocols and procedures will also reduce the risks involved in
the 3G implementation.
The introduction of dual and multimode terminals is of great importance. It will
use the entire area serviced by GSM from the very beginning by handover
between UMTS and GSM, thereby paving the way for UMTS (reduction of 3G
risks). This new evolutionary plan gives 2G operators a chance to reconfigure
their networks for upward compatibility, and UMTS operators can avail of the
downward compatibility to assure successful UMTS launching. In this way GSM
will slowly evolve along a migration path toward the original objectives of UMTS
to obtain the smoothest possible transition from the 2nd to the 3rd generation of
mobile communications.
Mobile Communication Market: History
Before 1G cellular system were introduced in 1980, all single cell systems
together served world-wide significantly less than 1 million subscriber. Starting
with 1G introduction, the number of subscriber increased continuously to more
than 25 million subscriber in 1992, the year of 2G commercial start. 2G
introduction enabled a real mass market. During the 1990's, the number of
subscriber increased continuously to more than 500 million (end of 2000).
1.3.2 Mobile Communication Market: Medium and Long
Term Forecasts
The mobile communications market will continue to grow in the first decade of the
21st century and beyond. Unlike the fixed network sector, which over the last
decades only developed slowly and which is only recently gaining momentum
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again, many market studies indicate unrestricted expansion of the mobile
communications sector even well beyond the year 2010. This growth is only likely
to be overtaken by the forecasts for the Internet market.
It is generally expected that the number of mobile communications subscribers
will exceed those in fixed networks in the next years. This is already the case in
particular in regions with a poorly developed fixed network infrastructure.
About 2.7 billion subscribers are predicted for the mobile communications market
by the year 2015 according to the UMTS Forum Report #1. This growth is being
experienced to a large extent in the current developing and threshold nations in
the Asian/Pacific region. Forecasts indicate a 50% share of the global mobile
communications market for this region by 2015. Similar growth rates are expected
for Eastern Europe and Central and South America.
The "classical industrial countries" in North America and Europe (EU15) will only
have a slight increase in subscriber numbers from 2005 because, with
penetration rates of more than 80%, saturation will be approached. North America
and EU15 will only have shares of the world's subscribers of about 7% and 11%
respectively by 2015 according to forecasts.
One result of the immense growth rates will be a steep rise in the demand for
additional radio resources the necessity for very efficient usage of the radio
resources.
Trend: Speech to Data Transmission
There is constant increase in global demand for data transfer, record growth in
Internet links and access together. With the requirement to make these services
in the fixed network sector as well in the mobile sector, all forecasts are
predicting a steep rise in the volume of data transfers using mobile
communication systems.
Although the demand for mobile computing, Internet and intranet access already
exists, expansion in these sectors was greatly hindered by cumbersome
equipment, very low data transfer rates and overly expensive costs for the mobile
transfer of data. All of these barriers are set to be overcome in GSM Phase 2+
and by the 3G systems. Against this background, the expert studies (for example,
UMTS Forum) are predicting a considerably greater increase in the volume of
data for transfer than for speech transmissions.
While annual growth in speech transmission in industrialized nations in the
coming years is predicated to be between 20% – 60%, a significant growth rate
of more than 100% is expected for the volume of data to be transferred. Between
the years 2005 and 2007, the data transfers are predicted to make up about 50%
of the total traffic – with an upward trend in the years thereafter. This means that
all forecasts envisage data transfers taking the lion's share in the medium term.
Current Market Demands Regarding Mobile Communications
The demands currently made by the mobile communications market are varied
and include the following:
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1. Improved speech quality
2. User friendliness
3. Global accessibility
4. Special services for particular user groups (for example, Closed User
Groups)
5. Flexible Service Creation
6. Everywhere the same services as in HPLMN
7. Fast transfer of large data volumes
8. Mobile Internet / Intranet Access
9. Multi Media capabilities
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1.3.3 3G end-to-end IP Solutions
With UMTS Release 99, a radio interface solution was introduced to allow the
transport of a wide range of multimedia services. The transmission network
solution of the UMTS radio access network is based on ATM (and an alternative
specification of IP transport partly exists), which guarantees flexible bearer
establishment in the radio access network.
However, the UMTS CN solution is still rooted in GSM, and this may impose
limitations for multimedia applications. In UMTS Rel. 4 and 5, call-processing
server solutions combined with media gateways were specified for circuit and
packet switched services to allow flexible bearer establishment also in the core
network. The specifications explicitly mention IP and ATM as potential
transmission solutions for the core network. This means a core network evolution.
The following diagram illustrates the use of IP for the network traffic:
Fig. 10 3G IP – Majority of the traffic over IP
The majority of the traffic is expected to be packet switched data transfer over IP.
The IP is expected to fully support mobility management provided, if expressed in
telecommunication terms. Additionally, in this kind of environment the IP must
fully support QoS thinking. These two conditions are essential if cellular IP
terminals are going to be used.
3G – Services & Required Data Rates
Different services have different requirements regarding the appropriate data rate.
Only a few kbit/s are required for conventional voice transmission with the use of
efficient speech data compression functions. Data rates to the order of several 10
kbit/s are helpful and meaningful for convenient e-mail transfers. Greater
bandwidth ranging from several kbit/s to more than 100 kbit/s is required for
efficient general data transmissions, Internet access, mobile banking, shopping,
etc.
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Even greater data rates from several 10 kbit/s to several 100 kbit/s are necessary
for high-quality image transmission and video telephony. The highest
requirements for data rates from 100 kbit/s to more than 1 Mbit/s are demanded
by video conferences and video-on-demand applications, in addition to different
multimedia applications.
UMTS will be able to dynamically and flexibly provide these data rates ranging
from 8 kbit/s to a maximum of 2 Mbit/s.
The following diagram illustrates the services provided by the 3G:
Fig. 11 The services provided by the 3G
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1.3.4 Specification Process for UMTS
As the 3G system is expected to be global, world-wide, and generic, the
specification bodies related are also global ones as discussed following section.
In addition to the specification bodies, the specification process includes
co-operation of operators and manufacturers.
The following international standardisation bodies are acting as “generators” for
3G specification work:
International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T)
This organisation provides in practise all the telecommunication branch
specifications that are official in nature. Hence, these form all the guidelines
required by the manufacturers and country-specific authorities. ITU-T has finished
its development process for, International Mobile Telephone – 2000 (IMT2000).
IMT-2000 represents a framework on how the network evolution from a second to
a third generation mobile communication system shall take place. Even more
important, different radio interface scenarios were outlined for 3G systems.
European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI)
This organisational body has had a very strong role when GSM Specifications
were developed and enhanced. ETSI is divided into workgroups named SMG
(number), and every workgroup has a specific area to develop. Because of the
GSM background, ETSI is in a relatively dominant role in this specification work.
Alliance of Radio Industries and Business (ARIB)
 ARIB conducts studies and R&D, establishes standards, provides consultation
services for radio spectrum coordination, cooperates with other overseas
organizations and provides frequency change support services for the smooth
introduction of digital terrestrial television broadcasting. These activities are
conducted in cooperation with and/or with participation by telecommunication
operators, broadcasters, and radio equipment manufacturers.
American National Standard Institute (ANSI)
ANSI is the American specification body that has issued a license for a subgroup
to define telecommunication-related issues in that part of the world. Because of
some political points of view, ANSI’s role is relatively small as far as UMTS
concerned. The ANSI subgroup is mainly concentrating on a competing 3G air
interface technology selection called cdma2000.
In order to maintain globalisation and complete control of the UMTS
specifications, a separate specification body called 3GPP (3rd Generation
Partnership Project) was established to take care of the specification work in
co-operation with the previously listed institutes. The outcome of the 3GPP work
is a complete set of specifications defining the 3G network functionality,
procedures, and service aspects.
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The following diagram illustrates 3GPP:
Fig. 12 3GPP –standardisation body for UMTS
As there are some political desires involved, the issue is not as simple as
described; global system means global business and this is why there has been a
lot of pressure to select or emphasise certain solutions more than others. This
political debate actually delayed the specification work remarkably, and finally an
organisation was established to take care of the harmonisation issues.
This organisation, Operator Harmonisation Group (OHG) aims to find a common
understanding concerning the global issues. The results of this organisation are
used as inputs in 3GPP work as well as in 3G future implementations. The OHG
made its may be the most remarkable decision in April-May 1999, when it
decided the common-for-all-variants code word (chip) rate in the 3G WCDMA air
interface.
This issue has a direct effect on the system capacity and implementation and it
was maybe the biggest delaying factor concerning the UMTS specifications. The
aim of the OHG work is to affect the specifications so that all radio access
variants are compatible with all the variants meant for switching, this will ensure
true globalisation for 3G systems.
The first UMTS release was frozen in December 1999. This release is called
UMTS Release 99. In UMTS Release 99, the specification body 3GPP
concentrated on following two main aspects: Inauguration of a new radio interface
solution. A new 3G radio interface solution must use the radio interface resources
more efficient than it is the case with 2G radio interface solution. In addition to
that, it must be very flexible in terms of data rates to allow a wide range of
applications to be served.
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The UMTS radio interface solutions are based on the multiple access principle
CDMA. CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access.
In UMTS Release 99, CDMA is applied on 5 MHz carrier frequency bands. This
is the reason, why in some areas of the world, UMTS is called Wideband CDMA
(WCDMA).
Following radio interface solutions were specified with UMTS Release 99:
1. The FDD-mode combines CDMA with frequency division duplex, i.e. uplink
and downlink transmission are realised on separate 5 MHz frequency
carriers.
2. The TDD-mode combines CDMA with time division duplex, i.e. uplink and
downlink are made available of the same 5 MHz frequency carrier, separated
in time.
The next version of the 3GPP Specifications is Release 4, which was frozen
March 2001, and Release 5, which was frozen in March/June 2002. In Release 4
and 5, the upgrades in the radio access and radio access network were minor.
The main focus lay on the core network and the service infrastructure.
UMTS Release 4 included a specification of the Multimedia Messaging Service
(MMS), a new radio interface solution for China called low chip rate TDD mode
(or TD-SCDMA). While in UMTS Release 4 the first steps toward a ‘3G All IP’
could be found, this was fully specified in UMTS Release 5, including the IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).
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1.4 Evolution of UMTS Technology
The follwoing topic discuss about the evolutionary path of GSM to UMTS
technology and list significant events in the evolution of CDMA networks.
1.4.1 GSM & UMTS Evolution
The original plans for GSM in the 1980's included all aspects of a 2G standard. In
1988 it became clear that this was not possible in the specified time frame. For
this reason, GSM was released in a preliminary version in 1990/91 as GSM
Phase 1.
1.4.1.1 GSM Phase 1
Phase 1 contains everything required for the operation of GSM networks. Speech
data transfer is the core focus. Data transfer is defined, too (0.3 - 9.6 kbit/s). Only
a few supplementary services are included.
1.4.1.2 GSM Phase 2
After Phase 1completion, the GSM Standard was fully revised. Phase 2 includes
a wide range of supplementary services comparable with the ISDN standard.
1.4.1.3 GSM Phase 2+
Phase 2+ enhances in Annual Releases (`96, `97, `98, `99) the GSM standard
and prepares the UMTS introduction. Especially the GSM Core Network (CN) is
enhanced to be used as UMTS CN at UMTS start. Major Phase 2+ aspects are
IN services, flexible service definition, packet data transfer, high data rate
transmission and improved voice codes. GSM is limited by the narrowband radio
access, the radio resource efficiency and a lack of additionally available
frequency bands.
1.4.1.4 UMTS Release `99 (also: Release 3)
With GSM Rel. `99, a handshake with the first UMTS Release (Rel`99 or Rel. 3)
according to many CN and service aspects is performed. UMTS introduces a
new, broadband radio access optimized for packet data transmission up to 2
Mbit/s.
1.4.1.5 UMTS Release 4
Unlike GSM Phase 2+, the enhancement of UMTS is not performed in annual
steps. Enhancements should be possible in flexible time schedules. Rel. 4 (March
2001) introduces for example, important CN modifications (bearer independent
signaling flow) and the Low Chip Rate LCR TDD mode as a third radio access
option.
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1.4.1.6 UMTS Release 5
For UMTS Rel. 5 major CN modifications, i.e. the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
are planned. New network elements and protocol structures are defined.For the
future modifications of the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)
toward an All IP RAN, enhancements of the radio resource efficiency, new
frequency ranges (WRC'2000) and many more enhancements toward 4G are
expected.
The following figure illustrates GSM and UMTS Evolution:
Fig. 13 GSM and UMTS Evolution
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1.4.2 Data Transmission Evolution
In Phases 1 and 2, GSM allows data transfers at 0.3 to 9.6 kbit/s. In Phase 2+
HSCSD, GPRS, and EDGE are introduced to enhance the data transmission
capabilities.
1.4.2.1 High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
HSCSD defines bundling of up to 8 physical channels of one carrier. In practice,
however, only up to 4 channels are bundled together due to CN restrictions. The
maximum data rate per physical channel was increased from 9.6 kbit/s to 14.4
kbit/s, introducing a new codec. As a result, up to 57.6 kbit/s can be reached
(theoretically up to 115.2 kbit/s). HSCSD, like conventional GSM, defines Circuit
Switched CS data transfer. For HSCSD, only minor modifications to the GSM
network were necessary.
1.4.2.2 General Packet Radio Services (GPRS)
GPRS also allows bundling of up to 8 physical channels to one user. Four new
Coding Schemes CS enable transfers at rates of 9.05 /13.4 / 15.6 / 21.4 kbit/s
per physical channel. GPRS introduces Packet Switched PS data transmission,
which allows efficient use of resources and direct access to Packet Data
Networks PDN. New network elements and protocols, paving the way for UMTS,
have been defined.
1.4.2.3 Enhanced Data Rate for the GSM Evolution (EDGE)
EDGE introduces a new modulation method over the radio interface: 8-Phase
Shift Keying (8PSK). This allows three times faster data transfer compared to the
conventional GSM modulation method Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GMSK. In
this way, EDGE is used to enhance the performance of GPRS and HSCSD.
Transmission at up to 69.2 kbit/s per physical channel is possible. Theoretically,
data rate of up to 553.6 kbit/s are possible, granting ITU 3G requirements for
Zone 3 wide area mobility.
1.4.2.4 UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
In UMTS, UTRA introduces a new multiple access method Wideband Code
Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), modulation principle, Quadrature Phase Shift
Key (QPSK) and a 25 times larger bandwidth than GSM at new frequency
ranges. The new Radio Access Network (RAN) network elements and protocols
are defined. The maximum data transmission rate will be some 2 Mbit/s
theoretically.
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1.5 Existing GSM and UMTS Service Concept
1.5.1 User Services
Subscribers are paying for value added services offered to them. Therefore
mobile operators are currently concentrating in broadening the services, offered
to the subscribers. Following are the some of the examples:
E-mail.
Telecommuting.
Multimedia messaging.
Improved quality of service.
Support for video and audio clips.
Wireless personal Internet-information anywhere at anytime.
Simplified service provisioning and service upgrades through the capability to
download new service applications with minimal customer interaction.
Enhanced user service management covering the ability to customise and
configure the appearance and behaviour of user services and applications.
This management may include user interface customisation where the
terminal supports that capability.
Access to a complete range of integrated, customer-friendly services
customised to their needs by operators and service providers. These services
will be available irrespective of the serving network and terminal, assuming
that similar capabilities are available. Where the capabilities are not available,
the user will be presented with a subset of the service.
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1.5.2 GSM Service Support in UMTS
The Tele Services TS, Bearer Services BS and Supplementary Services SS of
GSM Phase 2+ are defined, supported and enhanced in and for UMTS (TS
22.004). These experienced "classical" service concept with services of strictly
defined functionality will built a platform of uniform (i.e. offered to all subscriber
world-wide in the same way) services for GSM and UMTS users.
Nevertheless, this strict service definition disables to create flexible new operator
specific services. Demands on market differs much more on a global market and
standardization in 3GPP will not be fast and flexible enough to satisfy changing
regional market demand and follow all technical changes. Therefore, with the
Virtual Home Environment (VHE), TS 22.121, a flexible concept for service
creation has been developed for enhanced GSM networks and UMTS
infrastructure.
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1.5.3 WCDMA in UMTS
WCDMA for UMTS has several advantages, for example:
Efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum
Different technologies, which improve the spectrum usage, are easy to apply to
CDMA. For example, in GSM, one physical channel is dedicated to one user for
speech transmission. If discontinuous transmission is applied, several timeslots of
the physical channels are not used. These timeslots cannot be used otherwise.
In UMTS, the transmission of several mobile phones takes place on the same
frequency band at the same time. Therefore, each transmission imposes
interference to the transmissions of other mobile phones on the same carrier
frequency band. UMTS supports discontinuous transmission via the radio
interface.
Consequently, if mobile phones are silent, when there is nothing to transmit, the
interference level is reduced and therefore the radio interface capacity increased.
Another option allowed in UMTS is the multiplexing of packet switched traffic with
circuit switched traffic. If there is no speech to transmit for a subscriber, the silent
times are used for packet switched traffic.
Limited frequency management
CDMA uses the same frequency in adjacent cells. There is no need for the
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) / Time Division Multiple Access
(TDMA) type of frequency assignment that can sometimes be difficult. This is the
main reason for increased radio interface efficiency of WCDMA.
Low mobile station transmit power
With advanced receiver technologies, CDMA can improve the reception
performance. The required transmit power of a CDMA mobile phone can be
reduced as compared to TDMA systems. In the FDD mode, where bursty
transmission is avoided, the peak power can be kept low. Continuous
transmission also avoids the electromagnetic emission problems caused by
pulsed transmission to, for example, hearing aids and hospital equipment.
Uplink and downlink resource utilisation independent
Different bit rates for uplink and downlink can be allocated to each user. CDMA
thus supports asymmetric communications such as TCP/IP access. Wide variety
of data rates The wide bandwidth of WCDMA enables the provision of higher
transmission rates. Additionally, it provides low and high rate services in the
same band.
Improvement of multipath resolution
The wide bandwidth of WCDMA makes it possible to resolve more multipath
components than in 2nd generation CDMA, by using a so-called RAKE receiver.
This assists in lowering the transmit power required and lowers interference
power at the same time. The result is further improved spectrum efficiency.
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Statistical multiplexing advantage
The wideband carrier of the WCDMA system allows more channels/users in one
carrier. The statistical multiplexing effect also increases the frequency usage
efficiency. This efficiency drops in narrowband systems with fast data
communications, because the number of the users on one carrier is limited.
Increased standby time from higher rate control channels
The wideband carrier can enhance the transmission of the control channels. The
MS only listens to the control channels part of the time, thereby increasing the
standby time.
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1.5.4 Flexible Service Creation
The (GSM/UMTS) network offers service elements, which are used by
applications. The applications form the value added for the subscriber (see also
Next Generation Network Group). A set of services have been made available by
UMTS.
1.5.4.1 Customized Applications for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic
(CAMEL):
The support of IN (Intelligent Network) services on non-proprietary basis in GSM
& UMTS is introduced with CAMEL (3GPP TS 22.078, 23.078). Previous IN
solutions for GSM were of a proprietary nature and could therefore only be used
by subscribers in the home PLMN (HPLMN). CAMEL allows the global use of IN
services (if the Visited PLMN supports CAMEL). Operator-specific services,
based on the VHE / OSA concept of ÚMTS / GSM can be implemented using
CAMEL. CAMEL has been introduced in three phases (GSM Rel. '96, '98 and
'99); UMTS directly adopts the CAMEL Phase 3 solution for UMTS Rel. '99.
1.5.4.2 Mobile Station Application Execution Environment (MExE):
MExE introduces an open architecture for flexible support of Internet contents
transmission in GSM / UMTS (Rec. 22.057, 23.057). It contains mechanisms for
downloading information and applications to the User Equipment UE. It creates a
suitable environment for implementing the applications. UE's indicate their
capabilities to the network, transmitting their MExE classmark at connection
setup.
Following are the two techniques that can be applied for MExE:
1. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) was developed by the WAP Forum.
WAP is an open industry standard allowing the use of Internet information
regardless of the access technology used. WAP is optimized for MS with a
small display and uses the Wireless Markup Language (WML) format for
representing IP data.
2. JAVA will continue to be used because of its universality, platform
independence and its inherent ability to recognize networks.
1.5.4.3 UMTS Subscriber Identity Module Application ToolKit ((U)SIM
ATK):
The (U)SIM ATK defines commands for interactions between the Mobile
Equipment(ME) and the SIM card (Rec. 22.038, 03.48, 31.102 and 31.111).
Applications can be downloaded onto the (U)SIM card with the toolkit. Greater
memory capacities than before are needed (and offered today) on (U)SIM cards.
The (U)SIM ATK applications are logically separate from previous GSM
functionalities on SIM cards and are controlled by subscribers using menus.
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SMS or packet data transmission in GPRS/UMTS can be used to download new
software or applications for the (U)SIM ATK from a server to (U)SIM cards or for
the communication between these elementsin general. Examples of (U)SIM ATK
applications are mobile banking, mobile flight booking, etc.The (U)SIM ATK
contains new security mechanisms for these applications.
1.5.4.4 Virtual Home Environment (VHE):
VHE (TS 22.121, 23.127) is defined as a concept for Personal Service
Environment (PSE) across network boundaries and between terminals. The
concept of the VHE is such that users are consistently presented with the same
personalized features, User Interface customization and services in whatever
network and whatever terminal (within the capabilities of the terminal and
network), where ever the user may be located.
1.5.4.5 Open Service Architecture (OSA):
OSA (TS 23.127) defines an architecture that enables operator and 3rd party
applications to make use of network functionality through an open
standardizedApplication Programming Interface API: OSA API. OSA provides the
glue between applications and service capabilities provided by the network. In
this way applications become independent from the underlying network
technology. The applications form the top level of the OSA. This level is
connected to the Service Capability Servers SCSs via the OSA API. The SCSs
map the OSA API onto the underlying telecom specific protocols (for example,
MAP, CAP etc.).
  
They hide the network complexity from the applications. Applications can be
network/server centric applications or terminal centric applications. Terminal
centric applications (for example, MExE and USIM ATK) reside in the UE.
Network/server centric applications are outside the Core Network (i.e. the
applications are executed in Application Servers that are physically separated
from the CN entities) and make use of service capability features offered through
the OSA API.
Mobile commerce (mCommerce)
In near future, mobile phones will become the personal trusted device that
enables mobile commerce. With UMTS, the type and variety of mobile commerce
transactions increases significantly, becoming a way of life for every day needs.
Some examples of every day needs are local payments, online banking, music
purchases and downloads, as well as ticketing. Also advertising will become an
important part of overall mCommerce. Trust of brand for providing the mobile
commerce service together with transaction security are two essential factors
ensuring the acceptance and growth of mobile commerce.
Mobile commerce solution addresses the three key elements of secure
transactions:
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1. Confidentiality, meaning those contents of the transaction can not be seen by
any outsider.
2. Integrity, meaning that the parties performing the transaction can be sure of
that the other party is the one he/she claims.
3. Irrevocability, meaning that either party after performing the transaction can
not claim the transaction has not been performed.
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1.6 Appendix
UMTS Specifications
The specifications give detailed information on how services should be
implemented into the network. The service classification of Release 2000 can be
found from Specification 22.976. The below figure is taken directly from the
specification and identifies where to find information on the types of services that
have been covered in this module.
Fig. 14 Service classification, taken from Specification 22.976
In addition to the bearer description in the above figure, for more information on
the VHE, refer to 22.970. This gives the overview of the specification and is
useful in locating detailed information. For information on the wireless protocols of
SAT and MExE, refer to the stage 1 (overview) specifications of 22.038 and
22.057 respectively.
For more information on the supplementary services and the stage 1
specifications can be found in the range starting from 22.072 until 22.097. Stage
2 and stage 3 (implementation and technical realisation) can be found from the
specifications, but the stage 1 should give you a start on how to find the desired
information.
Reference:
Please refer to the following Nokia web site for the latest information.
http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com
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WiMAX
The Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), is a
telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long
distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type
access. It is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, which is also called
WirelessMAN. The name WiMAX was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was
formed in June 2001 to promote conformance and interoperability of the standard.
The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the
delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and
DSL."
Spectrum allocation issues
The 802.16 specification applies across a wide swath of the RF spectrum, and
WiMAX could function on any frequency below 66GHz"IEEE Standard for Local
and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile
Broadband Wireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium
Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed
Bands and Corrigendum 1," IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std
802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005 (Amendment and Corrigendum to IEEE Std
802.16-2004), 2006, pp. 3, (higher frequencies would decrease the range of a
Base Station to a few hundred meters in an urban environment).
There is no uniform global licensed spectrum for WiMAX, although the WiMAX
Forum has published three licensed spectrum profiles: 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5
GHz, in an effort to decrease cost: economies of scale dictate that the more
WiMAX embedded devices (such as mobile phones and WiMAX-embedded
laptops) are produced, the lower the unit cost. (The two highest cost components
of producing a mobile phone are the silicon and the extra radio needed for each
band.) Similar economy of scale benefits apply to the production of Base
Stations.
In the unlicensed band, 5.x GHz is the approved profile. Telecom companies are
unlikely to use this spectrum widely other than for backhaul, as they do not own
and control the spectrum.
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
WAP/WTA was developed to:
Support exclusively MexE.
To design and program application locally on the ME.
To allow interaction between the SCP and the ME.
To support radio interface protocols.
Exercise 2
  The abbreviation OSA stands for Open Systems Architecture.
a. True
b. False
Exercise 3
Which of the following is, or will be, a characteristic of the Virtual
Home Environment (VHE) (Choose two)?
Allows the subscribers to use their services whilst roaming.
It is only possible in UMTS.
It is the same as a SMSC (Short Message Service Centre).
VHE is possible because of CAMEL.
VHE is located within the HLR.
Enable the creation of services to the subscribers to customise their own
environment.
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Exercise 4
A cluster is:
A location area.
An area of cells, where the hole set of frequency is used once.
Cellular network of one operator.
Coverage area of one BSC.
Coverage area of one BTS.
Exercise 5
What does Handover means?
Changing the cell during a connection.
Changing the area of one PLMN.
Changing the location area.
Changing the cell while there is no connection.
Exercise 6
How many HF channels do GSM 900 offers?
19
174
374
124
Exercise 7
Which features does not belong to GSM phase 2+?
Blue Tooth
ASCI
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HR
EFR
CAMEL
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
WAP/WTA was developed to:
Support exclusively MexE.
To design and program application locally on the ME.
To allow interaction between the SCP and the ME.
To support radio interface protocols.
Exercise 2 (Solution)
  The abbreviation OSA stands for Open Systems Architecture.
a. True
b. False
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which of the following is, or will be, a characteristic of the Virtual
Home Environment (VHE) (Choose two)?
Allows the subscribers to use their services whilst roaming.
It is only possible in UMTS.
It is the same as a SMSC (Short Message Service Centre).
VHE is possible because of CAMEL.
VHE is located within the HLR.
Enable the creation of services to the subscribers to customise their own
environment.
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Exercise 4 (Solution)
A cluster is:
A location area.
An area of cells, where the hole set of frequency is used once.
Cellular network of one operator.
Coverage area of one BSC.
Coverage area of one BTS.
Exercise 5 (Solution)
What does Handover means?
Changing the cell during a connection.
Changing the area of one PLMN.
Changing the location area.
Changing the cell while there is no connection.
Exercise 6 (Solution)
How many HF channels do GSM 900 offers?
19
174
374
124
Exercise 7 (Solution)
Which features does not belong to GSM phase 2+?
Blue Tooth
ASCI
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HR
EFR
CAMEL
3-1
UMTS Network Architecture
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UMTS Network
Architecture
Contents
1 UMTS Network Architecture.....................................................................2
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................2
1.2 UMTS Network Architecture........................................................................3
1.3 The UMTS Release 99 Network Architecture............................................. 7
1.4 The UMTS Release 4 Architecture........................................................... 10
1.5 The UMTS Release 5 Architecture........................................................... 33
1.6 The UMTS Release 6 Overview............................................................... 46
1.7 Long Term Evolution................................................................................. 51
1.8 Appendix....................................................................................................55
2 Exercises..................................................................................................56
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................60
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1 UMTS Network Architecture
1.1 Module Objectives
The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining the UMTS-network architecture. Topics to be covered in this
module include visualizing the whole network and identifying the elements of
each subsystem.
  
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Briefly explain the network subsystems of Release 99.
Identify and list the requirements of UMTS mobile terminals.
Identify and list the network elements used in Release 4.
Identify and list the network elements used within the radio access network
(RAN), in terms of the name and function.
Identify the main functions of an RNC.
Identify and list the network elements used within the core network.
Briefly explain Intelligent Network (IN) and its function in 3G network.
Briefly explain the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) concept.
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1.2 UMTS Network Architecture
A Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network can be
visualized from different angles, such as from the point of view of the user plane,
control plane, or the function of each subsystem. In this module we will look at
UMTS from the latter angle, where the focus is on the different network elements
within the network.
The UMTS network architecture can be divided into three subsystems:
Radio Access Network.
Core Network including the network elements for service groups.
Network Management Subsystem.
This separation will allow modularity in the composition of networks. The objective
is to be able to combine any 3G CN with any 3G RAN. In addition, technical
enhancements and updates of individual modules will be able to be introduced
more easily, quicker and at less expensively due to the separation of functions.
Each subsystem can be further divided into separate technologies. For example,
the RAN (Radio Access Network) is compromised of different air interface
technologies, such as GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN), UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and future solutions such as WLAN,
1ExTREME and 4G.
The core network is today clearly divided into:
Circuit Switched (CS) domain.
Packet Switched (PS) domain.
The network elements of the circuit switched domain are offering CS bearer
services. They are inherited from GSM: MSC/VLR and GMSC. The packet
switched domain is responsible to offer PS bearer services. Based on GPRS core
network elements, the PS bearer services are currently non-real time services.
But standards are on the way to enhance this infrastructure, so that also real-time
services can be served via the PS domain transmission infrastructure.
The CS and PS domains share some network elements. These common CS and
PS domain network elements are the HLR, AC, and EIR.
A set of service platforms was specified in GSM. These are now – in an
enhanced version – also available in UMTS. Network elements for service groups
include CAMEL, text telephony, Location Based Services (LBS) network
elements. As can be seen service provisioning is partly located in the core
network and contains all the service-enabling platforms that support the multitude
of 3G services that an operator can offer.
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The UMTS specifications stipulated that the new air interface and system
capabilities should reuse the existing 2G systems, such as GSM and GPRS.
Therefore, it is envisaged that operators can quickly rollout network once the
equipment is available. The standards dictate the configuration of the open
interfaces and the function of each subsystem; however, the implementation is
vendor or operator specific. This has led into much more modular network
architecture than we find in today's GSM networks. NSN fully supports open
interfaces. The network elements are designed to be modular and are built in the
manner that the functions can mature and evolve from new developments.
Each year, the UMTS specifications are upgraded to support continuing
functionality in the network. The next version of the specifications is known as
UMTS Release 4 followed UMTS Release 5, Release6 and further.
UMTS Release 4 will focus among others on having a specified IP or ATM
Telephony Core. The focus of Release 5 is to have IP Multimedia Subsystem.
Fig. 1 UMTS Network Architecture
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1.2.1 Common UMTS Network Elements
1.2.1.1 Home Location Register
The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database in charge of the management
of the mobile subscribers. There may be one or more HLRs in GSM PLMN
The HLR is always associated with an Authentication Center (AC). It participates
in different procedures, for e.g.:
It sends all necessary data to the VLR.
It supports the call setup in case of Mobile Termination Call (MTC) by
sending routing information to the Gateway MSC (Interrogation).
It transmits the security parameters from AuC to VLR on request.
An HLR contains different semi-permanent mobile subscriber data, e.g.:
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
MSISDN: Mobile Station International ISDN number
Packet Data Protocol (PDP) address(es), e.g. IP address
Services: Bearer Services (BS), Tele Services (TS), Supplementary Services
(SS)
A list of all the group IDs a service subscriber is entitled to use to establish
voice group or broadcast calls
CAMEL Subscriber Information(s)
Service Restrictions (e.g. roaming limitations)
Additionally, the HLR contains different temporary information of the mobile
subscriber, e.g.:
VLR and SGSN addresses
Mobile station Roaming Number
SMS flags
The organization of the subscriber data is outlined in GSM 23.008
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1.2.1.2 Authentication Center
The Authentication Center (AuC) is responsible to store the secret Keys of the
subscribers and the security algorithm, which are necessary for the generation of
the GSM and UMTS security parameters. On request of the VLR respectively the
SGSN the AuC generates the security parameters. They are delivered via HLR to
VLR/SGSN to enable Authentication, Ciphering and Integrity Check.
The AuC is connected only with the HLR via the non-standardised interface H.
The HLR requests data for authentication and cipher setting from the AuC. The
HLR can store this data, and makes it available to the VLR and SGSN on
demand. The data delivered from the AuC is used for:
Mutual authentication of the SIM-card (via IMSI) and the serving PLMN
Delivering a key to check the communication integrity over the radio path
between the user equipment and the VPLMN
Ciphering over the radio path between the user equipment and the RNC.
1.2.1.3 Equipment Identity Register
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) optional database is used to verify the
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers. The EIR is organised in
three lists:
1. Black list
2. Grey list
3. White list
The black list holds IMEIs, which are forbidden in the PLMN. The grey list holds
IMEIs under supervision by law enforcement agencies, and the white list holds
IMEIs, which are allowed to access the PLMN.
A mobile phone can be also classified as to be unknown in the EIR. The interface
F connects the EIR with the VLR, while the Gf interface links it with the SGSN.
The EIR is connected to:
The SGSN via Gf interface
The VLR via F interface
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1.3 The UMTS Release 99 Network
Architecture
The UMTS networks are based on GSM Phase 2+ Core Networks. This approach
safeguards the investments made by today's GSM network operators and
reduces the 3G implementation risks. The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network (UTRAN) is connected to the enhanced Phase 2+ Core Network(CN) via
Iu interface. The GERAN and UTRAN can be connected to the same CN. The
GSM Mobile Station (MS) is connected to the GERAN via GSM radio interface
Um, the UMTS User Equipment (UE) to UTRAN via UMTS radio interface Uu.
UMTS Release 99 Core Network
CN (Core Network )
circuit switched (cs ) domain
packet switched (ps ) domain
common
cs & ps
network
elements
GERAN
UTRAN
MSC/VLR GMSC
HLR EIR
AC
GGSN SGSN
PSTN/
ISDN
corp.
network
WAP
PDN
IP-
backbone
CG
Billing
Centre
BG
Inter -PLMN
Network
CSE
Fig. 2 UMTS Release 99 Core Network
Important note: In order to allow a smooth evolution, some network elements are
used in the 2G and 3G context, such as the MSC. In this material, it will be
normally called MSC. If a specific reference to the second or third generation is
required, it will be called 2G-MSC and 3G-MSC, respectively. The same is true
for the SGSN.
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1.3.1 Circuit Switched (CS) Domain Network Entities
CS Domain
The CS Domain of the UMTS CN consists of the following functions:
MSC : Mobile Services switching Center
GMSC : Gateway MSC
SMS-GMSC : Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC : Short Message Service Interworking MSC
VLR : Visitor Location Register
TC/IWF : Transcoding & Interworking Function
PS Domain
The PS Domain of the UMTS CN consists of the following functions:
GGSN : Gateway GPRS Support Node
SGSN : Serving GPRS Support Node
CGF : Charging Gateway Function
BG : Border Gateway Function
Entities common to the CS & PS Domain
HLR : Home Location Register
AUC : Authentication Center
EIR : Equipment Identity Register
CSE : CAMEL Service Environment
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UTRAN & UE
The UTRAN consists of the following functions:
RNC : Radio Network Controller
Node B
UE : User Equipment
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1.3.2 Visitor Location Register
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is responsible to aid the MSC with
information on the subcriber, which are temporarily in the MSC service area.
Therefore, it is always associated with an MSC.
The VLR request the subscriber profiles of sucscriber with activated MS/UE ithe
MSC service area from the Home Location Register (HLR) and stores them
temporarily. Temporarily means as long as the subscriber is not registered in a
new MSC/VLR, even if he deactivated the MS/UE.
Additional to the semi-permanent subscriber data received from the HLR, the
VLR stores temporary data, e.g. information on the subscribers current
location(the Location Area), the state of activation (Attached/Detached).
Furthermore, the VLR is responsible for the initiation of security functions, e.g. the
Authentication procedure, the start of ciphering and the TMSI re-allocation.
Examples of subscriber data in the VLR:
MSISDN: Mobile Subscriber ISDN No.
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
LMSI: Local Mobile Subscriber Identity
MSRN: Mobile Station Roaming Number
LAI: Location Area Identity
Authentication Parameter
The identity of the SGSN where the MS has been registered
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1.4 The UMTS Release 4 Architecture
UMTS networks are designed to offer a wide range of multimedia services. A
consequence of more variable services is that the core network must offer more
efficient and flexible transport options than the Release 99 network does.
Therefore the UMTS Core Network CS domain is a central aspect of Release 4
modification (TS 23.002). The intention of these modifications is a separation of
the call control from the transport the user data. A wide range of bearers must be
made available in the core and radio access network to make these new services
available for the subscriber. Today’s exchanges and MSCs are optimized for
voice transport. An MSC is responsible for:
Bearer control and bearer management
Call control
Service provisioning
With so many different tasks combined in one network element, any modification
is costly and time consuming. With a traditional MSC it is very hard for operators
to react fast to changing demand in the market. More flexible solutions are
required.
Beginning with UMTS Release 4, call control and bearer control and management
are separated. The separation of planes is done in the UMTS Release 4 circuit
switched domain.
The UMTS Release 99 network elements MSC/VLR, and GMSC are substituted
by the network entities MSC-Server, GMSC-Server and CS-MGW (Circuit
Switched – Media Gateway).
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PSTN/
ISDN
Bearer Level
Call Control
Level
MSC
Server
HLR
GMSC
Server
CS -
MGW
CS -
MGW
GERAN
UTRAN
Applications and Services
Mc (H.248/MEGACO) Mc
CAP CAP
Nb (e.g. ATM, IP)
Nc (e.g. BICC)
A
Iu
C D
Iu
A
MEGACO: IETF Media Gateway Control protocol
H.248: ITU protocol for Media Gateway Control
PS Domain
unchanged
compared to R`99
PS Domain
unchanged
compared to R`99
R`4
TS 23.002
(G-)MSC Server:
• Call Control
• Mobility Management
• MGW Control
• VLR functionality
• CDRs
• (HLR -Interrogation)
MGW:
• Bearer Control
• Transmission Resource Management
• Data Format Conversion
• Transcoding
CDR: Call Data Records
BICC: Bearer Independent Call Control
MGW: Media Gateway
UMTS CN Release 4 CS Domain
Fig. 3 UMTS Core Network Release 4 CS Domain
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1.4.1 MSC-Server
The MSC-Server is responsible for all call control tasks of the MSC and VLR. Its
tasks include the:
Call control of mobile originated and mobile terminated calls in the CS
domain
The VLR functionality. For all subscribers in the MSC-Server supply area, it
holds temporarily the subscriber profile, location information, identities, etc.
Interaction with the CS-MGW. The MSC-Server determines the QoS
parameters required for the subscriber’s application. It is then the
responsibility of the CS-MGW to make the bearer available. The interaction
between MSC-Server and CS-MGW is done via an open interface, based on
the ITU-T H.248 standard.
Termination of UE-network and network-network signaling. The UE-network
signaling is done via the Iu-CS interface. For the network-network signaling,
signaling protocols such as the BICC (Bearer Independent Call Control)
protocol can be used.
CDR collection.
The MSC Server is connected to other network elements via the following
interfaces:
A-interface : to the GSM Base Station Controller BSC
D-interface : to the HLR
F-interface: to the EIR
Gs-interface: to the SGSN
Iu CS-interface: to the RNC
Mc-interface: to the CS-MGW for separation between call control and bearer
control. The ITU standard H.248 respectively its IETF standard equivalent
Media Gateway Control (MEGACO) is used on Mc.
Nc-interface: to GMSC Server for Bearer-Independent Call Control (BICC)
1.4.2 GMSC-Server
GMSC-Server
The GMSC-Server adopts the call control tasks of the GMSC. Its tasks include:
Interrogation of the HLR
Termination of network-network signaling
Interaction with the CS-MGW
CDR collection
The GMSC Server is connected to other network elements almost the same as
MSC-Server.
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1.4.3 Circuit Switched – Media Gateway (CS-MGW)
Circuit Switched – Media Gateway (CS-MGW)
The CS-MGW is responsible for bearer control. Its functions include:
Bearer control: The requirements for the bearer control are set in the
(G)-MSC-Server. The CS-MGW gets this information via an open interface.
The CS-MGW must determine, whether it can make bearers available in
accordance to the QoS parameters set.
Bearer channel termination: The different transmission technologies may be
in use, e.g. ATM and IP over Ethernet. The ATM bearer then ends in the
MGW and the IP bearer begins at the MGW for user data transport.
Media conversion and payload processing: If the CS-MGW is interfacing
UTRAN, voice information must be processed. E.g. voice may be transmitted
with 64 kbps in the core network, but for the radio interface, 12.2 kbps
speech is required. The UMTS specific voice codec is found in the MGW.
The same is true for conference bridges, echo cancellers, etc.
Mobile specific functions: A CS-MGW must support mobility specific
functions, such as SRNC relocation and handover procedures.
The CS MGW can also be connected to other networks such as PSTN and
PLMN using the following interfaces:
A-interface : to the GSM Base Station Controller BSC
Iu-CS interface: to the RNC
Nb-interface: to other MGW. Different options are possible on Nb for user
data transfer and bearer control signaling (e.g. ATM, IP).
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1.4.3.1 Mobile Switching Centre Server
Mobile Switching Centre Server (MSC server) concept offers common core
network for the GSM and the UMTS subscribers. Release 99 introduces the
UTRAN network. NSN's 3G-MSC offers connections both towards the GSM Base
Station Subsystem (BSS) and towards the WCDMA-based UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN).
When the network architecture based on UMTS Release 4 is introduced, the user
and control planes are separated in the network. This means that the 3G-MSC
evolves to the direction where the MSC's switching functions are brought to the
Media Gateway (MGW) product, and the MSC evolves to an MSS-like product.
The MSS product provides call control logic for terminals that use circuit switched
logic.
MSS mainly comprises the call control and mobility control parts of a GSM/UMTS
MSC. The MSS is responsible for the control of mobile originated and mobile
terminated circuit switched calls. It terminates the user-network signalling and
translates it into the relevant network – network signalling. The MSS also
contains a VLR to hold the mobile subscribers' service data and CAMEL related
data. MSS controls the parts of the call state that pertain to connection control for
media channels in a MGW.
The MSC server connects to the Media Gateway using the H.248 protocol
(MEGACO). The physical connection between the MSC server and Media
Gateway (MGW) is Ethernet. The interface between two MGWs performs bearer
control and transport through the ATM backbone by using several ATM
Adaptation Layer protocols (AAL1, AAL2, and AAL5) or the IP backbone.
The functionality of the MSC server can be divided into two roles: Visited MSS
(VMSS) and Gateway MSS.
VMSS contains VLR and controls the MGW that is connected towards the
(BSS and UTRAN) radio networks.
Gateway MSS functionality is to control the MGW that is performing
interworking between packet core network and the external PSTN/ISDN
network.
The NSN product that performs the Gateway MSS functionality is called Gateway
Control Server (GCS).
The HLR is a database in charge of the management of the mobile subscribers.
There may be one or more HLRs in GSM PLMN
The HLR is always associated with an Authentication Center (AC). It participates
in different procedures, for e.g.:
It sends all necessary data to the VLR.
It supports the call setup in case of Mobile Termination Call (MTC) by
sending routing information to the Gateway MSC (GMSC) for Interrogation.
It transmits the security parameters from AuC to VLR on request.
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An HLR contains different semi-permanent mobile subscriber data, e.g.:
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
MSISDN: Mobile Station International ISDN number
Packet Data Protocol (PDP) address(es), e.g. IP address
Services: Bearer Services (BS), Tele Services (TS), and Supplementary
Services (SS)
A list of all the group IDs a service subscriber is entitled to use to establish
voice group or broadcast calls
CAMEL Subscriber Information(s)
Service Restrictions (e.g. roaming limitations)
Additionally, the HLR contains different temporary information of the mobile
subscriber, e.g.:
VLR and SGSN addresses
Mobile station Roaming Number
SMS flags
The organization of the subscriber data is outlined in GSM 23.008
The AuC is responsible to store the secret Keys of the subscribers and the
security algorithm, which are necessary for the generation of the GSM and UMTS
security parameters. On request of the VLR respectively the SGSN the AuC
generates the security parameters. They are delivered via HLR to VLR/SGSN to
enable Authentication, Ciphering and Integrity Check.
1.4.3.2 Visitor Location Register
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is responsible to aid the MSC with
information on the subcriber, which are temporarily in the MSC service area.
Therefore, in praxis it is always associated with an MSC.
The VLR request the subscriber profiles of sucscriber with activated MS/UE ithe
MSC service area from the Home Location Register(HLR) and stores them
temporarily. Temporarily means as long as the subscriber is not registered in a
new MSC/VLR, even if he deactivated the MS/UE.
Additional to the semi-permanent subscriber data received from the HLR, the
VLR stores temporary data, e.g. information on the subscribers current location
(the Location Area), the state of activation (Attached/Detached).
Furthermore, the VLR is responsible for the initiation of security functions, e.g. the
Authentication procedure, the start of ciphering and the TMSI re-allocation.
Examples of subscriber data in the VLR:
MSISDN: Mobile Subscriber ISDN No.
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
LMSI: Local Mobile Subscriber Identity
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MSRN: Mobile Station Roaming Number
LAI: Location Area Identity
Authentication Parameter
The identity of the SGSN where the MS has been registered
The organization of the subscriber data is outlined in TS 23.008
* e.g. Authentication, Authori zation ,
Cipher & Integrity Start
Main
VLR
tasks:
• storing Subscriber profiles
• Mobility Management
• storing Location Information
• controlling
Security Features*
for all UEs in MSC Area
VLR as „MSCs Data Base “:
• Subscriber Profile,
e.g. IMSI, MSISDN,
Services (TS, BS, SS),..
• Temporary Subscriber Data
e.g. LMSI, TMSI, MSRN,
Security Parameter,
Location Information,
IMSI attach/detach,..
Visitor Location Register VLR
VLR
MSC
B
HLR
D • Location Updates
• Subscriber Profiles → VLR
• Security Parameter
(via HLR → VLR)
• Interrogation
(MSRN via HLR to GMSC)
• Location Updates
• Subscriber Profiles → VLR
• Security Parameter
(via HLR → VLR)
• Interrogation
(MSRN via HLR to GMSC)
AuC
TS: Tele Services
BS: Bearer Services
SS: Supplementary Services
MSRN: Mobile Station Roaming Number
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
LMSI: Local Mobile Subscriber Identity
TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
Fig. 4 Visitor Location Register
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1.4.3.3 Short Message Service SMS Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC)
The SMS-GMSC acts as an interface between an external Short Message
Service Center SMS-SC and the PLMN, to allow short message to be delivered
to MS/UE from the Service Center.
The choice of which MSCs can act as SMS Gateway MSCs is a network operator
matter (e.g. all MSCs or some designated MSCs)
1.4.3.4 SMS Interworking MSC (SMS-IWMSC)
The SMS interworking MSC acts as an interface between the PLMN and a
SMS-SC to allow short messages to be submitted from MS/UE to the SMS-SC.
The choice of which MSCs can act as SMS Interworking MSCs is a network
operator matter (e.g. all MSCs or some designated MSCs).
SMS-GMSC and SMS-IWMSC description can be found in TS 23.002
SMS -GMSC & SMS -IWMSC
MSC /
VLR
SGSN
CS
Domain
PS
Domain
E
G
d
SM-SC
Short Message
Service Center
SMS -GMSC
SMS Gateway MSC
SMS -IWMSC
SMS Interworking MSC
all or some designated
MSCs can act as
SMS -GMSC/IWMSC
(Network operator
dependent)
TS 23.002
External
Networks
Fig. 5 SMS-GMSC & SMS-IWMSC
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1.4.3.5 Transcoding TC function
The Transcoding TC function is used to perform conversion between standard
ISDN 64 kbit/s speech transmission and the UMTS Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR)
speech codec (Specs: 26-series).
The AMR speech coder is a single integrated speech codec with eight source
rates from 4.75 kbit/s to 12.2 kbit/s, and a low rate background noise encoding
mode. The speech coder is capable of switching its bit-rate every 20 ms speech
frame upon command (TS 26.071).
Different to GSM, in UMTS the Transcoding function is not part of the Radio
Access Network RAN. It has been defined as part of the UMTS Core Network
CN.
Some optimization procedures allow it be passed through, without transcoding, in
the case of UE to UE communication for example, when double-transcoding
would be performed for nothing.
1.4.3.6 Interworking Function
The “classical” Core Network CN interface (e.g. A-G) are all Time Division
Multiplexed TDM based (E1/T1). Different to this, the Iu interface between
UTRAN and the UMTS CN is ATM-based. An Interworking Function (IWF) is
necessary for conversion between TDM-based and ATM-based interfaces.
Remark: IWF and TC function can be stand-alone network elements or be
integrated into the UMTS MSC, depending on the manufacturers / network
operators decision / demands.
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VLR
IWF/
TC
T
R
A
U
B
S
C
R
N
C
MSC
Iu(CS )
A
B
RAN
Radio Access
Network
CN
Core Network
F G
s
E
C
IWF
Transcoding & InterWorking Function
TC
Transcoding
BlaBla
Bla
BlaBla
Bla
CN function in UMTS:
part of MSC or standalone N.E.
• Conversion of Speech Data (CN Û RAN):
using AMR speech codec
• CN: 64 kbit /s (ISDN)
• RAN: 4.75 – 12.2 kbit /s (AMR)
AMR: Adaptive MultiRate
• Interworking: TDM « ATM
• all „classical “ CN -Interfaces (A -G):
TDM based (E1/T1 » PCM30/PCM24)
• Iu(CS ): ATM based
4.75 – 12.2 kbit /s
64 kbit /s (ISDN)
UTRAN
CN
Fig. 6 Transcoding and Interworking Function
1.4.3.7 CAMEL Service Environment CSE
For the introduction of CAMEL services, some network elements have to be
enhanced and new functional entities have to be introduced (TS 23.078):
GSM Service Control Function (gsmSCF): functional entity that contains the
CAMEL service logic to implement Operator-Specific Services OSS. It
interfaces e.g. with the gsmSSF, the gprsSSF and the HLR.
GSM Service Switching Function (gsmSSF): functional entity that interfaces
the MSC/GMSC to the gsmSCF. The concept of the gsmSSF is derived from
the IN SSF, but uses different triggering mechanisms because of the nature
of the mobile network.
GPRS Service Switching Function (gprsSSF): functional entity that interfaces
the SGSN to the gsmSCF.
Home Location Register HLR: for subscribers requiring CAMEL support, the
HLR stores different types of CAMEL Subscriber Information CSI (e.g. O-CSI
for Mobile Originating Calls, T-CSI for Mobile Terminating Calls). The O-CSI
is sent to VLR at Location Update, on data restoration of if the O-CSI is
updated by administrative action. The O/T-CSI is sent to the GMSC when the
HLR responds to a request for routing information.
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MSC/VLR or SGSN: VLR or SGSN store the different CSI information as part
of the subscriber data for subscribers roaming in the MSC/VLR or SGSN
area. MSC or SGSN monitor the call states and communicate (internally) with
gsmSSF for further proceeding.
GMSC
GGSN
MSC /
VLR
SGSN
HLR AuC
gsm
SCF
G
n
E
gsm
SSF
gsm
SSF
gprs
SSF
GSM Service Switching Function
• interfaces MSC/VLR to gsmSCF
• derived from IN SSF
• stores CAMEL
Subscription
Information CSI
GPRS Service Switching Function
• interfaces SGSN to gsmSCF
GSM Service
Control Function:
contains CAMEL
service logic for
Operator -Specific
Services
MSC/VLR & SGSN:
store CSI as part of
subscriber profile
MSC/VLR & SGSN:
store CSI as part of
subscriber profile
CAMEL Service Environment
CS
Domain
PS
Domain
Fig. 7 CAMEL Services
The term Intelligent Network (IN) stands for IN solutions with INAP protocol (only
in home PLMN) as well as for the CAMEL solution for international roaming.
The IN platform provides the operators the tools for creating completely new
services as well as full access to modify existing one, even on a subscriber basis.
The highly scalable intelligent network platform offers the possibility to efficiently
introduce and operate value adding intelligent services. The best example for this
is the prepaid service in Mobile Network. Not only prepaid services can be built
based on Mobile Network, but also are Virtual Private Network (VPN), Freephone,
premium rate, split charging, and many more.
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1.4.4 Packet Switch Network Element
1.4.4.1 Serving GPRS Support Node
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) constitutes an interface between the
radio access network and the core network. It is responsible to perform all
necessary functions to handle packet switched services to and from the mobile
phone. SGSN performs following task:
Network Access Control
Authentication is one aspect of network access control. Hereby, the network is
checking the validity of the subscriber’s USIM and the USIM is checking the
validity of the network (SGSN). Only if both sides determine a successful
authentication, network services can be used.
Then the subscriber is requesting a service, the Authorisation process makes
sure, that the subscriber is allowed to use the requested service. The services,
the subscriber is authorised to use may depend on his location. Other important
tasks of network access control are the collection of Charging Data Records
(CDR) and Operator Determined Barring.
Mobility Management
Similar to the MSC, the SGSN is responsible for the mobility management, which
includes procedures like routing area update and paging.
Packet Routing and Transfer
Its tasks include the classical packet switching aspects, such as relaying, routing,
address translation, encapsulation, and tunnelling. In contrast to the 2G-SGSN, a
3G-SGSN is not responsible for ciphering and user data compression.
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1.4.4.2 Gateway GPRS Support Node
The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) constitutes the interface between the
PLNM and external packet data networks (PDN). Similar to the SGSN, it is
responsible for the PS service provisioning. GGSN performs following task:
Network Access Control
Two main network access control tasks are performed with a GGSN: It is
responsible for screening, i.e. the operator can determine, which type of packets
is allowed to be transmitted via a GGSN. Some manufacturers have outsourced
this function into a separate firewall. The GGSN is also responsible for charging
data generation.
Mobility Management
The mobility management tasks include HLR inquiries in case of a mobile
terminated call.
Packet Routing and Transfer
Packets have to be routed. The GGSN is responsible to relay them from one link
to another, determine the next route with the help of routing tables. The GTP
protocol is used between the GGSN and SGSN/RNC. The user data is
encapsulated to be transparently transmitted between the GGSN and RNC. This
is called tunnelling.
1.4.4.3 Border Gateway Function
Roaming is possible for packet switched services. Hereby, user data and
signalling information is transmitted between the two PLMN via the interface Gp.
The data has to pass Border Gateways (BG) in each PLMN. The BG interfaces
the PLMN and external, inter-PLMN backbone networks. Based on the roaming
agreement between two operators, border gateways can perform mutual
authentication of each other before a secure connection is established between
them and data flows pass via them.
1.4.4.4 Charging Gateway Function
Both SGSN and GGSN generate Charging Data Records (CDR). The CDRs
routed via the CGF to the billing system. The interface Ga is used between
SGSN/GGSN and Charging Gateway Function (CGF). CGF is responsible to:
Manage reliable CDRs
Act as intermediate storage for CDRs
Pre-processing of CDRs before forwarding them to the billing centre.
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1.4.4.5 IN Service
Number Translation Services
Number translation services comprise a group of very famous applications.
The most important services are described here:
Freephone
The freephone service is one of the most popular number translation services.
Telephone charges are not billed to the caller but to the company being called.
The company gets more calls, that means more business and the customers
have a lower barrier to place a call.
Universal Access Number
As a service for companies with numerous branches or sales outlets, and
especially for call centers, Universal Access Number offers distinct advantages.
Car rental or service centers can give their customers a single, nationwide
number, which automatically connects them to the nearest branch office. The
caller dials, independent of his location, the same number and will be connected
to the next service center.
Premium Rate Service
The Premium Rate Service, also referred to as Tele-info Service or Kiosk
Service, enables service users to access the information offered by the service
subscriber such as weather forecasts, stock rates or crossword puzzles. This is
realized via the announcement facilities or interactive direct dialog.
Televoting
Depending upon the last digit(s) of the Televoting directory number dialed, the
voting code, the calling party expresses his decision.
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Number Translation Services
Fig. 8 Number Translation Services
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Alternate Billing and Charging
Mobile Local Call
Low-cost calls from mobile to fixed networks are currently extremely popular -
especially with people who mainly use their mobile phone within one regional
area at any given time. This region can, of course, change. When the subscriber
travels to another location he takes his 'local zone tariff' with him. The Intelligent
Network automatically checks whether the person being called is indeed within
the location of the mobile caller.
Home Zone Billing
The subscribers define various areas as their 'home zones' e.g. a 'business zone'
for calls from the office, a 'residential zone' for calls from home and 'temporary
zone' for spending short periods of time away. Home Zone Billing allows to define
rates for mobile calls that are similar to the costs for fixed network connections.
Virtual Card Calling
People on the move want to make calls anytime, anywhere without having to
have the right change at hand or pay exorbitant hotel rates. Virtual Card Calling
allows subscribers to do just this. The subscribers have to enter a Credit Card
Number+PIN or a Private phone number+PIN and the Intelligent Network checks
the authorization of the caller.
Prepaid Service
The Prepaid Service is a real bestseller. For Prepaid services no contracts, no
basic charges and no bills exist. The service provider does not know the
customer. The service can also be used by travelers who are temporarily in a
foreign country.
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Alternative Billing and Charging
Fig. 9 Alternate Billing and Charging
Personal Services
Fig. 10 Personal Services
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1.4.4.6 Personal Services
Personal Number Service
This service guarantees for the subscriber that he can be reached on one single
number at any terminal, regardless of whether it is in a fixed or in a mobile
network. In his subscriber profile the subscriber also determines which calls must
always be put through and which are to be rejected by diverting them to a voice
mail system.
Control of use
The Control of Use service is an effective method of preventing the misuse of
mobile phones. It works in such a way that the phone is only available to
authorized user groups via a specific PIN code. Different PIN´s with different
restrictions can be defined (e.g. no international outgoing calls, emergency
numbers only,...)
Friends and Family
With Friends & Family, customers enjoy an especially attractive rate for the
numbers they call most frequently. The subscriber can update the Friends &
Family list at any time. The numbers and speed-dialing codes on the personal
Friends & Family profile apply to fixed or mobile phones alike.
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Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Virtual Private Network Service
Virtual Private Networks allow business customers, regardless of the company
size, to optimize their communication costs. VPN allows subscribers to set up
their own private networks using public network resources. Virtual Private
Networks represent a cost-saving alternative to private networks, since they do
not require Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) and leased lines. The private
networks can easily be integrated into a VPN. VPN is also advantageous for
companies with several smaller locations spread out over a large area. VPN
users are furnished with their own private numbering plan and private exchange
features.
The flexible charging options enable the service provider to customize the service
to individual new target groups.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Fig. 11 Virtual Private Network
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1.4.5 Radio Network Elements
1.4.5.1 Radio Network Controller
The UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is sub-divided into Radio
Network Subsystems RNS. The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is the central
controlling unit of a RNS. It is controlling itself and all the Node Bs of the RNS.
The RNC is connected via the following ATM based interfaces:
Iub interface: to connected the Node Bs
Iur interface: to neighboring RNCs
Iu interface: to the Core Network CN
Due to different protocol stacks, the Iu interface can be sub-divided into an Iu -ps
interface and an
Iu-cs interface.
The Iu-ps interface is used for data and signaling transmission to the PS domain
of the CN, the
Iu-cs interface is used for data exchange with the CS domain.
The main task of the RNC is to perform Radio Resource Management RRM for
all UEs in its service area. Therefore, it can be compared to the GSM BSC.
Different to the GSM BSC, it is 100% autonomously responsible for all RRM
decisions.
RRM means to be that the RNC is responsible for signaling with the UEs via
Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol, it is deciding about the allocation of
resources, Handover to other cells and release of resources, …
The RNC is holding the RRC connection to the UEs as long as data have to be
transmitted.
It is storing the UEs location information to transmit the data to the right location.
The location information can be requested by the CN for Location Based
Services.
It is responsible for reliable transmission over the radio interface, performing
Backward Error Correction in acknowledged mode.
It is responsible for Ciphering/De- Ciphering and Integrity Check.
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RNC Radio Network Controller
RNC
Radio Network
Controller
Node
B
RNS
Radio
Network
Sub
system
UTRAN
Iu
(CS )
Iub
Iur
RNC
Node
B
Node
B
Iub
Node
B
SGSN
UE
IWF/ TC
MSC /
VLR
Iu
(PS )
Uu
PS
Domain
CS
Domain
• 100% autonomously RRM
(e.g. Radio Resource Control, Access Control,
Admission Control, Handover Control, …)
• (De -)Ciphering & BEC (Layer 2 tasks )
• storing UEs location information
• RNS -Control (RNC & Node B ’s)
• ATM Switching
(Iu, Iur & Iub : ATM Interfaces)
• „WCDMA specific tasks “
Fig. 12 Radio Network Controller
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1.4.5.2 Node B
One or more Node B’s are controlled and addressed by an RNC. A Node B is a
physical unit for implementation of the UMTS radio interface. It is converting the
physical transmission of the data from fixed network transmission (ATM based) to
WCDMA transmission.
As a central transmission and reception site, it serves on or more UMTS cells. It
is serving one UMTS cell in case of an omni cell with 360º service or, for
example, 2, 3, or 6 sector cells with 180º 120º and 60º service respectively.
The Node B is connected:
via Iub interface to its controlling RNC
via Uu interface to the UEs
Node B
RNC
Radio Network
Controller
Node
B
RNS
Radio
Network
Sub
system
U
T
R
A
N
Iub
RNC
Node
B
Node
B
Node
B
UE
Uu
• Support of 1or several cells
• “WCDMA Transmission ”
• ATM Termination
• Forward Error Correction FEC
• Radio Interface Measurements
(Quality & Strength)
Node
B
Omni -Cell
Sector -Cell
Node
B
Sector -Cell
Sector -Cell
Fig. 13 Node B
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1.4.5.3 User Equipment UE
The User Equipment UE is responsible for similar function as the GSM Mobiles
Station MS, i.e., it is a device allowing a user access to network services.
It consists of the:
Mobile Equipment ME, which means to be the hardware and software for
WCDMA air interface transmission. The ME is identified by an International
Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).
UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), which contains data and procedures,
which unambiguously and securely identify itself. These functions are typically
embedded in a stand-alone smart card. This device is associated to a given user
(subscriber license), and as such allows to identify this user regardless of the ME
he uses. The USIM stores the personal identities (e.g. IMSI, MSISDN, PIN),
security algorithm (for e.g. Ciphering, Authentication), the personal phone book,
the USIM Application Toolkit (USAT); TS 22.038, 31.111 and many more
information.
UE User Equipment
Node
B
Uu
RNC
ME
Mobile Equipment
USIM
UMTS Subscriber
Identity Module
• HW & SW for „WCDMA
Radio Transmission “
• Man -Maschine -Interface MMI
• Subscriber license
• Personal Identities
(e.g.MSISDN, IMSI, TMSI, PIN,...)
• Security Algorithm & Keys
(for Authentication , Ciphering ,..)
• Personal phone book
• USIM Application Toolkit
USAT
UE = ME + USIM
MSC/VLR
SGSN
TS 31 .1xx
series
TS 23.101 &
31series
Fig. 14 User Equipment
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1.5 The UMTS Release 5 Architecture
UMTS Release 5 CN
In Release 5 the CS domain should be just an option. The so-called “All IP CN” is
introduced using the PS domain and an additional IP Multimedia
Subsystem(IMS). The IMS is interfaced to the PS domain like an external PDN,
i.e. via Gi interface. For downward-compatibility reason to GSM and UMTS
Release 99 and Release 4 it might be necessary, to support additionally the CS
domain.
In the following, the central new Release 5 network entities / functions are
described:
Home Subscriber Server (HSS): The HSS is used for mobility related aspects,
very similar to the “classical” HLR (storing subscription and routing information).
Media Gateway MGW: The MGW ensures interoperability and interworking
between an all IP CN and the external fixed CS networks PSTN or ISDN. The
MGW enables conversion for CS data transmission, e.g. voice transmission, to
PS data transmission, e.g. Voice over IP(VoIP). Echo cancellation via Gi interface
toward the GGSNs.
Call State Control Function CSCF: The CSCF is responsible for e.g. Session
Flow Handing and Application Coordination. They are interfacing the IN/
Application Server/ IN and they are responsible to collect charging data CDRs.
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UMTS Release 5
Fig. 15 UMTS Release 5 CN
The UMTS Release 5 offers a wide range of improvements compared to earlier
releases. Two of the main new features are the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
 and the radio network improvement High Speed Packet Access (HSPA).
The reason why IMS is adopted by the MNO is the incredible grow-up of the
application environment for Mobile users. IP-based application infrastructure is a
mandatory in order to offer Multimedia applications for MNO's
Today the multimedia application IP-based runs under several platforms and
mostly not standard architectures. IMS provided a centralized platform and
standardized architecture complaint to 3GPP standards.
The IMS provides services for any types of IP-based communications
whether they are video telephony, video on demand, an instant multimedia
messaging, multimedia gaming or virtual-reality.
Non-time critical/near -real-time applications & service such as:
Presence services: i.e. presence enhanced buddy list or presence enhanced
corporate directories.
User configuration of presence and availability data
Instant messaging
Chat rooms
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Multimedia messaging (sending any combination of voice, voice and text
clips)
Non-real-time critical games
Streaming of voice/video
Push to talk or push to watch
Real-time applications & services such as:
Voice/Video over IP
Voice and video conferencing
Real-time critical games
Integrated applications & services such as:
Voice and games
Click to call from buddy list, web page, etc
Virtual reality applications and integrated calendar services
wireless
SIP session control
SIP services and applications
SIP
Apps
Pres.
PoC
IP
Centr .
HSS
fixed
Class 4/5
SoftSwitch *)
PSTN
MGW
CSCF
MGCF
PDF
HSS
PDF
IMS/SIP is getting a strong momentum even outside
3GPP: There is a rising demand for IMS/SIP based
Session Control
IMS
mobile
MSC,
MSC -S
PLMN
HLR
SGSN
MGW
GGSN
HLRi
Fig. 16 IMS/SIP
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1.5.1 IMS Reference Architecture
The IMS Solution is based on two sets of standards:
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3PP) Technical Specifications (TS)
for the Release 5 and 6(R5, R6). These standards were driven by mobile
network operators (MNO) and equipment vendors.
The European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI)
Telecommunications and Internet Converged Services and Protocol for
Advanced Networking (TISPAN) Next Generation Network (NGN) Release 1
standard. The focus of the ETST TISPAN NGN standard is to provide a
standard for converged services from the fixed network operator’s (FNO)
point of view.
Due to the fact that IMS 5.0 is compliant with the 3GPP specifications R5 and R6,
the 3GPP compliance of IMS 5.0 solution is assured. Because the 3GPP IMS
was selected in the ETSI TISPAN NGN standards as the heart of the network,
the IMS 5.0 solution is therefore also compliant with them.
Ww , Wu
WLAN
(Home)
IMS Core
Ut
PSTN
- or -
CS -Domain
- or -
Legacy
- or -
External
PS -Domain
CAP
Mr
Cx
Sh
Gr
Mm
Mw
Mn
Gc
Mg
Gn
Iu
BGCF
Mi
Mk
Mj
Go
Gm
Dx
„ Mb/ Gi - Cloud “
SPDF
Mp
ISC
Uu
Operator 2
Si
IMS Terminal
Radio
Access
Multimedia
IP
Networks
MGCF
MGW
BGCF
Gq
CSCF
SLF
IMS Services
AS
OSA - SCS
IM - SSF
Presence
IM
Dh
HSS
HLR
Wx
Wu, Wp
SGSN
WLAN
Access
(WAG)
Wm
AAA
PDGW
PoC
MRFC
MRFP
IMS -ALG
CSCF
Mx
Mx
Ix
TrGW
Ma
GGSN
PCRF
Gx
Rx
(SBC)
(P-/I -/S-CSCF)
AS: Application Server
HSS: Home Subscription Server
HLR: Home Location Register
SLF: Subscription Locator Function
CSFC: Call Session Control Function
P-CSFC: Proxy CSFC
S-CSFC: Serving CSFC
I-CSFC: Interrogation CSFC
BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function
MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function
MRFC: Multimedia Resource Function Control
MRFP: Multimedia Resource Function Processor
SPDF: Service Policy Decision Function
PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules Function
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Nodes
AAA: Authentication , Authorization and Accounting
Fig. 17 Reference Standard
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1.5.2 IP Multimedia Subsystem
The objective of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is to support applications
involving multiple media components per session in such a way that the network
is able to dissociate different flows with potentially different QoS characteristics
associated to the multimedia session.
These applications are called IP Multimedia applications. Examples of such
applications are multimedia session offering the possibility to add and drop
component(s) such as video, audio, end users, or tools as shared online
whiteboards. The impact on the network is the creation of a set of new entities,
the IMS, dedicated to the handling of the signaling and user traffic flows related
to these applications. All IMS entities are located in the Core Network. The
impact on non-IMS specific network entities is kept as low as possible.
The fixed Internet multimedia call control Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) defined
by IETF is chosen as IMS main protocol for its flexible syntax. SIP also allows for
development of common applications and interconnectivity between 3G UMTS
networks and fixed IP networks such as Internet.
PSTN
HSS: Home Subscriber Server
MGW: Media Gateway
MGCF: Media Gateway Control Function
SIP: Session Initiation Protocol
G
i
UTRAN
R
N
C
Node
B
R
N
C
I
ur
I
ub
I
ub
UE
(USIM)
U
u
Node
B
Node
B
ISDN
SGSN GGSN
MGW
MGCF
X.25
IP
R
R
R
R
R
R
CSCF
I
u
Intelligent & Application Servers
IMS: IP Multimedia Subsystem
CSCF: Call State Control Function
R: IP Router/Switch
CSE WAP
•••
IP
Backbone
HSS
other
PLMN
R`5
TS 23.002
CSCF:
• Session Flow Handling
• Application Coordination
• interfaces IN/Application
Servers
• CDR`s
HSS:
• similar HLR
MGCF:
• MGW control
• Call Control
• Signalling Protocol
Conversion (SS7 to SIP)
UMTS Release 5 IMS & PS Domain
Fig. 18 UMTS Release 5 IMS & PS Domain
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To transport IMS signaling and user data, IMS entities use the bearer services
provided by the PS domain and the UTRAN. With some exceptions, the PS
domain and the UTRAN domain consider IMS signaling and IMS applications
flows as user data flows, thus minimizing the impact on existing architecture on
non-IMS entities. As part of the bearer services offered by the PS domain to the
IMS, the PS domain supports the handover functionality for maintaining the
service while the terminal changes the location.
IMS 5.0 Solution Overview
PLMN/PSTN Bearer
IP Bearer
IMS signaling
ISUP signaling
MAP
OAM
Subscriber Admin Billing&Accounting Network Mgmt
SIP AS IMS
“Access ”
Fixed Network WLAN Network PS -RAN
GSM / WLAN
RoHo
PDGW xGSN xDSL,cable
modem
CS -Domain
MSC
MGCF
(hiQ8000)
PSTN /
PLMN
Other IMS
Operator
Media
Proxy
MGW
(hiG1200)
CSCF/BGCF
MCF / BCF
(CFX -5000)
HSS/MCF
(CMS -8200)
PCRF
(PCS -5000)
(1,2)
(2) (1)
iNMC @COM
HLR
SMS -C
IP-PBX
Fig. 19 IMS 5.0 Overview
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The main entities of IMS are:
Proxy-Call State Control Function (P-CSCF): this is the first contact point of
IMS.It is located in the same network as the GGSN (visited or home network,
shown as being in the visited network in the figure). Its main task is to select
the I-CSCF of the Home Network of the user. It also performs some local
analysis e.g. number translation, QoS policing.
Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) is the main entry point of the home network: it
selects with the help of Home Subscriber Server (HSS) the appropriate
S-CSCF.
Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF): performs the actual Session Control. This function
handles the SIP requests, performs the appropriate actions e.g. requests the
home and visited networks to establish the bearers. It also forwards the
requests to the SCSCF/external IP network of other end user as applicable.
The S-CSCF might be specialized for the provisioning of a set of service or
even a single service.
Home Subscriber Server
Stores the IMS User Profiles including the User Identification, Addressing
information (Public-/Private User IDs, IMSI, MSISDN, ...), Service
Provisioning Information (Filter Criteria), User Mobility Information
(S-CSCF address), Charging Information (Charging Collection Function
(CCF) and Event Charging Function (ECF) address), Radius Parameters
(GCID, IP-address, SGSN-ID)
Provides support for User Authentication (AKA Authentication Vector)
and Mobility Control.
The HSS therefore retrieves information from the HLR and the SMS-C
via a MAP interface.
Provides Subscriber Self Administration (SSA) support
  
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Visited
Network
Home
Network
HSS
S-CSCF P-CSCF I-CSCF
Serving
•Session control services
•Registration
•AS interaction
•Charging etc.
Serving
•Session control services
•Registration
•AS interaction
•Charging etc.
Interrogation
•Access Point to Network
•Hides Topology &
Configuration
Interrogation
•Access Point to Network
•Hides Topology &
Configuration
Proxy
•First Point of Contact
•Privacy Control & QoS
Authorization
•Local Services: Emergency &
Local Numbering
Proxy
•First Point of Contact
•Privacy Control & QoS
Authorization
•Local Services: Emergency &
Local Numbering
Diameter Protocol
SIP Protocol
• Based upon an open standard
with a strong evolutionary
advantage
• IMS architecture & SIP may be
extended to provide for new
services
Application
Server
UE
Application
Server
Home Subscriber Server
•User Identification data
•Mobility Mgmt (S-CSCF)
•Authentication Data
•Charging Info
•Filter Criteria
Home Subscriber Server
•User Identification data
•Mobility Mgmt (S-CSCF)
•Authentication Data
•Charging Info
•Filter Criteria
IMS - Key Component Architecture
Fig. 20 IMS Key Component
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The IMS provides the benefits of:
IP transport in the core network
IP transport in UTRAN
End to end IP services
Simpler service integration due to simplified protocol stacks
Easy integration and enabling of instant messaging, presence information
and real time conversation services
Note further information is available in 3GPP specifications:
TS23.228
TS23.002
UMTS Release 6 Features
• IMS Services
• MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast
Service)
• WLAN interworking
• use WLAN as access network for IMS
instead of PS Domain
• MIMO ( Multiple -Input -Multiple -Ouput )
• Multiple antennas in UE and Node B /
spacial multiplexing
and many more …
Fig. 21 Release 6 Features
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1.5.3 High Speed Downlink Packet Access
UMTS was introduced to offer a wide range of different services. High data rates
and high flexibility was required from the UMTS Release 99 radio interface
solution. Nonetheless, the maximum data rate was limited to 2 Mbps. In terms of
high data rate transmitssion via the radio interface, especially in the pico cell
environments, competing technologies are arousing. The most prominent pico cell
high data rate wireless solution is Wireless LAN (WLAN), such as IEEE 802.11a,
IEEE 802.11b, and HyperLAN.
Already in UMTS Release 5, a technical innovation was introduced on the
WCDMA radio interface and its radio access network UTRAN to offer data rates
of up to 10 Mbps to individual subscribers: High Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA).
HSDPA was designed to offer high data rates for non-real time services. Only for
downlink, high data rates were enabled, to support services such as fast file
download, video streaming, and web-browsing.
A set of features are in use with HSDPA to improve the transmission on the radio
interface, such as
Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Antenna Processiong
Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
These techniques were already applied in other mobile communication systems.
For instance, AMC and HARQ are used in EDGE.
HSDPA is an enhancement of an existing, UMTS Release 99 solution: the
Downlink Share Channel: DSCH. As the name "downlink shared channel" already
indicates, several subscribers share the radio interface resource.
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Applied Techniques:
• Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)
• Hybrid – Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
• Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Antenna Processing
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
•Up to 10 Mbps
•Non real time data transfer
•Downlink
UMTS Release 5
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
Fig. 22 HSDPA
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1.5.4 The UMTS Evolution in Release 5
The UMTS Release 5 specifies additional features in UTRAN Architecture to
enhance previous UMTS releases. The most significant enhancements to the
UTRAN architecture introduced in Release 5 are described as the following
sections.
1.5.4.1 IP Transport in UTRAN
In previous releases, Release 99 and Release 4, ATM is solely used at the
transport layer in the various interfaces. The IP Transport in UTRAN feature is
provided to use IP at the transport layer in Iub, Iur, Iu-Ps and Iu-Cs interfaces as
an alternative to ATM.
In accordance with this alternative feature, protocols to transport Radio and
Signaling bearers can be carried over IP with different solutions: the user plane
UDP/IP protocols are used on Iub/Iur and RTP/UDP/IP protocols are used on
Iu-Cs for user plane, and SCTP protocol is used for the Iub control plane.
1.5.4.2 Intra Domain Connection of RAN Nodes to Multiple CN Nodes
(Iu Flex)
This feature introduces the capability to connect one RNC to more than one MSC
and to more than one SGSN. The main benefits of the Iu Flex (abbreviation from
the word “flexible”) are to provide load sharing between MSCs and between
SGSNs to improve the efficiency of hardware utilization further, and to increase
the possibility to anchor the MSC and SGSN in case of SRNS relocation.
1.5.4.3 Standalone Serving Mobile Location Centre (SAS) and
SMLC-SRNC Interface (Iu-pc)
Since location-based services are expected to be one of key services for 3G
mobile operators, UTRAN architecture includes a network element which is called
“Standalone Serving Mobile Location Centre (Standalone SMLC or SAS)” for
handling positioning measurements of mobile stations. In addition to the SAS, the
interface between SAS and the SRNC, Iu-pc, is specified as an open interface.
The Iupc interface is used to forward UE Positioning assistance information to
UEs and to receive UE Positioning measurement data from the RNC. The SAS
and Iupc interface are optional elements, since SMLC functionality can be
integrated in the RNC.
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1.5.4.4 GERAN/UTRAN Interface Evolution and the Iur-g Interface
GERAN/UTRAN Interface Evolution allows the GSM/EDGE Ratio Access Network
(GERAN) to connect to Core Network through different interfaces, A, Gb, Iu-cs
and Iu-ps. The GERAN/UTRAN Interface Evolution work item provides the
requirements on Iu-cs and Iu-ps from GERAN perspective and requires some
modification on both interfaces to cover GERAN specific issues.
The Iur-g interface is the logical interface between two BSSs or a BSC and an
RNC. It provides capability to support radio interface mobility between BSSs or
between a BSS and an RNS of UEs having a connection with the GERAN or the
UTRAN. This capability includes the support of paging, cell update, registration
area update and handover between BSSs or between a BSS and a RNS.
Furthermore, the Iur-g interface allows information exchange between two BSSs
or between a BSS and RNS.
* e.g. Authentication, Authori zation ,
Cipher & Integrity Start
Main
VLR
tasks:
• storing Subscriber profiles
• Mobility Management
• storing Location Information
• controlling
Security Features*
for all UEs in MSC Area
VLR as „MSCs Data Base “:
• Subscriber Profile,
e.g. IMSI, MSISDN,
Services (TS, BS, SS),..
• Temporary Subscriber Data
e.g. LMSI, TMSI, MSRN,
Security Parameter,
Location Information,
IMSI attach/detach,..
Visitor Location Register VLR
VLR
MSC
B
HLR
D • Location Updates
• Subscriber Profiles → VLR
• Security Parameter
(via HLR → VLR)
• Interrogation
(MSRN via HLR to GMSC)
• Location Updates
• Subscriber Profiles → VLR
• Security Parameter
(via HLR → VLR)
• Interrogation
(MSRN via HLR to GMSC)
AuC
TS: Tele Services
BS: Bearer Services
SS: Supplementary Services
MSRN: Mobile Station Roaming Number
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
LMSI: Local Mobile Subscriber Identity
TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
Fig. 23 Visitor Locatin Register
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1.6 The UMTS Release 6 Overview
Release 6 is an enhancement of earlier 3GPP releases, aiming to bring mobile
users a complete 3G experience. 3GPP Release 6 includes numerous new
features, among them being High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), the
second phase of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), inter-working with Wireless
Local Area Networks (WLAN), Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS),
and Enablers for Push to Talk.
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (E-DCH or HSUPA) will complement the High
Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) for a rich, two-way, interactive wireless
broadband user experience. HSUPA and HSDPA together will enable
symmetrical data communications at a high speed, supporting multimedia, Voice
over IP etc.
The second phase of IMS comprises all the core network elements for offering
multimedia services. IMS makes it possible for operators to offer mobile users
multimedia services using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). SIP enables mobile
users to use services based on Internet applications. In Release 6, IMS is
developed to support inter-working with circuit-switched networks, non-IMS
networks and 3GPP2 based CDMA systems.
Release 6 also defines inter-working with Wireless Local Area Networks
(WLANs). The inter-working is defined in a very flexible way, enabling different
multi-radio scenarios. Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) makes it
possible to efficiently distribute multimedia content to multiple recipients. Such
content could be for example video or music clips. Conversational services such
as Push to talk are also specified in Release 6, together with the Open Mobile
Alliance (OMA).
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UMTS Release 6 Features
• IMS Services
• MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast
Service)
• WLAN interworking
• use WLAN as access network for IMS
instead of PS Domain
• MIMO ( Multiple -Input -Multiple -Ouput )
• Multiple antennas in UE and Node B /
spacial multiplexing
and many more …
Fig. 24 UMTS Release 6 Features
• IMS Messaging
– SIP -based messaging
– Interworks with Presence Service
• Multiparty -multimedia conferencing Service in IMS
• Push -to-talk
• Location -based services in IMS
UTMS Rel 6: IMS Services
Fig. 25 UMTS Rel 6: IMS Services
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1.6.1 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
One key feature targeted for 3GPP Rel’6 is the Multimedia Broadcast Multicast
Service (MBMS) feature, which defines capabilities to address the same
information to many users in one cell using the same radio resources. The MBMS
is a unidirectional point-to-multipoint service in which data is transmitted from a
single source entity to multiple recipients. Transmitting the same data to multiple
recipients allows network resources to be shared. By this, the MBMS architecture
enables the efficient usage of radio network and core-network resources, with an
emphasis on radio interface efficiency. MBMS is provided over a broadcast or
multicast service area which can cover the whole network or be a small
geographical area such as a shopping mall or sports stadium allowing for region
specific content distribution.
• Application server submits multicast / broadcast data via Gi
interface
– May be BMCS ( Broadcast Multicast Service Center ), or e. g. MRF
– Multicast effective especially on air interface
• Control channel via Gmb interface
– Authorisation , sending encryption keys , …
– Network resource configuration
• In multicast mode , data is transmitted only to cells with UEs that
joined the service
UTMS Rel 6: Multimedia Broadcast and
Multicast Service (MBMS)
Fig. 26 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
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1.6.2 WLAN Interworking
WLAN operated either by 3GPP operator or by 3rd party. 6 scenarios are defined
as the following:
Scenario 1: Common billing and customer care (Receive only one bill)
Scenario 2: Common access control (authentication and authorisation) using
a (U)SIM
based solution and charging
Scenario 3: Access to all 3GPP packet-switched services (e.g., IMS, Push
etc.) and services like SMS or MMS
Scenario 4: Service continuity between different accesses like WLAN and
UTRAN (i.e.service must not be set-up again, if access technology is
changed)
Scenario 5: Seamless mobility between WLAN and 3GPP access networks
Scenario 6: Seamless handover even for CS services
In Rel6, only scenarios 1-3 are supported
• Architecture for supporting authentication , authorization and
charging for scenarios 1 and 2
• AAA Server is an IETF -standardized entity doing “authentication ,
authorization , accounting ”
• AAA Server receives data from HSS / HLR
• WLAN UEs
– multihomed with WLAN and 3GPP access capability
– Contain USIM
• USIM in WLAN UE allows using 3GPP subscription
UTMS Rel 6: WLAN Interworking 1/2
Fig. 27 WLAN Interworking
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• Architecture for supporting access to 3GPP
packetswitched services for scenarios 3
UTMS Rel 6: WLAN Interworking 2/2
Fig. 28 WLAN Interworking
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1.7 Long Term Evolution
3GPP works on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started with the RAN
Evolution Work Shop, 2-3 November 2004 in Toronto, Canada. The Work shop
was open to all interested organizations, members and non members of 3GPP.
Operators, manufacturers and research institutes presented more than 40
contributions with view and proposals on the evolution of the Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN).
A Set of high level requirement was identified in the Work Shop:
Reduce cost per bit
Increased service provisioning – more services at lower cost with better user
experience
Flexibility of use existing and new frequency bands
Simplified architecture, Open interfaces
Allow for reasonable terminal power consumption
It was also recommended that the Evolved UTRAN should bring significant
improvements to justify the standardization effort and it should avoid unnecessary
options. On certain aspects, the collaboration with 3GPP SA WGs was found to
be essential: the new split between the Access Network and the Core Network,
and the characteristics of the throughput that new services would require
demanded close architecture coordination.
With the conclusion of this Work Shop and with broad support from 3GPP
members, a feasibility study on the UTRA & UTRAN Long Term Evolution
(LTE) was started in December 2004. The objective was “to develop a frame
work for the evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology toward a
high-data-rate, low-latency and packet-optimized radio-access technology”. The
study focused on supporting services provided from the PS domain, involving:
Related to the radio-interface physical layer (downlink and uplink):e.g. means
to support flexible transmission bandwidth up to 20 MHz, introduction of new
transmission schemes and advanced multi-antenna technologies.
Related to the radio interface layer 2 and 3:e.g. signaling optimization
Related to the UTRAN architecture: e.g. identify the optimum UTRAN
network architecture and functional split between RAN network nodes.
In addition, the Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) initiative, led by seven
network operators provided a set of recommendations for the creation of
networks suitable for the competitive delivery of mobile broadband services. The
NGMN goal is “to provide a coherent vision for technology evolution beyond 3G
for the competitive delivery of broadband wireless services”.
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The NGMN long-term objective is “to establish clear performance targets,
fundamental recommendations and deployment scenarios for a future wide area
mobile broadband network”. In a white paper (March 2006), they provided relative
priorities of key system characteristics, System recommendations and detailed
requirements.
The way: Macro -Level Network Architecture in 2012
4G /
Multi -Hop
eNode
B
UTRAN -Evolution
(LTE)
UTRAN UTRAN - -Evolution Evolution
(LTE) (LTE)
Broadband
Wireless
Access
Broadband Broadband
Wireless Wireless
Access Access
WLAN
AP
WiMAX
BS
UTRAN UTRAN UTRAN
GERAN GERAN GERAN
Legacy CS
domain
Common Data
Repository Policy
Directory
User Profiles
Service Enabler, e.g.
charging, LBS
Applications
PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network
PSTN - Public Switched Telephony Network
LBS – Location Based Services
MGW – Media Gateway
xDSL xDSL xDSL
PSTN
PLMN
other
PLMN
Internet
Intranet
IMS
Common
Session Control
Supports:
Multicast
Handover
(Vertical)
QoS for
RT Services
MGW
eGSN
AP – Access Point
BS – Base Station
CS – Circuit Switched
IMS – IP based Multimedia Subsystem
eGSN – enhanced GPRS Support Node
Unified IP (IPV6)
Multimedia
Network
DVB -x DVB DVB - -x x
2G, 2,5G
and 3G, 3,5G
RAN
4G (LTE)
RAN
WLAN, WiMAX
RAN
DSL
Access
Digital
TV
Subscriber:
1 identity number
e.g. MSISDN, SIP/IP Address, PIN
for all Access Technologies
Fig. 29 Macro-Level Network Architecture in 2012
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1.7.1 System Architecture Evolution
SA WG2 started its own Study for the System Architecture Evolution (SAE)
whose objective is “to develop a framework for an evolution or migration of the
3GPP system to a higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet-optimized system that
supports, multiple RATs. The focus of this work is on the PS domain with the
assumption that voice services are supported in this domain”. SA2’s SAE work is
conducted under Work Item “3GPP system architectural evolution”, approved in
December 2004. It was initiated when it became clear that the future was clearly
IP with everything (the “All-IP” network, AIPN –see TS 22.978), and that access
to the 3GPP network would ultimately be not only via UTRAN or GERAN but by
WiFi, WiMAX, or even wired technologies. Thus SAE has as its main objectives:
Impact on overall architecture resulting from RAN’s LTE work.
Impact on overall architecture resulting from SA1’s AIPN work.
Overall architecture aspects resulting from the need to support mobility
between heterogeneous access networks.
The figure below shows the evolved system architecture, possibly relying on
different access technologies.
New reference points have been defined:
S1: It provides access to Evolved RAN radio resources for the transport of user
plane and control plane traffic. The S1 reference point shall enable MME and
UPE separation and also deployments of a combined MME and UPE solution.
S2a: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between
a trusted on 3GPP IP access and the SAE Anchor.
S2b: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between
ePDG and the SAE Anchor.
S3: It enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access
system mobility in idle and/or active state. It is based on Gn reference point as
defined between SGSNs.User data forwarding for inter 3GPP access system
mobility in active state (FFS).
S4: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between
GPRS Core and the 3GPP Anchor and is based on Gn reference point as
defined between SGSN and GGSN.
S5a: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between
MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor. It is FFS whether a standardized S5a exists or
whether MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor are combined into one entity.
S5b: It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between
3GPP anchor and SAE anchor. It is FFS whether a standardized S5b exists or
whether 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor are combined into one entity.
S6: It enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for
authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface).
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S7: It provided transfer of QoS policy and charging rules from Policy and
Charging Rule Function (PCRF) to Policy and Charging Enforcement
Point(PCEP). The allocation of the PCEP is FFS.
SGi: It is the reference point between the Inter AS Anchor and the packet data
network. Packet data network may be an operator external public or private
packet data network or an intra operator packet data network, e.g. for provision of
IMS services. This reference point corresponds to Gi and Wi functionalities and
supports any 3GPP and non-3GPP access systems.
The interface between the SGSN in 2G/3G Core Network and Evolved Packet
Core (EPC) will be based on the GTP protocol. The interface between the SAE
MME/UPE and the 2G/3G Core Network will be based on the GTP protocol.
ePDG
Evolved Packet
Core
GPRS Core
Trusted non 3GPP IP
Access
WLAN
3GPP IP
Access
S2b
WLAN
Access NW
S5b
IASA
S5a
SAE
Anchor
3GPP
Anchor
S4
SGi
Evolved RAN
S1
Op.
IP
Serv .
(IMS,
PSS,
etc …)
Rx+
GERAN
UTRAN
Gb
Iu
S3
MME
UPE
HSS
PCRF
S7
S6
SGSN
S2a
LTE System Architecture Evolution
Fig. 30 LTE System Architecture Evolution
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1.8 Appendix
Note: This appendix is mainly provided for self-study.
In UMTS Release 99, the main focus lay on the access part of the network,
UTRAN, and the WCDMA solution for UMTS. On the core network side, the aim
was to minimise changes and utilise the existing GSM/GPRS network elements
and functions as much as possible.
In 2000, the 3GPP wanted to introduce a new core network solution. It is
generally referred to as “All IP CN” solution. Due to the huge amount of problems
in the specification process, new core network features, but also new radio
access network features were – and will be – introduced from the year 2001
onward in annul releases.
The first release following UMTS Release 99 was UMTS Release 4. It was frozen
in March 2001. Among other things, following aspects were specified:
• Low chip rate TDD mode (a 1.6 MHz TDD mode for Asia)
• UTRA repeater
• Node B synchronization
• Transcoder free operation
• QoS architecture for PS-domain
• Bearer independent circuit switched core network architecture
• Multimedia Messaging Service
• MExE, OSA, and LCS enhancements.
The core network evolution was especially affected by the “bearer independent
CS core network architecture”. Its concept is outlined below.
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
Which of the following elements are not part of the UMTS network?
HLR/AC
MSC
EIR
BSC
OMC
SMS-SC
GGSN
Exercise 2
What are the main tasks of a 3G MSC? (Choose two)
Switching of CS traffic
Call Setup & Release
Storing the User Equipments location
Charging
Generating Security Paramter
Exercise 3
Which of the following information is not kept on the SIM?
IMSI number
SMS messages
Network information (that is, location area)
Time and date
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Exercise 4
Which of the following alternatives include radio access specifications (Choose
three)?
GSM
IP
EDGE
UTRAN
Exercise 5
Which of the following alternatives are NOT functions of the base station?
(Choose two)
Speech coding
Transmission of signal
Modulation
Charging data generation
Exercise 6
Batteries are used at a site as an alternative source of energy for the BTS in
case of a power failure.
TRUE
FALSE
Exercise 7
If we say that the BTS is a 2+2+2, what does it mean?
There are 3 locations where we can find 2 sites.
A single site is divided into 3 cells, each with 2 TRXs/carriers.
A single site is divided into 2 cells, each with 3 TRXs/carriers.
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A TRX/carrier is divided into 3 time slots
Exercise 8
The Iur interface is used between two RNCs. What is the purpose of this
interface?
There is no use for this interface.
It is used for soft handovers.
It is used to transfer software files.
It is used when a RNC has a hardware failure.
Exercise 9
Which of the following network elements is not part of UTRAN?
RNC
Node B
IWF
VLR
Exercise 10
The Iur-interface is used between two RNCs. What is the purpose of this
interface?
There is no use for this interface.
It is used for soft handovers.
It is used to transfer software files.
It is used when a RNC has a hardware failure
Exercise 11
Which of the following is a new Release 4 element?
Media Gateway
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Home Location Register
Gateway GPRS Support Node
Base Transceiver Station
Exercise 12
Which of the following sentences are NOT true?
MGW for 3G-MSC contains the transcoding function.
Uplink peak data rates of HSPDA can be as high as 14 Kbps.
The existing MSC, HLR will support 3G by SW upgrade.
GGSN will be compatible to both 2G and 3G-GPRS network elements by
minor SW and HW upgrade.
Exercise 13
Which of the following network elements are new in Release 5?
Media Gateway MGW
Media Gateway Control Function MGCF
Call State Control Function CSCF
MSC Server
Home Subscriber Server HSS
Exercise 14
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
Which of the following elements are not part of the UMTS network?
HLR/AC
MSC
EIR
BSC
OMC
SMS-SC
GGSN
Exercise 2 (Solution)
What are the main tasks of a 3G MSC? (Choose two)
Switching of CS traffic
Call Setup & Release
Storing the User Equipments location
Charging
Generating Security Paramter
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which of the following information is not kept on the SIM?
IMSI number
SMS messages
Network information (that is, location area)
Time and date
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Exercise 4 (Solution)
Which of the following alternatives include radio access specifications (Choose
three)?
GSM
IP
EDGE
UTRAN
Exercise 5 (Solution)
Which of the following alternatives are NOT functions of the base station?
(Choose two)
Speech coding
Transmission of signal
Modulation
Charging data generation
Exercise 6 (Solution)
Batteries are used at a site as an alternative source of energy for the BTS in
case of a power failure.
TRUE
FALSE
Exercise 7 (Solution)
If we say that the BTS is a 2+2+2, what does it mean?
There are 3 locations where we can find 2 sites.
A single site is divided into 3 cells, each with 2 TRXs/carriers.
A single site is divided into 2 cells, each with 3 TRXs/carriers.
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A TRX/carrier is divided into 3 time slots
Exercise 8 (Solution)
The Iur interface is used between two RNCs. What is the purpose of this
interface?
There is no use for this interface.
It is used for soft handovers.
It is used to transfer software files.
It is used when a RNC has a hardware failure.
Exercise 9 (Solution)
Which of the following network elements is not part of UTRAN?
RNC
Node B
IWF
VLR
Exercise 10 (Solution)
The Iur-interface is used between two RNCs. What is the purpose of this
interface?
There is no use for this interface.
It is used for soft handovers.
It is used to transfer software files.
It is used when a RNC has a hardware failure
Exercise 11 (Solution)
Which of the following is a new Release 4 element?
Media Gateway
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Home Location Register
Gateway GPRS Support Node
Base Transceiver Station
Exercise 12 (Solution)
Which of the following sentences are NOT true?
MGW for 3G-MSC contains the transcoding function.
Uplink peak data rates of HSPDA can be as high as 14 Kbps.
The existing MSC, HLR will support 3G by SW upgrade.
GGSN will be compatible to both 2G and 3G-GPRS network elements by
minor SW and HW upgrade.
Exercise 13 (Solution)
Which of the following network elements are new in Release 5?
Media Gateway MGW
Media Gateway Control Function MGCF
Call State Control Function CSCF
MSC Server
Home Subscriber Server HSS
Exercise 14 (Solution)
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Principles of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
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Principles of UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access
(UTRA)
Contents
1 Principles of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).......................... 2
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................2
1.2 Understand The Terms Carrier, Spreading And Power
Density In UMTS.........................................................................................3
1.3 Principles of Radio Duplex........................................................................ 15
1.4 The Structure of the UMTS Air Interface.................................................. 17
1.5 UMTS Channel Structure.......................................................................... 31
1.6 The Key Functions and tasks in Radio Resource
Management..............................................................................................37
1.7 List the Roles of Radio Resource Management on Network................... 43
1.8 Multi Carrier CDMA / UTRA / Time Division - Synchronous
CDMA........................................................................................................68
1.9 High Speed Downlink Packet Access and High Speed
Uplink Packet Access................................................................................72
1.10 Appendix....................................................................................................81
2 Exercises..................................................................................................84
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................90
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1 Principles of UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access
(UTRA)
1.1 Module Objectives
The objective of this module is to give the participant the introductory knowledge
needed for explaining UMTS radio and transmission path. The topics to be
covered include identifying the concepts of the radio path and basic WCDMA
terminology. It also covers how the UMTS functions and the radio resources
managed.
After completing this module, the participants should be able to:
Identify Radio Path Basics, WCDMA Basic Theory, and Spreading.
Identify Power, Frequency Division Duplex, Time Division Duplex, and Cell
Characteristics.
Identify Scrambling Code and Channelisation Code.
Identify the Structure of the UMTS air Interface, Modulation, Transport,
Physical and Logical channels.
Identify the Functions and Tasks in Radio Resource Management like
Admission Control, Power Control, and Handover.
Explain the High Speed Downlink Packet Access and High Speed Uplink
Packet Access.
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1.2 Understand The Terms Carrier, Spreading
And Power Density In UMTS
1.2.1 Multiple Access Method
A mobile system uses air connection in the radio spectrum to facilitate
communication. Unlike a traditional fixed telephone system, it does not have a
fixed link between the terminal and the network. When a subscriber makes a call
or when he need to radio signal information from a terminal, a temporary
connection is made through the air between the terminal and the mobile network.
As mobile systems have developed, different radio transmission techniques were
devised to facilitate air connection through the radio spectrum. These techniques
aimed to enable maximum users to share the same space in the radio spectrum.
At the same time, they aimed to ensure quality, coverage, and security of
communication between the users.
The first generation of the mobile systems used the Frequency Division Multiple
Access (FDMA) technique. In this technique, the radio spectrum is divided into a
fixed number of channels on different frequencies and of a fixed bandwidth.
Figure 1 shows the division of the radio spectrum in the case of FDMA:
Fig. 1 Radio Spectrum Division in FDMA
In an FDMA mobile system, if a subscriber wants to make a call, the mobile
system allocates the mobile a channel at a particular frequency. During this
period, the subscriber is the sole user of the channel. After the call is complete,
the channel is released and given to the next subscriber wishing to make a call.
As systems evolved from analogue to digital, the same frequency could be
shared by many users. This lead to the evolution of 2G mobile systems that used
the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique. In a TDMA mobile system,
each channel at a particular frequency is divided into timeslots. As a result,
multiple subscribers can use the same frequency to communicate.
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Figure 2 describes the division of the radio spectrum in the case of TDMA:
Fig. 2 Radio Spectrum Division in TDMA
Apart from TDMA, some 2G mobile systems also use another technique called
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).
In CDMA, the subscribers share the same frequency and time, but are separated
by codes. CDMA technique evolved into a 3G technique known as Wideband
CDMA (WCDMA). In WCDMA, the radio spectrum is split into channels. Each
channel carries several users of variable size, separated by a code.
CDMA can be compared to a room with people speaking different languages. Let
us imagine that a corporate CEO is hosting a large multinational gathering. Our
host, having mastered many languages, is primarily the one making the
conversation. Our host demands that his guests speak in their native tongues.
Our host, a true mediator, is able to interpret the conversations between guests if
they wish to talk with each other; he can fluently follow several conversations at
the same time. He can understand different speakers, all talking at the same
time, because they speak in different languages. He occasionally has to tell some
guests, who tend to get carried away, to speak a little softer; and he has to ask
the soft speakers to talk more loudly so that he can hear them better.
The party starts to mature and many more guests arrive. The overall volume
begins to rise, because there are more people speaking at the same time. The
host asks the guests nearest to him to speak more softly, while he asks the ones
further away to please speak up.
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Figure 3 illustrates the CEO theory of CDMA:
Fig. 3 The party hosted by a CEO is used explain the CDMA
CDMA functions are much like our party. The CEO hosting the party is our Base
Station (BS) and the guests are the Mobile Stations (MS). The different
languages correspond to codes in a CDMA system. The BS can tell the mobiles
apart, even though they are transmitting at the same time, by the codes that they
use.
Figure 4 illustrates in CDMA how channels occur in the same frequency and time:
Fig. 4 CDMA Technique
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The number of subscribers who share the same frequency are limited by the
number of codes, and also by the amount of interference in the region of
coverage called a cell. Also, the subscriber may use variable bit rates to transfer
data. Such subscribers need more frequency to transfer data.
Technically, each subscriber in WCDMA or channel, as this includes signaling is
separated by a code. When a mobile terminal is listening to many base stations,
it can detect between them, since each cell has its own unique code.
Similarly, when a base station is listening to mobile stations, it can detect different
subscribers (channels) through a unique code. In WCDMA, the spectrum is split
into channels. Each channel carries several users of variable size, separated by a
code.
You will next learn about the theory behind the WCDMA technique in detail. The
number of users able to share the same space is limited by the number of codes,
and also by the amount of interference in the cell ( region of coverage). Also, the
user may have variable bit rates. This means that some users need more space
to transfer information quicker than others do.
1.2.2 WCDMA - Basic Theory
The theory behind WCDMA can be made easier by understanding the
relationship between the frequency, power, and spreading (≈transmission time of
one bit/symbol).
Assume that a base station needs to send a block of data to a mobile. This block
of data could be in any form, such as speech, video, packet data or signalling.
For the purpose of this discussion, you can assume the data to be of a fixed
volume (not size). The amount of the power needed to transmit this block of data
can be reduced by spreading it along a wide frequency band. To understand this,
consider the analogy of spreading topping on a cake. By using a knife, the
topping is spread to cover the whole surface area of the cake. The bigger the
surface of the cake, the better you are able to spread the topping.
By spreading data more over the frequency bandwidth, the power required to
transmit data is reduced. This enables mobile systems to allow more subscribers
to share the same frequency bandwidth. Compare this to a big room with a lot of
people. If everybody would whisper, indicating lower power requirement, more
people would be able to maintain the conversation. If, on the other hand, people
would talk loud, indicating higher power requirement, less number of people
would be able to maintain their conversation due to the interference from
difference conversations.
In WCDMA, the frequency bandwidth is fixed between 4.4 - 5 MHz by
specifications. However, the power and the spreading factor are variable. The
spreading factor indicates the degree to which the data can be spread over the
fixed frequency band.
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Figure 5 explains the relationship between frequency, power, and spreading
factor:
Fig. 5 Relationship between Frequency, Power, and Spreading Factor
Considering figure 5, assume that the block is a variable; Its volume is constant,
only the sizes of the edges change. Therefore, you can calculate the volume as
follows:
Volume of block = L X B X H
Here, length is the frequency band which is constant for WCDMA as 5 MHz
breadth is the spreading factor and height is the power. The volume of the block
is constant before and after transmission of the data. For example, if it is 100
before transmission it has be 100 after receiving the data. Therefore, you can
conclude:
100 = 5 X B X H
Since length, which is the frequency band is constant; either spreading factor or
the power can vary. If spreading factor is low, then the power is high. Similarly, if
the power is low, then the spreading factor is high.
The spreading factor and hence the power depend on the bit rate of the data.
The spreading factor is high for data with lower bit rate and low for data with high
bit rate. Therefore, the power and spreading factor will be different for a video call
that has a high bit rate with only small delays allowed as compared to Internet
access that has lower bit rate with comparatively longer delays acceptable.
Therefore, each subscriber has a different needs, depending on which service
she/he uses. In addition, each subscriber needs minimal interference from other
subscribers.
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Figure 6 shows how the needs of the subscribers are achieved by applying
different codes:
Fig. 6 Variable 'Slices' Allocated to Users
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1.2.3 Overview of the UMTS Air Interface (Uu)
Figure 7 illustrates the process of preparing data and signaling for the UMTS Air
Interface:
Fig. 7 Preparing the Data and Signaling for the UMTS Air Interface
Table 1 describes the process of preparing data and signaling for the UMTS Air
Interface:
  
1.    Data and signaling are made ready for transmission by the terminal. The
terminal is a platform with different applications, such as video, voice, and Internet
access, running on it. These applications serve the data to be transmitted over a
mobile system’s network. Apart from application data that is transmitted from the
terminal over the network, the network must also exchange signaling messages with
the terminals in order to control the activities of the terminal, such as instance
location and connection management.
2.    The signaling and data are fed through the network on logical channels. Different
channels are used for different purposes. The content of the logical channels is
mapped into physical channels with the help of transport channels. In the air
interface, different physical channels are used to carry different kind of information.
Also, channel coding is performed to support error correction.
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3.    As part of the coding process in WCDMA, the data is spread along the
spectrum, and combined with a channelisation code, which is used to determine
different physical channels and a unique scrambling code.
4.    The process of modulation, in which the coded data is converted from digital to
analogue, is applied to the data and signaling. The data is transmitted over the air
interface.
5.    The receiving signal is reconstructed by the terminal and base station by
collecting the circulating radio waves, reapplying the codes, and removing the
error-correction coding. The receiver used in WCDMA is called the RAKE receiver
(RAKE = collect).
Table 1 the process of preparing data and signaling for the UMTS Air Interface
Steps when transmitting data or signalling from a User Equipment:
The data is in a format that can be used by an application.
The data is fed from a logical channel, via a transport channel onto a
physical channel.
The data in the physical channel is spread along the spectrum with a
channelisation code, and combined with a scrambling code.
Finally, the data is modulated onto the air interface.
When subscriber data is received at Base Transceiver Station (BTS), follwoing
three steps are performed at BTS:
1. De-modulation is done (analogue to digital conversion). Also, the RAKE
receiver contributes to a reception with less bit errors by enabling the
summing up of signals that have taken different paths in the air interface
(micro diversity).
2. By using the same scrambling and channelisation codes as on the
transmitting side, the receiving part is able to reconstruct the physical
channel information.
3. The channel coding is removed, and the data is forwarded towards the
correct destination network (packet or circuit switched core network) on the
appropriate logical channel.
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1.2.4 Modulation
To transmit the data or signaling information, the user data and signaling
information are manipulated, for example, by adding redundancy and applying
interleaving. Then, the coded data is ready for transmission as a radio wave.
Figure 8 describes method to convert the coded data to an analog radio wave,
modulation is applied to the coded data as highlighted:
Fig. 8 Modulation of Coded Data For Transmission
Modulation is the process to transform binary data into an analogue signal at a
certain frequency that corresponds with the carrier bandwidth. There are several
different types of modulation methods. In GSM, Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
(GMSK) modulation method is used.
In Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) both GMSK and 8 Phase
Shift Keying (8-PSK) modulation methods can be used. In UMTS, the Quadrature
Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation method is used. The common feature
among along the modulation methods is that they have predefined shapes for bit
changes.
However, each method shifts a different number of bits at a time. For example,
GMSK shifts one bit at the time, QPSK shifts two bits at the time, and 8-PSK
shifts three bits at a time.
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Figure 9 shows the basic idea with QPSK modulation, which is used in WCDMA:
Fig. 9 Modulation with QPSK
The chips are hence modulated into a signal, which is to be transmitted on the air
interface. The name QPSK means that there are four possible phase shifts. As
the phase of the signal changes angle, this results in a 00, 10, 00, 01 signal. The
receiver is able to reconstruct the signal by monitoring the changes in phase.
QPSK is as such used for downlink. For uplink, a smooth and somewhat dirty
variation of the QPSK method, called Offset QPSK (OQPSK), is applied. If a
signal changes in QPSK, the transmitter changes directly to one of the four
possible phases. When OQPSK is applied, the change from on phase to the next
is done with intermediate steps. This reduces the requirements in the transmitter
equipment, which makes it lighter and less expensive, as is required for the MS.
The Release 5 feature High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a
packet-based data service in WCDMA downlink with higher data transmission
rates. In good conditions up to 8-10 Mbps in downlink is possible. Data users
close to the Node-B can be assigned higher order modulation with higher code
rates, such as 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM).
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The Figure 10 describes how channelisation codes and scrambling codes, are
used in WCDMA:
Fig. 10 Channelisation codes and scrambling codes
There are several related concepts that need further attention, such as chip,
symbol, and spreading factor. First of all, however, we will define our physical
resource for air interface transmission, the WCDMA carrier.
1.2.5 The WCDMA Carrier
There are several bandwidths defined for the WCDMA, such as 5, 10, and 20
MHz. Nowadays, the 5 MHz is the most commonly used bandwidth. The 10 and
20 MHz alternatives will provide more capacity, but the occupancies occurring in
the desired frequency band set some limits. For example, there may be problems
to implement the whole frequency band in several countries. The effective
bandwidth for WCDMA is 3.84 MHz, and with guard bands the required
bandwidth is 5 MHz. The guard bands are needed to reduce the interference
between different 5 MHz WCDMA carriers.
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Figure 11 shows the WCDMA carrier:
Fig. 11 A WCDMA Carrier In One Direction
The 3.84 MHz bandwidth in WCDMA is a wider bandwidth available in WCDMA
as compared to 1.25 MHz in CDMA and hence the name Wideband CDMA.
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1.3 Principles of Radio Duplex
1.3.1 UMTS Frame Structure
The transmission of data in a cell between base stations and mobile stations
requires coordination in two aspects. Firstly, during a typical full duplex
transmission, the two transmission directions, uplink and downlink, between a
mobile station and the base station must be coordinated. Secondly, the
transmission between the different mobile stations of a cell and the base station
must be coordinated. Two duplex methods, FDD and TDD, are used for
coordinating the former aspect. Three multiple access methods FDMA, TDMA,
and CDMA are used for coordinating the latter aspect.
1.3.2 Duplex Transmission: FDD and TDD
Two duplex methods, Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division
Duplex (TDD), are used for coordinating the Uplink (UL) and Downlink (DL)
components of a transmission between a base station and a mobile station.
Generally the DL frequency band is positioned at the higher frequency than the
UL band.
In FDD, two separate bands are allocated for transmisssion. One is for uplink
transmission from the UE to the BTS, and the second is for downlink
transmission from the BTS to the UE.
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Figure 12 shows each band is specified to be 5 MHz and is separated by 190
MHz:
Fig. 12 Downlink and Uplink Bandwidth in FDD
In FDD, the users share the same frequency in both transmission directions. The
first terminals and networks will support FDD.
In TDD, one band is divided into timeslots. The bandwidth is the same at 5 MHz.
Instead of separate bands for uplink and downlink, users are allocated to
timeslots.
Figure 13 describes the Downlink and Uplink Bandwidth in TDD:
Fig. 13 Downlink and Uplink Bandwidth in TDD
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1.4 The Structure of the UMTS Air Interface
The structure of the air interface is quite complex. This chapter starts with an
overview of the air interface, the "big picture". It is based on the UMTS-
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)implementation. After the overview, we will
break up this model and explain the main parts more in detail. The specifications
dictate how the information is transferred on the physical interface, including
issues like how the data is coded, transmitted, and received on the air interface.
These specifications must be supported by the Node B, the Radio Network
Controller (RNC), and the User Equipment (UE). The aim is to divide the
responsibilities of the RNC and the Node B as much as possible, which may then
enable an open Iub interface (Node B-RNC).
The terminal is a platform with different applications such as video, voice, and
Internet access running on top of it. We can class this as data. The network must
also exchange signalling messages with the terminals in order to control the
activities of the terminal such as location and connection management.
1.4.1 CDMA Sequencing – A Way to Spread Information
CDMA sequencing refers to how the data to be transmitted over the radio path
with CDMA technology is spread over the defined frequency band. The following
two techniques can be used for CDMA sequencing:
1. Frequency Hopping (FH) Sequencing – In this technique the information to
be transmitted is located in different parts of the frequency band as a function
of time, according to a certain hopping sequence.
2. Direct Sequencing (DS) - In case of DS, the information to be transferred is
spread all over the defined frequency band as a function of time, and it
appears similar to background noise.
Figure 14 shows the two CDMA sequencing techniques:
Fig. 14 CDMA Sequencing Techniques
The 3G-wideband radio access will use the DS technique.
The DS-WCDMA-FDD also requires a certain timing structure, but it is not used
as in GSM. The basic DS-WCDMA-FDD frame.
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Figure 15 describes the DS-WCDMA-FDD Frame:
Fig. 15 DS-WCDMA-FDD Frame
One basic frame is divided into 15 slots, with each slot measuring 2/3 ms in
length. Therefore, the frame length is 10 ms. This timing structure is mainly
required for the synchronization signal arrangements and does not impact the
channelization. In addition, every WCDMA frame is numbered by the System
Frame Number (SFN) according to the 3GPP Specifications. This has been done
to ensure the inter-operability between GSM and WCDMA, particularly the
inter-system handover.
1.4.2 Codes - What and why?
A code is a specific sequence of bits applied to data to scramble it. When the
receiving end is monitoring the air interface, it should be possible to retrieve the
original data by applying the same code to the coded data. Therefore, the same
code must be applied, both, at the transmitting and the receiving end.
The WCDMA system uses several codes. In theory, one type of a code should be
enough. But, in practice, the radio path physical characteristics require that the
WCDMA system should use different codes for different purposes.
In WCDMA, two kinds of codes are available, channelisation codes and
scrambling codes.
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Table 2 shows the usage of these codes:
  
Channelization code Scrambling code
Usage
  
  
  
  
Uplink: Separation of
physical data and control
channels from the same
terminal
Downlink: Separation of
downlink dedicated user
channels
Uplink: Separation of
terminals
Downlink: Separation of
sectors or cells
  
  
Length Variable depending on the
user allocation
Fixed
Number of codes
  
Depends on the spreading
factor (SF)
  
Uplink: Several millions
Downlink: 512
Table 2. Properties of Channelization and Scrambling Codes
Figure 16 shows the difference between the channelization and scrambling codes:
Fig. 16 Difference between Scrambling and Channelization Codes
For example, in a radio network each cell is separated by a code. This is roughly
comparable to the frequency division method used in GSM. In UMTS, the Primary
scrambling code differentiates between different cells. However, as a cell contains
physical channels, the channelization code is applied to enable terminals to
identify the channel that they are listening to. Several calls can take place at the
same time, in the same cell, on the same carrier frequency band. The individual
connections are separated at the receiver’s side by the code. A physical
channel in the UMTS FDD-mode is uniquely identified by the used frequency
band and code.
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Summary of code usage in the uplink and downlink direction:
In the downlink direction, you need to differentiate between different cells. The
scrambling code is used for this purpose. To differentiate between different users
within the cell, the channelization code is used. As a result, only one dedicated
physical channel is used in the downlink direction. Both, the signaling information
(such as power control commands) and the application data must be mapped
onto this physical channel.
In the uplink direction, you do not need to differentiate between cells. Therefore,
the scrambling code can be used for differentiating between users.As a result, the
channelisation code can be used to differentiate between different channels.
1.4.2.1 Chip and Symbol – Two Kinds of Bits
Two important concepts of WCDMA are chip and symbol  that help you to
understand the structure of the air interface. The basic idea behind WCDMA is
that the signal to be transferred over the radio path is formed by multiplying the
original, baseband digital signal with another signal, which has much greater bit
rate. Both the signals consist of data units, chip and symbol, and you must clearly
distinguish between the data units of the two signals.
A symbol is a data unit transmitted over the Air Interface. In the downlink
transmission, each symbol represents two bits can be represented as a tuple (x1,
y2). In the tuple, x1 and y2 each represent one bit. Every subsequent symbol can
be represented as a tuple and delivers two new bit values. For example, the next
symbol can be represented as (x2, y2) and delivers two new bit values.
Uplink transmission also uses symbols and represents them as tuples. However,
unlike in case of downlink transmission, in the case of uplink transmission the
symbol at the first position can have a different data rate as compared to the
symbol at the second position. For example, the first symbol can be (x1,y) and
the second symbol can be (x2,y).
The symbol rate indicates the number of symbols transferred over the radio path.
It is expressed as kilo symbols per second (ks/s). downlink, if the symbol rate is
480 kilo symbol per second, the bit rate is 960 kilo bit per second. uplink, if the
symbol rate is 480 kilo symbol per second, the bit rate is 480 kilo bit per second
(first position in the tuple) plus 15 kilo bit per second (second position in the
tuple, which has a fixed data rate).
A chip is a bit of the code signal used for signal multiplication. The code signal bit
rate, which is hereafter referred to as the chip rate, is fixed in WCDMA at 3.84
million chips per second (Mcps/s). With this chip rate the size of one chip in time
is 1 / 3 840 000 seconds.
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One way to better understand the meaning of the terms symbol and chip is to
study the simplified example.
Figure 17 illustrates Chip and Symbol in Binary Phase Shift Keying:
Fig. 17 Chip and Symbol in Binary Phase Shift Keying
1.4.3 Rate Matching
After the error protection, the baseband data rate is matched to the bearer bit
rates used in the UMTS Air Interface. The data rates are given with the available
channelization codes with their respective spreading factors.
Figure 18 describes the different bit rates between 15 and 960 Kbps that may be
applied for user data:
Fig. 18 Adaptation of the Bit Rate for the UMTS Air Interface
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The bit rates are not the same as the application or user data rates. To exemplify
this, imagine a speech call at 12.2 kilo bits per second. These bits must undergo
channel coding in order to enable error correction. After the convolutional channel
coding, the bit rate is approximately 24 kbit/s. Now, you need to rate match this
data to the closest allowed bit rate in UMTS, which in this case is 30 kbit/s, as
shown in Figure 17. Some of the encoded data bits are repeated according to a
certain pattern in order to increase the bit rate to the desired level.
In cases where the bit rate is higher than a certain allowed bit rate, puncturing
can be performeed. Puncturing means the removal of some of the redundant bits
from the channel coding, thereby reducing the bit rate to the desired level.
Assume that you want to send some baseband data from a Node B to a user.
This data has already been subject to channel coding and rate matching. The
rate matched baseband data or symbols in have the values -1 or 1. The –1 is
actually a zero (0) bit symbol. This conversion has to be made, since we will
multiply the symbol with the code chips and multiplying with (0) zero would be
useless.
One baseband bit, which is the symbol, will be multiplied with eight code chips.
The code has a chip rate of 3.84 Mega chips per second. This is referred to as
spreading, and the spreading factor (SF) in this example is thus 8. By knowing
these values, you can calculate the symbol rate as 3.84 Mcps / 8 = 480 Kilo
symbols per second. Downlink, QPSK is applied and the symbol rate is 480 ks/s
and consequently the bit rate is 980 kilo bit per second.
When the data is spread, at the same time it is combined with a channelization
code. The baseband data is spread by 'chipping' the data. For example, if we use
a factor of 8 to spread 010, the result would be 000000001111111100000000,
without combining with the channelization code. The collection of these chips
(etc. 11111111) is therefore the same as the symbol. This is a signal processing
function.
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Figure 19 shows how data is spread and combined with channelization code:
Fig. 19 Spreading Data and Combining it with Channelization Code
The scrambling code is applied to the data after the channelization code, and it
does not change the actual chip rate, which remains 3.84 Mcps/s. As mentioned
earlier, the role of the scrambling code is to separate users in the uplink. In the
downlink direction, it is used to separate the different cells.
Figure 20 shows the consecutive process of applying the channelization code and
scrambling codes to the data:
Fig. 20 Applying Channelization Code and Scrambling code to the Data
Once the signal arrives in the User Equipment (UE), we can spread it by applying
the same scrambling and channelization codes as when the spreading took
place.
You will next learn more about spreading factor, channelization codes, and
scrambling codes.
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1.4.4 Spreading Factor
Spreading factor is a multiplier describing the number of chips used in the
WCDMA radio path per one symbol. Spreading factor K can be expressed
mathematically as follows:
K = 2
k
, where k = 0, 1, 2 … 8
For instance, if k = 6, the spreading factor K is 64, indicating that one symbol
uses 64 chips in the WCDMA radio path.
Another name for spreading factor is processing gain (G
p
), and it can be
expressed as a function of used bandwidths.
            B U
U
G
p
= -----------------------
            B
Bearer
System Chip Rate
-------------------------------     =         SpreadingFactor
Bearer Symbols Rate
In the formula, B
Uu
 is the System Chip Rate and B
Bearer
 is the bandwidth of the
rate matched baseband data. The B
Bearer
 contains already excessive information,
such as channel coding.
1.4.4.1 Further Examination of Scrambling and Channelization
Codes
Channelisation and scrambling codes are also known as gold codes. In WCDMA,
there are 512 primary codes as limited by the specification body to reduce the
amount of scanning. The scrambling codes are divided into 512 code sets, each
of them containing a primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling
codes.
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Figure 21 illustrates Scrambling Code Arrangement:
Fig. 21 Scrambling Code Arrangement
Based on the code selection method, there are altogether 8192 scrambling codes
available in downlink direction and millions in the uplink direction. Each
primary/secondary code has associated with itself a set of channelization codes.
While using the highest spreading factor, it can support 256 channels.
1.4.5 Scrambling Code
Only one primary scrambling code is allocated for a cell. The Primary CCPCH,
which carries the cell information on the logical BCCH channel, is transmitted by
using the scrambling code. The other downlink physical channels may use either
the primary scrambling code or a secondary scrambling code from the set
associated with the primary scrambling code of the cell.
In the uplink direction, there are millions of scrambling codes available. All uplink
channels may use either short or long scrambling codes. Long codes are used if
the base station uses the RAKE receiver. In the downlink direction, always long
scrambling codes are used.
1.4.6 Channelization Code
Channelization codes are used for channel separation both in uplink and downlink
direction. In the downlink direction, only one dedicated physical channel is shared
by the signaling and the application data. As a result, channel separation is the
same as the user separation.
Channelization codes have different spreading factor values and therefore
different symbol rates. There are a total of 256 short codes available under
certain conditions. The channelization code length is one symbol. For example, if
the spreading factor is 4, then the channelization code contains 4 chips. One
baseband bit of data in the air interface is therefore described with a 4-chip code.
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The channelization codes have orthogonal properties. Orthogonal means that the
channelization codes in the 256-member code list are selected so that their
interfere with each other is minimal. This is necessary in order to have a good
channel separation. Unlike channelization code, the scrambling code used for
user and cell separation have good correlation properties.
The scrambling codes do have these characteristics, and this is the basic reason
why both scrambling and channelisation codes are used.
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Figure 22 shows the WCDMA Code Tree:
Fig. 22 WCDMA Code Tree
Every WCDMA cell uses one downlink scrambling code, which is locally unique
and acts like a cell ID. The characteristic of this scrambling code is
pseudo-random; it is not always orthogonal. Under this scrambling code the cell
has a set of channelization codes, which are orthogonal in nature and used for
channel separation purposes.
1.4.7 Receiving Signals at the Terminal
The environment consists of various obstructions for the mobile communication,
such as buildings, trees, hills, and water. This presents a problem of multipath
signals. A signal from a Node B to a mobile is often not direct, as there are
objects standing in the way. When a signal is reflected by these objects, it will
arrive at its destination later than the other signals.
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Figure 23 describes Multipath Signal Problem:
Fig. 23 Multipath Signal Problem
In WCDMA, the terminal employs a RAKE receiver to handle multipath
propagation. The RAKE consists of receiver(s), adjustable-by-systemdelay
functionality, code generator, and gain and phase tuning equipment. One
multipath component that the RAKE recognizes is called a finger. Typically,
RAKE is able to handle several fingers. One of these fingers receives the signal
from the Uu interface and tries to open it with the code used for the connection.
The second finger receives the same signal from the Uu interface, and the code
used for this connection is inserted to the receiver after a short, adjustable delay.
When the signal is demodulated and regenerated, the outcomes of the fingers
can be summed together.
Why is the RAKE receiver capable of detecting several multipath and reading the
user data on individual multipaths? The scrambling code is a pseudo-noise
sequence and has no repeating pattern. Because of this, the RAKE receiver not
only determines the multipaths but also their run-time difference. Each RAKE
finger holds a code generator, which can be synchronized to one incoming
multipath.
The data carried on the multipath can be retrieved. This process is repeated on
every RAKE finger. The individual multipaths may have a very low receive level
and the data, which is still in form of samples of the electro-magnetical wave is
inaccurate. After adjusting the run-time difference of the multipaths in each RAKE
finger, the individually weak multipath results are combined, resulting in a
comparatively strong result.
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There are two benefits: First of all, the transmission output power can be low in
comparison to GSM, because the receiver can retrieve the user data by
combining the information carried on several multipaths. This has a direct impact
on the radio interface capacity, where the transmission of all active users takes
place at the same time.
Secondly, and only in the FDD-mode, a UE can be connected to several cells or
Node B simultaneously. Each cell or Node B is hereby sending the same data
downlink to the UE. In other words, several cells are used to create a multipath
propagation situation. The RAKE receiver in the UE can generate the different
codes, used by different cells on the individual RAKE fingers.
Figure 24 shows the composition of the RAKE receiver:
Fig. 24 Simplified Block Diagram of the RAKE Receiver
The RAKE receiver located in the UE, uses three fingers for multipath reception.
The fourth finger is reserved for environment observation. The reason for this
behavior is that in WCDMA, the UE may have active radio connections
simultaneously through three cells. The RAKE fingers are responsible for the
de-spreading of the user signals received by multipath propagation. The fingers
also correct the information with regard to phase and adapt the timing of the
information.
Depending on the signal strength, the information components are summed
(Maximum Ratio Combining). A strong signal consisting of multipath components
is therefore obtained in this way with a RAKE receiver.
Applications produce a stream of bits, which is the data, to be transmitted. The
resource requirements mainly depend on the type of the application. One of the
main benefits with the UMTS Air Interface is the possibility to allocate resources
according to the need of the application. However, before the application data or
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signaling is transmitted, the data needs to be prepared for transmission.
The first step in this process is to map the data to the correct logical channel,
map the data to the correct transport channel, apply the channel coding to the
data, match the bit rate, and finally map the data to the correct physical channel.
1.4.8 Channel Coding
Figure 25 shows channel coding step in the process of preparing data for
transmission over the UMTS Air Interface.
Fig. 25 Channel Coding
Channel coding is done in order to improve transmission quality in the air
interface in case of problems, such as interference and low reception levels. This
is possible by adding redundant bits to the signal to increase the bit rate.
In UMTS, both 1/2 and 1/3 rate convolutional coding, as well as so-called turbo
coding, will be implemented.
1/2 rate coding means that there is roughly one redundant bit for every real bit.
Similarly, the 1/3 rate channel coding leads to a three-fold bit rate. Turbo coding
is a new channel coding method that is used mainly for applications that require
high bit rates. Turbo coding is a fast convolutional coding method with a coding
rate of 1/3.
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1.5 UMTS Channel Structure
1.5.1 Logical Channels
UMTS uses a three-layer concept for channel organization, consisting of the
Logical Channels, Transport Channels, and Physical Channels.
A set of logical channels is defined in UMTS for different types of data transfer
services. Each logical channel is defined by the type of data that has to be
transmitted. The application and signaling procedures use logical channels to
communicate with the mobile network. Different logical channels are used for
different purposes. For example, there are channels for carrying paging
information for all idle UEs in the cell, channels dedicated to UEs for signaling,
and channels dedicated to individual UEs for user data transfer. Logical channel
are specified for uplink and downlink transmission. Each logical channel transmits
a specified content or it is used for a well defined task.
1.5.2 Transport Channels
Transport Channels are a new concept in UMTS. They are channels in between
the logical channels and the physical channels. These transport channels are
needed to describe how logical channel data is organized for transport. Transport
Channels are defined by how and with what characteristics data is tranmitted
over the network. Different Logical Channels can be mapped together onto one
Transport Channel. The Transport Channels can be sub-divided into the following
two general classes:
1. Common Transport Channels: In this case when there is a need for in-band
identification of the UEs when particular UEs are addressed.
2. Dedicated Transport Channels: In this class of Transport Channels the UEs
are identified by the physical channel. The physical channels are
characterized by the code and frequency of the FDD mode, and code, time
slot, and frequency for the TDD mode.
1.5.3 Physical Channel
Physical Channel define the physical transmission of the information over the Air
Interface. In UMTS physical channels of the UTRA FDD mode are characterized
by the code and UL and DL frequency. The physical channels of the TDD mode
are characterized by code, frequency, and time slot.
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Figure 26 shows the three channels of the UMTS Air Interface:
Fig. 26 Physical, Transport and Logical Channels in the UMTS Air Interface
The physical channels are present in the air interface, while the transport
channels and the logical channel structure are valid in all the interfaces between
the User Equipment (UE) and the Radio Network Controller (RNC), as illustrated
in figure 24. Each physical channel is identified in the FDD mode by the
frequency band used for the transmission and by a spreading code.
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Figure 27 gives a few examples of the path of data and signaling through the
channels:
Fig. 27 Mapping of User Data and Signaling from the Node B Point of View
1.5.4 Description of the UMTS-FDD Logical and Transport
Channels
In case of Logical Channels, the UE and the network have different tasks.
Therefore, the logical channel structure is different in the downlink and uplink
direction. The network has the following tasks to perform:
1. Broadcast Control Channel BCCH general network information delivery: DL
The network must inform the UE about the radio environment. The network
provides information, such as the code value(s) used in the cell and in the
neighbouring cells and the allowed power levels, for the UE through the
Logical Channel, BCCH.
2. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) paging purposes: DL When there is a need
to reach a UE for communication, such as when a mobile call is terminated,
the UE must be paged in order to find out its exact location. This network
request is delivered on the Logical Channel, PCCH.
3. Common Control Channel (CCCH) control purposes The network may have
certain tasks that may be common for all the UEs residing in the cell. For this
purpose the network uses the Logical Channel, CCCH.
4. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) control purposes When there is a
dedicated, active connection, the network sends control information through
the Logical Channel DCCH.
5. Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) dedicated traffic purposes The dedicated
user traffic for one user service in the downlink direction is sent through the
Logical Channel, DTCH,.
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6. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) common traffic purposes When there is a
need to transmit information either to all UEs or to specific group of UEs,
then a downlink-only Logical Channel CTCH can be used.
The logical channels must be mapped into the transport channel structure.
Following Transport Channels are carrying the ready-made information flows in
the downlink direction:
1. Broadcast Channel (BCH) - This Transport Channel carries the Logical
Channel BCCH.
2. Paging Channel (PCH) - This Transport Channel carries the Logical Channel
PCCH.
3. Forward Access Channel (FACH) – This Transport Channel carries
information coming from the common and dedicated control Logical
Channels, CCCH, CTCH, and DCCH.
4. Dedicated Channel (DCH) – This is the only dedicated Transport Channel; all
other channels are common Transport Channels. The DCH carries
information coming from the Logical Channels DTCHs and DCCH. In some
case, one DCH may carry several DTCHs, depending. For example, a user
may have a simultaneous voice call and video call active. The voice call uses
one DTCH and the video call requires another DTCH. Both of these,
however, use the same DCH.
5. Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) - This Transport Channel carries
dedicated information from the Logical Channels DTCH and DCCH. This
channel is shared by several users.
In the uplink direction the number of logical channels required is less as
compared to downlink direction. There are only three logical channels, CCCH,
DTCH and DCCH, as shown in Figure 3-27. These abbreviations have the same
meaning as in the downlink direction.
The following are the transport channels in the uplink direction:
1. Random Access Channel (RACH) - This Transport Channel carries initial
access information when required.
2. Dedicated Channel (DCH). This Transport Channel carries the combination of
the user traffic(s) and control information.
3. Common Packet Channel (CPCH). This Transport Channel carries user
packet(s) if the common resources of the system are used for this purpose.
1.5.5 UMTS-FDD Transport to Physical Channels
When the information is collected from the logical channels and organized to the
transport channels, it is in ready-to-transmit format. Before transmitting, the
transport channels are arranged to the physical channels.
A physical channel is defined by the used frequency band and the used CDMA
code. There are some physical channels that have no logical and transport
channels. Therefore, in the downlink direction, they are directly generated in the
Node B.
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An example of such physical channels is the Primary and Secondary
Synchronization Channels (SCH-1 and SCH-2) that help the mobile phone to
synchronize the Node B. Both physical channels are identified by well known
scrambling codes.
With the help of the Primary and Secondary Synchronization Channels, the UE
can perform chip, timeslot, frame, and scrambling group synchronization. There
are 512 primary scrambling codes used in the downlink direction. They are
organized in 64 scrambling code groups, where each group is holds eight primary
scrambling codes. Therefore, the UE only knows the scrambling code group, but
not the scrambling code of the cell.
Eight potential primary scrambling codes may be in use in a cell. To identify the
correct scrambling code, the UE uses the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH). The
CPICH always uses the same channelization code (CCH,256,0), so that the UE
can determine the cell’s scrambling code by trial and error.
The following are two Common Control Physical Channels:
1. Primary channel (CCPCH-1) – This Physical Channel carries broadcast
control information. This is the same type of information that the GSM BCCH
carries. The UE knows the scrambling code of the cell. The channelization
code for the CCPCH-1 is always CCH,256,1. Every other physical channel,
both uplink and downlink requires a CDMA code, which is the product of
spreading code and channelization code. The UE uses the broadcast
information to identify the codes that are used in downlink direction, for the
random access, and the common control channels.
2. Secondary channel (CCPCH-2) - This Physical Channel carries it carries
paging related information and the information currently included in the
FACH. Therefore, it acts as a combination of two transport channels. The two
dedicated physical channels are Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
carrying user traffic, and Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
carrying related control information. When these are timely multiplexed
together, the combination is called Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH).
The transport channel RACH carries the initial access information when the UE
accesses the network. This information is transferred to the network through the
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). The random access is decomposed
into two components. The first part of the random access begins when the UE
sends a set of preambles, each with a higher output power then the preceding
one. This is done to avoid interference of the transmission of all UE in the cell
and in the neighboring cells.
In WCDMA all UE use the same frequency band at the same time. If a UE is
making the random access with a too high output power level, the transmission of
all UE in the cell and in the neighboring cells can interfere with each other. If the
Node B as filtered out the preamble, it returns a short notice to the UE with the
Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH; downlink only). After this the second part of
the random access begins, where the UE sends more information to UTRAN.
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The user traffic and control information share a transport channel DCH. The
information the DCH carries is divided into two physical channels, DPDCH and
DPCCH, with the modulation method used.
When there is a need to send a short packet and dedicated resources are not
necessary, the information to be sent is carried by the transport channel CPCH.
This information is sent through the Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH).
In the uplink direction, the physical channel is not time multiplexed since in
combination with Discontinuous Transmission (DTX), it would cause audible
interference to non mobile network equipment. The DPCCH is never turned of. As
a result, no transmission pulse causes additional interference. The DPDCH uses
the DTX periods to save battery and add efficiency to transmissions.
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1.6 The Key Functions and tasks in Radio
Resource Management
1.6.1 Overview of Radio Resource Management Functions
The Radio Network Controller (RNC) has similar functionality as the BSC in the
GSM BSS but there are also a few differences. Unlike the GSM systems, the
Radio Access Network (RAN) has RNC-RNC interface (Iur), which enables the
RNC to maintain Radio Resource Management (RRM) independently. The
wideband switching in the RNC makes the element structure of RNC remarkably
different to element structure of BSC in GSM BSS during implementation.
Figure 28 illustrates the parts of RNC:
Fig. 28 General Diagram of the RNC
The RNC has different functions to control the radio resource connection. The
functions are divided into network and connection based functions. The
connection based functions are related to task that RRM performs on an active
bearer connection, whereas then network based functions are used continuous in
a cell for all allocations. The examples of network based functions are Admission
Control (AC), Load Control (LC), Resource Manager (RM), and Packet Scheduler
(PS). AC and LC are used to manage the amount of power being transmitted and
the number of subscribers in a cell. This control is important when introducing
new bearer allocations into the network. The RM is responsible for the allocation
of the bearer.
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Figure 3.29 explain Radio Resource Management Functions:
Fig. 29 Summary of Radio Resource Management Functions
Unlike in GSM, the UMTS network uses packet data inherently, which means that
is the packet data is built into the system, rather than being added , Therefore,
the PS transmits the data in a cell at the optimal time.
The connection based power control (PC) is critical for managing air interface
bearers, as more interference in a cell caused in the uplink from mobile to the
network, the less overall capacity there is. Therefore, the network is constantly
(~1500 per second) informing the mobile station what power level it should use.
Handovers are used to manage the reallocation of the bearer as the subscriber
moves.
Therefore, the entities in the 3G RAN RRM are:
Radio Resource Control (RRC)
Admission Control (AC)
Code Allocation
Power Control (PC)
Packet Scheduler (PS)
Handover Control (HC)
Macro Diversity
1.6.2 Radio Resource Control States
The RRC has two main states, idle and connected. From the UE to network
connection point of view, the RRC changes its state from idle to connect. For any
activity between the UE and the network, the RRC-connected state can be
considered as a prerequisite.
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When there is no RRC connection between the mobile and the network, but the
mobile is switched on, the mobile is considered to be in an idle mode. It means
that the mobile is listening to one base station and is in readiness to start a
connection, or is waiting to be paged.
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Figure 3.30 shows the possible state changes of the RRC protocol:
Fig. 30 The possible state changes of the RRC protocol
When a dedicated channel is provided to the subscriber, for example, for video,
the subscriber is considered to be in the Cell_DCH state. (The DCH is derived
from the name of the channel in the air interface). In this state the UE is sending
measurement reports to the network, which enables the system to control the
dedicated bearer and perform handovers.
If the mobile is only sending small pieces of information to the network, for
example irregular Internet based traffic or for signalling, then the RRC can be in a
mode known as Cell_FACH (the FACH stands for Forward Access Channel) and
is different from the previous state as UE is not using dedicated channel. The
network does not perform handovers as the mobile moves from one cell to
another. The UE just informs the network about its current location.
Depending on the bearer we have and how it is being used, the RNC will move
the RRC between the different states. In addition to the Cell_FACH, if the
network finds that the bearer is not being used for a long time, it can move the
connection to a Cell_PCH mode (Paging Channel), where the mobile is still know
to a cell level but can only be reached via the PCH. In this state the UE is using
a Discontinuous Repetition Function, DRX to save battery. Again, unlike in the
Cell_DCH, as the subscriber moves, the mobile informs the RNC which cell it has
moved to.
The final state is the URA_PCH. This state is similar to the Cell_PCH. But,
instead of monitoring the connection on a cell level, it is now on a RNC level.
URA stands for UTRA Registration Area and the UE monitors the broadcast
channel for URA identities.
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The RRC as an entity consists of two items, Medium Access Control (MAC) and
Radio Link Control (RLC). Together these two are also called as Layer 2
processing.
Figure 3.31 shows the Layer 2 Processing:
Fig. 31 Layer 2 Processing
The Physical Layer, in the layer 1 offers Transport Channels to the MAC layer.
There are different types of transport channels with different characteristics
depending on the transmission. Common transport channels can be shared by
multiple handsets (for example, FACH, RACH, DSCH, BCH, and PCH).
Dedicated transport channels (DCH) are assigned to only one handset at a time.
The transmission functions of the physical layer include channel coding and
interleaving, multiplexing of transport channels, mapping to physical channels,
spreading, modulation and power amplification, with corresponding functions for
reception. A frequency and a code characterize a physical channel.
The MAC protocol, in the layer 1 offers logical channels to the layers above. The
logical channels carry different types of information, which include Dedicated
Control Channel (DCCH), Common Control Channel (CCCH), Dedicated Traffic
Channel (DTCH), Common Traffic Channel (CTCH), Broadcast Control Channel
(BCCH) and the Paging Control Channel (PCCH). The MAC layer performs
scheduling and mapping of logical channel data onto the transport channels
provided by the physical layer.
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For common transport channels, the MAC layer adds addressing information to
distinguish data flows intended for different handsets. One major difference to
GSM is the possibility to dynamically switch one logical channel (data flow) onto
different transport channel types, based on the activity of the subscriber. The
Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol, a layer 2 protocol, operates in one of three
modes: transparent, unacknowledged, or acknowledged mode. It performs
segmentation/re-assembly functions and, in acknowledged mode, provides an
assured mode delivery service by use of retransmission.
RLC provides a service for the RRC signalling to both, the Signalling Radio
Bearer and for the user data transfer, the Radio Access Bearer.
Above these layers the Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol, in the layer 3
provides control of the handset from the RNC. It includes functions to control
radio bearers, physical channels, mapping of the different channel types,
handover, measurement and other mobility procedures.
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1.7 List the Roles of Radio Resource
Management on Network
1.7.1 Admission Control
WCDMA radio access has several limiting factors, some of them being absolute
and others environment-dependent. The most important and the most difficult is
to control is the interference occurring in the radio path. Due to the nature and
basic characteristics of WCDMA, every UE accessing the network generates a
signal.
Simultaneously, the signals generated by UE can be interpreted to be
interference from the other UEs point of view. When the WCDMA network is
planned, one of the basic criteria for planning is to define the acceptable
interference level, with which the network is expected to function correctly. This
planning based value and the actual signals the UE transmit set practical limits
for the Uu interface capacity.
To be more specific, a value called Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) is used in
this context. Based on radio network planning, the network is, in theory, able to
stand as maximum one SIR of certain size within one cell. That is, in the BTS
receiver, the interference and the signal must have a certain level of power
difference in order to extract one signal out from the other signals using the same
carrier.
If the power distance between interfering components and the signal is too small,
the BTS is not able to extract an individual signal out from the carrier any more.
Every UE having a bearer active through this cell “consumes” a part of the SIR.
The cell is used up to its maximum level when the BTS receiver is not able to
extract the signal(s) from the carrier.
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Figure 3.32 shows the Admission Control (AC):
Fig. 32 Admission Control (AC)
The main task of admission control is to estimate whether a new call can have
access to the system without sacrificing the bearer requirements of existing calls.
Thus the AC algorithm should predict the load of the cell if the new call is
admitted. It should be noted that the availability of the terrestrial transmission
resources is verified, too, meaning that there is no limiting factor in the rest of the
UTRAN either. Based on the admission control, the RNC either grants or rejects
the access.
The SIR or Interference Margin has direct relationship with the cell load. If we
express the cell load with a Load_Factor (from 0 to 1, equals cell percentage
load, that is, 10 % load gives value 0.1) and mark the Interference Margin with I,
it leads to the following equation:
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Figure 3.33 shows the placing of Interference Margins calculated with different
Load Factor values together:
Fig. 33 Interference Margin as a Function of a Cell Load
Based on the above graph, it is fairly easy to indicate that when the cell load
exceeds 70 %, the interference in that cell will be very difficult to control. This is
why the WCDMA radio network is normally dimensioned with expected capacity
equivalent to Load Factor value 0.5 (50 %). This value has a safety margin in it
and the network will behave as expected.
1.7.2 Planning Uplink Admission Control
The RNC controls the interference on the uplink, and the parameters are used to
act as boundaries. The UL interference power, which determines the maximum
limit where the cell is considered to be at maximum load. From the graph
depicting, interference margin as a function of a cell load, a realistic value to
represent a sensible load can be arrived at The value is known as the
PRX_Target (PRX stands for Receive Power level.) value.
The area from 0 to this value is known as the planned load. Once the load is
approaches this value, the Traffic Reason Handovers (TRHO) are performed.
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Figure 3.34 shows the Admission Control on the Uplink:
Fig. 34 Admission Control on the Uplink
As UMTS traffic is variable and constantly changing, it is possible that the traffic
admission may exceed the PRX_Target. To handle this situation, a second level
of value known as the PRX_TARGET_BS is used by the BTS to stop situations of
congestion. Once this value is reached, the BTS takes actions to reduce the load
in the cell.
1.7.3 Code Allocation
This section aims to further specify the properties and usage of the scrambling
and channelisation codes in Radio Resource Management (RRM).
The different codes used in WCDMA were briefly explained in the chapter earlier
This section aims to further specify the properties and usage of the scrambling
and channelisation codes in RRM.
Both scrambling and channelisation codes used in the Uu interface connections
are maintained by the RNC. In principle, the codes could be maintained by the
BTS, but then the system would experience lack of radio resource control such
as soft handovers. When the codes are maintained by the RNC, it is easier to
allocate Iub data ports for multi path connections.
The Uu interface requires two kinds of codes for proper functionality. A part of the
codes used must correlate with each other to a certain extent, and the others
must be orthogonal. Every cell uses one scrambling code. As you already know,
this code acts like a cell ID. Under every scrambling code the RNC has a set of
channelisation codes. This set is the same under every scrambling code.
The BCH information is coded with a scrambling code value, and thus the UE
must first find the correct scrambling code value first in order to access the cell.
When a connection between the UE and the network is established, the channels
used must be separated. The channelisation codes are used for this purpose.
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The information sent over the Uu interface is spread with a spreading code per
channel. Spreading code by definition is the same as scrambling code x
channelisation code.
1.7.4 Channelisation Code Allocation, and Handovers
The codes used in Uu interface can be handled in a code tree, where branches
are consequently blocked when a certain code on a certain spreading factor level
is taken into use. When having plenty of simultaneous connections, with multiple
radio links, multiple channels, and multiple codes, the code tree may easily
become fragmented.
Fragmentation means the phenomenon where the probability of the blocked
branch of the code tree increases too much and thus it starts to prevent new
accesses to the system.
For example, if an active call uses high bit rate over the Uu interface, the
spreading factor value in use is small. It furthermore means that a very high-level
branch of the code tree is blocked. When this call is finished and simultaneously
new calls access the system, the blocked code tree branch is not “released”
before the new accesses. In this situation the system wastes capacity because
the code channels allocated for new calls are not necessarily allocated in the best
possible way.
The channelisation code used has the same length as the base band data. As a
part of the spreading operation, the base band data and the code are combined
and spread. The result is a fixed length code that is then scrambled. A low data
rate communication can be spread much more over the bandwidth, which also
means that a high spreading factor is used.
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Figure 3.35 explains the Channelisation Codes:
Fig. 35 Channelisation Codes
As codes are released in different branches, the tree can become fragmented
and the RNC should always try to reorganize the tree to make the best use of the
resources. Therefore, in UMTS networks, it is possible that the channelisation
codes could change during a connection.
Also, if the scrambling code in the uplink is being used by another person in
another RNC as the subscriber performs a soft handover, the handover is refused
and the serving RNC must allocate a new scrambling code to the subscriber.
1.7.5 Scrambling Code Planning
There are totally 512 downlink scrambling codes used, eight in each of the 64
code groups. All the cells that the UE is able to measure in one location should
have different scrambling codes. To ensure this, different scrambling code groups
in the neighboring base stations should be used. The code group allocation is
performed during the network planning. The corresponding functionality should be
present in the network planning tool. The number of re-uses could be 64, as
there are 64 code groups. The scrambling code group planning for different
frequency carriers can be done independently.
1.7.6 Power Control
In the UTRAN, the power control and accuracy is extremely essential (unlike in
GSM networks). The reasons can be as follows:
The mobiles transmit simultaneously in time (not in different timeslots like in
GSM).
The UTRAN uses often only one frequency, which means that the. The
frequency re-use factor will be 1.
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Any inaccuracy in power control immediately increases interference, which
then decreases the capacity of the network.
Figure 3.36 shows the Power and Distance:
Fig. 36 Power and Distance
The physical facts in the UTRAN with regard to the radio path and the distance
are similar to the GSM, but because of the three reasons stated above, the
power control mechanism must be accurate and fast. As a result, the WCDMA
power control mechanism differs from the GSM mechanism.
It is relatively easy to determine that the optimal situation from the Node B
receiver because the power representing one UE’s signal is always equal when
compared to the other User
Equipments' s signals, despite the distance between the UE and the Node B. As
a result, the SIR will be optimal and the Node B receiver is able to decode the
maximal number of transmissions. The power control mechanisms used in the
GSM are inadequate to guarantee this situation in WCDMA. Therefore, the
WCDMA has a different approach to the power control.
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Figure 3.37 shows the different WCDMA Power Control mechanisms :
Fig. 37 WCDMA Power Control Mechanisms
1.7.6.1 Open Loop Power Control
When the UE accesses to the network, the initial level for accessing is based on
an estimate. This estimate in turn is based on the signal level received from the
Node B when the UE is in the idle mode and the downlink power level that the
UE detects from the physical channel PICH. In other words, when in an idle
mode, the UE receives information about the used and allowed power levels from
the Pilot Channel of the cell.
In addition, the UE evaluates the path loss occurring compared to the figures
received from the CCH-1. Based on this difference, the UE is able estimate the
correct-enough power level to initialize the connection.
1.7.6.2 Closed Loop Power Control
When the radio connection is established, the power control method is changed.
During the connection, the method used is called the closed loop power control.
Within this method, the Node commands the UE either to increase or to decrease
its transmission power with the pace of 1.5 kHz (1500 times per second) in the
FDD mode. The decision whether to increase or decrease the power is based on
the received SIR estimated by the Node B.
1.7.6.3 Outer Loop Power Control
Due to the macro diversity, the UE is simultaneously attached to the network
through more than one cell. The RNC must be aware of the current radio link
conditions and quality. The RNC knows the allowed power levels of the cell and
target SIR.
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In order to maintain the quality of the radio link, the RNC uses this power control
method to adjust the SIR of the connection. By doing this, the network is able to
compensate changes in the air interface propagation conditions and to achieve
the target quality for the connection. The target quality can be measured with the
help of Bit Error Ratio (BER) and Frame Error Ratio (FER) observations.
1.7.7 Packet Scheduler
Packet scheduler is a general feature, which handles scheduling radio resources
for Non-Real-Time (NRT) radio access bearers for both uplink and downlink
directions. Packet access is implemented for both dedicated (DCH) and common
control transport channels Random Access and Forward Access Channels
(RACH/FACH). Packet scheduler makes the decision of the used channel type for
the downlink direction. For uplink direction the decision of the used channel type
is made by the UE.
Figure 3.38 illustrates function of the packet scheduler:
Fig. 38 Function of the packet scheduler
In Release 3, the actions of the packet scheduler are driven by the load control
function. The gap between Real-Time (RT) traffic and the load target of the cell
can be filled by the packet scheduler. As IPv6 is implemented, and Quality of
Service (QoS) becomes a key part of the interface, the scheduler no longer sees
the traffic as real-time and non-real-time, but instead uses a priority system on
the packets being transmitted.
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1.7.8 Handover Control and Macro Diversity
UMTS handovers can be intra-system, (inside the WCDMA radio network) or
inter-system (from WCDMA to GSM 900/1800). The Inter-System Handovers
(ISHO) are of the traditional type, which are also used in GSM. The ISHO are
also known as a hard handover, because the UE does not maintain simultaneous
connections, in practice it breaks the old connection and then establishes a new
connection.
Figure 3.39 illustrates The Intra-System and Inter-System Handovers:
Fig. 39 The Intra-System and Inter-System Handovers
The intra-system handovers of UMTS are classified as being inside the same
WCDMA band (intra-frequency) or being from one frequency band to another.
The inter-frequency handover could be a handover from one cell layer to another.
The inter-frequency handovers are hard handovers and are similar to the
inter-system handovers. The intra-frequency handovers, on the other hand, could
be so-called soft handovers. In a soft handover, the signal is received in both the
new and the old channel for a period of time.
One characteristic of a UMTS network is that the network will communicate with
the UE through different base stations (Node Bs). An active set is a list of cells,
through which the UE has a connection to the network, that is, through which the
radio link set-up has been made.
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This is, the UE may have active radio connection between itself and the network
through three cells simultaneously. In soft handover, the UE is connected to the
at least two Node Bs at the same time. In the uplink direction, the two signals
come via the base stations to the RNC. In the RNC the signal to be transported
forward to the core network is selected. The selection is done frame by frame for
the speech, and in smaller blocks for data. In the downlink direction, the UE uses
the RAKE receiver to combine signals from two different base stations.
Figure 3.40 illustrates the Soft Handover and Active Node B Set:
Fig. 40 Soft Handover and Active Node B Set
If the subscriber moves from cell site 1, Node B1 to cell site 2, Node B2, first the
UE has a connection through Node B1. The power level and Signal to
Interference Ratio decreases as the UE moves towards Node B2. At some point
the Node B2 signal is high enough and the UE starts to talk via both Node B1
and Node B2. The signal via Node B2 gets clearer and the signal via Node B1
gets worse. Therefore, when the UE talks through two Node Bs, we have macro
diversity.
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Figure 3.41 illustrates the soft handover:
Fig. 41 The UE is moving from cell cite 1 to cell site 2. In the middle we have the soft handover
window.
In the next few sections, a clearer subdivision of the different types of handovers
is presented. After that, the terms micro diversity and macro diversity are
explained.
1.7.8.1 Soft Handover
Soft handover is performed between two cells belonging to different Node Bs but
not necessarily to the same RNC. The source and target cell of the soft handover
has the same frequency. In case of a circuit switched call, the terminal performs
soft handovers at all times if the radio network environment has small cells.
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Figure 3.42 describes Principle of WCDMA Soft Handover:
Fig. 42 Principle of WCDMA Soft Handover
Soft handover is performed between two cells belonging to different Node Bs but
not necessarily to the same RNC. The source and target cell of the soft handover
has the same frequency. In case of a circuit switched call, the terminal performs
soft handovers at all times if the radio network environment has small cells.
Figure 3.43 describes Principle of WCDMA Softer Handover:
Fig. 43 Principle of WCDMA Softer Handover
In softer handover, the Node B transmits through one sector, but receives from
both the sectors. In this case, the UE has active uplink radio connections with the
network through two cells populating the same Node B.
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1.7.8.2 Hard / Inter-Frequency Handover
The UMTS hard handover is a ‘GSM-like’ handover performed between two
WCDMA frequencies. In case of a hard handover, the connection through the old
cell is cleared and the connection with the radio network continues through the
new cell. Hard handover should be avoided if possible because it often results in
increased interference.
Figure 3.44 describes Principle of UMTS Hard Handover:
Fig. 44 Principle of UMTS Hard Handover
The UMTS hard handover is a ‘GSM-like’ handover performed between two
WCDMA frequencies. In case of a hard handover, the connection through the old
cell is cleared and the connection with the radio network continues through the
new cell. Hard handover should be avoided if possible because it often results in
increased interference.
The hard handover performed if the Iur interface is not available. For example,
between the RNCs coming from two manufacturers.
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Figure 3.45 illustrates Hard / Intra-Frequency Handover :
Fig. 45 Hard / Intra-Frequency Handover
1.7.8.3 Intersystem Handover from GSM
The handover between GSM and UTRAN can be performed for a number of
reasons, for example, to provide specific high bit rate services.
The handover is possible because a dual mode UE receives the UTRAN
neighbour cell parameters on GSM system information messages. The
parameters that enable the UE to measure the neighbouring UTRA FDD cell are:
downlink centre frequency, downlink bandwidth (currently only
5 MHz), downlink scrambling code, or scrambling code group for the CPICH, and
reference time difference for the UTRA cell.
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Figure 3.46 illustrates Intersystem Handover from BSS to UTRAN:
Fig. 46 Intersystem Handover from BSS to UTRAN
The sequence of events in the intersystem handover to BSS to UTRAN is as
follows:
1. The UE/MS creates a measurement report that the BSC evaluates to make
the handover decision.
2. The reservation messages are sent to the UTRAN if the BSC decides to
hand over to a UTRA cell resource,
3. The UTRAN acknowledges the resource reservation and provides a UTRAN
handover command.
4. The BSC sends the GSM intersystem handover command to the UE. In this
command, a UMTS Handover to UTRAN command is included, which
contains all the information needed to set up a connection to the UTRA cell.
The message contains reference number to UTRA parameters not the real
values to cater to a situation when the configuration information is more than
a GSM message can handle.
5. The UE completes the procedure of Handover to UTRAN by a sending
complete message to the RNC.
6. Finally, the RNC commands resources to be released by the BSC.
1.7.8.4 Hard / Inter-Frequency Handover
The UMTS hard handover is a ‘GSM-like’ handover performed between two
WCDMA frequencies. In case of a hard handover, the connection through the old
cell is cleared and the connection with the radio network continues through the
new cell. Hard handover should be avoided if possible because it often results in
increased interference.
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Figure 3.47 illustrates UMTS Hard Handover:
Fig. 47 Principle of UMTS Hard Handover
The hard handover performed if the Iur interface is not available. For example,
between the RNCs coming from two manufacturers.
Figure 3.48 illustrates Hard / Intra-Frequency Handover:
Fig. 48 Hard / Intra-Frequency Handover
1.7.8.5 Inter-System Handover
The possible co-existence of the different radio accesses in the UMTS network,
the UE should be able to fluently change the radio access technology when
required. In order to cater this situation, the 3GPP Specifications identify the
combination of UMTS and GSM as one source for inter-system handovers. The
possibility to perform an inter-system handover is enabled in the UMTS by a
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special functioning mode, slotted mode. When the UE uses Uu interface in the
slotted mode, the contents of the Uu interface frame are compressed in order to
open a time window, through which the UE is able to peek and decode the GSM
BCCH information.
In addition, both the WCDMA RAN and GSM BSS must be able to send the
identity information of the other on the BCCH and BCH channels to enable the
UE to perform the decoding properly.
  
Figure 3.49 illustrates UMTS/GSM Inter-System Handover:
Fig. 49 UMTS/GSM Inter-System Handover
1.7.8.6 Intersystem Handover from UTRAN
The handover between GSM and UTRAN can be performed for a number of
reasons, for example, to provide specific high bit rate services. The handover is
possible because a dual mode UE receives the UTRAN neighbour cell
parameters on GSM system information messages. The parameters that enable
the UE to measure the neighbouring UTRA FDD cell are: downlink centre
frequency, downlink bandwidth (currently only 5 MHz), downlink scrambling code,
or scrambling code group for the CPICH, and reference time difference for the
UTRA cell.
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Figure 3.50 illustrates Intersystem Handover from UTRAN to BSS:
Fig. 50 Intersystem Handover from UTRAN to BSS
The sequence of events in the intersystem handover to UTRAN to BSS is as
follows:
1. Based on the measurement report including both UTRAN and BSS values
the RNC makes the handover decision.
2. Resource reservation messages are sent to the BSC.
3. The BSC acknowledges the resource reservation and includes a GSM
handover command.
4. The RNC sends an Intersystem handover command message to the UE. In
this message, the GSM Handover command is included.
5. The UE switches to GSM RR protocol and sends the GSM handover access
message to the BSC.
6. The BSC finally initiates resource release with message to the UTRAN.
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1.7.8.7 Micro diversity
With reference to the soft handover and active set, the two terms that describe
the handling of the multi path components are micro diversity and macro
diversity. Micro diversity means the situation where the propagating multi path
components are combined in the Node B.
Figure 3.51 illustrates the Micro Diversity in Node B:
Fig. 51 Micro Diversity in Node B
WCDMA utilizes the Multi path Propagation, which means that the Node B
receiver is able to determine, differentiate and sum up several signals received
from the radio path. The receiver used for Multi path Propagation is equipment
called a RAKE receiver.
In Multi path Propagation, a signal sent to the radio path is reflected from, for
example, ground, water and buildings, and the sent signal id displayed as many
copies at the receiving end. Each of the signal reaching the receiver at a different
phase and time. The micro-diversity functionality at the Node B level combines
(sums up) different signal paths received from one cell and, in case of sectored
Node B, the outcomes from different sectors (softer handover).
1.7.8.8 Macro diversity
As the UE may use cells belonging to different Node Bs or even different RNCs,
the macro-diversity functionality also exists on the RNC level. The figure depicting
Macro Diversity in RNC presents a case in which the UE has a 3-cell active set in
use and one of those cells is connected to another RNC. In the case, the Node
Bs performs summing of the signal concerning their own radio paths. At the RNC
level, the serving RNC evaluates the frames coming from the Node Bs and
chooses the best signal to send towards the CN domains.
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Figure 3.52 illustrates the Macro Diversity in RNC:
Fig. 52 Macro Diversity in RNC
In case of the soft and softer handovers, subjective call quality will be better
when the final signal is constructed from several sources (multi path).
In GSM, the subjective call quality depends on the transmission power used. In
other words, the more power the better quality.
In UMTS, the terminals cannot use much power because if they do the
transmission levels that are very high will start blocking the other users away.
Therefore, the better way to gain better subjective call quality is to utilize the Multi
Path Propagation.
The soft and softer handovers consume radio access capacity because the UE is
occupying more than one radio link connection in the Uu interface. The added
capacity gained from the interference reduction is also bigger and as a result the
system capacity is increased if soft and softer handovers are used.
1.7.9 Handover Decision-Making Mechanism
During the connection, the UE continuously measures some parameters such as
signal strength, quality, and interference, concerning the neighboring cells and
reports the status of these items to the network up to the RNC. These
parameters are measured from the neighboring cells PICHs. The RNC checks
whether the values indicated in the measurement reports trigger any criteria set.
As the result of the trigger, the new Node B is added to the Active Set.
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Figure 3.53 illustartes the Handover Decision-Making Mechanism:
Fig. 53 Handover Decision-Making Mechanism
An Active Set is a list of cells, through which the UE has a connection to the
network or through which the radio link set-up is established. The minimum size
and maximum size of the Active Set is one cell and three cells respectively. The
UE can have active radio connection with the network through three cells
simultaneously.
1.7.10 Load Control in the RNC
The Radio Resource Management mechanisms Admission Control, Packet
Scheduler and Load Control are important components when controlling the load
in the UTRAN network.
The purpose of load control is to optimize the capacity of a cell and prevent an
overload situation to maintain the stability of the system. Load control consists of
Admission Control (AC) algorithms, Packet Scheduler (PS) algorithms, and Load
Control (LC), which updates the load status of the cell based on resource
measurements and estimations provided by AC and PS.
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Figure 3.54 illustrates how the load control works logically in the RNC:
Fig. 54 Load control works logically in the RNC
If the system is overloaded, LC returns the system to normal load state in a fast
and controlled way. LC can be divided into two functions:
1. Preventive control, which guards the system from overload.
2. Overload control, which returns the system from an overload state to normal
state.
Interference is the main resource criteria for the CDMA system the following load
control measures are practiced:
1. UL total received wideband interference power
2. DL total transmission power
3. One RNC on cell basis periodically under.
RRM acts according to these measurements and parameters set by radio
network planning.
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Figure 3.55 illustrates Capacity in the Uplink Limited by Interference:
Fig. 55 Capacity in the Uplink Limited by Interference
In the downlink, the capacity is limited by the transmission power of the site. As
more subscribers are added to a cell and as the subscribers move further away
from the site towards the cell edge, the more power is needed to achieve a
certain quality. At this point the capacity of a cell is filled in the downlink because
the power/signal quality to assure a quality connection is not enough.
In the uplink, the capacity is limited to amount of power or interference that is
present in a cell. Therefore, the loading of a cell is based on the combination of
these two directions.
Figure 3.56 illustrates the Model of Cell Loading Against Traffic Profile:
Fig. 56 Model of Cell Loading Against Traffic Profile
The traffic in a cell can be categorized by priority, depending on the traffic type,
for example, Conversational, Streaming, Interactive, and Background. The
categories can be subdivided into Real Time (RT) and Non-Real Time (NRT)
traffic. The figure above displayes a simple example of Release 99
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implementation of real time and non-real time services.
In practice, the real time traffic is given priority over non-real time traffic. The
packets are scheduled to fill in the gaps between the real-time traffic and the load
target.
The traffic profile in UMTS is variable, therefore, overload values are used. As in
displayed in the figure above, the system can handle moments of traffic peaks,
but if the traffic is constantly above a certain limit, then certain load reduction
measures, such as handovers, are taken.
Figure 3.57 illustrates the relationship of AC, LC and PS, given a certain load:
Fig. 57 How the AC, LC and PS work together
The parameters on the right-hand side specify the behavior of the load
control.When the load on the cell is not much, the AC allocates real time bearers,
and the PS is flexible with the packet load. When the load increases, no more
real time bearers are allocated and the PS does not increase the load.
If the load continues to grow, or at the most stay the same (remember, that the
subscribers are still moving, which is affecting the power levels), then the LC
takes actions, such as traffic reason handovers. The PS decreases the bit rate of
the non-real time bearers in an effort to decrease load simultaneously.Under
extreme conditions of the cell being overloaded, the LC may take actions, such
as dropping the NRT bearers.
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1.8 Multi Carrier CDMA / UTRA / Time Division
- Synchronous CDMA
1.8.1 MC-CDMA and UTRA
UMTS as the 3G successor standard to GSM and Multi Carrier CDMA
(MC-CDMA) as the 3G successor standard to IS-95 are compatible with each
other. The compatibility is intended to facilitate the development of chipsets for
UE that can Access the three major terrestrial IMT-2000 modes.
MC-CDMA is downward-compatible with IS-95 B. The chip rate is 1.2288 Mchip/s
and the carrier bandwidth is 1.25 MHz, which is same as in IS-95,. However, n
carriers (where n = 1, 3, 6, 9, 12) can be commonly used for a user connection in
DL transmissions. The data is de-multiplexed in this case on n carriers and can
therefore be transmitted simultaneously.
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Figure 3.58 describes difference between MC-CDMA and UTRA:
Fig. 58 Difference between MC-CDMA and UTRA
For UL, the DS-CDMA principle is used with a carrier transmission rate of n x
1.2288 Mchip/s and a bandwidth of n x 1.25 MHz. three MC-CDMA carriers,
including two guard bands, each 625 kHz wide, can be used in a 5-MHz
frequency band. Therefore, the frequency bands that were used for 2G systems
can be replaced by MC-CDMA. MC-CDMA uses the same modulation method as
UTRA (QPSK).
The Orthogonal Walsh codes of variable length (comparable to UTRA) are used
as channelization codes for spreading. Finally, the result is superimposed with a
PN sequence to distinguish it from neighboring base stations. The PN sequence
is identical to that used for IS-95 and explains the reason for compatibility
between IS-95 and MC-CDMA. Only one sequence is required to distinguish
between the base stations in IS-95 and MCCDMA because both systems Global
Positioning System (GPS) have synchronized networks. The offset of the PN
sequence is used for clear distinction of the neighboring base stations.
The UTRA FDD and TDD networks are not synchronized similar to GSM
networks.. As a result, they are not dependent on other systems, such as GPS.
Consequently, different scrambling codes are needed to distinguish between
neighboring base stations.
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1.8.2 Time Division - Synchronous CDMA / Low Chip Rate
Time Division Duplex Mode
From UMTS Release 4 on, a new RTT option, Time Division - Synchronous
CDMA (TD-SCDMA) , which was originally developed by the Chinese SDO
CATT, has been included into the UMTS standard:. TD-SCDMA is included as a
second TDD option with a lower chip rate. Therefore, it is called Low Chip Rate
TDD mode (LCR-TDD).
The key characteristics of LCR-TDD are:
1. Bandwidth: 1.6 MHz.
2. Chip Rate: 1.28 Mchip/s.
3. Spreading Factor: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16.
4. Radio Frame Length: 10 ms, subdivided into two 5 ms sub-frames.
5. Time Slot: 0.675 ms duration; 7 TS per sub-frame.
6. Data Rate Variation: SF-variation; TS combining; change of modulation.
7. A speed of maximum of 2 Mbit/s can be supported (theoretically).
8. Modulation: QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) and 8PSK (8 Phase
Shift Keying).
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Figure 3.59 illustartes the TD-SCDMA:
Fig. 59 TD-SCDMA
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1.9 High Speed Downlink Packet Access and
High Speed Uplink Packet Access
1.9.1 Introduction to High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSDPA is the first evolutionary step for the 3GPP WCDMA architecture and is
specified in the Release 5 of the 3GPP standards. HSDPA enhances the peak
download data rate from the current 384 kbps up to a theoretical maximum
downloading peak rate of 14.4 Mbps. In RAS05 the maximum supported peak
downloading rate is 1.8 Mbps.
The introduction of HSDPA to the 3G network mainly affects the Radio Access
Network, which consists of the Base Station (BTS), the RNC, and the UE.
Figure 3.60 illustrates the basic functionality of HSDPA:
Fig. 60 The basic functionality of HSDPA
HSDPA contains several technological enhancements. The increase in the
downlink data rate and the actual cell throughput are due to three main factors;
adaptive modulation and coding, fast scheduling, and fast retransmission.
For HSDPA, the data rates used in the module are mainly peak data rates. The
actual data rates experienced by the user will be lower because the radio channel
used to transmit data to the subscribers is time shared between all HSDPA users
in the cell. The channel conditions may also vary and cause more interference,
which in turn decreases downloading speeds.
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Figure 3.61 explains the data rate in HSDPA:
Fig. 61 The data rate in HSDPA
In HSDPA, adaptive modulation and coding means that the modulation used, and
the number of codes and code rate (factors that affect the downlink data rate) are
optimized dynamically during the mobile connection according to the channel
quality information (CQI) received from the UE.
The modulation is Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). In addition, the
number of codes available is limited to five out of the maximum of 15 codes
available, resulting in a maximum download peak data rate of 1.8 Mbps.
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Figure 3.62 illustrates the Adaptive Modulation in HSDPA:
Fig. 62 Adaptive Modulation in HSDPA
Future RAN releases will introduce a new modulation method – 16 Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation (16QAM), which is defined in the 3GPP Release5
specifications. The 16QAM modulation, together with a maximum of 15 codes,
allows the maximum HSDPA downlink peak data rate of around 10 Mbps. Fast
scheduling in HSDPA technological enhancements, includes a faster
Transmission Time Interval (TTI) reduced from 10 ms to 2 ms and packet
scheduling handled by the BTS.
The third HSDPA technological enhancement, fast retransmission, results from
the fact that data retransmissions are now primarily handled in the BTS in layer 1.
The TCP layer and RLC layer retransmissions are still used when needed.
In layer 1 retransmission, a process called Hybrid Automatic Retransmission
Quest (HARQ) is used to transmit the correct information to the UE. In addition to
the layer 1 retransmissions the BTS is also responsible for the Iu-b interface flow
control.
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Figure 3.63 illustrates the Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Quest:
Fig. 63 Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Quest
HSDPA also introduces new radio channels that include a transport channel,
HSDSCH, and physical channels, HS-PDSCH, which is used to carry HS-DSCH,
HSDPCCH for uplink control data purposes and HS-SCCH, which is used to carry
downlink control information.
The Iub-interface is also used more efficiently because the time-shared channel
used to carry HSDPA data and also due to the fact that HSDPA does not support
soft handover.
Besides the capacity and data rate improvements, HSDPA requires only marginal
investments to the current WCDMA network because it can be deployed using
small upgrades and does not require a completely new network structure.
Therefore, HSDPA protects the investments made to the network. HSDPA is also
compatible with earlier RAN releases and enables the gradual introduction of the
technology. All of these improvements allow operators to offer services at a lower
cost per delivered bit.
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Figure 64 explain the new radio channels in HSDPA:
Fig. 64 New radio channels in HSDPA
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1.9.2 Introduction to High Speed Uplink Packet Access
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) defines a new radio interface for the
uplink communication. HSUPA was introduced in Release 6. The first standard
was improved in December 2004, and the 3GPP Release 6 core specifications
defining the enhanced uplink were completed in May 2005. HSUPA is also known
as FDD Enhanced uplink or E-DCH. As with HSDPA, the aim with HSUPA has
been to increase capacity and throughput while reducing delay.
Following key features are introduced with HSUPA to achieve this:
1. A new dedicated uplink channel Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH)
2. Introduction of HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Retransmission request)
3. Fast Node B Scheduling in uplink - introduction of MAC-e/es (Page 16
HSUPA)
4. Support of Macro diversity ( Soft Handover)
5. Shorter TTI of 2 ms
Introduction of MAC-e in Node B and UE and of MAC-es in RNC and UE.The
MAC-es/e sublayer was introduced to handle the E-DCH specific functions. On
the UE side the MAC-e/es entity provides the HARQ functionality, multiplexing of
multiple MAC-D PDUS into MAC-es and MAC-e PDUs and setting of the
Transmissions Sequence Number (TSN). Furthermore the MAC-e/es entity is
responsible for the selection of the E-TFC (Transport Format Combination)
according to the scheduling information.
The MAC-e in the Node B controls access to the E-DCH and is connected to
MAC-es located in the s-RNC. That means MAC-e in the Node B performs the
E-DCH Scheduling and the HARQ - functionality. Additionally the MAC-e
demultiplexes the MAC-e PDUs to their corresponding MAC-d flows into MAC-es
PDUs and forwards them to the s-RNC. Note that the soft combining for the
possible multiple Radio Links of a Node B takes place in the Node B.
The MAC-es entity in the s-RNC performs reordering functions and Macro
Diversity Selection in case of soft handover with multiple Node Bs. Then it
disassembles the MAC-es-PDUs to MAC-d PDUs and forwards them to MAC-d.
Benefits of the HSUPA
The user data rates, the delay properties, the cell throughput and the cell
coverage are important properties that partly characterize the efficiency of the
mobile network system. The HSUPA is designed to improve all these properties
and thus enable improved user experience that brings added value for end users
and network operators.
It is estimated that the User Data rates are improved by 20 – 100 % depending
on the network conditions. Round trip times as short as 50 milliseconds are to be
attained. The cell throughput is estimated to improve by 20 – 50 %.
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The coverage gain is between 0.5 and 1.5 decibels. As with the HSDPA, the
coding rate can be changed dynamically in order to adapt dynamically to the
channel conditions. In the HSUPA, the half rate, three to- four ratio rate and
four-to-four ratio coding rates are defined by the 3GPP specifications.
The implementation of the HSUPA functionality requires changes in the layer 1
signalling between the User Equipment and the Base Transceiver Station. The
new signalling must be able to handle the acknowledgements sent over the air
interface, scheduling information and the actual retransmissions of the data
packets. The introduction of the HSUPA will also cause certain changes in the
Iub interface and in the Uu interface for layer 2 and 3 functionality.
Figure 65 explain the Transmission in HSUPA:
Fig. 65 Transmission in HSUPA
The retransmission concept in the HSUPA resembles that of the HSDPA case.
The three layers of transmissions include retransmission over the air interface,
RLC layer retransmission between the User Equipment and the Radio Network
Controller, and the retransmission in the TCP layer between the User Equipment
and the application server. In the HSUPA case, all the base stations that are in
the soft handover mode will send acknowledgements independently.
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Figure 66 explain the retransmission concept in the HSUPA:
Fig. 66 Retransmission concept in the HSUPA
Unlike HSDPA, HSUPA remains based on a dedicated channel. The Enhanced
Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) is introduced as a new transport channel for user
data in the uplink direction. To support the E-DCH, two new physical channels in
the uplink directions have been specified:
E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH)
E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH)
The E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel is used to carry uplink user data.
The E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel transmits control information for
E-DPDCH including information to enable the Node B to decode the transmitted
user data (Scheduling and Transport Format Related Information). E-DPDCH and
E-DPCCH are transmitted simultaneously.
In the downlink direction two new physical channels are introduced to perform
scheduling tasks:
E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH)
E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH)
The E-AGCH and E-RGCH are used for the uplink Fast Scheduling mechanism.
Another physical channel is introduced in the downlink direction to support the
HARQ functionality:
E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel (E-HICH)
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Similar to the HS-DPCCH in HSDPA in the uplink direction the E-HICH offers
feedback about the received data from the Node B to the UE in form of ACK
(Acknowledgement) or NACK (Negative Acknowledgement).
Figure 67 explains the type of channels in HSUPA:
Fig. 67 Type of channels in HSUPA
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1.10 Appendix
1.10.1 UMTS radio network planning
In this course module, we have been dealing with quite general information that is
useful to everybody within the operator's technical organisation. In the remaining
parts of this module, we will have a closer look at some important issues related
to radio network planning.
1.10.1.1 Introduction to UMTS radio network planning
Major steps in all UMTS network planning will be in most part identical to current
2nd generation network planning. These steps are summarised as follows:
1. Basic network dimensioning
This will be in most parts similar to previous cellular networks, but the difference
will be that the main traffic type for the next five years is estimated to be medium
to high speed data, not low speed (8-16 kbit/s) speech. Hence, new packet
switched services conveyed by the GPRS/packet core network will have an effect
on dimensioning.
2. Site selection
Because most new WCDMA operators are also 2nd generation PDC or GSM
operators, the site selection will be done in co-operation with site acquisition and
existing sites.
3. Detailed network planning
More detailed WCDMA network planning will be done after preliminary site
selection, including issues like coverage/capacity planning, propagation model
tuning, parameter planning, and soft/softer handover overhead analysis and
optimisation.
Preliminary capacity simulations estimate around 250 - 300 Erlangs per cell using
three sectors. This could be enhanced further by, for instance, using beam
forming intelligent antennas or several scrambling codes (frequencies) within the
same cell.
Because actual capacity of a single cell is dependent from much larger variety of
different, and changeable, factors and parameters than with current
2nd-generation systems, we call this soft capacity.
4. Network testing and tuning
Interference level testing (intra-cell, inter-cell, etc.) and related power level tuning
will play a major part in the process of trying to get maximum capacity from any
WCDMA type of network.
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1.10.1.2 Issues of UMTS planning compared with GSM planning
The frequency planning is a very important planning area in GSM networks. The
frequency band available for GSM purposes is relatively limited and it must be
used as efficiently as possible.
As there is a limited amount of carriers available, the operator must repeat those
frequently. The aim of frequency planning is to create and maintain suitable
methods of how this frequency repeating can be done so that the same
frequencies are not repeated too often and too close to each other. In other
words, the frequency planning aims to maintain radio connection quality at an
adequate level with limited resources.
As a basic assumption, the WCDMA frequency re-use factor is 1, that is, every
cell uses the same frequency. This has a remarkable effect on the radio network
planning and the principles are completely different than in case of GSM. In GSM
systems, interference is a bad obstacle, but in WCDMA systems a certain level of
interference is actually required to have an optimally functioning UTRAN.
However, when working with GSM and UMTS networks, the use of GSM for
coverage provision, handovers and the direction of traffic to GSM vs. UMTS must
be considered.
UMTS networks work in a multi-service environment, where the bit rates vary
from around 8 kbit/s to (theoretically) 2 Mbit/s depending on the subscribers'
activities. Furthermore, UMTS provides bearers based upon quality classes where
traffic is asymmetric in the uplink and downlink directions.
1.10.1.3 Basic difference between GSM and WCDMA
There are many obvious differences between the GSM and UMTS air interface.
For the reasons of simplicity, we can say that there are two distinct categories of
differences in UMTS: the multi-services to a subscriber and the air interface itself.
The UMTS multi-service environment can support bit rates from 12.2 kbit/s to 2
Mbit/s, at variable rate (unlike the GSM fixed rate).
In NSN's RAN 1 release the maximum bit rate is 384 kbit/s. The services in RAN
1 are divided to Real Time (RT) and Non-Real Time (NRT), each of these having
a different quality class and different error ratios, BLER (Bit Loss Error Ratio),
and BER (Bit Error Ratio). The delay sensitivity is from 100 ms to seconds. There
is asymmetric traffic in the uplink and downlink traffic. As a result, more
transmission capacity is needed.
In WCDMA the size of the cell actually changes. As more capacity (that is, more
voice calls or higher data rates) is applied to a cell, the actual diameter will
shrink. This phenomenon is thus referred to as cell breathing. Features are used
in the Nokia solution to reduce its effects. In WCDMA, we also have several
different physical channels, while as in GSM, we only have one (the timeslot).
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In WCDMA, cell capacity is based upon load and neighbour cell interference.
Also neighbouring cells using the same frequency, and therefore the concept of
gain through soft handovers are introduced. The usage of soft handovers
increases the load in a cell, but the overall effect is a gain since the interference
is reduced. Also, in CDMA, fast power control commands are used to ensure high
capacity. Very fast and accurate TX power control is required.
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
1. In UMTS, there are two methods used for transport through the air interface.
    The first is UMTS-FDD. What is the second one?
TDD, Time Doubled Division
CDD, Code Division Duplex
TDD, Time Division Duplex
CDD, Code Divided Data
Exercise 2
Which of the following is introduced in Rel 5 ?
HSUPA
UMTS
HSDPA
EDGE
Exercise 3
Which release includes HSUPA?
Rel 3
Rel 5
Rel 6
Rel 99
Exercise 4
Which statement best describes the phenomenon called cell breathing?
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When more capacity is used, the cell spreads in size.
When more capacity is used, the cell shrinks in size.
The cell will adjust its size in line with the furthest users.
Cell breathing is the height of the cell, 2 - 3 km towards
the atmosphere.
Exercise 5
Which statement is true of scrambling codes?
To separate downlink physical channels in a cell..
To separate user data and signalling in the network.
As security to check if the User Equipment (UE) is not stolen.
To separate different cells in the downlink direction
Exercise 6
Which UMTS channel is NOT available at Physical Layer?
BCCH
CCPCH
DPCH
DPDCH
Exercise 7
What is the maximum data speed (Theoritical) in HSDPA?
2 Mb
14.4 Mb
8 Mb
10 Mb
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Exercise 8
What is the chip rate is MC-CDMA ?
3 Mcps
2 Mcps
1.228 Mcps
5 Mcps
Exercise 9
What is the bandwidth used in TD-SCDMA?
5 MHz
3.84 MHz
1.22 MHz
1.6 MHz
Exercise 10
Which statement is true for channelization?
The lower the bit rate, the more data can be spread.
Before spreading, an error-protection code needs to be added to
the baseband data to ensure a safe path through the air interface.
The channelisation code is added as part of the spreading function.
The channelisation code depends on the spreading factor used.
All of the above.
Exercise 11
Which modulation type is used in UMTS?
GMSK
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QPSK
8PSK
BPSK
Exercise 12
Which modulation type is used in HSDPA?
16QAM
QPSK
8PSK
BPSK
Exercise 13
For which tasks is the RAKE receiver NOT responsible? (Choose two)
Multipath Propagation Delay
Listening to surrounding BTSs
Channel coding
Speech coding
Exercise 14
Which statement is true of Admission Control?
The UEs handle resource allocation.
The RNC makes the decision of resource allocation, based upon
interference.
The RNC will not limit the number of the users on a cell.
As more users are allocated a code, the load on a cell remains the same.
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Exercise 15
Which statement is true when RNC is used to allocate codes?
Each cell has a scrambling code that acts like a cell ID.
Channelisation codes are dependent upon the subscribers' identity.
Scrambling codes are generated randomly.
Scrambling codes are used in channelisation.
Exercise 16
Which power control is used when a mobile phone is idle?
Closed loop power control
Outer loop power control
Internal loop power control
Open loop power control
Exercise 17
Select the right handover type.
    1. Soft 2. Softer 3. Hard 4. Inter-system 5. Not possible
Sector 1 to Sector 2 (same Node B) _____ 2
Node B x to Node B y _____ 1
RNC to RNC with Iur interface _____ 1
RNC to RNC with no Iur interface _____ 3
UMTS-FDD to UMTS-TDD _____ 5
WCDMA to GSM _____ 4
WCDMA to IS-95 _____ 5
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Exercise 18
What is the difference between micro and macro diversity?
There is no difference.
Micro diversity is the combination of signals between the Node B and the UE,
whereas macro diversity is the combination of signals from many Node Bs in
the RNC.
Macro diversity is the combination of signals between the Node B and the
UE, whereas micro diversity is the combination of signals from many Node
Bs in the RNC.
 Macro and micro diversity are UE-specific functions.
Exercise 19
What is the one difference between HSDPA and HSUPA ?
HSDPA supports Soft handover, HSUPA does not.
HSDPA does not supports Soft handover, HSUPA does.
Both of the support Soft Handover.
None of the above
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
1. In UMTS, there are two methods used for transport through the air interface.
    The first is UMTS-FDD. What is the second one?
TDD, Time Doubled Division
CDD, Code Division Duplex
TDD, Time Division Duplex
CDD, Code Divided Data
Exercise 2 (Solution)
Which of the following is introduced in Rel 5 ?
HSUPA
UMTS
HSDPA
EDGE
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which release includes HSUPA?
Rel 3
Rel 5
Rel 6
Rel 99
Exercise 4 (Solution)
Which statement best describes the phenomenon called cell breathing?
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When more capacity is used, the cell spreads in size.
When more capacity is used, the cell shrinks in size.
The cell will adjust its size in line with the furthest users.
Cell breathing is the height of the cell, 2 - 3 km towards
the atmosphere.
Exercise 5 (Solution)
Which statement is true of scrambling codes?
To separate downlink physical channels in a cell..
To separate user data and signalling in the network.
As security to check if the User Equipment (UE) is not stolen.
To separate different cells in the downlink direction
Exercise 6 (Solution)
Which UMTS channel is NOT available at Physical Layer?
BCCH
CCPCH
DPCH
DPDCH
Exercise 7 (Solution)
What is the maximum data speed (Theoritical) in HSDPA?
2 Mb
14.4 Mb
8 Mb
10 Mb
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Exercise 8 (Solution)
What is the chip rate is MC-CDMA ?
3 Mcps
2 Mcps
1.228 Mcps
5 Mcps
Exercise 9 (Solution)
What is the bandwidth used in TD-SCDMA?
5 MHz
3.84 MHz
1.22 MHz
1.6 MHz
Exercise 10 (Solution)
Which statement is true for channelization?
The lower the bit rate, the more data can be spread.
Before spreading, an error-protection code needs to be added to
the baseband data to ensure a safe path through the air interface.
The channelisation code is added as part of the spreading function.
The channelisation code depends on the spreading factor used.
All of the above.
Exercise 11 (Solution)
Which modulation type is used in UMTS?
GMSK
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QPSK
8PSK
BPSK
Exercise 12 (Solution)
Which modulation type is used in HSDPA?
16QAM
QPSK
8PSK
BPSK
Exercise 13 (Solution)
For which tasks is the RAKE receiver NOT responsible? (Choose two)
Multipath Propagation Delay
Listening to surrounding BTSs
Channel coding
Speech coding
Exercise 14 (Solution)
Which statement is true of Admission Control?
The UEs handle resource allocation.
The RNC makes the decision of resource allocation, based upon
interference.
The RNC will not limit the number of the users on a cell.
As more users are allocated a code, the load on a cell remains the same.
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Exercise 15 (Solution)
Which statement is true when RNC is used to allocate codes?
Each cell has a scrambling code that acts like a cell ID.
Channelisation codes are dependent upon the subscribers' identity.
Scrambling codes are generated randomly.
Scrambling codes are used in channelisation.
Exercise 16 (Solution)
Which power control is used when a mobile phone is idle?
Closed loop power control
Outer loop power control
Internal loop power control
Open loop power control
Exercise 17 (Solution)
Select the right handover type.
    1. Soft 2. Softer 3. Hard 4. Inter-system 5. Not possible
Sector 1 to Sector 2 (same Node B) _____ 2
Node B x to Node B y _____ 1
RNC to RNC with Iur interface _____ 1
RNC to RNC with no Iur interface _____ 3
UMTS-FDD to UMTS-TDD _____ 5
WCDMA to GSM _____ 4
WCDMA to IS-95 _____ 5
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Exercise 18 (Solution)
What is the difference between micro and macro diversity?
There is no difference.
Micro diversity is the combination of signals between the Node B and the UE,
whereas macro diversity is the combination of signals from many Node Bs in
the RNC.
Macro diversity is the combination of signals between the Node B and the
UE, whereas micro diversity is the combination of signals from many Node
Bs in the RNC.
 Macro and micro diversity are UE-specific functions.
Exercise 19 (Solution)
What is the one difference between HSDPA and HSUPA ?
HSDPA supports Soft handover, HSUPA does not.
HSDPA does not supports Soft handover, HSUPA does.
Both of the support Soft Handover.
None of the above
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UMTS Identity and Traffic
Management
Contents
1 UMTS Identity and Traffic Management................................................. 2
1.1 Module Objective........................................................................................ 2
1.2 Explain and List the Databases Used in Traffic Management
Within the UMTS Network...........................................................................3
1.3 List the Characteristics of a Bearer .............................................................6
1.4 Explain the Area Identifiers used in UTMS, and their
Hierarchy...................................................................................................13
1.5 Explain Identities Related to Subscriber in UMTS.................................... 19
1.6 List the General Procedures for the Mobile to Gain Access
to the Network...........................................................................................22
1.7 Radio Resource Control States, Mobility Management, and
Connection Management.......................................................................... 26
1.8 Session Management................................................................................40
1.9 The Session Management of Real Time and Non-Real Time
Bearers are Handled Through the Network.............................................. 50
1.10 Communication Management....................................................................57
1.11 Appendix....................................................................................................61
2 Exercises..................................................................................................63
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................67
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1 UMTS Identity and Traffic
Management
1.1 Module Objective
The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining how traffic management is visualized in a UMTS network. Topics to
be covered in this module include understanding the network databases and the
information stored within them. At an overview level, you we will look at the
different management layers in the network.
After completing the module, the participant should be able to:
List and identify the databases used within the UMTS network.
Identify the subscriber addressing information.
Name the characteristics of a bearer.
Describe how the connection moves with the subscriber when a bearer is in
use.
Explain Identities Related to Subscriber in UMTS.
List the procedures used to maintain mobility management in the network.
List the procedures done when the mobile gains access to the network.
Identify how the network selection is made.
Describe how the session management of real time and non-real time
bearers are handled through the network.
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1.2 Explain and List the Databases Used in
Traffic Management Within the UMTS
Network
1.2.1 Network Databases
The databases are used to control UMTS network activities such as paging,
channel set-up, and authentication. They are also used to store other information
about the subscriber, such as rights to services, security data, and identification
numbers.
Figure 1 summarizes the databases that are found within a mobile network:
Fig. 1 Mobile Network Databases
Since the core network will not change dramatically in the first release of UMTS,
the registers are similar to those in Global System for Mobile Communication
(GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).
1.2.1.1 Visitor Location Register
Visitor Location Register (VLR) database contains temporary copies of the active
subscribers, who have performed a location update in its area. VLR is considered
to be an integral part of the Serving Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The VLR
maintains mobility management related procedures such as location update,
location registration, paging, and security activities.
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A mobile phone is roaming in the supply area of an MSC, which is controlled by a
VLR. When the Mobile Station (MS) enters the VLR supply area, it is
automatically in a new location area. The MS starts the location update or
registration process. It gets registered in the VLR, which also holds the
information of the mobile phone’s current location.
If the MS is in the supply area of the VLR for the first time, interaction with the
HLR is required to retrieve data required for authentication and the subscription
profile. If the location update request takes place within a VLR supply area, an
interaction with the HLR is only required when the VLR does not have valid data
to perform the authentication procedure.
Given the subscriber profile in the VLR, the VLR is also involved in the call set-up
process. It holds the relevant information for authorization. The VLR stores crucial
data such as the:
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
Mobile Station International ISDN number (MSISDN)
Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI), if applicable
Last known location area (LAI)
1.2.1.2 Home Location Register
Home Location Register (HLR) contains permanent data of the subscribers. One
subscriber can always be in only one HLR. The HLR is responsible for mobility
management related procedures in both the circuit switched and packet switched
domains.
The circuit-switched network elements MSC and Gateway MSC (GMSC) are
connected to the HLR through the interfaces C and D, while the packet-switched
network elements Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS
Support Node (GGSN) are connected to it through the interfaces Gr and Gc.
MSC and SGSN are serving the User Equipment (UE) locally. They have to
interact with the HLR to retrieve information necessary for service provisioning.
GMSC and GGSN require location information to route mobile terminated call to
the serving MSC and SGSN.
1.2.1.3 Authentication Centre
Authentic Centre (AuC) is a database handling the Authentication Vectors. These
vectors contain the parameters that the VLR uses for security activities performed
over the Iu interface.
AuC is connected only with the HLR through the non-standardized interface H.
The HLR requests data for authentication and cipher setting from the AuC. The
HLR can store this data and make it available to the VLR and SGSN on demand.
The data delivered from the AuC is used for the following three functions:
1. Mutually authenticating the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card through
IMSI and the serving Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN).
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2. Delivering a key to check the communication integrity over the radio path
between the UE the Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN).
3. Ciphering over the radio path between the user equipment and the Radio
Network Controller (RNC).
1.2.1.4 Equipment Identity Register
Equipment Identify Register (EIR) maintains the security information related to the
UE hardware. This optional database is used to verify the International Mobile
Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers. The EIR is organized in the following three
lists:
Black list - Holds IMEIs, which are forbidden in the PLMN
Grey list - Holds IMEIs under supervision by law enforcement agencies
White list - Holds IMEIs, which are allowed to access the PLMN
A mobile phone can be also classified as to be unknown in the EIR. The interface
F connects the EIR with the VLR, while the Gf interface links it with the SGSN.
The Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) is an intermediate store for the
received/sent short messages. Therefore, it has signaling connections with the
VLR, GPRS Support Nodes, and Gateway/Interworking MSC.
The Intelligent Network (IN) Service Control Point (SCP) nowadays has Intelligent
Network Application Part (INAP) and/or Camel Application Part (CAP)
connections towards the Core Network-Circuit Switched (CN-CS) domain
elements. The CN-CS domain elements having the IN connection are called
Service Switching Points (SSPs).
In the packet-switched domain, the HLR is still a centralized source of
information. However, two service nodes are used to supply the required Internet
Protocol (IP) access information, the Domain Name Server (DNS) and Firewalls.
The DNS is used for Access Point Name (APN) to GGSN IP address translation.
The SGSN needs to find out which GGSN that supports access to this a specific
access point. The role of the DNS is therefore to give the SGSN the IP address
to the GGSN.
After this, the GGSN is able to route the subscriber’s request further. The border
between the corporate networks, public IP, and 3G Core Network-Packet Switch
(CN-PS) domain is maintained by the GGSN which may use the RADIUS
database for user authentication. Firewalls are used for security control of
external network connections. Other nodes such as voice mail systems and
application servers can also contain subscriber and network information.
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1.3 List the Characteristics of a Bearer
1.3.1 Identify the Bearer
A bearer is similar to a tunnel that goes through the different network elements
and is carried on the different network interfaces.
Figure 2 describes the Network Bearer:
Fig. 2 Network Bearer
An application, such as video, in a mobile has a point-to-point connection to a
remote application, such as video, on another terminal. From the physical
network's point of view, the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) must ensure
that the bearer is maintained over the Air Interface and is correctly routed to the
core network.
The core network ensures that the bearer is connected into either the service
platform, or the Internet, or an external network, or in the case of a voice/video
call, onto the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In the case of the
PSTN, the information/data in the bearer pipe must be converted to a form that is
understood by the outside world.
Figure 3 explains data and speech is routed through the bearer:
Fig. 3 Data and Speech Routing through the Bearer
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1.3.2 Characteristic of a Network Bearer
If you think in terms of GSM, you probably consider the traffic channel to be the
same as a bearer in the Air Interface. However, the bearer does not share all the
characteristics of a traffic channel. For example, unlike the traffic channel, the
bearer can carry different types of data such as speech and circuit-switched data.
The fundamental difference between GSM and UMTS is that in UMTS, the bearer
is flexible. The type of the bearer is reserved and the way it is routed through the
network depends on the subscriber's service need. To better understand this
concept, consider two examples.
Example 1: Voice Traffic
Suppose that voice data requires a data speed of 12.2 kb/s.
Note: The bit rate depends on the speech coding method used for the voice data.
To ensure quality, if we add error correction information/data, the total amount of
data needed in the Air Interface is approximately 24 kb/s. For the interfaces
within the radio access network (Iub, Iur) and towards the circuit switched-core
network (Iu), the bit rate required is around 16-19 kb/s, including overhead.
Therefore, you need a connection from the mobile to the Media Gateway that can
support these bit rates. In addition, you have to take the delay factor into account.
As subscribers you are not tolerant of delays in speech or video conversations.
Example 2: Internet Connection
Consider the example of connecting to the Internet using your mobile. Internet
traffic is often burst and asymmetric because there is usually more to download
than to upload. In addition, the delay factor is not as significant for Internet
connection as for conversation and therefore, more variable bit rates can be
tolerated. However, in this case the data may be very sensitive to errors as
compared to voice transmission.
From the preceding two examples, you can conclude that the network will
allocate the bearer based upon the request of the subscriber's need. To be more
precise, it is the RNC that makes the decision about the bearer allocation.
1.3.3 Types and Configuration of Bearers
As with all mobile systems, the largest bottlenecks in allocating resources to a
mobile subscriber are in the Air Interface. This is the reason why the RNC is
responsible for the bearer allocation. The Air Interface is limited in terms of the
maximum amount of subscribers, the maximum data rates, the coverage area,
and quality of data transmission. In UMTS, all of these factors are linked together.
If you introduce more people to a cell, then the size and bit rate reduces. The
UMTS specification defines four classifications of bearers.
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Figure 4 shows the different Air Interface classifications:
Fig. 4 Different Air Interface Classifications of Bearers
Figure 5 illustrates typical data speeds needed for common 3G services:
Fig. 5 Typical Data Speeds Needed for Common 3G Services
It is necessary that the transmission and core networks must be capable of
supporting the data speed different needs. Consequently, one of the important
tasks for the network planners is to dimension the accurate capacity in the
network beyond the Air Interface.
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For example, if a video call has to be made through the network. A dedicated
traffic channel for the Air Interface must then be requested. The UE must also
inform the network about the required bearer classification and data speed. It is
then the RNC's responsibility to allocate an Air Interface channel and to establish
the connections through to the core network.
1.3.4 Bearer Transmission in the Network
During transmission throughout the network, the bearer resides in a physical
channel. On connection between the BTS and the RNC and towards the
MSC/SGSN, a frame-structure protocol, typically ATM, is used.
Figure 6 demonstrates this transmission through the use of pipes between
elements in the network:
Fig. 6 Transmission through the Network using Pipes
The Air Interface also has physical channels, which are used to carry signaling
messages and data between the terminal and the network. The network elements
ensure that the right data is moved from one pipe to another. In the Circuit
Switched-Core Network (CS-CN) domain, there is always a dedicated circuit for
the connection and it is only released at the end of the call.
In the Packet Switched-Core Network (PS-CN), tunneling is used to make a
virtual connection between IP network elements. Although tunneling ensures a
semi-dedicated channel in an IP network, it is still not the same as having a
dedicated circuit in the network. Basically, the tunnel enables a virtual circuit
between the RNC through the SGSN, and towards the GGSN.
1.3.5 Managing the Bearer Through The Network
The UMTS network is responsible for establishing a flexible bearer for subscriber
data transport between the Mobile Terminal (MT) and the external networks. In
the bearer set-up phase, the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters must be
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known, so that the individual network elements within the UMTS network are able
to set-up the bearer.
Figure 7 explains the QoS management in the control plane:
Fig. 7 QoS Management in the Control Plane
To establish a bearer in accordance to the QoS requirements of the user’s circuit
switched application, a peer-to-peer Bearer Service (BS) signaling between the
MT, MSC, and GMSC takes place. In case of a packet-orientated service request,
bearer related signaling and control information/data must be exchanged between
the MT, SGSN, and GGSN.
The peer-to-peer signaling is necessary, so that the affected network elements
can determine the required QoS parameters for the end-to-end bearer. If one
network element is not capable of establishing the bearer, a re-negotiation can be
initiated to find an alternative bearer. However, re-negotiation is possible only if
the subscriber’s application permits it, or if the UMTS PLMN is not capable of
offering the requested service.
If the UMTS BS manager uses the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) for QoS
negotiation between each other. If BS manager agreed on the QoS parameters
for the bearer, the UMTS BS manager of the CN informs the CN BS manager
about the QoS parameters for the bearer between SGSN and GGSN. It is then
the responsibility of the CN BS manager to negotiate on how to make the bearer
available and which route to take between the SGSN and GGSN. If BS manager
agreed on the QoS parameter at their level, they inform the Backbone Network
Service (BB NS) manager about the set QoS parameter. Within the backbone,
any transmission technology such as IP over ATM or IP over Frame Relay may
be applied.
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Depending on the underlying transmission technology and signaling protocols
used, the network elements must conduct signaling to step-by-step establish the
bearer between SGSN and GGSN.
A bearer also must be established between the MT and the SGSN. The RNC is
responsible for the resource management within UTRAN. The RNC
manages Radio Access Bearer (RAB). A RAB refers to one bearer/connection
between an MT and a core network edge element such as SGSN or MSC.
The RNC must establish the bearer on Uu, Iub, Iu, and, if required, on Iur. After
determining the internally used QoS parameter from the QoS parameters set by
the manager in the SGSN, it informs its Iu BS manager to negotiate and establish
the bearer between itself and the SGSN.
The RAB manager also informs the Radio BS manager about the required QoS
parameter. The Radio BS manager then determines the radio QoS parameters.
The physical parameters for the transmission through the radio interface, such as
spreading codes, spreading factor, type of convolution coding, are then
determined in the underlying UTRA physical BS manager.
The whole process is conducted to establish a bearer on every physical link
within the UMTS operator’s network, in accordance with the QoS required for the
subscriber’s application.
Bearers for signaling can also be negotiated. However, they are often made
available during operation and maintenance.
1.3.6 Managing the Bearer over UTRAN
In UMTS there may be a number of connections between the core network and
the mobile. As an example, a subscriber may have a video, voice, and Internet
connection bearer open. This means that the subscriber will be using multiple
bearers to support each service. As explained before, each of these connections
is known as a RAB.
The RABs for an individual subscriber are grouped together into a Radio
Resource Control (RRC). RRC is a stack structure in which the RABs are
located. Therefore, if you need to move the RRC, for example in the case of a
handover from one BTS to another, then you need to move the whole RRC.
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Figure 8 shows how the different RABs are received by the RNC and combined
together to form a single RRC connection:
Fig. 8 Relationship between the RAB and RRC in the UTRAN
The 3G specifications make provision for procedures that allow for the RAB to be
added, modified, and removed in an RRC. This may be required if a subscriber
needs an additional service, for example, downloading e-mail messages.
To control the connection between the network and the mobile, a signaling
protocol called RRC is used. By using the protocol, the network can carry
messages that are required to set up, modify, and release RRC.
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1.4 Explain the Area Identifiers used in UTMS,
and their Hierarchy
1.4.1 Hierarchy of GSM/UMTS Service Areas and Codes
The GSM/UTMS service areas and codes have the following hierarchical levels:
International GSM/UMTS Service Area - The international GSM/UMTS
Service Area refers to the world-wide area where access to GSM or UMTS
networks is possible. It is sub-divided into National Service Areas.
National Service Area - The National Service Area is the area of a country
or a region. It is identified by the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and the
Country Code (CC) and is sub-divided into one or more PLMN Service
Areas.
Location Area (LA)  - An LA is the most precise UE location information,
which is stored in the circuit-switched domain in the VLR of UMTS. An LA is
uniquely identified world-wide by its Location Area Identity (LAI). The LAI is
composed of the MCC with 3 digits, the MNC with 2 or 3 digits, and the
Location Area Code (LAC) with2 bytes. The LAC identifies an LA within a
PLMN. The LAI is used as CN-CS Domain Identifier (Domain -Id). A CN
Domain-Id is used within UTRAN to identify a CN-CS Domain Node for
relocation purposes.
Routing Area (RA)  - An RA is a sub-set of LA. One LA may contain one or
more RAs. The RA is the most precise UE information, which is stored in the
PS-domain in the SGSN of UMTS. It is uniquely identified world-wide by the
Routing Area Identity (RAI). The RA is sub-divided into the Cell Areas. The
RAI is composed of the MCC, the MNC, the LAC, and the Routing Area
Code (RAC), with 1 byte. The RAC identifies an RA uniquely within an LA.
The RAI is used as CN-PS (Domain -Id).
PLMN Service Area - A PLMN Service Area is the service area of a single
PLMN. It is identified by the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the Network
Destination Code (NDC) and is sub-divided into one or more MSC and SGSN
Service Areas. An MSC Service Area is served by a single MSC in the
circuit-switched domain and SGSN Service Area is served by a single SGSN
in the PS-domain. MSC and SGSN service areas are on the same
hierarchical level. The MSCs and SGSNs have their own identities or
addresses for signaling and user data transfer. The MSC Service Area is
sub-divided into one or more LA and the SGSN Service Area is sub-divided
into one or more RA.
Cell Area - The Cell Area means the area, where the UE is located. It is the
most precise data to be stored in the PLMN, in the RNC. The Cell is uniquely
identified world-wide by the Cell Global Identity (CGI).
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The CGI is composed of the MCC, the MNC, the LAC, and the Cell Identity
(CI) with 2 bytes. The CI identifies a cell uniquely within an LA. LAI, RAI, and
CGI are very important LAIs. Many other areas are also specified in UMTS.
Figure 9 illustrates hierarchy of GSM/UMTS Service Areas / Codes:
Fig. 9 Hierarchy of GSM/UMTS Service Areas / Codes
The smallest entity within the radio network is known as a cell, which is served by
a base station. The operating size of the CI can change geographically
depending on the parameters used. The cells are grouped together
geographically into LA, RA, and URA.
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Figure 10 illustrates the structure of the network:
Fig. 10 UMTS Cellular Architecture
The reasoning behind the structure of the network is to make UMTS backward
compatible with GSM and GPRS. The location areas are used in the CS Domain
as the routing areas are used in the PS Domain. A single cell can belong to both
a LA and RA and this information is used by the core network for routing
information to the Radio Access Network (RAN).
In GSM, two separate connections are made for circuit-switched and
packet-switched data. In UMTS, there is a single connection that can carry
multiple bearers. Therefore, to reduce the excessive amount of signaling that may
occur, an URA is introduced to monitor the location of a subscriber in the RAN.
Note that, one MSC can have many LAs, but an LA cannot be used across
MSCs. An RA can be used cross Base Station Controllers (BSCs), but not MSCs.
A cell cannot belong to different LA or RA, they must be unique. A cell can
belong to more than one URA.
1.4.1.1 Network Location Areas
The LA is used in the CS Domain. The LA consists minimum of one cell and the
maximum limit is all the cells under one VLR. Therefore, the maximum size of
one LA could be the same as the VLR area.
In the location update procedure the location of the UE is updated in the VLR
with LA accuracy. This information is needed in case of a mobile terminated call.
The VLR pages the desired UE from the location area it has performed the latest
location update on. The LA does not have any other hardware bindings other
than the VLR. For example, one RNC may have several LAs or an LA may cover
several RNCs.
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LAI is unique number throughout the world. LAI is composed of the following
parts:
LAI = MCC + MNC + LA Code
Where:
MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits)
LA code = A number identifying the LA.
To globally separate cells from each other, the identity is expanded and called
CGI. CGI is composed of the following parts and in this case it is called:
CGI = MCC + MNC + LA Code + CI
Where:
MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits)
LA code = A number identifying the LA.
Cl= Cell number within the network
1.4.1.2 Network Routing Areas
An RA is the area where the UE may move without performing the routing area
update in the PS Domain.
On the other hand, the RA is kind of a subset of LA. One LA may have several
RAs within it, but not vice versa. In addition, one RA cannot belong to two LAs.
The reason RA and LA co-exist is the possibility to have a UE supporting either
circuit or packet traffic, but not both. At the core network side, the VLR and the
SGSN can have a common optional interface, Gs, through which these nodes
may change location information. For example, if the UE performs a location
update, the VLR may inform SGSN through the Gs interface that the UE should
also perform routing area update in order to guarantee packet traffic.
1.4.1.3 UTRAN Registration Areas
The reason for having the CIs, Las, and RAs is to ensure compatibility to GSM
and GPRS networks. In 3G/UMTS, an additional grouping of cells URA is
introduced.
As the RNC has greater mobility management functions, and it controls
handovers between RNCs, it must identify which cells belong to which RNC. As a
subscriber moves into the geographical range of the RNCs serving area, the
subscriber is allocated into the serving URA. Only when the subscriber moves
from the control or supervision of one RNC to another, the information has to be
updated.
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When transmitting the paging signal, the RNC can limit the paging to the URA
area, therefore, reducing the amount of signalling in the network. SGSN uses the
RNC address when routing packets for a designated user. With URA, it is also
possible to create more accurate demographic areas within the network, which
means that a URA can be defined more flexibly than LA or RA with respect to the
subscriber location and the pattern of movement.
Figure 11 illustrates the RNC and URA architecture in the network:
Fig. 11 RNC and URA Architecture in the Network
The MSC and the VLR still use the LA-based method for mobility management
functions for circuit-switched operations, such as CS call set-up. For GPRS, the
3G-SGSN still works on the basis of RAs. Therefore, the only new entities are the
URA and UTRAN positioning services. Unlike in GSM, the RNC can handle
inter-RNC handovers through the Iur interface. In GSM, the MSC is always
responsible for inter-BSC handovers. As UMTS networks are designed to work
with different types of core network, the only way that the network can identify the
cells belonging to specific RNC is based on the use of URA.
1.4.2 User and User Equipment Identities
The user and user equipment identities are as follows:
IMSI
MSISDN
IMEI
The IMSI is the quasi-permanent subscriber identity in GSM/UMTS. The IMSI is
composed of the MCC with 3 digits, MNC with 2 digits, Mobile Subscriber
Identification Number (MSIN) with 10 digits. The total length of the IMSI is 15
digits.
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The MSISDN is an ISDN telephone number of the GSM subscriber. The MS
international ISDN numbers are allocated from the CCITT Recommendation
E.164 numbering plan, see also CCITT Recommendation E.213. The number
consists of the CC with 1 to 3 digits of the country in which the MS is registered,
followed by the National mobile number consists of NDC with 2 to 3 digits and
Subscriber Number (SN). The maximum length of the MSISDN is 15 digits.
For GSM applications, a NDC is allocated to each GSM PLMN. In some countries
more than one NDC may be required for each GSM PLMN.
The IMEI is used as the Mobile Equipment identity. The IMEI can be checked at
the start of a connection by the EIR. The IMEI with 15 digits consists of a Type
Approval Code (TAC) with 6 digits, the Final Assembly Code (FAC) with 2 digits,
which identifies the place of manufacture or final assembly, the serial number
with 6 digits and a spare digit.
Figure 12 illustrates the User and UE Identities:
Fig. 12 User and UE Identities
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1.5 Explain Identities Related to Subscriber in
UMTS
1.5.1 Subscriber Addressing and Identities
Each subscriber has to be uniquely identified. As in 2G networks, in UMTS
unique addressing codes are used to identify the subscriber.
Figure 13 illustrates the identities used to identify the subscriber and the location
where the information is stored:
Fig. 13 IMSI and MSISDN Addresses in the Network
The unique identity for the mobile subscriber is the IMSI, which is the same as in
GSM. The IMSI is composed of three parts as shown below:
IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN
Where:
MCC = Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC = Mobile Network Code (2 digits)
MSN = Mobile Subscriber Identity Number (normally 10 digits)
This number is stored in the SIM card or USIM. The MSISDN is used for service
separation. One subscriber may have several services provisioned and activated,
using one IMSI. For example, the mobile user may have one MSISDN number for
speech service and another MSISDN number for facsimile.
The MSISDN is composed of three parts as shown below:
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MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN
Where:
CC = Country Code (1 to 3 digits)
NDC = National Destination Code (1 to 3 digits)
SN = Subscriber Number
This number format follows the E.164 numbering specification. Often, the
MSISDN number is called directory number or subscriber number. It is important
to avoid the unique identity, which is the IMSI or International Mobile User Identity
(IMUI),being transferred in a non-ciphered mode due to security reasons. For the
same purpose, the UMTS system uses TMSI number, which is also called
Temporary Mobile User Identity (TMUI).
Due to security reasons, the packet-switched domain of the core network also
allocates similar temporary identities called Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity (P-TMSI).
Figure 14 explains temporary information stored in the UMTS network:
Fig. 14 Temporary Information Stored In the UMTS Network
TMSI/TMUI and P-TMSI are random-format numbers with limited validity time and
validity area. The TMSI/TMUI numbers are allocated by the VLR and are valid
until the UE performs the next location update procedure. The TMSI/TMUI may
change earlier and this pace of change is controlled by the network. The P-TMSI
is allocated by the SGSN and is valid for the SGSN area. The P-TMSI is changed
when the UE performs routing area update.
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IMEI is the number, which uniquely identifies the hardware of the user equipment.
Aseparate register called EIR handles these identities. The network may or may
not ask the UE to identify itself with the IMEI number for every transaction or for
the cases defined by the network operator occasionally.
Figure 15 shows terminal equipment security:
Fig. 15 Ensuring Terminal Equipment Security
As explained before, all the IMEI numbers are handled in three lists, white grey,
and black, within the core network. White listed IMEI numbers are normal
identities, which do not have any troubles. The grey listed IMEI numbers are
under observation, and every time a UE with grey listed IMEI is used, the network
produces an observation report about the transaction. If the accessed UE is on
the black list, the network rejects the transaction, except in case of an emergency
call. There are several other addresses that are used. For example, Mobile
Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN), which is used for call routing purposes.
The format of the MSRN is the same as of MSISDN. This means that the MSRN
consists of three parts, CC, NDC, and SN and follows the E.164 numbering
specification. The MSRN is used during a call set-up between the network and a
subscriber on another MSC.
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1.6 List the General Procedures for the Mobile
to Gain Access to the Network
There are procedures used to obtain a bearer through the network and a terminal
is also capable of determining one network from another. Each country has its
own MCC and each operator within a country has a unique MNC. This
information is broadcasted by every cell in the network. Therefore, when the
mobile is activated, it is able to distinguish between operators by checking this
information.
Through co-operation of the operators, the frequencies and codes used and
shared in inter-boarder areas are selected for network planning to reduce conflict.
1.6.1 Initially Accessing the Network
When the mobile is switched on, it starts the network selection procedure. The
mobile is aware of the possible frequencies that are available in UMTS and all
the possible codes that are used by the cells.
First, the mobile checks the last frequency and code used to identify the cell to
check if it is still valid. If the cell cannot be found, the mobile starts applying each
code to each possible frequency in an attempt to detect a signal that indicates
the presence of a cell.
Once the scanning process is over, the mobile selects its home network as the
first choice. The information for the home network is on the SIM. If the home
network is not present, then it can choose a preferred network, which is usually
set by the home network operator. If the preferred network is not available, the
mobile randomly selects another network that provides the adequate signal level.
The procedure of network selection is usually performed automatically, but it can
also be made manually.
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Figure 16 shows the initial network access when the mobile is switched on:
Fig. 16 Initial Network Access: Mobile Switched On
On the selection of the network, the mobile will request a location update or IMSI
attach for its position. The RNC will then request for the location update. If the
home network is present the first time, the update is made. For the update, the
information on the subscriber is copied to the serving VLR for the MSC area and
the current information on the subscriber is updated to the HLR. The subscriber is
also be registered into the current URA.
1.6.2 Simplified Bearer Establishment for a Call
The UMTS BS manager in the SGSN requests a bearer set-up between the MT
and itself. It sends a RAB Assignment request to the radio resource control unit
RNC. The bearer control messages are exchanged between SGSN and RNC
with Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP) messages. First, the
Iu-PS bearer between SGSN and RNC is set up in accordance to the required
quality of service parameter by following the UMTS specific RAB Assignment
Request message. Currently, the Iu-PS bearer between SGSN an RNC t is an
AAL5 virtual channel.
Then, an Iu-b bearer between Node B and RNC is established. This bearer is an
AAL2 virtual channel and later on will be used for user data transport.
A signaling connection already exists between the UE and the RNC. This
connection is used to send the Radio Set-up Bearer message to the UE. The UE
is informed about the physical layer characteristics, MAC layer characteristics, for
example puncturing, and data rate, RNC modus, for example,
acknowledged/unacknowledgedmode.
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Then, the Radio Link Reconfiguration message informs the Node B among other
Node Bs about the physical and MAC layer characteristics of the Uu interface
transmission. The Node B confirms this message by returning a Radio Link
Configuration Complete message. Next, the UE confirms the Radio Bearer Set-up
message with the Radio Bearer Set-up Complete message. Now the bearer
between the UE and the RNC exists.
Finally, The RNC returns the RAB Assignment Complete message to the SGSN,
with which the UMTS bearer between UE and SGSN is established.
Note the bearer establishment within UTRAN is very complex and allows a wide
range of different options.
Figure 17 illustrates a simplified example of RAB establishment:
Fig. 17 RAB Establishment (Simplified)
1.6.3 IMSI Attach for an Existing Subscriber
If the subscriber is already registered in the network and is still registered in the
same VLR, the information is updated. Also the HLR is informed of the new
information.
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Figure 18 shows the how the information about the subscriber is moved between
two VLRs:
Fig. 18 Moving the Subscriber Information Between VLRs
Assume that the mobile has moved between two VLR areas while being switched
off. The sequence of events will be as follows:
When the subscriber switches on the mobile again, a location update request
will be transmitted to the new VLR.
Then the authentication and IMSI information is copied between the old and
the new VLR. Similar set of events will take place between the UE and the
SGSN in case of a routing area update.
The authentication is performed.
After a successful authentication , the HLR is updated with the new location
information, after which the HLR sends the subscriber information to the new
VLR .
The old VLR is cancelled the old VLR.
Finally, an acknowledge message is sent to the mobile, together with the
TMSI/TMUI number. The packet core domain is also updated with the new
location information.
Moreover, the RNC constantly keeps track of all the connected subscribers'
current URAs.
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1.7 Radio Resource Control States, Mobility
Management, and Connection
Management
1.7.1 RNC: RRC States and Location Information
For the exchange of any information between the UE and its Serving RNC, UE
location information must be stored in this RNC. There are two basic modes of
RRC Connectivity are as follows:
1. RRC Idle
2. RRC Connected
In the RRC Idle mode no UE location information are stored in UTRAN. The UE
location information is only stored in CN and the UE is identified by NAS
identifier, for example, IMSI, TMSI, and P-TMSI. No exchange of signaling
information is possible. Before any signaling information can be exchanged and
Radio Bearer can be established, the UE has to establish a RRC connection.
This transition can only be initiated by the UE and can be triggered by the
network with a paging request.
The UTRAN Connected mode is entered when the RRC connection is
established. In the RRC Connected mode, UTRAN stores UE location information
and signaling connection between the UE and UTRAN exists. The four different
States that exist in the RRC Connected mode are as follows:
1. Cell_DCH
2. Cell_FACH
3. Cell_PCH
4. Cell_PCH
In the Cell_DCH state, a Dedicated Channel is allocated to the UE. The UEs cell
is known in the Serving RNC. Handover is used to track the movement of the UE.
In case of low activity, theRNC can decide to change from the Cell_DCH to the
Cell_FACH state
In the Cell_FACH state, no dedicated resources are allocated to the UE.
Common channels are used for transmitting signaling messages and small
amounts of user data. The UE location is known on cell level. If there is higher
load, a transition to the Cell_DCH is performed. If there is no activity, a transit to
the Cell_PCH is possible.
In the Cell_PCH state, the UE is still known on cell level, Cell Updates are
performed, but it can only be reached through Paging. The UE battery
consumption is less than in the Cell_FACH due to Discontinuous Reception
(DRX) functionality. If a Cell Update time counter exceeds a threshold, a
transition to the URA_PCH through the Cell_FACH is performed.
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In the URA_PCH state, similar to the Cell_PCH state, but the UE is only known
on URA level. Only the URA updates are performed to reduce the Uu signaling
load.
The following four methods are used to store the location information:
1. UTRAN Registration Area (URA)
2. UMTS Mobility Management (UMM)
3. CN domain: CS and PS Service States
4. UMTS Session Management States
The URA is a set of cells, specified by the network operator. The UE location is
stored in the Serving RNC on cell or URA level. A Packet UE is tracked at the
URA level when no data are actively transferred, but the probability of data
transfer is high. In case of network side packet data delivery, a UE registered at
URA level must be paged by UTRAN. The URA is an UTRAN internal area and is
not visible outside UTRAN. There may not be any relation between URA and LA
or RA. URA updating is a radio network procedure.
Figure 19 shows the four states of RRC and Location Information:
Fig. 19 Four States of RRC and Location Infomation
The task of the UMM is used keep track of the UEs location. Different UMTS CN
network elements store location information. In the CS Domain, the VLR stores
location information on level of the LA. In the Packet Switched (PS) Domain, the
SGSN stores location information on level of the RA. In the HLR, the actual
location of the UE is stored on basis of the MSC area, which is the VLR address
or the SGSN area, which is the SGSN address.
Location Update Procedures (LUP) and Routing Update Procedures (RUP) are
triggered by the UE to inform the CN about changes of the UEs location.
In the integrated UMTS CN architecture, the CN consists of a CS and a PS
service domain.
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The main PS and CS service states are as follows:
1. CS or PS Detached
2. Cs or PS Idle
3. CS or PS Connected
In the CS or PS Detached state, the UE is not reachable by the network for CS
or PS services. No LA or RA updates are initiated by the UE.
In the CS or PS Idle state, the he UE is reachable by Paging for CS or PS
Services. LA or RA updates are initiated by the UE periodically and at LA or RA
change.
In the CS or PS Connected state, a UE – CN signaling connection for CS or PS
services is established. The UE initiates no LA updates; RA updates when the
RA changes, which means there is no periodic RA Update.
The transition between the states are performed as follows:
1. Between the Detach state and Connected state - Through the UE Attach or
Detach procedures
2. Between the Idle and Connected state - Through the Signaling Connection
Establishment or Release procedures
From the Idle to Detach state through the UE Detach procedure
Figure 20 shows the CS and PS service states in CN domain:
Fig. 20 CS and PS Service States in CN Domain
A UMTS PS subscription contains the subscription of one or more Packet Data
Protocol (PDP) addresses. Each PDP address is described by one or more PDP
contexts in the UE, SGSN, and GGSN. Every PDP context exists independently
in one of two PDP states. The PDP state indicates whether packet data transfer
is enabled for a specific PDP address or not. The two PDP states are as follows:
1. Inactive state
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2. Active state
The Inactive state implies that the data service for a certain PDP address of the
subscriber is not activated. In the inactive state, the PDP context contains no
routing information and no packet data can be transmitted. If the GGSN receive
Mobile-terminated Packet Data Units (PDUs) in an Inactive state, the
Network-Requested PDP Context Activation procedure may be initiated if allowed
for that PDP address. Otherwise, the PDUs may be discarded. The UE initiates
the transition from Inactive to Active state by initiating the PDP Context Activation
procedure.
In the Active State, the PDP context for the PDP address in use is activated in
the UE, SGSN, and GGSN. Routing information for transmission of packets exist
between the UE and GGSN. The Active state is permitted only if the UMM is
PS-Idle or PS-Connected. An Active PDP context for an UE moves to Inactive
when the Deactivation procedure is initiated.
Figure 21 shows the UMTS PS subscription and different PDP states:
Fig. 21 UMTS PS subscription and PDP States
1.7.2 Mobility Management
As the user terminals are not fixed to certain positions, the network must keep
track of the location of the mobile. The system must at least be able to know the
geographical area in which the subscriber is located. As in GSM networks, UMTS
has a cellular architecture that allows the network to identify the subscriber.
Therefore, the network maintains information about the location of a subscriber,
and the procedures are specified to allow a constant updating of the databases
as the subscriber moves around the network, and also from one network to
another.
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Figure 22 illustrates the role of the HLR as the centralized database:
Fig. 22 Role of the HLR as the Centralized Database
The HLR is the central database that stores information on the subscriber, such
as the IMSI and MSISDN. The HLR also stores information about the serving
MSC and SGSN of the subscriber.
In addition, the HLR stores information on the subscriber's service profile. In other
words, the record of the different services, for example, teleservices,
supplementary, and packet services, that the subscriber can or cannot use.
Therefore, if the network needs to locate the subscriber in case of a mobile
terminated call, or if the network needs to check if the subscriber is valid, then all
requests are sent to the HLR.
1.7.3 Cellular Architecture
1.7.3.1 Location Based Information Services
Another characteristic of a 3G/UMTS network is that it is possible to determine
the accurate position of the subscriber by using the UTRAN positioning service.
Unlike the URA, LA, and RA that are used for controlling mobility management or
the subscriber location for call set-up, the future for UTRAN positioning service is
for the provisioning of services that are based upon the exact location of the
subscriber. For example, emergency calls, viewing maps, and locating the
nearest doctor.
The aim of these services is to be able to locate the subscriber within a 50 - 70 m
range. There are different techniques that can be used, such as Global
Positioning System (GPS). However, this technique may have limitations due to
line of sight, indoor coverage, and even political reasons. There are other
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techniques that use the triangulation between base stations to measure the delay
in signals.
Figure 23 illustrates the different service possibilities:
Fig. 23 Service Possibilities
When location updating is active, the mobile is constantly informing the network
of its current location. This information can then be accessed by different types of
service applications. For example, if an emergency call is made, the mobile's
location can be given to the police or ambulance services.
Not that the subscriber can enable the location updating with the exception of law
enforcement.
1.7.4 Mobility Procedure - Location Updating
As the network maintains three layers of information on the subscriber's location,
LA, RA, and URA, there are multiple procedures used to track the movement of
the subscriber. The following are three basic types of location update procedures:
1. Location registration (power on / cell attach)
2. Movement between area
3. Periodic update
In a GSM network, the BSC did not perform any mobility management function;
instead the mobile contacted the core networks directly to inform about a change
in location.
In UMTS, the situation is different as the RNC not only keeps information about
the subscribers and the URA they are in, but also updates location in the core
network.
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Figure 24 shows the location update generic procedures and the corresponding
information in the Network:
Fig. 24 Location Update Generic Procedures and Information in the Network
As the RNC receives a location updating message, it takes responsibility for
informing the core network. The RNC updates its own information about the
subscriber within the URA and informs the SGSN and VLR, respectively, if the
routing area or location area has also changed.
The reason for updating a location is that the VLR and SGSN databases of the
network are only temporary. Depending on the parameters that the operator use,
the information is only stored for a certain time. If there are no updates, it is
assumed that the information is old. Therefore, avoid storing a large amount of
useless data in the network, the information is removed.
1.7.4.1 Location Area Based Procedures
Location registration or IMSI attach takes place when a UE is turned on and
informs the VLR that it is now back in service to receive the calls. The network
then sends the UE two numbers that are stored in the USIM or SIM card of the
UE. These two numbers are the current LAI and the TMSI. The network sends
the LAI through the control channels of the air interface. The TMSI, temporary
identity, which regularly changes, is used for security purposes, so that the IMSI
of a subscriber does not have to be transmitted over the air interface. Every time
the mobile receives data through the control channels, it reads the LAI and
compares it with the LAI stored in its USIM card. A generic location update is
performed if they are different. The mobile starts the location update process by
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accessing the MSC or VLR that sent the location data.
A channel request message sent contains the subscriber identity, which can be
the IMSI or TMSI, and the LAI stored in the USIM card. When the target MSC or
VLR receives the request, it reads the old LAI, which identifies the MSC or VLR
that has served the mobile up to this point. A signaling connection is established
between the two MSCs or VLRs and the subscriber's IMSI is transferred from the
old MSC to the new MSC. Using this IMSI, the new MSC requests the subscriber
data from the HLR and then updates the VLR and HLR after successful
authentication.
Periodic location update is carried out when the network does not receive any
location update request from the mobile in a specified time. This kind of situation
is created when a mobile is switched on but no traffic is carried and the mobile is
only reading and measuring the information sent by the network. If the subscriber
is moving within a single location area, the MS does not need to send the
location update request.
A timer controls the periodic updates and the operator of the VLR sets the timer
value. The network broadcasts this timer value so that a UE knows the periodic
location update timer values.
The location registration procedure is similar for both CS and PS Domains. In
case of PS Domain, the MSCs or VLRs are replaced with SGSNs.
When the VLR or SGSN is changed, the new VLR or SGSN sends information
about this change to the HLR. The HLR responds by sending the subscriber
information to the VLR or SGSN. Any earlier location information of the
subscriber present in the HLR is cancelled.
1.7.4.2 IMSI Attach/Detach in the CS Domain
In the CS Domain, the UE may have the following two states:
1. Attached
2. Detached
In the attached state, the UE is able to handle transactions and is active in the
network. The UE continuously analyses its radio environment for LAC and cell
identities being visible.
When the UE is switched off or detached, it stores the latest radio environment
information into its memory and informs the network that it is now being switched
off. The VLR stores this state change and does not try to reach the UE for mobile
terminated transaction. When the UE is switched on again, it first checks whether
the radio environment matches to the one it has in its memory. If the radio
environment matches, the UE informs the VLR that it is now attached again and
able to handle transactions. If the radio environment does not match, the UE
performs a location area update.
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1.7.4.3 Routing Area Update in the PS Domain
As a procedure, the routing area update is very similar to the location update and
serves the same purpose. Periodic routing area update is used for checking that
a UE that has not performed any routing area updates for a period is still
reachable.
The UE performs a cell update and cell reselection when it changes cell within a
routing area in Ready mode. This could be compared to a handover in UMTS or
GSM for PS connections. Cell update and routing area updates halt possible
reception or sending of data. In such cases, there is a possibility of buffering data
in the Serving SGSN.
Figure 25 illustrates the routing area update:
Fig. 25 Routing Area Update
When the UE changes cells between the different routing areas, it performs a
routing area update. The two types of routing area updates as follows:
1. Intra-SGSN routing area update - One SGSN can manage many routing
areas. If the new routing area is managed by the same SGSN as the old
one, an intra-SGSN routing area update is performed.
2. Inter-SGSN routing area update - If the new routing area is managed by a
different SGSN, an inter-SGSN routing area update is performed. The old
SGSN then forwards user packets to the new SGSN.
1.7.4.4 Cell Attach/Detach
In the core network packet domain, the MM-state changes during the PS
connection. The MM-state mostly depends on the activity of the connection. This
means that when there are packets to send or receive, the MM-state of the
connection is MM-connected. When there is nothing to transmit, the MM-state of
the connection is MM-idle. The MM-detached state has the same meaning in both
the CN domains.
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Figure 26 describes the mobility management states in PS Domain:
Fig. 26 Mobility Management State Diagram in Packet Domain
In order to utilize the 3G network resources, such as radio bandwidth effectively,
the MM-state management is not enough for the PS traffic. In PS traffic, the
traffic delivered can be presented as occasional packet bursts. Between these
bursts, the connection is not used, which leads to a situation where it is
reasonable to cut the connection through the network in order to make the
network resources available for other active connections. The method to suppress
the packet connection, but at the same time retain the necessary information in
both ends of the connection is called cell attach / detach.
1.7.4.5 GPRS Evolution to UMTS
If you are familiar with GPRS, figure 25, which shows the different states may
seem confusing. In UMTS, the RNC has different RRC states depending on the
traffic situation. Therefore, the two states are from the point of view of the UE and
the SGSN. From the point of view of SGSN, it is in MM-connected state when
there is a packet attach or received message. Signaling may be opened to the
RNC, but the MM-connected state is only used when there is actual traffic.
1.7.5 Location Info Retrieval in the CS and PS Domains
In case of mobile terminated transaction, the Gateway MSC, which is the first
MSC to realize that the transaction must be terminated to the network to which
the called subscriber belongs to, performs the location info retrieval procedure.
In case of the CS Domain:
The procedure starts when a MSC requests routing information for the called
subscriber from the HLR. The HLR checks its database and finds out the
destination MSC or VLR where the called subscriber has performed the location
update. The HLR then asks the destination VLR to provide MSRN for call path
connection purposes. The VLR responds by giving a MSRN, which the HLR
forwards to the requesting MSC. Now the MSC can start the activities for call
path connection towards the target MSC or VLR. When the call path is
established up to the MSC or VLR, the called subscriber can be paged.
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In case of the PS domain:
The procedure starts when the GGSN requests routing information for the called
packet data subscriber from the HLR. The HLR checks its database and finds out
the latest SGSN where the subscriber has performed the routing area update.
The address of this SGSN is submitted to the GGSN for the data connection
establishment. Now the GGSN has address information, with which it is able to
establish the GTP tunnel between itself and the SGSN. When the GTP tunnel is
established up to the SGSN, the paging of the called subscriber can be started.
1.7.6 Management of the UTRAN Registration Areas
In UMTS, the RNC can handle simultaneous CS and PS connections to the
subscriber. Both domains use the LA and RA respectively to track the
subscriber's location. The RNC must track the URA in which the subscriber is. In
networks where the RNCs are connected through Iur interfaces as opposed to
the MSC controlling handovers, the subscribers drift through the radio network
passing from one RNC to another. Therefore, the serving RNC must identify in
which URA a subscriber is located when it receives traffic for itself in a circuit
switched connection.
1.7.7 Paging the Subscriber
From the HLR, the network is able to determine area or routing area where the
subscriber is located. The network, for example, MSC will contact the MSC or
SGSN serving that area and request contact to the mobile. The VLR or SGSN
will then send a paging message, which contains the ID of the subscriber on a
dedicated channel in the air interface. A mobile in idle mode is always listening to
this channel.
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Figure 27 illustrates paging in the network:
Fig. 27 Paging in the Network
If the mobile is able to detect that the network is trying to contact it, the mobile
will request access to the network to gain a signaling channel and determine
what the network is asking for, for example, set up a call or receive the SMS.
In GSM, the VLR or SGSN asks every cell in a certain location area to send the
same paging message. In UMTS, if the subscriber is known to be located in a
certain URA, the RNC can intelligently page for the subscriber in the URA,
therefore, reducing the signaling in the network.
1.7.8 Roaming in Another Network
When a subscriber is in a foreign network, the procedures are the same. When
the subscriber registers in the visiting network, it will in turn contact the home
network. A part of the IMSI code specifies the home network. If the two operators
have a roaming agreement and the subscriber is valid, the subscriber information
is copied into the serving VLR of the MSC and the information on the subscriber
is stored in the HLR.
Every VLR in the world has a unique address. As a subscriber moves from one
network to another, the location updating proceeds as normal. The HLR is always
informed of the unique VLR, in which the subscriber was last seen.
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Figure 28 illustrates roaming in another network:
Fig. 28 Roaming in Another Network
If a subscriber is roaming in another network and the network needs to contact
the subscriber to receive a video call, the location of the subscriber is checked
from the HLR. The HLR will then contact the serving MSC to check if the
subscriber is still located in the VLR. This is called the HLR request. Then, the
information is returned to the MSC and a call is routed to the foreign MSC to
begin the paging process. Even if the calling subscriber is located in the foreign
network, the call still has to be initially placed back to the home MSC.
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1.7.9 Mobility Management Procedures
There are several different mobility management procedures. Following is a short
list of UMTS specified procedures:
Paging (CS)
Paging (PS)
Location update (CS)
Cell attach/detach (PS)
IMSI attach/detach (CS)
Routing area update (PS)
UE identity checking (CS/PS)
Ciphering procedure (CS/PS)
Location registration (CS and PS)
Authentication procedure (CS/PS)
Location info retrieval (CS and PS)
UE hardware (IMEI) checking (CS/PS)
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1.8 Session Management
In the previous topic we looked at the mobility management and how the network
keeps track of the location of the subscriber and the procedures it performs. In
this topic we wil look at how the mobile is able to access the network and to
obtain a bearer. We will also cover two simplified cases of how real time and
non-real time bearers are set up in the network.
There are procedures used to obtain a bearer through the network and terminal is
also capable of determining one network from another. Each country has its own
MCC and each operator within a country has a unique MNC. This information is
broadcasted by every cell in the network. Therefore, when the mobile is activated,
it is able to distinguish between operators by checking this information. Through
co-operation of the operators, the frequencies and codes used and shared in
inter-boarder areas are selected for network planning to reduce conflict.
1.8.1 Initially Accessing the Network
When the mobile is switched on, it starts the network selection procedure. The
mobile is aware of the possible frequencies that are available in UMTS and all
the possible codes that are used by the cells.
First, the mobile checks the last frequency and code used to identify the cell, to
check if it is still valid. If the cell cannot be found, the mobile starts applying each
code to each possible frequency in an attempt to detect a signal that indicates
the presence of a cell.
Once the scanning process is over, the mobile selects its home network as the
first choice. The information of this is on the SIM. If the home network is not
present, then it can choose a preferred network, which is usually set by the home
network operator. If the preferred network is not available, the mobile randomly
selects another network that provides the adequate signal level.
The procedure of network selection is usually performed automatically, but it can
also be made manually.
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Figure 29 shows the initial network access when the mobile is switched on:
Fig. 29 Initial Network Access: Mobile Switched On
On the selection of the network, the mobile will request a location update or IMSI
attach for its position. The RNC will then request for the location update. If the
home network is present the first time, the update is made. For the update, the
information on the subscriber is copied to the serving VLR for the MSC area and
the current information on the subscriber is updated to the HLR. The subscriber is
also registered into the current URA.
1.8.1.1 IMSI Attach for an Existing Subscriber
If the subscriber is already registered in the network and is still registered in the
same VLR, the information is updated. In addition, the HLR is informed of the
new information.
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Figure 30 shows the how the information about the subscriber is moved between
the two VLRs:
Fig. 30 The Subscriber Information being transfered between VLRs
If the mobile has moved between to VLR areas while being switched off. The
sequence of events will be as follows:
1. When the subscriber switches on the mobile again, a location update request
will be transmitted to the new VLR .
2. Then the authentication and IMSI information is copied between the old and
the new VLR . Similar set of events will take place between the UE and the
SGSN in case of a routing area update.
3. The authentication is performed.
4. After a successful authentication, the HLR is updated with the new location
information, after which the HLR sends the subscriber information to the new
VLR .
5. The old VLR is cancelled..
6. Finally, an acknowledge message is sent to the mobile, together with the
TMSI/TMUI number. The packet core domain is also updated with the new
location information.
Moreover, the RNC is constantly keeping track of all the connected subscribers's
current URAs.
1.8.1.2 IMSI Attach when Roaming
The procedure for updating the VLR or SGSN when the subscriber is in a visiting
network is the same as for a subscriber in the home network. If the two operators
have a dedicated signaling link, then information is copied into the visiting
network. The HLR is updated with information on the unique VLR or SGSN
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address where the subscriber is located.
1.8.1.3 Requesting for a Dedicated Bearer
When the mobile does not have a RRC to the network, it is known to be in the
idle mode. For a service, a bearer is required. Therefore, when the subscriber
requests a service, such as a video call or Internet connection, the mobile needs
to make a request to the network.
In the air interface there is a special physical channel that is used to receive
request messages from the mobile, namely the Random Access Channel
(RACH). Depending on the type of channel that the subscriber is interested in,
the network attempts to secure a bearer.
Figure 31 shows a mobile requesting a bearer from the network:
Fig. 31 Requesting a Bearer from the Network
1.8.1.4 Gaining Access Without Interfering with Other Mobiles
When a mobile attempts to gain access to the network, it is not aware of the
power level to use. Therefore, it estimates an appropriate level. Then the mobile
sends a short burst of information, which includes a random sequence to the
random access channel. When the network receives the request, the mobile
re-transmits the random part of the initial burst on a separate channel. If the
mobile detects this signal, it assumes that the network has acknowledged. If not,
the mobile re-transmits again using more power. This process continues until the
power level set by the network is reached or the network responds. Then, the
network transmits information about the channel that the mobile can use on a
different channel, provided a channel is available.
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1.8.1.5 Access Security in UMTS
In UMTS, requirements for access security are not changed. It is required that
end users of the system are authenticated, for example, the identity of each
subscriber is verified because subscriber will not want to pay for calls that are
made by a cheating impostor.
The confidentiality of the voice calls and the transmitted user data is protected in
radio access network. Therefore, the subscriber can choose the parties to
communicate with. The subscribers also want the assurance that the
confidentiality protection is applied; therefore, visibility of applied security
mechanisms and privacy about the whereabout of the subscriber is required.
An average person does not care about being tracable, but if persistent tracking
would cause irritation. Similarly, exact information about location of certain people
can be useful, for example, burglars. Privacy of the subscriber data is a critical
issue when data is transferred through the network. Note that in this context,
privacy and confidentiality are largely synonymous.
Availability of the UMTS access is clearly important for a subscriber who is
paying for it. For Network operators, reliability of the network functionality is
important; therefore, they prefer to control the core network to ensure effective
functionality. Network functionality is guaranteed by integrity of all radio network
signaling. It is also ensured that all control messages are created by authorized
elements of the network. Integrity checking protects against any manipulation of a
message, for example, insertion, deletion, or substitution.
An important method of providing security for network operators and subscribers
is cryptography. Cryptography consists various techniques, which have roots in
the science and art of secret writing. It is sometimes useful to make
communication deliberately incomprehensive, for example, to use ciphering or,
encryption, which is the most effective way to protect communications against
malicious purposes.
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Figure 32 illustrates the UMTS security features:
Fig. 32 Network Authentication
1.8.1.6 UMTS Security Features
The most important security features in the access security of UMTS as follows:
Mutual authentication of the user and the network
Use of temporary identities
Radio access network encryption
Protection of signalling integrity inside UTRAN
Note that publicly available cryptographic algorithms are used for encryption and
integrity protection. Algorithms for mutual authentication are operator-specific.
1.8.1.7 Mutual Authentication
There are three entities involved in the authentication mechanism of the UMTS
system. The three entities are as follows:
1. Home network
2. Serving Network SN
3. Terminal, which is USIM in a smart card
The SN checks the identity of the subscriber as in GSM by a technique called
challenge-and-response. , A new feature in UMTS is that the terminal checks that
the SN is authorized by the home network and the mobile is connected to a
legitimate network.
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The security is based on the Quintet, UMTS authentication vector, which is
temporary authentication and key agreement data that enables a VLR or SGSN
to engage in UMTS AKA with a particular user. A quintet consists of five
elements as follows:
1. A Network Challenge Random Access Number (RAND)
2. An Expected User Response (XRES)
3. A Cipher Key (CK)
4. An Integrity Key (IK)
5. A Network Authentication Token (AUTN)
The cornerstone of the authentication mechanism is a master key, K, which is
shared between the USIM of the subscriber and the home network database.
This is a permanent secret with the length of 128 bits. The key, K, is never
transferred out from the two locations and the subscriber has no knowledge of
the master key.
At the same time, with mutual authentication, keys for encryption and integrity
checking are derived. These are temporary keys with the same length of 128 bits.
New keys are derived from the permanent key, K, during every authentication
event. It is a basic principle in cryptography to limit the use of permanent keys to
minimum and instead derive temporary keys from it for protection of bulk data.
In the Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) mechanism, the authentication
procedure is started after the user is identified in the serving network. The
identification occurs when the identity of the user, which can be the permanent
identity, IMSI, or temporary identity, TMSI, is transmitted to VLR or SGSN. Then,
the VLR and SGSN send an authentication data request to the AuC in the home
network.
The AuC contains master keys of the users and based on the knowledge of IMSI
the AuC is able to generate authentication vectors for the user. The generation
process contains executions of several cryptographic algorithms. The generated
vectors are sent back to VLR or SGSN in the authentication data response.
These control messages are carried on the MAP protocol.
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Figure 33 illustrates the generation process of authentication data request and
authentication data response:
Fig. 33 Authentication Data Request and Authentication Data Response
In the serving network, one authentication vector is needed for each
authentication instance, for example, for each run of the authentication procedure.
In other words, the potentially long distance signaling between SN and the AuC is
not needed for every authentication event and the authentication events can be
performed independently without the user actions after the initial registration. The
VLR or SGSN can obtain new authentication vectors from AuC before the
number of stored vectors runs out.
The serving network, VLR or SGSN sends a user authentication request to the
terminal. This message contains two parameters from the authentication vector,
called RAND and AUTN. These parameters are transferred into the USIM that
exists inside a tamper-resistant environment, for example, in the UMTS IC card
(UICC). The USIM contains the master key, K, and uses it with the parameters
RAND and AUTN as inputs for carrying out a computation that resembles the
generation of authentication vectors in AuC. This process also contains
executions of several algorithms similar to the corresponding AuC computation.
As the result of the computation, USIM is able to verify whether the parameter
AUTN was indeed generated in AuC and the computed parameter RES is sent
back to VLR or SGSN in the user authentication response. Now, the VLR or
SGSN is able to compare user response RES with the expected response XRES,
which is part of the authentication vector. In case the responses match,
authentication ends positively.
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Figure 34 shows the process of user authentication request and user
authentication response:
Fig. 34 User Authentication Request and User Authentication Response
The keys for radio access network encryption and integrity protection, CK and IK,
are created as a by-product in the authentication process. These temporary keys
are included in the authentication vector and are transferred to the VLR or SGSN.
These keys are later transferred further into the RNC in the radio access network
when the encryption and integrity protection start. Simultaneously, the USIM is
also able to compute CK and IK after it has obtained RAND and verified it
through AUTN. The temporary keys are subsequently transferred from USIM to
the mobile equipment where the encryption and integrity protection algorithms are
implemented. The Sequence Number (SQN) is a counter. There are two SQNMS
and SQNHE respectively to support network authentication. The sequence
number SQNHE is an individual counter for each user and the sequence number
SQNMS denotes the highest sequence number the USIM has accepted.
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Figure 35 shows ciphering in UMTS/UTRAN:
Fig. 35 Ciphering in UMTS/UTRAN
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1.9 The Session Management of Real Time
and Non-Real Time Bearers are Handled
Through the Network
1.9.1 Managing a Real Time Bearer in Circuit-Switched
Domain
At the first stage of any mobile originated action, a signaling channel needs to set
up between the mobile and the RNC. This channel is used to verify the USIM, to
identify the subscriber, to find out what the subscriber needs, and to perform the
authentication procedures.
The sequence of events for allocating the real time bearer is as follows:
1. The mobile requests a connection.
2. The RNC instructs a BTS to reserve a signaling channel and through a
common channel, which all mobiles in the area can share.
3. The RNC informs the mobile about the channel to use.
4. The mobile can use the signaling channel to communicate with the RNC and
inform the RNC about the service or bearer requirements. If the mobile only
wants to perform signaling, the dedicated channel already available will be
sufficient for location update.
5. If the subscriber wants a QoS assured service, for example, voice, the RNC
forwards the call set-up message to the CS-CN. Depending on how the
network is configured, the identity of the subscriber is checked before any
bearer set-up proceeds. These transactions are usually performed not by
using the subscribers IMSI, but by the TMSI. If TMSI is not available, then
the IMSI is used. The network checks if the subscriber is allowed to use the
service. It is also possible that the user equipment can be crosschecked to
ensure that it is valid. In case of a call, the RNC informs the CS-CN or MSC
that a traffic channel is needed.
6. The MSC responds to the RNC with information about the bearer it should
provide .
7. In return, the RNC allocates the correct bearer service to mobile in the radio
network.
8. Once the connection is made, the RNC informs the MSC that the connection
is complete and the transaction can start . The system knows when a voice
or video call is required, as a result, MSC or Media Gateway (MGW) also
understand where the end point should be.
9. When the subscriber wants to call to another mobile, the procedure will be
the same as in GSM, where the HLR enquiry is sent from the MSC or VLR .
10. The HLR requests the MSRN from the target VLR.
11. The HLR informs the requesting MSC of the MSRN of the target subscriber.
12. The serving MSC contacts the target MSC to make the final connection to
the subscriber.
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13. The target MSC pages the called party and as the VLR only knows the
location area of the subscriber, all the cells in the target LA are requested to
send a paging message. Then, the mobile answers by requesting a signaling
channel.
If the call terminates in a UMTS network, a similar bearer assignment procedure
will happen as described in steps 1 to 8 above. The set-up procedure for the
target subscriber starts with the allocation of a bearer for a signalling channel.
The subscriber identity is checked and a bearer for the traffic channel is
allocated. Once the radio access bearer is in place, the RNC will respond with a
confirmation of the set-up. Now, the two parties can start the conversation.
This process enables UMTS to be added to an existing GSM network. In case of
services such as, video, the core network will have a direct connection through
an Asynchronous Transmission Mode (ATM) network or through a server that
supports video streaming.
Figure 36 shows a simplified UMTS originated - GSM terminated call set-up case:
Fig. 36 Simplified UMTS Originated – GSM Terminated Call Set-Up
Figure 36 shows that specifications are based on the GSM procedures as much
as possible.
The summary of the steps in the figure 36 is as follows:
1. A radio resource connection request for a signalling channel is requested.
2. The RNC sets up the radio link between the base station and itself.
3. The downlink RRC set-up
4. Uplink RRC set-up complete messages.
5. Call set-up message sent to the MSC or VLR. Security procedures are also
performed.
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6. Bearer assignment request is created. The bearer parameters are defined
and a binding identification number is allocated. Binding ID is used to
combine the control information with user data for a certain connection.
7. Radio access bearer set-up and radio link modification is performed. With the
inputs from the MSC or VLR concerning the bearer, the RNC allocates an
appropriate RAB in the air interface. The radio link between the BTS and the
RNC is also modified in accordance with the bearer needs.
8. The RNC informs the MSC or VLR that the bearer has been assigned.
9. In steps 9 to 16, the CS-CN is common for UMTS and GSM, the call set-up
procedures within the CN are the same, including HLR enquiry and MSRN
allocation. For calls terminating in a UMTS network, a bearer and a radio link
in the terminating side should be allocated in a similar way as in the
originating side. GSM Evolution in the Nokia Solution.
The function of the MSC is the same as in GSM. The new element MGW for
3G-MSC is responsible for converting the Iu (UMTS) messages to be compatible
with the MSC (A-interface). The effect is that the MSC recognizes and treats
UMTS calls in a similar way as the GSM calls.
The MGW for 3G-MSC (3G-IWU) also has to convert the ATM connection into
PCM to make it compatible with the MSC. The Iu interfaces offer more service
possibilities than the A-interface. Therefore, MGW also supports these services.
Unlike in GSM, the voice transcoders, which are based upon Adaptive Multi-Rate
(AMR) codecs are located in the Media Gateway.
It is stated in the 3GPP Specifications that the transcoding function also logically
belongs to the core network and is the most logical solution, as it allows
cost-efficient transmission.
1.9.2 Managing a Non-Real Time Bearer in the
Packet-Switched Domain
As the CS management is based upon GSM, the management of PS bearers is
based upon GPRS. The sequence of events in the process of context activation
as shown in Figure 37 are as follows:
1. The mobile first requests a signaling channel from the network.
2. In step 2 and 3, the RNC is not yet aware of the service required by the
subscriber; therefore, it allocates a dedicated signaling channel and informs the
mobile about the channel to use. An acknowledgement is also sent from the
mobile.
4. The mobile requests a bearer. This request is for both, Access Point Name
(APN) and the IP address. If the field is empty, then a dynamic IP address needs
to be allocated. The APN is a symbolic name for a network interface in the
GGSN. The interface leads to an external packet network. One GGSN can have
several different access points to different networks.
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5. The SGSN checks the subscription data. Earlier, when the subscriber made a
routing area update, the SGSN received the subscriber information from the HLR.
In addition, security information for authentication and encryption is stored in the
SGSN; therefore, it is possible to authenticate the UE or USIM. The IMEI
checking may also be performed. If IMEI checking is performed, the EIR in HLR
is interrogated.
6. In step 6 and 7, the requested GGSN is obtained and the request for context
creation is sent to it. The SGSN gets the GGSN IP address from the DNS . The
DNS finds the correct GGSN IP address based on APN.
8. The SGSN now sends a message to the GGSN. The request includes the APN
and the proposed Tunnel Identification (TID). TID consists of the IMSI number
and the Network Service Access Point Identifier (NSAPI). NSAPI is used as a
reference number of the PDP context.
The GGSN now selects the access point it will. The APN is associated with the
external network the subscriber wants to use. It is a physical or logical interface
in the GGSN. The access point is similar to the default gateway defined for a
normal IP-subnetwork. It is a point outside the subnetwork. For the UE, the
access point is its default gateway. In case of a dynamic address, the GGSN or
an external network element can issue the IP address. The external element can
be a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, which issues dynamic
addressing information. Alternatively, the external element can be a Remote
Access Dial In User Service (RADIUS) server. The primary function of RADIUS is
user authentication.
9. The GGSN sends a back to the 3G-SGSN, which includes the given IP
address, TID confirmation, and a charging ID.
10. The 3G-SGSN sends a bearer assignment request, doing, to the RNC.
11. The RNC modifies the radio link and sets up the bearer over the air interface.
12. The RNC sends a message to 3G-SGSN to notify that the bearer assignment
is completed.
13. Finally, the 3G-SGSN sends an message to the UE. The 3G-SGSN is now
ready to route user traffic between the user equipment and the GGSN.
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Figure 37 shows PDP context activation:
Fig. 37 PDP Context Activation
A very important concept of the PS session management is PDP context The
PDP context is used for two purposes, for PDP address allocation to the user and
to make a logical connection with the required or desired QoS level through the
3G network. The PDP context is an entity that defines all required information for
the UE – network connection establishment. From the session management (SM)
point of view, the PDP context has the following two states:
1. Active
2. Inactive
In SM active state, the network has routing information available and it is possible
to transfer data between the UE and the network. In addition, the UE location
information is updated in the PDP context.
The inactive state means that the packet data services related to a certain PDP
address are not active. The network does not have any routing information
available for that PDP address, therefore, it is not possible to transfer any data.
the PDP context information is not updated when the location of the UE changes.
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Figure 38 shows how the different PDP context procedures are used in different
session management states:
Fig. 38 PDP Context States
One allocated PDP address may have many PDP contexts and one PDP context
always has one QoS class or QoS profile. This makes it possible to have many
packet data connections with each of them having a different QoS
simultaneously. The UE can be used for software downloading and web browsing
at the same time.
As the network connection is established, packets of data in the PDU are
transferred through the network by using different types of protocols.
Between the mobile and the RNC, the packet data protocol is used. Between the
RNC, 3G-SGSN, and the GGSN the packet of Internet data is transferred in the
GTP.
Figure 39 illustrates the GTP tunnel:
Fig. 39 The GTP Tunnel
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The user data packets are carried from RNC to GGSN through 3G-SGSN in
containers. When a packet from an external packet network arrives at the GGSN,
it is inserted into a container and sent to the SGSN. The container is then opened
and packed into a new container towards the RNC. The stream of containers
from RNC to the GGSN is transparent to the user. It seems as if the subscriber is
connected directly through a router to an external network, or to an application. In
data communications, this type of virtual stream of containers is called a tunnel.
The SGSN and RNC perform tunnelling of user packets.
Figure 40 illustrates the process of the deactivating the PDP context and quitting
the connection:
Fig. 40 Subscriber Quitting the Connection
Although the connection may remain active for some time, the mobile may
deactivate the PDP context.
The summary of the steps in the Figure 40 is as follows:
1. Steps 1 and 2 - A request is sent from the mobile, through the RNC to the
3G-SGSN to release the resources.
2. Steps 3 and 4 - Once the mobile is deactivated, the radio resources are then
released.
3. Step 5. Finally, the RNC sends an acknowledgement to the 3G-SGSN.
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1.10 Communication Management
A UMTS network is a platform, which provides the best solution to the operators
to in turn provide a varied amount of services. The applications of the subscriber
applications and control components placed upon the bearer. Therefore,
communication management in UMTS is all about managing mobility, security,
and charging of a bearer.
The role of communication management is to route the bearer to the high
application layers, manage the connection through mobility management, handle
the bearer security, and charge for the session.
Figure 41 illustrates the services and control of the services that sit upon the
physical connection:
Fig. 41 Functions of Communication Management
The communication management requires the services of the lower layers, as the
lower layers maintain the bearer.
1.10.1 Call Control for Circuit- Switched (Real Time) Calls
Call control describes the functions required for incoming and outgoing call
handling within a switch at a high-level. The switch should perform three activities
before a call can be connected. The activities are number analysis, routing, and
charging. Call control can functionally be divided into three phases, which the call
attempt must pass in order to perform through a connection.
Number analysis is a collection of rules for handling the incoming calls.. Number
analysis investigates both the calling and called numbers and makes decisions
based on the rules defined. Number analysis is performed both in call control
Phase I and Phase II. In Phase I, the switch checks whether the called number is
reasonable and if any restriction, such as, call barring needs to be applied with
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the calling number.
Figure 42 shows the call control principles:
Fig. 42 Call Control Principles
In call control Phase II, the system concentrates on the called number. The
nature of the call is investigated to check if the call is international or national and
if there is any routing rule defined for the called number. In addition, the system
checks if the call requires any inter-working equipment, such as, a modem, to be
connected and if the call is chargeable. The statistics for the call is also initiated
in this phase.
As a successful result of call control Phase II, the system knows where the call
attempt should be routed. When the correct destination for the call is known, the
system starts to set up channel(s) or bandwidth towards the desired destination
by using an ISUP signaling protocol. During the call, the switch stores statistical
information about the call and its connection and collects charging information if
the call is chargeable. When the call is finished, call control Phase III handles the
release of all the resources related to the call.
1.10.2 Generation and Collection of Charging Data
The 3GPP Specifications give a detailed list of requirements for the type of
Charging Data Record (CDR) to collect. The Charging Gateway, MSC, HLR and
many elements within the service platform generate CDRs, which describe
different events in the network. An event can be a call, SMS, data usage, location
update, or any different type of network activity.
Operators select what causes a CDR to be generated. The CDRs are transferred
to the Billing Centre where the information is collected and priced.
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Figure 43 shows the collection of charging data:
Fig. 43 Collection of Charging Data
As part of the evolution from GSM or GPRS towards UMTS, the amount of
information contained in the CDR is increased to include details of the service
quality and the network elements used.
In addition, the UMTS Specifications describe features that allow the subscriber
to view more information on the cost of a service. This network feature is called
Advice of Charge (AoC) and is a supplementary service, which provides the
subscriber with the details of the service cost immediately.
1.10.3 Handling Emergency Calls
In UMTS and in the evolved GSM, when location based servers are in place, it
will be possible to locate the subscriber within 50-70 m. In case an emergency
call is received, the operator will be able to check the location where the
subscriber is based and then direct the emergency services to the location faster
than it happens currently.
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Figure 44 shows the handling of emergency calls:
Fig. 44 Handling Emergency Calls
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1.11 Appendix
The End-to-End Service and UMTS BS
On its way from the Terminal Equipment (TE) to another, the traffic has to pass
different bearer services of the network(s). A TE is connected to the UMTS
network by use of a MT. The end-to-end service on the application level uses the
bearer services of the underlying network(s). As the end-to-end service is
conveyed over several networks (not only UMTS), it is not subject for further
elaboration in the present document.
The end-to-end-service used by the TE is realized by using a TE or MT local BS,
a UMTS BS, and an external bearer service.
TE/MT local bearer service is not further elaborated here as this bearer service is
outside the scope of the UMTS network.
The UMTS operator provides various services or UMTS QoS offered by the
UMTS BS.
The external bearer service is not further elaborated here as this bearer may be
using several network services, such as another UMTS bearer service.
The Radio Access Bearer Service and the Core Network BS
The UMTS bearer service consists of two parts, the radio access BS and the
core network BS. Both services reflect the optimized way to realize the UMTS
bearer service over the respective cellular network topology taking into account
aspects such as, mobility and mobile subscriber profiles.
The radio access BS provides confidential transport of signaling and user data
between MT and CN Iu Edge Node with the QoS adequate for the negotiated
UMTS BS or with the default QoS for signaling. This service is based on the
characteristics of the radio interface and is maintained for a moving MT.
The Radio BS and the Iu-BS
The radio access bearer service is realized by a radio bearer service and an
Iu-BS.
The role of the radio BS is to cover all the aspects of the radio interface transport.
This BS uses the UTRA FDD or TDD. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) or
FDD forms the physical layer in the first phase of UMTS. TDD Time Division
Duplex is also expected to be implemented later.
To support unequal error protection, UTRAN and MT should have the ability to
segment and reassemble the user flows into the different subflows requested by
the radio access BS. The segmentation or reassembly is given by the SDU
payload format signaled at radio access bearer establishment. The radio BS
handles the part of the user flow belonging to one subflow, according to the
reliability requirements for the subflow.
The Iu-BS together with the physical BS provides the transport between UTRAN
and CN. Iu-BS for packet traffic shall provide different BS for variety of QoS.
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The Backbone Network Bearer Service
The core network BS uses a generic backbone network service. The backbone
network service covers the Layer 1 or Layer 2 functionality and is selected
according to the choice of the operator in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of
the core network BS. The backbone network service is not specific to UMTS but
may reuse an existing standard.
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
Which UMTS network element contains the security information?
USIM
RNC
AuC
SGSN
Node B
Exercise 2
Which parameter identifies the subscriber? (Choose three)
IMSI
IMEI
MCC
P-TMSI
TMSI
PIN
Exercise 3
Which location information is known in the UE? (Choose three)
LA
RA
URA
3G-MSC supply area
3G-SGSN supply area
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Exercise 4
Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) of a UMTS bearer? (Choose three)
Transparent through the RAN
Different lengths of delay
Asymmetric connection
Variable data rate
None of the above.
Exercise 5
Which statement about location update is NOT true?
IMSI attach is always made when the terminal is switched on.
Location/routing area update takes place when a subscriber moves
between LAs and/or RAs.
Periodic location updates are not used in UMTS.
URA updates are not used in UMTS.
Exercise 6
The URA is used by the core network to keep track of subscribers in the network.
True
False
Exercise 7
Which statement about the RRC is true?
It is only used in GPRS networks.
It is a collection of radio access bearers over the air interface.
It is a wireless protocol.
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All of the above.
Exercise 8
Which term defines process of requesting a subscriber to contact the network?
IMSI attach
Location update
Paging
Bearer allocation
Exercise 9
Which statement best describes authentication?
Security of the user information on the air interface
IMSI and IMEI checking
Supplementary service status checking (by the subscriber)
A process used by the GGSN to determine firewall access
Exercise 10
Which equipment performs a cell update and cell reselection when it changes cell
within a routing area in Ready mode?
UE
MSC
BSC
Node B
Exercise 11
During a PDP context activation process, which information us transmitted
from the UE to the SGSN?
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APN
PDP
GGSN address
DNS address
TID
Exercise 12
When a subscriber triggers an event in the network, a CDR is generated.
What is a CDR?
    a. Charging data record which is sent to a Billing/Charging Centre
    b. Caller digital reset to the MSC
    c. Customer data receipt, which is a bill that is sent to the customer
    d. All of the above.
Charging data record which is sent to a Billing/Charging Centre
Caller digital reset to the MSC
Customer data receipt, which is a bill that is sent to the customer
All of the above.
Exercise 13
SMS messages can be sent via the SGSN.
True
False
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
Which UMTS network element contains the security information?
USIM
RNC
AuC
SGSN
Node B
Exercise 2 (Solution)
Which parameter identifies the subscriber? (Choose three)
IMSI
IMEI
MCC
P-TMSI
TMSI
PIN
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which location information is known in the UE? (Choose three)
LA
RA
URA
3G-MSC supply area
3G-SGSN supply area
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Exercise 4 (Solution)
Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) of a UMTS bearer? (Choose three)
Transparent through the RAN
Different lengths of delay
Asymmetric connection
Variable data rate
None of the above.
Exercise 5 (Solution)
Which statement about location update is NOT true?
IMSI attach is always made when the terminal is switched on.
Location/routing area update takes place when a subscriber moves
between LAs and/or RAs.
Periodic location updates are not used in UMTS.
URA updates are not used in UMTS.
Exercise 6 (Solution)
The URA is used by the core network to keep track of subscribers in the network.
True
False
Exercise 7 (Solution)
Which statement about the RRC is true?
It is only used in GPRS networks.
It is a collection of radio access bearers over the air interface.
It is a wireless protocol.
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All of the above.
Exercise 8 (Solution)
Which term defines process of requesting a subscriber to contact the network?
IMSI attach
Location update
Paging
Bearer allocation
Exercise 9 (Solution)
Which statement best describes authentication?
Security of the user information on the air interface
IMSI and IMEI checking
Supplementary service status checking (by the subscriber)
A process used by the GGSN to determine firewall access
Exercise 10 (Solution)
Which equipment performs a cell update and cell reselection when it changes cell
within a routing area in Ready mode?
UE
MSC
BSC
Node B
Exercise 11 (Solution)
During a PDP context activation process, which information us transmitted
from the UE to the SGSN?
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APN
PDP
GGSN address
DNS address
TID
Exercise 12 (Solution)
When a subscriber triggers an event in the network, a CDR is generated.
What is a CDR?
    a. Charging data record which is sent to a Billing/Charging Centre
    b. Caller digital reset to the MSC
    c. Customer data receipt, which is a bill that is sent to the customer
    d. All of the above.
Charging data record which is sent to a Billing/Charging Centre
Caller digital reset to the MSC
Customer data receipt, which is a bill that is sent to the customer
All of the above.
Exercise 13 (Solution)
SMS messages can be sent via the SGSN.
True
False
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Signaling Protocols
Overview
Contents
1 Signaling Protocols Overview..................................................................3
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................3
1.2 Introduction to UMTS Signaling.................................................................. 4
1.3 Transport Plane: Access Stratum............................................................... 8
1.4 Control Plane: Serving Stratum................................................................ 21
1.5 User Plane: Application Stratum............................................................... 30
1.6 UMTS Release 4 Architecture.................................................................. 32
1.7 UMTS Release 5 Architecture.................................................................. 38
1.8 Appendix....................................................................................................43
2 Exercises..................................................................................................64
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................69
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1 Signaling Protocols
Overview
1.1 Module Objectives
The aim of this module is to give the students the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining how basic signaling protocols are implemented in a Universal
Mobile Telecommunications System(UMTS) network. Topics to be covered in this
module include understanding signaling and visualizing the different layers and
protocol stacks. For each layer in the signaling stack the student is expected to
give short explanation of its function.
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Explain the concept of signaling and its bearer.
Explain in briefly Transport Plane, Control Plane, and User Plane signaling
protocol.
Explain NBAP, RNSAP, and RANAP.
Briefly explain signaling protocols on UMTS Network Release 4 and 5.
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1.2 Introduction to UMTS Signaling
You can visualise a UMTS network in different ways from different perspectives.
One way tovisualize a UMTS network is through the function of the network in
terms of how the traffic is handled. Another approach is to study the functions of
the network elements. In this module, you will learn about the network from the
point of view of the functions and structure of the interfaces.
Figure 1 shows the Release 99 of the UMTS architecture with the different
interfaces:
Fig. 1 Combined GSM/UMTS Network Architecture (Release 99)
1.2.1 Understanding the Bearer and the Need for
Signalling
The user traffic, known as the user plane, is carried through the network from the
mobile to the core network on a bearer. In GSM, the traffic channel is the bearer.
In UMTS, a bearer is a varied bit rate and is allocated depending on the needs of
the subscriber. The actual data in the bearer is transparent to the network.
As the bearer is passing through the network elements, you need to control its
activities. Therefore, one network element must be capable of sending and
receiving activity control related messages to other network elements. The
messages can contain control-related information, such as the channel allocation,
about an activity. This process of sending messages to control the activity of a
bearer is called signaling.
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Signaling is used between the User Equipment (UE) and the core network
elements, Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Mobile Switching Center
(MSC) or Visitor Location Register (VLR), to perform mobility and session
management functions such as a location or paging. The UE and the MSC/VLR
conduct peer-to-peer signaling to manage the UE’s mobility. Other network
elements are within the transmission path of the mobility management signaling
information, such as the Node B, the Radio Network Controller (RNC), and other
switching network elements. In the case of mobility management signaling, all the
network elements between the UE and the MSC/VLR transparently transmit the
mobility management signaling information as messages; they are not the
end-points of these messages.
Figure 2 illustrates the creation of bearer through the network elements:
Fig. 2 Creation of Bearer in Network
The higher-layer signaling messages found in mobility management, such as a
location update, are used between the UE and the core network elements
MSC/VLR and SGSN. However, the UE is not connected directly to the core
network, but through the Radio Access Network (RAN). As a result, the
lower-layer signalling to control the connection is needed to ensure that the
higher-layer connections are possible. This is the concept of the stack. The
mobility management messages can only be transmitted if the connection through
the RAN exists. Therefore, another signaling layer is used to control the radio
connection through the RAN. In addition, an even lower level of signaling is used
to control the actual radio link.
There are basically two types of information, the user data and the control
information. In the case of the Radio Access Bearer (RAB), the data is the user
plane. A signaling link is required between network elements including Node B to
RNC, RNC to CN, and RNC to RNC, to instruct the RNC, Node B, and/or core
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network elements MSC and SGSN on how to manage the signaling link.
Figure 3 shows the user plane information between the terminal and the core
network elements through the UMTS network by use of the RAB:
Fig. 3 Relationship between the RAB and the RRC
As shown in Figure 3, a signaling protocol is used to control the RABs and RRC
connection in the Air Interface.
1.2.2 UMTS Network Structure
Functionally a UMTS network can be presented as an arrangement of layers
containing the message flows and procedures performed between separate
access points. Each layer in the network is called a Stratum. The complete view
of Stratums is presented in the UMTS 3GPP 23.101 specification. In this context,
the following three are the most important Stratums are:
1. Access Stratum - Contains the message flows and procedures needed to
establish the connection between the Mobile Terminal (MT) and network
(roughly RNC in this case).
2. Serving Stratum - Handles message flows and procedures where the
USIM+MT, which is the same as UE, and the network establish a service.
Service in this context means, for instance, setting up a bearer for further
purposes. These message flows are transmitted transparently over the
Access Stratum.
3. Application Stratum – Handles message flows and procedures related to
the user's applications. Therefore, the scope of this layer is wider as
compared to Access and Serving Stratum. For example, the UE requests a
certain URL over an Internet browser application. The UMTS network only
provides the 'pipe' through the Serving Stratum. However, the actual HTML
page associated with the requested URL is downloaded from the Internet
service provider.
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Figure 4 shows the three important Stratums in the UMTS network:
Fig. 4 Access, Serving, and Application Stratum
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1.3 Transport Plane: Access Stratum
Transport plane provides a means to establish the physical connection is
between the MT and the network. As the network consists of separate entities
limited by the open interfaces, the transport plane is adapted to those interfaces,
too.
In UMTS transport plane, different physical connections can be used. However,
the specifications have based the main connection on Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM).
1.3.1 What is ATM?
The basic idea behind ATM is to split the information flow to be transmitted into
small pieces called packets, attach address tags to those packets, and then
transfer the packets through the physical transmission path. The receiving end
collects the transmitted packets and retrieves the original information flow from
the contents of the packets. The packet containing transmitted information is
officially called the ATM cell.
Figure 5 shows the structure of an ATM cell:
Fig. 5 ATM Cell
One ATM cell consists of two parts, a 5-byte-long header that contains the
address information and payload that contains the transmitted data. The header
in an ATM cell is short as compared to other, conventional protocols and
messages. As a result, the limitations are set on what can be done using header
information. However, at the same time, the effectiveness of data transmission is
high. The addressing overhead is 5 / (5+48) 9.5 %.
ATM cells are of the following two types:
1. User-Network Interface (UNI) cell - UNI cell is used for communication
between ATM endpoints and ATM switches. For example, between Node B
and RNC.
2. Network-Node Interface (NNI) cell - NNI cell is used for communication
between ATM switches. For example, between two MGW or two RNCs.
1.3.1.1 Virtual Path and Virtual Channel
One ATM transmission path may consist of several Virtual Paths (VP), which
further contain Virtual Channels (VC). One ATM transmission path may consist of
several VP, which further on contain VC.
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Figure 6 shows the Transmission path, VP and VC in ATM:
Fig. 6 VP and VC in an ATM Transmission Path
A virtual path is a semi-permanent connection simultaneously handling many
VCs. Actual data is transferred in ATM cells over the VCs. From the point of view
of UMTS, an ATM transmission path is between the Bearer Services (BSs) and
the RNC. In case of a loop transmission, the transmission path contains many
VPs, for example one per BS, and the VCs in the VP are set up on per call basis.
The bandwidth of the VC varies depending on the BS used.
Figure 7 illustrates the concept of VCs and VPs in the transmission of an ATM
cell:
Fig. 7 VP and VC in the Transmission of an ATM Cell
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1.3.1.2 ATM Header Content
Figure 8 shows how the UNI cell is structured:
Fig. 8 ATM UNI Cell Structure
One main objective has been to establish a very lightweight transmission system.
As a result, the payload of an ATM cell is not protected with checksum
method(s). Nowadays this is possible because the networks adapting ATM
already have high quality and the terminals used are able to perform error
correction themselves, if required.
The header of an ATM cell contains address information. The most essential
fields in the header are:
Virtual Path Identifier (VPI)  – Is the identifier for a VP. In general terms, it is
an identifier for a constantly allocated semi-permanent connection.
Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)  – Is the identifier for a VC. This field is long
because there may be thousands of channels to be identified within one VP.
For example, multimedia applications may require several VCIs
simultaneously; one VC per multimedia component.
Payload Type (PT) - Indicates whether the 48-byte payload field carries user
data or control data.
Cell Loss Priority (CLP) - Is a flag that indicates the priority of the ATM cell.
If CLP = 1, the priority of the cell is considered low. The system may lose this
less important ATM cell, if required.
Header Error Control (HEC) – Is a byte long field that contains data for
performing error detection on the ATM cell header. The ATM cell header is
error protected instead of the payload because the failure in the ATM cell
header is more serious than in payload. For example, due to a header error,
the ATM cell may be delivered to the wrong address. The error correction
mechanism used is the ATM cell header is able to detect all errors and one
failure can be corrected.
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1.3.1.3 The ATM Layers
Figure 9 shows ATM can be divided into three main protocol layers:
Fig. 9 Layered Protocol Structure of ATM
The three main layers of the ATM protocol stack are:
1. The physical layer, which is responsible for defining the physical transmission
medium, such as E1 at 2 Mbps or SDH STM-1 at 155 Mbps. Issues like
electrical characteristics and coding and decoding are handled by this layer.
2. The ATM layer, which takes care of insertion and extraction of the cell
header to and from the 48-octet payload. In addition, multiplexing and
switching of the ATM cells is performed in this layer.
3. The ATM Adaptation Layers, (AAL) which are responsible for mapping the
data from higher layers to the ATM cells and bringing the data from the ATM
cells to the higher layers. There are four different AALs. These will be
described later in this document.
Note: Further subdivision and explanations can be made, but it is outside the
scope of this chapter to examine these different layers further.
1.3.1.4 ATM Adaptation Layers
An ATM layer as such is a very simple bit transport media and, in theory, suitable
for transmission purposes. In practice, the ATM layer must be adapted to the
higher protocol layers and the lower physical layer. ITU-T has defined ATM
service classes for ATM adaptation layers. The original idea was that each
service class from A to D should correspond to one AAL from 1 to 4.
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Figure 10 shows the four AALs:
Fig. 10 ATM adaptation layers
The four service classes of the ATM are:
1. Constant Bit Rate Service (CBR)  - The CBR may be used by any
transparent data transfer, and the resources are allocated on the peak data
rate basis.
2. Unspecified Bit Rate Service (UBR)  - The UBR uses free bandwidth when
available. If there are no resources available, queuing may occur.
3. Available Bit Rate Service (ABR)  - The ABR is used when the user service
has a minimum bit rate defined. Otherwise, the bandwidth is used as in UBR.
4. Variable Bit Rate Service (VBR) - The VBR provides variable bit rate based
on statistical traffic management.
Corresponding to the preceding four services, the five AALs are:
1. AAL1 offers synchronous mode, connection-oriented connection and constant
bit rate for the services requiring this kind of adaptation.
2. AAL2 offers synchronous mode, connection-oriented connection with variable
bit rate for the service using this adaptation.
3. AAL3/4 offers asynchronous mode, connectionless connection with variable
bit rate.
4. AAL5 offers asynchronous mode, connection-oriented connection with
variable bit rate.
From the point of view of UMTS, AAL2 and AAL5 are interesting alternatives.
AAL2 can be used for Iu-Circuit-Switched (CS), Iur, and Iub user plane
connections. AAL5 can be used for control information and Iu-Packed-Switched
(PS) user plane data transmission.
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The main difference between AAL2 and AAL5 is that AAL2 requires strict timing
between the source and destination. Due to this, AAL2 is especially suitable for
real-time services, such as speech or video. AAL5, unlike AALs, enables efficient
transmission capability for non-real-time services and applications, towards the
PS core network.
Generally speaking, AAL is divided into two sub layers:
Convergence Sub Layer (CS) - The CS sub layer adapts AAL to the upper
protocol layers. Depending on the case, the CS sub layer may be divided
further on into smaller entities.
Segmentation and Re-Assembly Sub Layer  (SAR)  - The SAR sub layer
splits data to be transmitted into suitable payload pieces. In addition, in the
receiving direction it collects payload pieces and merges them back to
original data flow.
Figure 11 shows the two AAL sub layers:
Fig. 11 General Structure of AAL
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ATM Example
Figure 12 shows a simplified example of ATM use in the Iub interface:
Fig. 12 Example of ATM Use
Note the relationship between VC, VP, and ATM transmission path.
1.3.2 Common Channel Signaling - 7 (CCS7)
Note: This section repeats CCS7 information from the GSM courses (GSM
SYSTRA, DX, and NSS courses), and may be considered as an optional topic.
CCS7 is a widely used signaling method in telecommunications.
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Figure 13 shows the basic CCS7 implements the protocol stack:
Fig. 13 CCS7 Protocol Stack
The CCS7 signaling connections are usually 64 kb/s timeslots of the Pulse Code
Modulation (PCM) trunks. However, this is not always the case. Due to the
increasing demand, a broadband version of the CCS7 basic protocol stack also
exists. The CCS7 basic protocol stack provides signaling connections, their
control, and basic signaling routing functionality. If more sophisticated
requirements exist, one must add functionality by adding more protocols to the
protocol stack. For example, to offer connection-oriented and connectionless
services within a CCS7 environment, Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
protocol is required. This protocol lies on top of the basic CCS7 protocol stack.
The CCS7 uses three types of messages:
1. Fill-In Signalling Unit (FISU)  - FISU only contains sequence and indicator
bits for acknowledge purposes; it does not contain any upper-layer
information. The signaling channel must be populated all the time. Therefore,
if no data needs to be sent, the signalling node sends FISU.
2. Link Status Signalling Unit (LSSU) - LSSU is sent when the CCS7 nodes
need to negotiate or change a signaling channel status, or when they have to
inform each other about other maintenance activities.
3. Message Signalling Unit (MSU) - MSU is sent when there is some upper
layer information to be delivered.
The basic element for CCS7 signaling information transmission is the signaling
link. Signaling link is a data link layer connection between two signaling nodes.
Both nodes identify a signaling link with a unique number, Signaling Link Code
(SLC). The SLC or Signaling Link Set (SLS) should be same in both ends of the
signaling link. Checking whether the SLCs are the same is one of the functions
for which the LSSU messages are used. SLS is group of signaling links wherein
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one SLS contains a maximum of 16 signaling links. Further a group of SLS can
be termed as Route set.
Figure 14 shows CCS7 signaling link:
Fig. 14 CCS7 – Signaling Link
One signaling link between two nodes is able to handle certain amount of
signaling traffic. However, eventually more links will be required. The set of
signaling links between two signaling nodes is called a signaling link set.
Figure 15 shows a signaling link set:
Fig. 15 CCS7 – Signalling Link Set
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For proper SLS, every signaling link within a signaling link set must have a
unique SLC. The signaling traffic is carried through all the signaling links within
the signaling link set. Usually, a signaling session, such as the signaling related
to ISUP call set-up, is carried through using the same signaling link for all
messages. If load sharing is used, the MTP level is able to distribute messages
of one signalling session over several links.
In CCS7 it is possible that the actual traffic path is geographically allocated in a
different way from the related signaling. That is, two nodes may have direct traffic
connections, but the signaling related to those connections may be handled
through other nodes. In this case, the signaling node that handles the rerouting of
the messages is called Signaling Transfer Point (STP). In the originating signaling
node, the routing entity on the MTP level is called signaling route set. Signaling
route set is the collection of the signaling routes, through which a certain SPC
can be achieved.
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Figure 16 shows a signaling route set:
Fig. 16 CCS7 – Signaling Route Set
Signaling route is in practise the same as the signaling link set, but the difference
here is that signaling link set is not aware of the STP facility whereas the
signaling route is.
1.3.3 Implementation of the Transport Layers
1.3.3.1 Air (Uu) Interface
The transport plane of the Uu Interface covers the three lowest layers of the OSI
stack. Layer 1, the physical layer, uses Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
(WCDMA) – Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)/Time Division Duplex (TDD)
technology.
The Layer 1 is controlled by Layer 2, the data link layer. The structure of Layer 2
in the Uu Interface is different from other interfaces. Layer 2 has the following two
sub layers in the Uu Interface:
1. Media Access Control (MAC) - Physically implements radio link management
tasks, such as, radio link set-up, maintaining the physical radio channel
configuration, error protection, encryption, and radio link deletion.
2. Radio Link Control (RLC) - Mainly performs flow control-related activities
such as instance data block sequencing. The functionality of the RLC is
similar to Layer 2 of other interfaces.
The Layer 3 of the Uu Interface contains functions needed for the transport plane
control. The control entity is called Radio Resource Control (RRC). RRC
manages the physical layer and its activities whenever required. If, for example, a
radio link is to be set up, the RRC gives a command to perform this activity. The
command is delivered through the RLC to MAC, and MAC performs the activity.
Finally, the radio link set-up is carried through the Layer 1.
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The idea behind this kind of protocol stack in the Uu Interface is to carry normal
Layer 2 functions, and at the same time make the system able to carry the extra
control functions required by the Radio Interface (MAC – RLC division).
1.3.3.2 Iub, Iur, and Iu Interfaces
In the Iub Interface the transport plane consists of ATM and its adaptation
layer(s) located on top of the physical layer. The physical layer could be any
media providing constant bit rate with adequate bandwidth such as PCM(s),
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH), or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
Figure 17 shows the transport plane of the Iub Interface:
Fig. 17 Iub Interface Transport Plane
In the Iur Interface between Serving RNC (SRNC) and Drift RNC (DRNC) the
construction of the transport plane is similar to the Iub.
Figure 18 shows the transport plane in the Iur Interface:
Fig. 18 Iur Interface Transport Plane
In the Iub and Iur Interfaces ATM uses two adaptation layers, AAL2 and AAL5.
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Figure 19 illustrates the same solution is implemented in the Iu CS Interface:
Fig. 19 Iu-CS Interface Transport Plane
In the Iu-PS Interface, only AAL5 is used. In other respects the transport plane is
similar as in the Iu-CS, Iur, and Iub Interfaces.
Figure 20 shows the transport plane in the Iu PS Interface:
Fig. 20 Iu-PS Interface Transport Plane
To conclude, in UMTS the transport plane provides variable speed packet type of
transmission media over constant-bit-rate physical layer. Because the services
using the transport plane set different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements,
such as real time, non-real time, and delay, for the connection, the transport
plane must use different adaptation layers in order to handle the requirements
correctly.
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1.4 Control Plane: Serving Stratum
The control plane carries signaling that facilitates the functions of the Service
Stratum. These are transparent for the transport plane.
1.4.1 Iub Interface Control Plane: Node B Application Part
In the Iub Interface the control plane is maintained by the signaling protocol Node
B Application Part (NBAP). NBAP is a Layer-3 protocol at the Iub interface. In
order to adapt the NBAP properly on top of AAL5, some convergence protocols
are required.
Figure 21 shows the control plane in the Iub Interface:
Fig. 21 Iub Interface Control Plane
NBAP procedures are divided into the following two groups:
1. Common
2. Dedicated
Common NBAP procedures are used to create new UE contexts and to control
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) broadcast information. The Iub Interface
always contains one signaling link for the common NBAP procedures and there
may be several signaling links for dedicated NBAP procedures.
When a UE establishes connection to the network, the control plane is used.
Because the UMTS network uses very sophisticated signaling methods, all seven
layers of the OSI model are required for this purpose.
After establishing the control plane, the UE may start to use its own applications,
which may also require signaling (user plane).
Control plane means the signaling resources attached for signaling connection
set-up issues between two signalling nodes. In case of Iub Interface, the control
plane is established between the Base Station (BS) and the RNC. The signaling
connection set-up case is radio link set-up.
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1.4.2 Iur Interface Control Plane: Radio Network
Subsystem Application Part
Between the RNCs, the control plane is maintained by the signaling protocol
Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP).
Figure 22 describes some convergence protocols are required to make RNSAP
suitable over the ATM:
Fig. 22 Iur Interface Control Plane
In UMTS-RAN, the RNC nodes may have direct connections among themselves.
This connection implements the Iur Interface between the SRNC and the DRNC.
The term Serving RNC (SRNC) means, the RNC controlling the connection that
is, performing the bearer – radio link mapping. The DRNC means an RNC
involving radio link addition, deletion, or reconfiguring procedure without the
bearer–radio link mapping control. The Iur Interface procedures are controlled by
the RNSAP signalling protocol. The most important Iur Interface procedures are
involved in:
1. Radio link set-up
2. Radio link addition
3. Radio link reconfiguration
4. Radio link deletion
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Figures 23 illustrates the radio link set-up:
Fig. 23 RNSAP: Radio Link Set-Up
Figure 24 illustrates the radio link addition:
Fig. 24 RNSAP: Radio Link Addition
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Figure 25 illustrates the radio link reconfiguration:
Fig. 25 RNSAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration
Figure 26 illustrates the radio Link Deletion:
Fig. 26 RNSAP: Radio Link Deletion
In addition to these procedures that handle the activities related to the DRNC Iub
Interface, the Iur Interface and RNSAP handle the situation where the SRNC
functionality is transferred from the original SRNC to a DRNC. This type of a case
will occur if the first radio link, which is opened when the UE context was created,
has to be deleted due to changed radio conditions. An example of such as case
where the first radio link has to be deleted is when the UE moves away from the
SRNC coverage.
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1.4.3 Iu Interface Control Plane: Radio Access Network
Application Part
In the Iu interface the control plane is maintained by the signaling protocol Radio
Access Network Application Part (RANAP).
Figure 27 some convergence protocols are required to use RANAP over the ATM:
Fig. 27 Iu Interface Control Plane
In UMTS Release 99, the convergence protocols are expected to be primarily
CCS7-based. This is MTP either normal or broadband and Service Connection
Control Protocol (SCCP), offering both connection-oriented and connectionless
services for the RANAP over the Iu Interface.
RANAP is a very important protocol containing numerous procedures. It maintains
the Iu Interface control plane and handles activities between the RAN and the
core network domains. Due to its location, it is able to handle both
circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic-related activities.
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The RANAP performs two kinds of activities:
1. Connection management between the RNC and the core network domain.
2. The Iu interface carries information related to the UE and the CN domain(s),
they exchange signalling information on the control plane. Subscriber
authentication could be this kind of procedure where the RNC has no role,
but where it carries the related signalling information through itself.
The UMTS network is able to handle all kinds of traffic created by different
services the subscribers use. Some of the services used Real Time (RT)
services. These services require dedicated connection through the UMTS
network. The connection should provide a constant, fixed bit rate for such cases.
However, Non-Real Time (NRT) traffic does not require a constant bit rate.
The dedicated connection established over RAN, between the UE and the core
network, is called RAB. The core network domains are the entities setting up,
modifying, maintaining, and deleting bearers. In the CN circuit domain, the bearer
is established by the Serving MSC/VLR, which negotiates the RAB and its
features over the Iu Interface with the SRNC. In the CN packet domain the same
task is performed by the SGSN.
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Figure 28 shows the RAB and CN domains:
Fig. 28 RAB and CN Domains
Before the RAB can be allocated, there must be at least one active radio link
established between the UE and the SRNC. The RAB can be considered to be a
collection of resource point definitions attending to the connection between the
UE and the core network. Examples of these types of resource points are AAL2
ID and bearer ID that uniquely defines the RAB in SRNC and Serving MSC/VLR
or SGSN.
Bearer allocation always starts from the core network side. The signalling
resources required for that purpose are supplied with the signalling protocol
RANAP with the Iu interface. Inside the RAN, NBAP is also attending to the
procedure
In a UMTS network, the term bearer and its management has the same content
in both of the core network domains delivering traffic. The procedures related to
the RAB assignment are also the same.
Consider examples of three procedures in which the RANAP is involved. The first
one is the bearer assignment. As it was explained in transaction examples, the
core network domain is responsible for bearer assignment. The procedure itself is
somewhat simpler than in 2G.
Figure 29 describes two messages, RAB Assignment Request and RAB
Assignment Complete:
Fig. 29 RANAP Bearer Assignments
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The RAB Assignment Request may contain information about several bearers
and the action to perform on them, such as create, modify, or delete. Therefore,
there is no separate procedure for bearer modification or deletion. When the RAB
Assignment Request message arrives at the RNC, the RNC actually binds
together the bearer and related radio links, thereby enabling the user traffic
between the UE and the core network.
Figure 30 describes the RAB bearer deletion procedure:
Fig. 30 RANAP bearer deletion
The deletion of the bearer may be initiated either by the RAN or by the core
network. If the deletion is initiated by the RAN, the RAB Release Request
message is used. If the deletion is initiated by the core network domain, the RAB
Assignment Request message is used. From the RNC point of view, the RAB
deletion means that the binding between the RAB and the radio links is released
and the NBAP/RNSAP/RRC procedures for radio links release can be started.
However, this can only be done provided that the UE does not have any traffic
ongoing through other bearers.
Figure 31 describes the RANAP Serving RNC relocation:
Fig. 31 RANAP Serving RNC relocation
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When the UE moves in the RAN, there will be a situation where the UE context
originally created is not controlled with a reasonable SRNC. Therefore, the SRNC
functionality must be carried from one RNC to another. This procedure is called
Serving RNC relocation and it requires activities to be performed in two
interfaces, Iu and Iur.
When the very first radio link created for the UE context is about to be released
and the original Serving RNC identifies a need for SRNC relocation, it informs the
desired new SRNC through the core network domain(s) about the need for the
relocation. The new possible RNC acknowledges this request through the core
network, and the core network starts preparations for bearer switching by
assigning bearers towards the new Serving RNC.
When the Relocation Command reaches the original Serving RNC, it indicates
that the core network is aware of the issue and the bearers towards the new
Serving RNC have been allocated. At this stage, the original Serving RNC starts
the relocation in the Iur Interface by sending the Relocation Commit. After the
new Serving RNC identifies that the relocation has started, the information about
the readiness comes to the original Serving RNC through the core network in the
message Relocation Detect. This is also an indication to start the bearer
switching, such that new bearers towards the new Serving RNC are used, and
the old bearers towards the original Serving RNC are released.
When the new Serving RNC realises that the new bearers are working properly, it
sends the message Relocation Complete thereby informing that the rest of the
connections through the Iu Interface towards the original Serving RNC can be
released.
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1.5 User Plane: Application Stratum
The user plane signaling takes place between the application(s) of the UE or user
and the destination over the physical connection established on the transport
plane. The signaling is performed using the facilities offered by the control plane.
In the Uu interface, the user plane consists of the Dedicated Physical Data
Channel (DPDCH) allocated for the connection and the data carried by the
DPDCH.
Forward Access Channel (FACH) carries the information coming from the Logical
CCCH, CTCH and DCCH, that is, from common and dedicated control channels.
Dedicated Channel (DCH) channel carries the combination of the user traffic(s)
and control information.
Random Access Channel (RACH), the transport channel carries initial access
information when required.
DCH is the only dedicated transport channel; the other channels are common
ones. The DCH carries information coming from the Logical DTCHs and DCCH. It
should be noted that one DCH may carry several DTCHs, depending on the
case. For example, a user may have a simultaneous voice call and video call
active. The voice call uses one Logical DTCH, and the video call requires another
Logical DTCH. Both of these, however, use the same DCH.
Figure 32 illustrates the Iub interface in User Plane:
Fig. 32 Iub User Plane
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Figure 33 illustrates the Iur interface in User Plane:
Fig. 33 Iur Interface User Plane
Figure 34 illustrates the Iu interface user planes for CN circuit and packet domain:
Fig. 34 Iu interface user planes for CN circuit and packet domain
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1.6 UMTS Release 4 Architecture
UMTS networks are designed to offer a wide range of multimedia services. For a
wide range of services to be offered, the core network must offer more efficient
and flexible transport options compared to the Rel.99 network. Therefore, a wide
range of bearers must be made available in the core and radio access network
for the subscriber. Currently, the exchanges and MSCs are optimized for voice
transport. An MSC is responsible for the following tasks:
Call control
Service provisioning
 Bearer control and bearer management
With the different tasks combined in one network element, any modification will
be expensive and time consuming. Therefore, with a traditional MSC more
flexible solutions are requires because it is difficult for operators to react quickly
to changing demand in the market.
Beginning with UMTS Release 4, call control and bearer control and management
are separated. The planes are separated in the UMTS Release 4 circuit switched
domain.
The UMTS Release 99 network elements MSC, VLR, and Gateway Mobile
Switching Centre (GMSC) are substituted by certain network entities. The network
entities are MSC-Server, GMSC-Server, and Circuit Switched – Media Gateway
Function (CS-MGW).
Figure 35 shows the release 4 architecture:
Fig. 35 Release 4 Architecture
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MSC-Server
The MSC-Server is responsible for all the call control tasks of the MSC and VLR.
The tasks are as follows:
CDR collection.
Call control in CS domain performs Call control of mobile originated and
mobile terminated calls in the CS domain.
VLR functionality temporarily hold the subscriber profile, location information,
and identities for all subscribers in the MSC-Server supply area.
Interaction with the CS-MGW determines the QoS parameters required for
the subscriber’s application. It is then the responsibility of the CS-MGW to
make the bearer available. The interaction between MSC-Server and
CS-MGW is done via an open interface, based on the ITU-T H.248 standard.
Termination of UE-network and network-network signaling:
It performs the UE-network signaling through the Iu-CS interface.
It performs the network-network signaling, by using signaling protocols
such as, the Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC).
GMSC-Server
The GMSC-Server adopts the call control tasks of the GMSC. The tasks are as
follows:
CDR collection
Interrogation of the HLR
Interaction with the CS-MGW
Termination of network-network signaling
CS-MGW
The CS-MGW is responsible for bearer control. Its functions include:
Bearer Control  -The requirements for the bearer control are set in the
(G)-MSC-Server. The CS-MGW gets this information through an open
interface. The CS-MGW needs to determine, whether it can make bearers
available in accordance to the QoS parameters set.
Bearer Channel Termination - Different transmission technologies may be
in use, for example, ATM and IP over Ethernet. Accordingly, the ATM bearer
ends in the MGW and the IP bearer begins at the MGW for user data
transport.
Media Conversion and Payload Processing - If the CS-MGW is interfacing
UTMS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), voice information must be
processed. for example, voice may be transmitted with 64 kbps in the core
network, but for the radio interface, a speed of 12.2 kbps. The UMTS specific
voice codec is found in the MGW. The same is true for conference bridges,
and echo cancellers.
Mobile Specific Functions - A CS-MGW must support mobility specific
functions, such as SRNC re-location and handover procedures.
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Figure 36 shows the tasks performed by MSC-Server, GMSC-Server, and
CS-MGW:
Fig. 36 Tasks Performed by MSC-Server, GMSC-Server, and CS-MGW
Different Interfaces are explained as below:
Nc: The Nc interface is located between two MSC servers. It transports the
bearer independent call control protocol used to set up bearer segments
between the two servers. The main protocol used here will be BICC.
Mc: The Mc interface is between MSC server and MGW. It is used by the
MSC server to request the set up, release and modification of transport
bearer services. The MGW can issue event notifications towards MSC server
on this interface.
Nb: The Nb interface works between two MGWs.This interface is completely
within the transport network plane and first of all carries the user data traffic.
Therefore the Nb interface provides transport bearer services. The control of
these transport bearer services is also done via Nb using a Bearer Control
Protocol (BC) specific to the transport technology used. The Nb interface
between two MGW of course has to transport user data. Hence there is a
user plane. For ATM based CN this user plane consists of AAL2 virtual
channel connections.
  
Like on Iu-CS also here we need a special user plane protocols Nb User
Plane (Nb UP) protocols. Nb UP allows like Iu UP to transport structured data
through the network, this essential for Transcoder Free Operation (TFO).
Because when using TFO for a mobile to mobile call the codec frame
structure must be transported end-to-end unmodified. To configure the user
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data bearer service (AAL2 virtual channel connection), the AAL2 signalling
protocol is required between the MGW. On Iu-CS this is called ALCAP, here
on Nb these bearer configuration protocols are called BC protocol.
In UMTS Release 4, we have signaling between MSC Server and MSC Server
(Nc), between MSC Server and MGW (Mc), between MGW and MGW (Nb). In
principle the basic method to implement these three interfaces is Direct
Connection of Nc. In this case two MSC Servers will have a direct connection
with each other. This direct connection implements the Nc interface which carries
the bearer independent call control signaling. Mc and Nb interface are
implemented as direct connections too.
Especially when MGW and MSC Server are built in the same device or are
extremely close to each other, the second solution is typically more cost efficient.
Figure 37 shows Direct Connection of Nc:
Fig. 37 Direct Connection of Nc
The Nc interface has to carry the signaling for logical call handling. This means it
must be bearer independent. Classically ISUP is used for logical call handling,
but ISUP is bearer PCM dependent. Hence, ITU-T has defined a modification of
ISUP which is called BICC. In fact, BICC is a bearer independent version of
ISUP. BICC works over SIGTRAN message transport.
When the MSC Server is doing a logical call control procedure, then the result
may be the decision to set up, release or modify transport bearer resources. But
the MSC Server no longer is in control of that, but the MGW is. Hence on the Mc
interface the MSC Server will instruct the MGW to prepare, establish, release or
modify bearer services.
The Call Bearer Control (CBC) protocol is used for this purpose. CBC is based
on the general framework provided by H.248 including UMTS specific procedures
and parameters. CBC can use SS7 over IP, SS7 over ATM for message
transport.
Here the protocol has the following main tasks:
Retrieval of statistics about the bearer connection.
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Indication of events concerning the bearer connections.
Trigger and detection of tones and signals on the bearer.
Control bearer connection setup, modification and release.
Call bearer control CBC protocols are usually specific to the transport technology
used, but are also dependent on the system. Therefore, a lot of different CBC are
needed in telecommunication. Therefore, ITU-T defined a basic framework for
CBC protocols based on the standard H.248. The same framework is also
provided by IETF for IP environments, here H.248 is called Media Gateway
Control (MEGACO) protocol.
H.248 provides a generalized model how to perform bearer connection control
between network control plane and transport network plane. CBC require four
following elements:
1. Framework: A framework specifies the functional architecture, interfaces and
abstract models.
2. Messages: Messages are the basic communication units exchanged
between functional units defined in the framework.
3. Procedures: Procedures define rules and actions associated with messages,
parameters, signals and events.
4. Parameters, Events, and Signals: Events describe what is detectable and
reportable. Signals are various indications running on the bearer (e.g. busy
tone). Parameters describe how bearers and related things can be described.
With H.248 especially the framework and the set of messages is defined. Also a
basic set of parameters, events and signals comes within H.248. But because
different technologies and systems require different parameters, events, signals
and procedures it is possible to define so called H.248 packages, which are
specific. A CBC now consists of H.248 and a set of mandatory and optional
packages.
Benefits of Release 4
Release 4 includes the separation of user plane from control plane. This makes it
easier to provide efficient bearer services with variable characteristics. The
purpose is to offer a better transport resource efficiency and a convergence with
the Packet-Switched (PS) domain transport. Another benefit is that the
architecture enables the use of a single set of layer 3 signaling protocols on top
of different transport resources, such as ATM or IP, Synchronous
Transfer/Transport Mode (STM). This feature aims to simplify the protocol stacks
involved in mobile communication.
The Release 4 architecture allows for a centralization of call control functions to
lesser number of MSC servers comparatively. The actual user plane can be
switched close to the end user, for example, physical network topology can reflect
usage patterns better than before.
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The network architecture provides opportunities to utilize statistic multiplexing
gain for all services including real-time services, therefore, reducing transmission
costs. Calls can be switched at MGW sites without being routed to the MSC
server site increasing transmission efficiency further.
Due to the higher switching efficiency of Release 4 compared to Release 99 new
services can be provided at a low cost to the end users, for example, streaming
services.
The concept of GERAN is established with Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution (EDGE) / General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The GERAN standard
supports all classical GSM CS voice services such as Full-Rate, (FR), Half-Rate
(HR), Enhanced Full-Rate (EFR), and Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR).
Release 4 is a step further to the way to future UMTS architectures, in which
advanced multimedia services will be offered. These advanced services require
an efficient underlying control and user plane architecture.
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1.7 UMTS Release 5 Architecture
The UMTS Release offers a wide range of improvements compared to earlier
releases. Two of the main new features are the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
and the radio network improvement High Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA).
The objective of the IMS is to support applications involving multiple media
components per session in a way that the network is able to dissociate different
flows with potentially different QoS characteristics associated to the multimedia
session.
These applications are called IP Multimedia applications. Examples of such
applications are multimedia session offering the possibility to add and drop
component(s), such as video, audio, end users, or tools as shared online
whiteboards. The impact on the network is the creation of a set of new entities,
the IMS, dedicated to the handling of the signaling and user traffic flows related
to these applications. All IMS entities are located in the Core Network. The
impact on non-IMS specific network entities is kept as low as possible.
The fixed Internet multimedia call control Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) defined
by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is chosen as the IMS main
protocol for its flexible syntax. SIP also allows for development of common
applications and interconnectivity between 3G UMTS networks and fixed IP
networks, such as Internet.
To transport IMS signaling and user data, IMS entities use the bearer services
provided by the PS domain and the UTRAN. With some exceptions, the PS
domain and the UTRAN domain consider IMS signaling and IMS applications
flows as user data flows. As a result, the impact on existing architecture on
non-IMS entities is minimized. As part of the bearer services offered by the PS
domain to the IMS, the PS domain supports the handover functionality for
maintaining the service while the terminal changes the location. IMS can be used
on bearer networks other than PS domain, but this is not defined in Release 5.
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Figure 38 shows the example of IP Multimedia Subsystem:
Fig. 38 Example of IP Multimedia Subsystem
The main entities of IMS are as follows:
Proxy-Call State Control Function (P-CSCF): This is the first contact point
of IMS. It is located in the same network as the Gateway GPRS Support
Node (GGSN). The network can be a visited network or the home network.
Figure 49 shows the P-CSCF in the visited network. The main task of
P-CSCF is to select the Interrogating-CSCF of the Home Network of the
user. It also performs some local analysis, for example, number translation,
QoS policing.
Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF): This is the main entry point of the home
network: it selects with the help of Home Subscriber Server (HSS) the
appropriate Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF).
Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF): performs the actual Session Control. This function
handles the SIP requests, performs the appropriate actions, for example,
requests the home and visited networks to establish the bearers. It also
forwards the requests to the S-CSCF/external IP network of other end user
as applicable. The S-CSCF might be specialized for the provisioning of a set
of service or even a single service.
The functions described are not network elements. These functions are logical
entities of the IMS and the actual implementation may combine the functions in
different hardware.
The IMS provides the benefits of as follows:
IP transport in UTRAN.
End to end IP services.
IP transport in the core network.
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Simpler service integration due to simplified protocol stacks.
Easy integration and enabling of instant messaging, information, and
real-time conversation services.
1.7.1 Basic IMS signaling flows
P-CSCF Lookup
When a user has activated the signaling PDP context for SIP signaling towards
IMS, it must select a Proxy CSCF. This Proxy CSCF will act a local IMS controller
to locate the GGSN and related PDP context of a subscriber for mobile
terminating services, to decide a about local quality of service policies for PDP
context bandwidth allocation, act as proxy or redirect SIP server for SIP signaling
from and to UE.
To select this P-CSCF a lookup must be performed. This can be done using
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) or without DHCP.
P-CSCF Lookup Using DHCP
If Packet Data Protocol (PDP) configuration is done with DHCP also the P-CSCF
lookup can be associated with it. The following would happen:
Signaling PDP Context Activation
First of all the UE must trigger a signaling PDP context towards IMS. The
standard APN for this purpose is 'IMS' indicating that the IMS network is the
destination. Additionally a flag in the Traffic Flow Template (TFT) description is
set, which indicates that this PDP context may be used for SIP signaling
purposes. Because DHCP is used, the GGSN will allocate an IP address (PDP
Address) for the UE, so the invalid address 0 is sent instead.
DHCP Configuration
Now the UE has to get the protocol configuration options for the IP stack using
the established PDP context. Therefore it sends a DCHP multicast message
Discover to the IMS network. The GGSN will intercept this message and route it
to a (pre-configured) DHCP server. This one will now make an offer to the UE for
IP configuration. This especially includes an IP address and for IMS this will also
mean that the domain name of a P-CSCF is given. This offer is returned by the
DHCP server to the GGSN which relays it to the correct PDP context of the UE. It
can either accept or deny the offer. If it is accepted the UE must request the offer
with the DHCP message Request. If the offer is still valid, the DHCP server
grants it to the UE with Acknowledgement message. Now the UE IP protocol
stack is configured.
PDP Address Validation
To make the received PDP address valid the GGSN triggers a PDP context
modification towards SGSN and UE with the updated PDP address inside.
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P-CSCF Name-to-Address Resolution
After PDP address validation, the UE has only the P-CSCF name. It still needs to
get the corresponding IP address for it (if not already received instead of the
name). This is done using a Domain Name Service (DNS). In general the
resolution of the P-CSCF name is done in three steps:
1. Transport layer determination (NAPTR query).
2. Server name lookup (SRV query).
3. Address lookup (A/AAA query).
Figure 39 shows the P-CSCF lookup using DHCP:
Fig. 39 P-CSCF lookup using DHCP
P-CSCF Lookup Without DHCP
The P-CSCF lookup can also be done without DHCP. Then the GGSN is
responsible to deliver a P-CSCF address. Note that in such a case rather the IP
address of the P-CSCF than a name is returned.
The P-CSCF address is derived by the GGSN at the time the IMS signaling PDP
context is established by the UE. The GGSN may take the P-CSCF address from
an internal data base or may request other IMS entities to deliver a P-CSCF
address. The exact mechanism is out of scope of the protocol.
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Figure 40 explains P-CSCF lookup without DHCP:
Fig. 40 P-CSCF lookup without DHCP
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1.8 Appendix
1.8.1 Internet Protocol
Data communications involve the transmission and reception of data between
entities across different networks. An entity has the capacity to transmit and
receive data. For an entity to function correctly, all entities must agree upon a
protocol for successful communication. A protocol is a set of rules defining data
communications between entities.
A protocol can define many aspects of communications including what is the
nature of communications, how will the entities communicate, and when will the
communications take place. Most protocols can be represented in a layered
architecture or layered model. Each layer performs a distinct function. Each layer
receives a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from the layer above to it, performs some
processing on PDU. Then each layer adds a header to the PDU and sends the
resulting PDU to the layer below it. The process of adding headers to the PDU is
called encapsulation. If the PDU is larger than an acceptable maximum size due
to technological limitations, the PDU may be broken into smaller PDUs. This
process is referred to as fragmentation.
Figure 41 shows the examples of OSI and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) models:
Fig. 41 OSI-Model vs. TCP/IP
The International Organization for Standardization (OSI) model contains following
seven layers:
1. Application
2. Presentation
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3. Session
4. Transport
5. Network or Inter-network
6. Data link
7. Physical layers.
Each layer performs a distinct function. The TCP/IP protocol family was originally
developed for US military data networks in the late 1970s. The first network to
use this protocol was called ARPANET. Since then, the TCP/IP family of
networking protocols has grown to its current position as the most widely used
data communications protocol both in interconnecting Wide Area Networks (WAN)
and in office or corporate Local Area Networks (LAN).
Due to the widespread use and relatively easy implementation, the usage of
TCP/IP protocols is supported by every WAN and LAN technology that exists.
Currently, TCP/IP protocols are developed and standardized by the Internet IETF.
The website for IETF is www.ietf.org. IETF membership is free and there is no
subscription fee for the documents either.
Although TCP/IP can be mapped and explained with the classical layered
OSI-protocol model, there are some differences. For example, there are no
session or presentation layers defined, but the functionality of the session or
presentation layers is built directly into application layer protocols.
IP is a layer-3 protocol that is used to carry data over different types of network.
Internet Protocol (IP) works in connectionless packet mode. In other words, data
is transported to the destination without the establishment of a connection
between the source and the destination similar to a postal system. Each packet
will have an address for both sender and receiver, which is referred to as an IP
address. There are two types of IP addresses, private IP addresses and public IP
addresses. Public IP addresses are globally unique, in which all IP packets in a
public network will have unique IP sender and receiver addresses.
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Figure 42 shows how IP addressing can be compared to street addressing:
Fig. 42 IP Addressing Compared to Street Addressing
IP is used as the interconnection protocol in the Internet. The use of unique
addresses means that every machine connected to the Internet can send packets
to any other machine connected to the Internet, assuming that this has not been
denied for security reasons. Each packet will have an address for the sender and
the receiver. Large deliveries may be divided or fragmented into several smaller
packets to help transportation. The network does not guarantee when and how
the packets will arrive. It is referred to as a best effort network.
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Figure 43 shows four different IP networks interconnected together. If Router 1
has packets that need to go to the Internet, it can send packets via Router 3 in IP
Network A or through Router 4 in IP Network B.
Fig. 43 Example of an IP Network
1.8.2 Internet Protocol Version 4
An IP address identifies a host on a network. The current version of IP is IP
version 4 (IPv4). The length of the IPv4 address is 32 bits. Due to the fact that
humans find it difficult to write 32 binary bits, IP address are written in a dotted
decimal notation as A.B.C.D. Each number in this notation corresponds to an
octet or 8 bits. Each octet has the decimal range of 0 (00000000) to 255
(11111111). For example, the IP address for Nokia’s global web site,
http://www.nokia.com, is 193.65.100.105. In this address, 193 represents the
most significant octet of the IP address.
As the range of each octet has been specified, the next issue is the availability of
addresses. At the beginning of this section it was mentioned that an IP address
consists of 32 bits, and each bit has a binary representation of 0 or 1. Therefore,
232 results in 4295 million addresses approximately. However, not all IP
addresses are available because some are reserved for special purposes. For
example, the IP addresses 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255 are used for special
purposes. The IP address 255.255.255.255 is used for local broadcasting to all
hosts across a network.
An IP address is composed of two parts, the Network ID (Net ID) and the Host
ID. The Net ID represents the network to which the host or gateway belongs and
the Host ID identifies the specific host within that particular network. The Net ID
always precedes the Host ID. The number of bits used to represent the Net ID
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and the Host ID varies on whether a class or a classless IP addressing is used.
All routing functions are based on the Net ID portion of the IP address.
1.8.2.1 Class Based IP Addressing
The Class based IP addressing was the original mode of allocating addresses. A
detailed description of Class based IP addressing can be found in RFC 791. The
five classes of IP addressing as follows were defined:
1. Class A - These addresses were designed for big organizations, which have
large number of computers in their network.
2. Class B - These addresses were designed for mid-size organizations, which
have large number of computers in their network.
3. Class C – These addresses were designed for small size organizations,
which have small number of computers in their network.
4. Class D – These addresses were designed for multicasting purposes.
5. Class E – These addresses are reserved by the Internet for special use.
Similarly, class E type addresses have no Net ID or Host ID.
Figure 44 summarizes the characteristics of different classes of IP addresses:
Fig. 44 Characteristics of Class Based IP Addresses
In addition, these bits can be used to compute the number of networks supported
by each class as well as the number of hosts per network supported by each
class. The number of bits can be specified for Net ID and Host ID depending on
the class.
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1.8.2.2 Classless Based IP Addressing
The second type of addressing is known as classless addressing. Classless
addressing was developed as one of many solutions to address the shortage of
IP addresses in the earlier class based addressing. In this scheme, the Net ID is
not confined to 7, 14, or 21 bits. The Net ID can be between 2 and 31 bits,
therefore, the boundary between the Net ID and Host ID needs to be indicated.
A classless IP address is represented as a.b.c.d / x. The ‘/x’ says that first x bits
of the IP address is a Net ID. In this addressing scheme, a netmask is used to
distinguish between the Net ID and Host ID bits of the IP address. A netmask
contains a series of 1s corresponding to the Net ID followed by a series of 0s
corresponding to the host ID. The examples of netmask are as follows:
Example 1:
If IP address = a.b.c.d/24
Then netmask = 11111111.11111111.11111111.0000000= 255.255.255.0
Example 2:
If IP address = a.b.c.d/23
Then netmask = 11111111.11111111.11111110.0000000= 255.255.254.0
Example 3:
If IP address = a.b.c.d/22
Then netmask = 11111111.11111111.11111100.0000000= 255.255.252.0
Figure 45 shows the Bit-wise Anding of IP address and netmask:
Fig. 45 Bit-wise Anding of IP Address and Netmask
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The IP address and netmask are ANDed together bit-wise resulting in the binary
representation of the network address
1.8.2.3 Static and Dynamic IP Addressing
A static IP address is similar to the passport number, which does not change. For
example, a computer can be a host in a network that has unique and permanent
IP addresses. Every time the user logs into the network the computer will use the
same IP address.
With a dynamic IP address every time the user log into the network, the network
will assign a different address. This address is assigned on demand and can be
used by different hosts at different times, but not simultaneously because IP
addresses are unique. There is a lease time associated with a dynamically
assigned address.
1.8.3 Internet Protocol Version 6
IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet Protocol developed by IETF. One of the
main reasons for the introduction of IPv6 is that the number of IP addresses
available with the current IPv4 is running short. The address size of IPv6 is 128
bits, which is estimated to last a much longer than the 32 bits in IPv4.
There are also other reasons for introducing IPv6 as highlighted in RFC1883:
Expanded Addressing Capabilities
The increased address space of 128 bits will allow IPv6 to support more levels of
addressing hierarchy, more addressable nodes, and simple auto-configuration of
addresses. IPv6 also includes a new type of address, anycast address, which is
used to send a packet to any one group of nodes in a network.
Header Format Simplification
In contrast to the header format of IPv4, some of the header fields of IPv6 have
been discarded or made optional. This change was invoked to reduce the
common-case processing cost of packet handling and to limit the bandwidth cost
of IPv6 header.
Improved Support for Extensions and Options
The changes implemented in IPv6 for header options permit increased efficiency
in forwarding. In addition, less stringent limits on the length of options increases
the chances of implementing more options in future.
Flow Labelling Capability
This is a new capability feature. This feature allows the labelling of packets that
belong to a particular traffic flow, for which the user had requested special
handling. This includes non-default quality of service or real time service.
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Authentication and Privacy Capabilities
IPv4 did not have any authentication and privacy capabilities. This was
compensated by the development of IPsec. IPv6 contains many features of IPsec
and other features to support authentication, data integrity, and data
confidentiality.
1.8.4 IP Routing and Routers
Router is an IP device that can forward IP packets, which have a destination
address other than its own, to other IP devices. The process of selecting the best
data link and next hop on the route for the intended destination network is called
routing.
Figure 46 shows a router and the tasks performed by a router:
Fig. 46 A Router and Its Tasks
Routing can be either static or dynamic. In static routing, the router will have a
fixed routing table, which includes the destination IP networks and corresponding
next hops. In dynamic routing, the routers exchange information on the
destination IP networks and corresponding next hops. This dynamic information is
exchanged through routing protocols, such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF),
the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(IGRP), and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
It is impossible and not practical to know the route to every IP-network in the
world, therefore, the routers and the hosts use a default gateway or default route.
If accurate information about the destination IP-network is not known, then the
packets are sent to the default gateway or default route. The default gateway or
default route is typically marked with the address 0.0.0.0 or mask 0.0.0.0
-notation.
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Figure 47 shows a typical routing table for Router 1:
Fig. 47 IP Routers and Routing Table
If Router 3 fails, Router 1 will have to find an alternative path to route its packets
to the Internet. The alternative path can be used if, Router 1 corrects its routing
table by incorporating a new route to the Internet through Router 4.
Figure 48 shows IP routers and routing table in case of malfunction:
Fig. 48 IP Routers and Routing Table
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IP is a connectionless protocol and routing will be done individually for each and
every packet even if they belong to the same data transfer. Every router between
the sender and the receiver performs the routing function.
Routers are needed in IP based LAN/WAN networks to interconnect IP network
that employ similar or dissimilar lower layer or data link protocols. An IP packet
arriving from a network using one type of data link can be easily forwarded to the
next hop network, based on another type of data link. If both the sender and the
receiver are connected to the same physical data link network or an Ethernet
segment and are using IP addresses from different IP sub networks, the packets
from one sub network to the other will have to be sent to a router, which has an
interface to both sub networks. The router then forwards packets between the two
IP sub networks.
1.8.5 Port Numbers and Network Address Translation
Once a packet is delivered to an IP device, the question arises to which
application process the transport layer should deliver it. TCP and UDP provide an
addressing method to separate different application processes inside the
IP-capable devices, and this is referred to as port numbers. Each application will
have one or several port numbers to identify the sender and receiver applications.
Port numbers can be static or dynamic. On the server side port numbers are
typically fixed, and on the client side they are allocated dynamically. Port
numbers run from 0 to 65536.
Figure 49 shows several applications running simultaneously on one host:
Fig. 49 Several Applications Running Simultaneously on One Host
Figure 50 shows that any data transmission between two IP devices is uniquely
identified by the IP-address and port numbers using WWW traffic as an example:
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Fig. 50 HTTP Request From a Web Browser
1.8.5.1 Sockets
A socket is simply a combination of the IP address and the port number. Using
the port number for identification purposes would be difficult because the same
port number can be used on a number of different clients. Sockets allow a server
to uniquely identify the process running on a particular client.
1.8.5.2 Network Address Translation
For security reasons and to save addressing space, some networks have a
different addressing space than the Internet. The hosts in these networks use
private unregistered IP addresses inside the network.
To connect to the Internet, a registered public address is required. Therefore,
there has to be some device that performs the translation of a private
unregistered address to a public registered address. This task is called Network
Address Translation (NAT) and is performed in routers connected to external
networks or firewalls.
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Figure 51 shows the NAT:
Fig. 51 Network Address Translation
In order to save addressing space, network address and port translation can be
used.
For example, the GPRS backbone network is separated from the external
networks. It has a separate address space from the public Internet and GPRS
users. The IP addresses given to the users may be public addresses or private
addresses from a private network address space other than the ones used for the
GPRS backbone.
If the users are allocated private or unregistered addresses, they have to be
mapped or translated into one or more registered public IP addresses and port
pairs. This process is called NAT. If more that one private address is mapped into
one public address and different port numbers, the process is called Network
Address and Port Translation (NAPT).
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Figure 52 shows the network address and port translation in a GPRS network:
Fig. 52 Network Address and Port Translation in a GPRS Network
There are two main reasons for using NAT as follows:
1. Security.
2. The limited number of public IP address available to an operator.
Usage of NAT increases the security of the users, as the internal addresses are
not visible to computers outside of the NAT device. From the mobile station's
point of view, the NAT function and the GPRS core are transparent.
1.8.6 Components in IP networks
1.8.6.1 Domain Name System
The Domain Name System (DNS) is an application layer protocol, which is used
to convert difficult-to-remember 32-bit IP addresses to more easily remembered
symbolic names, and vice versa. An example of a DNS is gprs.ntc.nokia.com
which maps to the IP address 192.168.0.1.
The conversion from the symbolic name to the IP address is done in DNS
servers. A DNS server is a database containing IP addresses and corresponding
symbolic names. A single DNS cannot store the information on all address-name
pair.
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Figure 53 shows the DNS is based on a hierarchical and distributed model:
Fig. 53 DNS in Operation
As shown in Figure 50 , the host has to translate the IP address for
gprs.ntc.nokia.com. For this, the following steps are performed:
1. The host sends a DNS query to its local DNS server , asking for the IP
address of gprs.ntc.nokia.com.
2. The local DNS server does not know the answer, because it only has a
database of the local users. It forwards the query to a predefined root level
DNS server . The root level DNS server replies with a list of IP addresses to
.com -level DNS servers.
3. The local DNS server sends the query to the .com DNS servers. The .com
DNS server replies with a list of IP addresses of the nokia.com -level DNS
servers.
4. The local DNS server sends the query to one of the nokia.com DNS servers,
which replies with a list of the addresses of ntc.nokia.com -level DNS
servers.
5. The local DNS server then forwards the query to one of the ntc.nokia.com
DNS servers. The ntc.nokia.com - level DNS server replies with an IP
address corresponding to the gprs.ntc.nokia.com DNS name.
6. The local DNS server forwards the reply to the original host.
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To avoid repeating the preceding procedure for every request, all DNS servers
and hosts will cache their replies for a short time. So, if the same host sends
another request for the same symbolic name, the host would know the right IP
address from its cached data without performing all the steps in the preceding
procedure. If some other host using the same local DNS server needs the IP
address of the same symbolic name, it can retrieve the IP address faster from the
local DNS server’s cache.
1.8.6.2 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to provide automatic
network configuration information from the DHCP server to the DHCP client.
From the IP point of view, the important configuration parameters that a client
needs to know are the IP address, netmask, and the default gateway. This
means that IP addresses are not assigned permanently to any client, but instead
they are allocated from a pool of addresses assigned to a DHCP server. In order
to avoid ‘ghost’ users using IP addresses they no longer need, the given IP
addresses and the other parameters are associated with a lease time. This lease
time can be configured to be from few to several days. Before the lease expires,
the client has to try to renew the lease. The client must stop using the IP address
if the lease expires.
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Figure 54 shows the Distribution of IP addresses from a DHCP server to DHCP
clients:
Fig. 54 DHCP in Operation
A DHCP server can be a dedicated server only or it can be just a part of some
other type of server. A DHCP client can be run directly on a host machine as
normally is done in an office LAN environment. The DHCP client could be run on
a Remote Access Server (RAS), and with some other technique, such as. PPP,
the information could be forwarded to the right remote host.
Note: Point to Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol used commonly with
dynamic serial links such as dial-up modems. In addition to normal datalink
functionality, it is also capable of negotiating network layer parameters.
1.8.6.3 Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a protocol used for the
centralised control of remote users between several RAS. Each RAS is
connected as a client to a central RADIUS server. The RADIUS server has a
database that contains the information needed for authentication of the remote
users. In addition, dynamic IP addresses can be assigned to remote users using
RADIUS.
1.8.6.4 Virtual Private Network
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a method of securely communicating between
a VPN client, such as a user, and the user’s organisation’s network over a public
non-secure network such as the Internet. The VPN concept has been around for
some time. The concept of VPN was initially used in telephone networks. Only
recently have they become popular due to the prevalence of the Internet and
advances in security technologies.
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Nowadays many companies use Internet-based VPNs because it is more cost
effective than using private networks. Companies use the Internet as a virtual
backbone for creating a secure virtual link between their corporate offices and
remote offices.
VPN uses a variety of encryption and security mechanisms to make the virtual
link secure and to prevent hackers or eavesdroppers from accessing or modifying
the data without being detected. VPNs use a technique known as tunnelling to
transport encrypted data over the Internet. Tunnelling involves encapsulating one
protocol such as IPX, AppleTalk, or IP, encrypting it, and then encapsulating it
into IP datagrams. Tunnelling offers the advantage of obscuring the original
network layer protocol.
Figure 55 shows the typical architecture of a VPN:
Fig. 55 VPN Architecture Creating a VPN Connection
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As shown in Figure 55, the following steps are performed to create a VPN
connection:
1. A VPN client dials up to the NAS –Network Access Server, located at the ISP
using a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) through a PSTN or wireless
connection.
2. The NAS communicates with the security server to identify the VPN client.
3. The NAS initiates a communication link using a tunnelling protocol over the
Internet to the VPN client's organization gateway.
4. The organization’s gateway decides either to accept or reject the established
tunnel from the ISP's NAS.
5. The organization gateway queries the organization security server to confirm
the tunnel.
6. Once the tunnel is accepted by the organization gateway, the ISP's NAS logs
the acceptance/ traffic.
7. The organization gateway exchanges information such as PPP with the VPN
client and assigns the client an IP address.
8. A secure tunnel is created between the VPN client and the organization
gateway to tunnel the data.
As mentioned earlier, tunnels are created to permit the VPN client to access their
organization’s network. Tunnelling protocols create tunnels and there are different
types of PPPs:
Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol (PPTP)
Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F)
Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol (L2TP)
IP Security (IPSec) Protocol Suite
In addition, the protocols mentioned above could be classified into two categories:
1. Layer 2 - PFT, L2F, and L2TP are categorised as Layer 2 tunnelling
protocols.
2. Layer 3P - IPSec Protocol Suite is a Layer 3 tunnelling protocol.
1.8.6.5 Firewalls
A firewall is a system that controls access to and from an insecure external
network to the local network of an organisation. Firewalls are often implemented
at a point where the local network of an organisation connects to an external
network such as the Internet. This is often the weakest point since it is vulnerable
to an attack.
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Figure 56 shows the Placement of a Firewall in Relation to the Secure Private
Network and the Internet:
Fig. 56 Placement of a Firewall in Relation to the Secure Private Network and the Internet
A firewall at this point will allow all the packets leaving and entering the local
network to be examined thoroughly. The examination of packets is defined by the
control access policy defined in the security policy of the network. Any packets
observed by the firewall to come from an insecure source are discarded. As a
result, the risk of an attack on the network is reduced.
1.8.7 Function of the UMTS Interfaces – A Summary
1.8.7.1 Radio Access Network
The open interfaces in the UTRAN are Uu and Iu. In addition to these two
interfaces, UTRAN contains the Iub (BS - RNC), and the Iur (RNC - RNC)
interfaces.
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Figure 57 summarizes functions and interfaces of UTRAN:
Fig. 57 UTRAN Functions and Interfaces
The functions of the RAN are subsets of the management entity Radio Resource
Management (RRM). Referring to the UTRAN protocol stack reference model,
UTRAN performs different tasks within the transport, control, and user plane.
In the transport plane, the most important function is RRC, which contains
procedures the set-up, addition, reconfiguration, and deletion of radio links. These
procedures are performed both through the Iub and Iur Interfaces. In control
plane, the main function is bearer and radio link mapping. In the user plane, the
main function is bearer assignment signaling.
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1.8.7.2 CS and PS Core Network Domains
Figure 58 summarizes the interfaces in the CN domains:
Fig. 58 UMTS-CN Interfaces
The transport plane in the CN-CS domain is CCS7. In the CN packet domain the
transport plane can be ATM, Ethernet, and/or Point to Point Serial connections,
with X.25 or Frame Relay on top.
The control plane in the CN-CS domain consists of the signaling protocols using
the CCS7 stack, which are ISUP, SCCP, MAP, Intelligent Network Application
Part (INAP), and Customised Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL). In
the CN-PS domain, the control plane is GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) over
User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP).
In the CN-CS the user plane is inside the control plane. For example, the control
plane protocol ISUP facilitates control plane activity of establishing the connection
establishment between the subscribers. The applications of the subscribers can
exchange data by using the ISUP facility called User-to-User Signaling (UUS),
which is one of the ISUP internal facilities. In the CN-PS domain, the user plane
exists and is actually IP carried over GTP over UDP/IP.
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
In the below figure, fill in the name of the missing interfaces, transport,
and control layers.
Exercise 2
Which statement of RAB is NOT true?
The RAB carries a connection between the terminal and the core network.
The RAB is not a radio link signaling protocol.
Voice is the only information on a RAB.
Signaling data is the only information on a RAB.
Exercise 3
Which statement of RRC is TRUE?
The RRC is the connection between the terminal and the core
network, upon which traffic is transferred.
The RRC is the connection between the terminal and radio access
network and contains the radio access bearers.
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The RRC is the connection between the RAN and core network
and contains all the RABs from different terminals.
The RAB is a radio interface.
Exercise 4
Which statement of ATM connection is NOT true?
The Transmission path contains many virtual paths.
There is one virtual channel per data subscriber.
One virtual path contains at the most one virtual channel.
One virtual path can contain many virtual channels.
Exercise 5
In the RNC, what is the function of the MAC?
Selection of data to be inserted in Radio Frame.
Selection of common channels.
Multiplexing of logical channels to transportation channels.
Ciphering for real-time traffic.
All of above
Exercise 6
Which statement best describes the function and role of the NBAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for
call set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs.
It is used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in an URA and
when performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resources.
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It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the
allocation of resources.
Exercise 7
Which statement best describes the function and role of the RANAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call
set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs and used when one RNC
needs to signal a cell in an URAand performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resource.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to
control the allocation of resources.
Exercise 8
Which statement best describes the function and role of the RNSAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call
set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is used when one RNC needs
to signal a cell in an URA and when performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resources.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the
allocation of resources.
Exercise 9
Which statement best describes the function and role of the ISUP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used
for call set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is used when one RNC
needs to signal a cell in a URA and when performing soft handovers.
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It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for
the management of resources.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control
the allocation of resources.
Exercise 10
What is the byte structure of ATM cell?
53 Bytes (48 payload + 5 header)
58 Bytes (50 payload + 8 header)
53 bytes (45 payload + 8 header)
53 bytes (47 payload + 6 header)
Exercise 11
What is the most significant use of MSS in Release 4?
Another up gradation of existing MSC.
Calls can be switched at MGW sites without being routed to the MSC server
site further increasing transmission efficiency.
It can be used for generating CDR.
It can be used for transcoding.
Exercise 12
Why ATM is proposed to be used in Release 99 and onwards over presently
used conventional PCMlinks?
ATM is cheaper and easier to implement.
ATM switches and routers are more stable as compared to the
ones presently used
ATM is cell switching, which has a smaller Byte structure and hence is fast.
ATM is packet switching, which is connection less and hence it is fast.
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Exercise 13
What is a socket?
A combination of the IP address and the port number.
A combination of the Source IP and Destination IP address.
A combination of the IP address and MAC address.
A combination of Source MAC and Destination MAC.
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
In the below figure, fill in the name of the missing interfaces, transport,
and control layers.
Exercise 2 (Solution)
Which statement of RAB is NOT true?
The RAB carries a connection between the terminal and the core network.
The RAB is not a radio link signaling protocol.
Voice is the only information on a RAB.
Signaling data is the only information on a RAB.
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which statement of RRC is TRUE?
The RRC is the connection between the terminal and the core
network, upon which traffic is transferred.
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The RRC is the connection between the terminal and radio access
network and contains the radio access bearers.
The RRC is the connection between the RAN and core network
and contains all the RABs from different terminals.
The RAB is a radio interface.
Exercise 4 (Solution)
Which statement of ATM connection is NOT true?
The Transmission path contains many virtual paths.
There is one virtual channel per data subscriber.
One virtual path contains at the most one virtual channel.
One virtual path can contain many virtual channels.
Exercise 5 (Solution)
In the RNC, what is the function of the MAC?
Selection of data to be inserted in Radio Frame.
Selection of common channels.
Multiplexing of logical channels to transportation channels.
Ciphering for real-time traffic.
All of above
Exercise 6 (Solution)
Which statement best describes the function and role of the NBAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for
call set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs.
It is used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in an URA and
when performing soft handovers.
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It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resources.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the
allocation of resources.
Exercise 7 (Solution)
Which statement best describes the function and role of the RANAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call
set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs and used when one RNC
needs to signal a cell in an URAand performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resource.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to
control the allocation of resources.
Exercise 8 (Solution)
Which statement best describes the function and role of the RNSAP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call
set-up purposes.
It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is used when one RNC needs
to signal a cell in an URA and when performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used
for the management of resources.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the
allocation of resources.
Exercise 9 (Solution)
Which statement best describes the function and role of the ISUP protocol?
It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used
for call set-up purposes.
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It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is used when one RNC
needs to signal a cell in a URA and when performing soft handovers.
It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for
the management of resources.
It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control
the allocation of resources.
Exercise 10 (Solution)
What is the byte structure of ATM cell?
53 Bytes (48 payload + 5 header)
58 Bytes (50 payload + 8 header)
53 bytes (45 payload + 8 header)
53 bytes (47 payload + 6 header)
Exercise 11 (Solution)
What is the most significant use of MSS in Release 4?
Another up gradation of existing MSC.
Calls can be switched at MGW sites without being routed to the MSC server
site further increasing transmission efficiency.
It can be used for generating CDR.
It can be used for transcoding.
Exercise 12 (Solution)
Why ATM is proposed to be used in Release 99 and onwards over presently
used conventional PCMlinks?
ATM is cheaper and easier to implement.
ATM switches and routers are more stable as compared to the
ones presently used
ATM is cell switching, which has a smaller Byte structure and hence is fast.
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ATM is packet switching, which is connection less and hence it is fast.
Exercise 13 (Solution)
What is a socket?
A combination of the IP address and the port number.
A combination of the Source IP and Destination IP address.
A combination of the IP address and MAC address.
A combination of Source MAC and Destination MAC.
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UMTS Services and
Applications
Contents
1 UMTS Services and Applications............................................................ 2
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................2
1.2 List the Services and Applications Provided by the UMTS
Network....................................................................................................... 3
1.3 List the Services and Applications That IP Multimedia
Subsystem Would Provide.......................................................................... 5
1.4 Working of Services: MMS and Streaming Audio & Video....................... 14
1.5 Virtual Home Environment ........................................................................ 25
1.6 Appendix....................................................................................................27
2 Exercises..................................................................................................28
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................31
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1 UMTS Services and
Applications
1.1 Module Objectives
The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining the GSM and UMTS mobile applications. Topics to be covered in
this module include the differentiation between UMTS services and applications, a
general discussion of the Virtual Home Environment, and an introduction to the
most important service platforms.
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
List the services and applications UMTS network provided.
List the services and applications that IP Multimedia System provides.
List the GSM services that can still be supported in the UMTS networks.
Explain briefly working of Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging
Service, and audio and video streaming.
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1.2 List the Services and Applications
Provided by the UMTS Network
1.2.1 Introduction to Mobile Applications
In your everyday life, you are familiar with the concept of a mobile application.
For example, a mobile phone call is a mobile application. An SMS is another type
of mobile application. With time, the need for different types of applications is
increasing. Today the subscribers expect an increased number of applications
and greater value. For an operator with a large subscriber base, more usage time
is one way of ensuring continuing growth. However, the subscribers use mobile
applications on for a limited time. Therefore, when defining the 3
rd
 Generation (3G) specifications, the emphasis is on the unlimited prospect of
seamless services and applications that can be provided.
One common misconception that people have is that applications have been
introduced in UMTS. However, this is not true as GSM already offers both
integrated network and Intelligent Networks (IN) applications. In today's
networks, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) adds the facility of supporting
packet data with relatively quick set-up and transfer times, such as in the case of
Internet.
UMTS Services
The term mobile application refers to services provided to the subscriber. Mobile
applications have not been standardized in UMTS. The GSM/UMTS network
offers service elements that are used by applications. The applications form the
value added for the subscriber. A set of services have been made available by
UMTS, which are:
Circuit Switched (CS) Services - These are the teleservices, such as
speech call, facsimile call, and CS data.
Packet Switched (PS) Services - These are based on the PS connectivity
provided by Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts.
Message Services - These include Short Message Service (SMS) and
Multimedia Message Service (MMS).
The services speech call, facsimile, and SMS are both services and applications.
CS data is only a service because the subscriber allocated with a CS bearer for
data transport. The bearer itself adds no value to the subscriber. The subscriber
requires the CS data bearer to run a data application, where content is for
instance exchanged between two entities, for example, between the handheld
device and an application related content server. The same is true for PS
services that are used to establish a PS bearer. Again, the PS bearer alone adds
no value to the subscriber. However, when the subscriber can use the bearer in
combination with an application, then value is added for the subscriber For
example, a subscriber can use a PS bearer between the handheld device and the
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Internet to gain content through the application HTTP and TCP/IP.
Consequently, the GSM/UMTS services must be selected in such a way, that the
application running on top of it can be served in the best possible way.
1.2.2 Service Platforms
Service platforms are entities, which offer the implementation methods for
applications. A service platform is a logical entity often containing several pieces
of equipment. Following are the majority of existing applications till December
2002 were adopted from GSM:
1.  Voice Mail System (VMS) for Voice Call Completion.
2. Service delivery platform enabling servers that support different types of
applications. A typical example is the Short Message Service Centre (SMSC)
for short message delivery.
3. Service creation and execution platform is built upon the principles of IN and
is almost obligatory to provide the envisioned services.
Figure 1 shows the elements of Core network service platform:
Fig. 1 Core network service platform elements
The new WCDMA radio interface will improve the quality and convenience of
these applications. It will also enable higher packet data rates, which is highly
important for the new e-mail and Internet services. The circuit connections can
initially be made to the GSM switches to provide speech and other circuit
switched services of up to 64 Kbps.
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1.3 List the Services and Applications That IP
Multimedia Subsystem Would Provide
1.3.1 Applications Categorisation from the Business Area
Point of View
The different potential applications can be categorized into five distinct groups as
follows:
1. Person-to-Person multimedia communications
2. Mobile Internet
3. Business solutions
4. Mobile commerce
5. Location-based services
Although it is difficult to predict the services that will be the most popular, it is
anticipated that the services working together will be more in demand.
Figure 2 shows the Using a Multitude of Services:
Fig. 2 Example of Using a Multitude of Services
Figure 2 shows the use of searching based on location to find a theatre. The
mobile network allows subscribers to make an instant reservation. This feature is
called the NSN mCommerce solution. As the subscriber travels to the chosen
theatre, the mobile network provides a map application, assisted with
location-based services suggesting the means of traveling towards the
destination. Finally, the subscriber updates a Personal Information Management
(PIM) application with the information of the travel and theatre.
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1.3.1.1 Person-to-Person Multimedia Communications
Person-to-person communications is the interaction and sharing of end-subscriber
created information between the individuals. Currently, person-to-person
communication is mainly related to voice calls and SMS. In 3G, person-to-person
communications will evolve to provide new types of messaging and telephony
services, which will include the following:
Chat from one to many.
Calendar and e-mail including synchronization.
Rich call and video telephony.
Picture messaging and multimedia messaging.
Evolution of messaging will bring richer content into the messages. With
multimedia messaging, it is possible to combine the conventional short messages
with richer content type, such as photographs, images, and video clips. In
addition, it is not only possible to send messages from one hand set to another
but also from handset to e-mail.
Figure 3 shows the development of person-to-person messaging:
Fig. 3 Development of Person-to-Person Messaging
During the month of June 2001, around 20 billion SMSs were sent globally. In
September 2002, 27 billion of them were sent. During 1999 and 2000, in Norway,
there was an increase of 1000% SMSs. In Italy, there was an increase of 700%
SMSs in 7 months.
1.3.1.2 Mobile Internet
The introduction of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) has shaped the mobile
industry into a direction where mobile technology is combined with the Internet.
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The added value provided by Mobile Internet as opposed to fixed Internet can be
summed up with four key words as follows:
1. Personalized, which means always relevant to me.
2. Available, which means wherever I need it.
3. Immediacy, which means information when I need.
4. Real time, which means latest version, as soon as it happens.
Figure 4 shows an example of how the Mobile Internet can be used for a
subscriber's life style. The categories of services can be divided into information
and entertainment:
Fig. 4 Mobile Internet Services
There is a misconception that the Mobile Internet services are only introduced in
UMTS. However, there are no limiting factors currently to stop the operator or the
content provider from introducing these services. Although in CS networks, there
are few limitations in terms of speed and connection set-up. The advantage of
GPRS should overcome or reduce these limitations.
1.3.2 Potential Application Utilising the UMTS Circuit
Switched Service
1.3.2.1 Potential Applications
Applications are the end subscriber services. They are no longer standardized. It
is up to operators and value-added service providers to determine the need for
an application and implement them. GSM/UMTS offer the bearer and call control
to exchange content and content-related signaling information between the
mobile device and the application driven content server.
The applications that have been planned for the implementation of GSM/UMTS
are as follows:
News and traffic flashes
Public video phoning
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Ticketing services and interactive shopping
Desktop video conferencing
Voice recognition and response
Interactive and virtual school
Universal SIM with credit card function
Virtual banking
Currency downloading
Video-on-demand
Online library and books
In addition to the applications listed above, the supplementary services used in
GSM are available from the very beginning of the 3G.
1.3.3 Potential Applications Utilising the UMTS PS Service
One of the main reasons for the implementation of UMTS networks is the
anticipated demand for data services. There are different types of PS services
and requirements for the services.
1.3.3.1 Voice Over IP
The well known use of voice telecommunication is telephony speech, for
example, GSM, but with Internet and multimedia, a number of new applications,
for example Voice Over IP(VoIP) and video conferencing tools, will require this
scheme. Real-time conversation is always performed between peers or groups of
live or human end-subscribers. This is the only scheme where the required
characteristics are strictly given by human perception or senses.
Push to Talk Over Cellular (PoC)
PoC is a direct, real-time voice communications service. The principle of this
service is to just push to talk. The calls can be started to both individuals and
groups with just a push of a key because of a direct connection. The half-duplex
or the one way at a time, call connection is almost instant.
This technology uses the capabilities of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as
specified by 3GPP. PoC is based on a half-duplex, always-on VoIP service over
the second generation GSM/GPRS network. Push to talk uses the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) service architecture as SIP messaging, which makes new
applications, such as voice chat and group chat messaging possible. Groups can
also be created using SMS, which is familiar and easy to control for the
subscriber.
Voice and Video Over IP
Videophone implies a full-duplex system, carrying both video and audio, and is
intended for use in a conversational environment. For this technology, the same
delay requirements as for conversational voice will apply. The added requirement
is that the audio and video must be synchronized within certain limits to provide
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the lip-synch, which means the synchronization of the speaker’s lips with the
words being heard by the end-subscriber. Due to the long delays in even the
latest video codecs, it will be difficult to meet these requirements.
The human eye is tolerant to some loss of information therefore, certain degree
of packet loss is acceptable depending on the specific video coder and amount of
error protection used. It is expected that the latest video codecs will provide
acceptable video quality with frame erasure rates up to 1%.
Figure 5 shows video telephony:
Fig. 5 Video Telephony
Point-to-Multipoint, Multicast via Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN)
When the subscriber is looking at a video or listening to audio, the scheme
streams apply. The real-time data flow is always aiming at a live or human
destination. It is a one-way transport called unidirectional continuous stream.
This scheme is new the world of data communication, which gives rise to a
number of new requirements for telecommunication and data communication
systems.
Audio streaming is expected to provide better quality than conventional telephony,
and requirements for information loss in terms of packet loss will be tighter.
Similar to voice messaging, there is no conversational element involved and
delay requirements are flexible even more than for voice messaging. An example
of audio streaming is the web radio station.
The main distinguishing feature of one-way video is that there is no
conversational element involved, which means that the delay requirement is not
be very stringent, and can follow that of streaming audio. An example of one-way
video is monitoring your home using the Internet.
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1.3.3.2 Data
Although there may be some exceptions, it is assumed that from a subscriber’s
perspective the prime requirement for any data transfer application is to
essentially guarantee zero loss of information without any delay variation.
Therefore, the applications tend to distinguish themselves on the basis of the
delay that can be tolerated by the end-subscriber from the time the source
content is requested until it is presented to the subscriber.
The Release 5 feature High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) provides a
similar boost for WCDMA that EDGE does for GSM. It provides a two-fold
increase in air interface capacity and a five-fold increase in data speeds in the
downlink direction. In addition, HSDPA shortens the round-trip time between the
network and terminals and reduces variance in downlink transmission delay.
Web Browsing
In this category, we will refer to retrieving and viewing the HTML component of a
web page. Other components, for example, images, audio, or video clips, are
dealt with under separate categories. From the subscriber’s perspective, the main
performance factor is how fast a page appears after it is requested. A value of 2
to 4 seconds per page is proposed.
Mobile browsing delivers formatted Web pages to the subscriber’s terminal and
displays them on the screen, enabling interaction with active elements on the
page, such as links and forms. In the case of pull, the subscriber consumes the
product by clicking links and form buttons to request the next page. Mobile
browsing also supports push, which is an action initiated by the server to deliver
content to the terminal. subscribers may receive a Service Initiation push
message, asking for permission to display a page, or a Service Load push
message, which depending on the subscriber settings, can automatically load a
page and then display it, or simply have it ready in the cache for immediate
display later.
Interactive Games
Requirements for interactive games depends on the specific game, but the
demanding applications require short delays and a value of 250 ms, which is
consistent with demanding interactive applications, is recommended.
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Figure 6 shows the interactive gaming:
Fig. 6 Interactive gaming
High-Priority Transaction Services or E-commerce
The main performance requirement in the High-Priority Transaction Services,
such as e-Commerce is to provide a sense of immediacy to the subscriber that
the transaction is smooth. A value of 2 to 4 seconds is suggested to be
acceptable to most subscribers.
A mobile wallet in the terminal can improve the convenience of mobile commerce
significantly. By providing local storage of payment and access credentials and
support or federated identity technologies, such as Liberty, the terminal wallet
reduces the number of actions required by the subscriber during a browsing
session.
Instead of the consumer remembering and typing payment card numbers and
access profiles, such as PINs and passwords, the mobile wallet can provide them
to the service provider automatically through an intuitive subscriber interface. In
addition, a mobile wallet can extend this automation to shipping address
information that is otherwise entered manually. Lifecycle management can be
facilitated by Over-The-Air (OTA) provisioning of the credentials to be stored in
the mobile wallet. Instead of the subscriber keying in the data manually, the data
can be received over-the-air, for example, credit card details from the card issuer
over-the-air.
Credentials storage is secure and protected by terminal security architecture and
a password. In future, the mobile wallet can include support for operator-based
payment services, such as server -wallets and premium SMS, new card
association technologies for browser-based payments, such as 3D secure, and
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an open development environment.
Two-Way Control Telemetry
Two-way control telemetry is an example of a data service that requires a
real-time streaming performance. The two-way control implies a low allowed
delay. The proposed value is 250 ms, but a key difference between the voice and
video services in this category is the zero information loss tolerance, required for
certain processes, for example, controlling important industrial processes.
It will become possible for many machines will be able to communicate with each
other. For example, an ice-cream vending machine can tell the supplier that it is
running out of chocolate cones, enabling the vending operator to better schedule
his onsite visits. Similarly, an electricity meter can send consumption figures to
the to the billing system of the energy provider, therefore, enabling increased
frequency of meter reading. It will also be possible to activate the alarm system at
a cottage remotely, check if the doors at your home are locked, or tell your
greenhouse to water your plants using your mobile handset.
E-mail or Server Access
E-mail is thought to be a store and forward service, which can tolerate very long
delays. However, it is important to differentiate the communications between the
subscriber and the local e-mail server and server-to-server transfer. When the
subscriber communicates with the local mail server, the expectation is that the
mail may not be transferred instantaneously but will definitely be transferred
rapidly. The proposed time is 2 to 4 seconds for the transfer, which is consistent
with the research findings on delay tolerance for web browsing.
Figure 7 shows an electronic postcard:
Fig. 7 Electronic Postcard
Voice Messaging and Dictation
Requirements for information loss are similar as for conversational voice with the
key difference that in voice messaging and diction, there is more tolerance for
delay because there is no direct conversation involved. Therefore, the main issue
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is the amount of delay that can be tolerated between the subscriber issuing a
command to replay a voice message and the actual start of the audio. There is
no precise data on this, but a delay of a few seconds can be tolerated.
Presence
Presence is a familiar concept for the subscribers using instant messaging
services on the fixed Internet. In mobile phones, presence will not only enhance
messaging but will introduce a service that can be used in many other
applications and services. It will be at the center of all communication
technologies and mobile telephony will benefit from the presence information.
Instant messaging is the first presence-enabled application that utilizes presence
information in the presence server of the operator.
Figure 8 shows the presence groups:
Fig. 8 Presence Groups
Presence can be defined as a dynamic variable profile of the subscriber, which is
visible to others and is used to represent oneself, share information, and control
services. Presence represents a the status of the subscriber to others and the
status of others to the subscriber. Status may contain information, such as
personal and device status, location or context, terminal capabilities, and
preferred contact method.
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1.4 Working of Services: MMS and Streaming
Audio & Video
1.4.1 Multimedia Messaging Service
The MMS Evolution
SMS is currently the most successful data service in GSM. In September 2002,
more than 27 billion SMS messages were transmitted. It is expected that the
SMS messages transmitted will further increase. In the year 2002, about 11% of
the income of an operator comprised the earnings from the short message
service.
Nokia was the first handheld supplier to use the SMS infrastructure for another
application. Instead of sending text messages, download of simple pictures or
ringing tone became possible with Nokia Smart Messaging phones. Smart
messaging enabled the subscribers to personalize their messages to a higher
degree.
The great success of Smart Messaging resulted in a standard for enhanced SMS
capabilities: Enhanced Message Service (EMS), which was developed by the
3GPP. EMS allows the transmission and reception of ring tones, sounds,
animations, and simple pictures. The subscriber can even create own pictures
and tones. EMS supports both phone personalization and person-to-person
messaging. The main advantage of EMS from the perspective of the operator is
that no investment is required in an EMS infrastructure. EMS is based on and
uses the existing SMS infrastructure.
MMS was specified with UMTS Release 4. During the specification process, the
3GPP worked with several assumptions. One assumption was that the potential
transmission rates will be higher than in the second generation, therefore,
allowing a higher data rate and more flexible bearer allocation. Another
assumption was that many mobile phones will have colored screens and higher
resolution than earlier models. With the new options for bearers and terminal
capabilities, the aim was to specify a more advanced option for transmitting
pictures, music, text, and video. Therefore, MMS was specified to allow the
transmission of larger messages, containing a wide range of content. MMS
supports person-to-person communication, and allows both the service providers
and subscribers to generate content.
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Figure 9 shows the evolution of short message:
Fig. 9 Short Message Evolution
The MMS Message
A Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) message can be compared with a
standardized envelope, in which neither the content nor size was specified. The
MMS message is represented by a standardized presentation language,
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL). A SMIL page holds
information on how, where, and when to display the different multimedia
elements.
The media elements, such as pictures, text, and sound, are combined into a
single message, using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME). MIME is a
standard, which specifies how several media are placed within a message. In the
Internet, the message is the email and in the mobile network, it is the MMS
message.
A wide range of media types are supported, such as audio, for example, video,
for example, MP4, text, for example, ISO-8859-1, and pictures, for example,
baseline JPEG. Several mobile phone manufactures have agreed in supporting a
minimum set of media types to guarantee interoperability.
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Figure 10 shows the MMS envelope:
Fig. 10 MMS Envelope
MMS Today
Since December 2002, more than 40 operators have already started the
commercial launch of MMS. Currently, the GPRS infrastructure is in use for the
MMS transport. Now, MMS over WAP is the common method to transfer MMS
message, but the MMS specified is independent from the WAP. Therefore, other
means of MMS transport may be possible in future
MMS Architecture
The MMS architecture consists of several network entities. Some of the entities
can be combined within a single network element.
MMS UE
MMS is based on the client server principle. A MMS UA can reside on the mobile
equipment, but can be also made available on external devices, such as laptops,
and PDAs. These external devices can be connected to a UE to use MMS
through the radio interface. However, due to the way MMS was specified, it can
also be deployed on a fixed network personal computer.
The MMS UE interacts with the Multimedia Message Service Environment
(MMSE). The MMSE incorporates MMS service elements, which are responsible
for the delivery and storage of MMS messages. The MMSE entities are the as
follows:
MMS Server -This network entity is responsible for managing incoming and
outgoing messages. It is also used for MMS storage.
MMS Relay -This network element is responsible for the interworking
between different messaging systems and Charging Data Record (CDR)
generation. It can be connected to voice mail servers, E-mail servers, and
Fax servers.
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Although MMS Server and MMS Relay were specified as two individual network
entities in UMTS Release 4. Most vendors offer their functionalities in one
network element. In NSN, the network element is called MMS Server or Relay
MMS Center.
Currently, MMS over WAP is the common method to transfer MMS message, but
MMS is specified independent of the WAP. Therefore, other means of MMS
transport may be possible in future
Figure 11 shows the MMSC including its reference points, MM1 to MM8. The
reference points are not open and only the format of the subscriber data is
specified. Reference point MM2 is between the MMS Relay and the MMS Server:
Fig. 11 MMS Center and Reference Points
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1.4.2 Example of MMS Flow
1.4.2.1 UE to UE MMS Transfer
In this example, an MMS transfer between two UEs is outlined. The assumption
is that the multimedia messages are transmitted through WAP. Before multimedia
messages can be exchanged, MMS related signaling between the MMS UA and
the MMS Center must take place. To transmit the signaling information, a bearer
is required between the UE and the MMS Center. In the example, a bearer is
made available through the PS domain. A PDP context between the UE and the
external PDN WAP was established. This bearer is used to transmit MMS
messages over WAP. The sequence of events that follow are as follows:
1. The UE invokes a Wireless Session Protocol or Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Power On Self Test (WSP/HTTP POST) operation with the M-Send.req message
embedded as the content body. This message is submitted using a Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI) that addresses the MMS Center that supports the
specific terminal. The UE composes a transaction ID for the submitted message.
This ID is used by the UE and the MMS Center to provide linkage between the
originated M-Send.req and the response M-Send.conf  messages. The value used
for the transaction ID is determined by the UE, and no interpretation is expected
from the MMS Center.
2. The MMS Center assigns a message ID to the message when successfully
received for delivery. The ID is used in activities that need to refer to the specific
sent message, for example, sending the possible delivery report later. Upon
receipt of the M-Send.req message, the MMS Center responds to the WSP/HTTP
POST with an answer that includes the M-Send.conf  message in its body. Body
means the HTTP level payload. The response message provides a status code
for the requested operation. If the MMS Center is willing to accept the request to
send the message, the status is accepted and the message includes the
message-ID composed by the MMS Center.
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Figure 12 shows the step 1 and step 2 for UE to UE MMS over WAP:
Fig. 12 UE to UE MMS over WAP -Step 1 and Step 2
3. The headers of the PDU, which are the headers added by the MMS Center of
the sender to the original PDU, are used to generate a notification to the
recipient, and are delivered with the message body parts to the recipient at
retrieval. The MMS Center creates a transaction identifier before sending the
notification. The identifier is unique up to the following M-NotifyResp only. If the
MMS Client requests deferred or delayed delivery with M-NotifyResp, the MMS
Center may create a new transaction identifier.
The notification uses SMS as bearer and the MMS Center sends the
M-Notification.ind to the SMS Center. The SMS Center further forwards the
message to Short Message Service Gateway Mobile Switching Centre
(SMS-GMSC). The SMS-GMSC asks for the routing info from HLR. For example,
the location of the MSC that the recipient UE was last connected with or the
SendRoutingInfoForShortMs and then, the SMS-GMSC forwards the message to
MSC or the ForwardShortMessage. After receiving the message, the MSC
checks VLR to make sure that the UE has not been barred or otherwise restricted
from using the network or the SendInfoForMT-SMS. Finally, the MSC forwards
the message through the BSS to the receiving UE.
4. The information in M-Notification.ind includes the URI that will be used to
retrieve the message in a subsequent operation by the receiving terminal. The
terminal may use additional information about the message, for example,
message size or expiry, to determine its behavior. The UE may delay the retrieval
of the message if it exceeds a defined size. The receiver of the M-Notification.ind
 informs the MMS Center with the M-NotifyResp.req about the action to be taken
to, which is routed to the MMS Center the same way as the M-Notification.ind.
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Figure 13 shows the step 3 and step 4 for UE to UE MMS over WAP:
Fig. 13 UE to UE MMS over WAP - Step 3 and Step 4)
5. The URI of the MMS Center address required for the retrieval, sent in the
preceding M-Notification.ind message, is used in the GET request.
6. The data returned or the M-Retrieve.conf includes the multimedia message.
The header component provides additional information, such as the tariff class,
which is useful in AT messages.
7. The MMS Center may decide to request an acknowledgement from the UE to
confirm the delivery status of the retrieval based on whether it needs to provide a
delivery notice back to the originating UE or not. Alternatively, the MMS Center
may request and acknowledgement to be able to delete the message from its
own store after the successful delivery.
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Figure 14 illustrates the step 5, 6, and 7 for UE to UE MMS over WAP:
Fig. 14 UE to UE MMS over WAP - Step 5, 6, and 7
8. The MMS Center sends the M-Delivery.ind message to the originating MS
using WAP PUSH to inform when the message is delivered.
The Message ID identifies the message and is generated when the original
message is posted. It also provides addressing information of the originally
targeted entity.
9. M-read-rec.ind message is sent by the receiver’s UE to the MMS Center to
inform when the receiver has opened the message.
10. The MMS Center sends the M-read-orig.ind message to the originating MS
using WAP PUSH to inform when the receiver opens the message.
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Figure 15 illustartes the step 8, 9, and 10 for UE to UE MMS over WAP:
Fig. 15 UE to UE MMS over WAP - Step 8, 9, and 10)
E-Mail and MMS
E-Mails are nowadays a popular means of communication. The example explains
the mobile E-mail transfer using MMS.
The MMS Center or MMS Relay functionality converts the Mobile Message (MM)
to an E-mail message and sends it to the Mail Server. The communication
between Mail Gateway (GW) and Mail Server is based on Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP) or MIME protocol. SMTP understands only pure text based data
and is used for the actual data transfer. MIME is used for attachment support.
The Mail Server acknowledges the receipt of message to the MMS Center. This
acknowledgement belongs to the SMTP protocol.
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Figure 16 show the E-mail Connectivity:
Fig. 16 E-mail Connectivity
1.4.3 Streaming Audio and Video in UMTS Network
1.4.3.1 Video Call and Video Services
The mobile video services will possibly evolve from the current multimedia
messaging of still and animated pictures and presentations, to video messaging
and playback. Video download and video streaming services will shortly follow.
The time for introducing these services will differ from country to country. NSN
believes “See What I See” (SWIS). Therefore, video telephony and broadcasting
will be interesting applications in the future.
1.4.3.2 Video Telephony
Video Telephony refers to making or receiving a video call when the mobile
subscriber can see as well as talk to the other person. It allows the subscriber
both visual and verbal communication. The conversation experience can be
further improved by allowing one or both subscribers to see what the other
person sees. Therefore, it is possible to not only see each other but a general
concept of sharing is allowed.
The display of mobile devices, including screen size, resolution, and local
memory, makes mobile video content different from content of other media. As a
result, it essential to design the content to suit the mobile device and the method
of distribution. In order to ensure that video services take off, a vast database of
video content must be developed. Then, the database needs to be constantly
improved with new ideas and substance. The video formats in which the video
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content has been encoded, such as the open standards 3
rd
 Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP) file format, can be used throughout the evolution of
video services.
1.4.3.3 Video Download
As the name implies, video download refers to the delivery of video clips to a
mobile device. This is usually through discovery such as browsing and then
followed by a WAP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
session where the clip is sent to the device to be viewed or stored. Digital rights
management defines the usage rules for commercial quality content, while the
available memory capacity of the device determines the storage possibilities
In video downloading, the wireless profile of TCP/IP is the key enabler
downloading large files. Although large video files can be downloaded over the
WAP stack, the download is faster with the same network bandwidth if the
transfer is done over the TCP/IP stack. This reduces the waiting time while the
file is being delivered from a server to the subscriber’s device. The evolution of
the underlying network to Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) and
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) will secure capacity and
cost-effectiveness. Roaming agreements between operators are required.
1.4.3.4 Video Streaming
Video Streaming indicates immediate consumption of on-demand or live video
content on a mobile device. It allows the consumption of large video files with no
dependence on the device memory because the file or content is not physically
stored on the client device. This method can be compared to the broadcast
model of watching television programs.
Control of Quality of Service (QoS) is needed in the radio access and core
network to ensure that video applications work properly. This can be done by
network dimensioning and configuration, which ensures sufficient capacity for
streaming subscribers. Earlier the GPRS networks were based on best effort,
where capacity is shared evenly among the subscribers in a cell. In WCDMA and
EGPRS networks, it is possible to provide the subscriber with a guaranteed bit
rate for good service performance.
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1.5 Virtual Home Environment
With GSM systems, one obvious drawback related to roaming was the portability
of the subscriber services. To increase the value added to the subscriber and
consequently the potential to earn revenue for the operator, a wide range of
personalized services are expected. If a large set of diversified applications that
are not specified exist, a framework has to be designed to enable seamless
application provisioning between networks. From the subscribers’ point of view,
the applications should be always available, regardless of the location of the
subscribers, and the application should be presented to the subscribers in the
same way as if they are in their home PLMN.
Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a concept for personal service environment
portability across network boundaries and between terminals. The purpose of
VHE is that subscribers should consistently be presented with the same
personalized features in any terminal, any network, and any location. User
interface customization and services should be provided in a seamless manner
between networks and terminals, within the capabilities of the terminal and the
network. Currently; Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
(CAMEL), Mobile Execution Environment (MExE), Open Systems Architecture
(OSA), and Universal SIM Application Toolkit (USAT) are the mechanisms
supporting the VHE concept.
Each application toolkit has a specified application execution environment. The
application execution environment is used to run specific, non-standardized
applications. The options to personalize applications exist. The application toolkits
for operator specific services are USAT, MExE, and CAMEL. The VHE can be
viewed both from the subscriber perspective and network perspective.
The home environment allows a subscriber to personally perform management
operations on one or more subscriber profiles, such as activate, modify, and
deactivate. The network side of VHE; (the Home Environment and Home
Environment –Value Added Service Provider) is also able to manage one or more
subscriber profiles.
The VHE from a network point of view is designed to be able to provide and
control services to the subscriber in a consistent manner, even in cases when a
subscriber is roaming. It also has to facilitate creation and maintenance of a set
of subscriber profiles. In addition, it has to support the execution of services
through its Service Toolkits in the network, the Universal Subscriber Identity
Module (USIM) and in the ME. The VHE must also be able to uniquely identify
the subscriber in any of the telecommunication networks supported by the Home
Environment.
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1.6 Appendix
  
mCommerce
NSN believes that mobile phones will become the personal trusted device that
enables mCommerce. With UMTS, the type and variety of mCommerce
transactions increases significantly, becoming a way of life for every day needs.
Some examples of every day needs are local payments, online banking, music
purchases and downloads, and ticketing. Also advertising will become an
important part of overall mCommerce.
Trust on a brand for providing the mCommerce service and transaction security
are two essential factors ensuring the acceptance and growth of mCommerce.
NSN's mCommerce solution addresses the following three key elements of
secure transactions:
1. Confidentiality, meaning those contents of the transaction can not be seen by
any outsider.
2. Integrity, meaning that the parties performing the transaction can be sure that
the other party is the one he/she claims.
3. Irrevocability, meaning that either party after performing the transaction cannot
claim that the transaction has not been performed.
Figure 17 shows example where mCommerce can be used:
Fig. 17 Examples of mCommerce Usage
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2 Exercises
Exercise 1
Identify the UMTS services provided in the UMTS network? (Choose three)
CS Data Services
Web browsing
SMS
Speech call
VoIP call
VMS
Exercise 2
Identify the operator specific services? (Choose two)
Cell Broadcast Service
PS service
SAT
CAMEL
Exercise 3
For which network element, the USAT specify open Application Programming
Interface (API)?
SIM and ME
SIM and a remote application server
SIM and SCP
ME and RNC
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Exercise 4
What is the primary goal for developing WAP/WTA?
To exclusively support MExE
To design and program applications locally on the ME
To allow interaction between the SCP and the ME
To support radio interface protocols
Exercise 5
The abbreviation OSA stands for Open Systems Architecture.
True
False
Exercise 6
Which statement best describe a bearer channel?
A traffic channel only for speech
A signaling channel between the core network and the radio access
A variable channel that can carry different types of data
A fixed-bit-rate data channel
Exercise 7
Which two are characteristics of Virtual Home Environment (VHE)?(Choose two)
Allows the subscribers to use their services whilst roaming
The subscribers can customize their own environment
It is the same as a SMSC
VHE is possible because of CAMEL
VHE is located within the HLR
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It is only possible in UMTS
Exercise 8
Which statement of Location Services is TRUE?
Can be offered only in combination with a subscription to
basic telecommunication services
Are a prerequisite for roaming
Are used for determining the position of the mobile terminal
Location Based Services have the same meaning
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2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
Identify the UMTS services provided in the UMTS network? (Choose three)
CS Data Services
Web browsing
SMS
Speech call
VoIP call
VMS
Exercise 2 (Solution)
Identify the operator specific services? (Choose two)
Cell Broadcast Service
PS service
SAT
CAMEL
Exercise 3 (Solution)
For which network element, the USAT specify open Application Programming
Interface (API)?
SIM and ME
SIM and a remote application server
SIM and SCP
ME and RNC
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Exercise 4 (Solution)
What is the primary goal for developing WAP/WTA?
To exclusively support MExE
To design and program applications locally on the ME
To allow interaction between the SCP and the ME
To support radio interface protocols
Exercise 5 (Solution)
The abbreviation OSA stands for Open Systems Architecture.
True
False
Exercise 6 (Solution)
Which statement best describe a bearer channel?
A traffic channel only for speech
A signaling channel between the core network and the radio access
A variable channel that can carry different types of data
A fixed-bit-rate data channel
Exercise 7 (Solution)
Which two are characteristics of Virtual Home Environment (VHE)?(Choose two)
Allows the subscribers to use their services whilst roaming
The subscribers can customize their own environment
It is the same as a SMSC
VHE is possible because of CAMEL
VHE is located within the HLR
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It is only possible in UMTS
Exercise 8 (Solution)
Which statement of Location Services is TRUE?
Can be offered only in combination with a subscription to
basic telecommunication services
Are a prerequisite for roaming
Are used for determining the position of the mobile terminal
Location Based Services have the same meaning
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NSN Products
Contents
1 NSN Products............................................................................................3
1.1 Module Objectives.......................................................................................3
1.2 The NSN UMTS Solution............................................................................ 4
1.3 NSN UTRAN Solution............................................................................... 26
1.4 UMTS Network Management Solutions.................................................... 39
2 Exercises..................................................................................................46
2.1 Solutions....................................................................................................50
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1 NSN Products
1.1 Module Objectives
The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed
for explaining the UMTS Core Network Solution, Packet switched domain,
UTRAN solution, UMTS network management solutions.
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:
Explain how base station sites are selected.
Identify the different cellular transmission solutions available.
Identify the main functions of a Radio Network Controller (RNC).
List and identify the network elements used within the core network in terms
of the name and function within the context of Release 99.
List and identify the need for comprehensive network management in UMTS.
Identify the framework of the Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) NetAct solution.
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1.2 The NSN UMTS Solution
The NSN network elements are built on a reliable and proven carrier class
platform. This is designed to ensure flexible and fault-tolerant implementation.
The platform comprises two basic components, the hardware and the software.
The physical equipment is usually distributed across a geographical area. For
example, base stations can be found on top of roofs, in the fields, and inside the
buildings. The larger equipment are usually located together in a secure building.
Network elements are connected together using standard transmission
technology often through 3rd party suppliers.
Figure 1 shows NSN network platform:
Fig. 1 NSN Network Platforms
There are four main platforms that are used in the Third Generation Universal
Mobile Telecommunications System (3G/UMTS) network:
1. DX200 Platform - The NSN GSM elements are based on this proven CS
technology or Mobile Switching Center (MSCi), SGSN Combi, and Flexi
SGSN.
2. IPA2800 Platform - IPA2800 is the new distributed computing platform upon
which the new 3G/UMTS network elements, for example, RNC, are built.
Unlike the DX200 platform, the IPA2800 has PS architecture with an ATM
switch.
3. NSN Internet Protocol (IP) Platform - The NSN IP core network elements,
for example, 3G SGSN and GGSN are built on a solid IP based platform.
4. UNIX HP/SUN - The network management and service provisioning systems
are built on industrial server platform, using proven operating systems like
UNIX. The NSN software is installed on the operating system.
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For platforms, the other aspects to be taken into account are as follows:
Local graphical interface - Network Element Management Unit (NEMU) -
The NSN 3G/UMTS network solution uses a graphical environment that can
be accessed through the Internet as its primary interface.
Network Management System (NMS) interface - For efficient management,
a single interface is used to perform network management functions for the
network elements. For example, a single alarm monitor is used to monitor
faults generated by network elements.
NSN online services - To support the 3G network elements, NSN offers
access to documentation, change notes, and technical notes on the
equipment through the Internet. NSN Online Services (NOLS) is an integral
part of the platform solution.
Figure 2 shows the different types of interfaces used in the NSN solution:
Fig. 2 Different Types of Interfaces Used in the NSN Solution
1.2.1 NSN UMTS Core Network Solution
The Core Network (CN) consists of two domains, CS and PS. Currently, the
networks are usually a combination of both; however, the IP Telephony (IPT)
network are being used increasingly.
Voice call services in 3G mobile networks will first be based on CS logic with
UMTS Release 99. GSM operators will be offered an evolutionary way of
upgrading their networks, including dual-mode operation with GSM.
When from any pre-existing GSM network to a UMTS Release 99 network,
operators try to ensure that previous investments are efficiently utilized and the
new investments are minimized.
In this chapter, you will look at both domains of the CN. All the conceptions you
are going learn in this chapter are based on UMTS Release 99.
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In this chapter, there are two new elements introduced are the NSN Media
Gateway (MGW) and the 3G-SGSN. They are based on new platforms and have
a few new functions as well.
Figure 3 shows a CN, which is the building block for the network:
Fig. 3 CN - Building Block for the Network
1.2.1.1 Circuit Switched Domain and Registers
The UMTS will initially make use of the hybrid core network of GSM. Time-critical
voice and video services will continue using the CS path through the MSC, while
the services that are not time-critical, such as messaging and retrieval services,
will use the PS path through the SGSN and GGSN.
The NSN CN elements will concurrently provide interfaces for the both GSM and
UMTS radio networks. The existing elements can be upgraded in the field with
the installation of an Iu-interface for the UMTS radio network, providing the GSM
network with a fast rollout and easy evolution towards high-capacity WCDMA.
A unified hybrid CN for both GSM and UMTS helps to ensure service continuity
for the end users. The operator can also benefit from this unified CN structure as
the existing network functionalities and interfaces, such as subscriber
administration, billing, customer care, and service platforms can still be used.
In the NSN 3G solution, the same HLR is used for all GSM and UMTS users.
With only some additional functionality added, the present HLR will support new
services in both UMTS and GSM. The benefit of having the one-HLR solution is
the ease of management that comes with a centralized subscriber database.
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When existing GSM users subscribe to a GSM or UMTS dual-band service,
operators only need to activate the service in the HLR database for the
subscriber.
NSN MSCi
The MSC will be a central element of future mobile networks similar to GSM. The
NSN MSC integrated with a VLR and Service Switching Point (SSP) will be able
to serve both the GSM BSS and UTRAN simultaneously. The same element can
be used to control the services and charging for CS and PS services both in
GSM and UMTS. This approach allows a smooth transition from GSM to
integrated GSM/UMTS networks while supporting all the existing GSM services
with the new UMTS services.
Figure 4 shows an NSN MSC:
Fig. 4 The NSN MSC
Transcoding in UMTS networks takes place in the CN. NSN implements the
transcoders just before the visited MSC. If the transcoders were located in the
Gateway MSCs, handovers between UMTS and GSM cells would have become
complicated. However, this problem is avoided when the transformers are
implemented in the visited MSC. In 3G, the same Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR)
codecs will be supported as in GSM. As a result, an operator can rely on the
underlying GSM coverage and needs to build 3G coverage only when required.
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Figure 5 shows an NSN DX200 MSCi architecture:
Fig. 5 NSN DX200 MSCi Architecture
The NSN DX200 MSC is a modular and easily scalable network element.
Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) and IP links can be used for transmission towards
other switches because the MSC can contain an integrated IP Bypassing and
Telephony Gateway. The MSC can also act as a multiplexing point for the
Iu-interface. As a result, only one Iu interface connection is necessary from the
RNC to the CN. The MSC will forward the PS traffic to the SGSN.
The main units of the MSCi are as follows:
Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU) handles centralized supervision,
alarm, and recovery functions. In addition, the full system software is found in
the storage devices of the OMU.
Statistical Unit (STU) collects performance and measurement data.
Charging Unit (CHU) and generates and stores charging information.
Visitor Location Register Unit (VLRU) provides temporary storage of
information related to the subscribers located in the service area of the MSCi
currently.
Central Memory (CM) contains tariffing, signaling, routing, and configuration
data.
Cellular Management Unit (CMU) controls the Channel and Data Services
Unit (CDSUs) of the exchange. In addition, it is involved in management of
the cellular radio network.
Common Channel Signaling Management Unit (CCMU) takes care of
Common Channel Signaling 7 (CCS7) signaling management functions. The
Verbal Announcement Generator (VANG) is a plug-in unit of the CCMU
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Basic Data Communications Unit (BDCU) contains the communication links
to the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) network, the Short Message
Service Centre (SMSC), and the Billing Centre.
Exchange Terminal (ET) takes care of electrical synchronization and
adaptations of an external Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) line.
Echo Cancelling Exchange Terminal (ECET) not only performs the same
tasks as the ET, but also supports echo cancelling towards the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
Group Switch (GSW) is the actual switching network of the MSCi.
Marker (M) controls and supervises the Group Switch.
Channel Associated Signaling Unit (CASU), Primary Rate Access Unit (PAU),
Base Station Signaling Unit (BSSU), Multifrequency Signaling Unit (MFSU),
and Common Channel Signaling Unit (CCSU) are signaling units that are
specialized for a certain type of signaling. For example, the PAU, is used for
signaling towards a Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) and the CCSU handles
CCS7 signaling functions to other CN elements and PSTN exchanges.
Clock System unit (CLS) generates clock signals for synchronization
purposes.
Compact Data Service Unit (CDSU) enables data connections. It contains
modem pools for PSTN terminated data calls and digital connections towards
the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
Tone Generator Field Programmable (TGFP) is a plug-in unit of the M, which
is able to generate Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) signals.
NSN MGW for 3G-MSC
To ensure a smooth evolutional path from GSM to UMTS, the interworking unit
has been introduced.
Figure 6 shows an NSN IPA 2800 NSN MGW architecture:
Fig. 6 NSN IPA 2800 NSN MGW Architecture
The NSN MGW belongs to the latest version of the IPA2800 product family and is
based on platform utilizing ATM technology for switching and internal
communication.
The main features of the NSN MGW platform are distributed processing,
modularity, good on-line operability, and low power consumption.
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The main function of the NSN MGW is to provide interworking between 3G-RAN
and GSM MSC and to perform transcoding between the A-interface and
Iu-interface. The key functions of NSN MGW are as follows:
ATM to Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) conversion
Iu-A' interface signaling conversion between narrowband and broadband SS7
Transcoding
Figure 7 shows an MGW for 3G-MSC architecture:
Fig. 7 MGW for 3G-MSC Architecture
The main units of MGW for 3G MSC architecture are as follows:
Control and Administrative Computer Unit (CACU ) controls the MGW for the
switch fabrics of 3G-MSC and establishes connections for calls according to
requests from the Signaling Computer Units (SCUs).
Central Memory (CM) serves as a central data storage and distribution facility
in the exchange. In addition, it handles the centralized part of the common
channel signaling, for example, digit analysis.
Interface Signaling Unit (ISU) is responsible for CN emulation and BSS
signaling emulation towards the MSC.
NEMU and its subunits compose a local user interface and interface towards
the higher level NMS, perform O&M functionalities which are not handled by
other computer units of the MGW for 3G-MSC, including post-processing of
performance and fault management data, and provide Software upgrade
support.
Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU) and its subunits.
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Signal Processing Management Unit (SPMU) controls the allocation of the
MGW for the Digital signal processing DSP and CDSP computer resources of
3G-MSC. Configure digital signal processor, which in turn helps in load
sharing, allocation of Transcoding Unit (TCU).
ATM Switching Fabric Units (SFU) are used for switching the calls processed
by the exchange.
Multiplexer Units (MXU) are used for connecting the low-bit-rate network
interface units, and the computer units and signal processing units, which
have small to moderate bandwidth requirements, to the ATM switch fabric.
AAL 2 Switching Units (A2SU) ensure efficient transport of information with
limited transfer delay for low-to-moderate bit-rate units connected to the main
switch fabric.
NSN HLR
In the NSN 3G solution, the same HLR is used for GSM, UMTS, and GSM/UMTS
dual-mode users. With only some additional functionality added, the present
HLRs will support new services in both UMTS and GSM. The benefit of the
one-HLR solution is the ease of management that comes with a centralized
subscriber database. When existing GSM users subscribe to a GSM/UMTS
dual-mode service, operators only need to activate the service in the HLR
database for the subscriber.
The HLR provides database storage and manipulation of:
Subscriber profile data
Authentication data
Equipment identity data specifying white, grey, or blacklisted mobile
equipment identities
The HLR contains static information, for example, subscriber identity,
authentication and security data, semi-dynamic information, for example, the
current subscriber profile with activated supplementary services. In addition, the
HLR contains dynamic data, for example, mobility management data.
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Figure 8 shows a DX200 HLRi:
Fig. 8 DX200 HLRi
Number Portability - Service Routing Register (SRRi)
One of the problems that the operators face today is that many mobile users
switch from one operator to another but do not want to change the number of
their mobile phone. The problem is worse for operators in a 3G-environment.
Now, the problem may be resolved as the telecom authorities in several countries
have mandated the implementation of the Mobile Number Portability (MNP). In
many European countries, the number belongs to an individual legally.
When implementing MNP, it is difficult to maintain the services for the operators
when the subscribers move from one network to another. It also affects the
efficiency of the operators because it is difficult for the MSCs to track the HLRs
needed to be queried in order to find the subscriber.
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Figure 9 shows the reason for the MNP:
Fig. 9 Reason for the MNP
Therefore, at present many networks use a solution to improve the storage of the
subscriber information to reduce the load of updating the MSCs and excessive
signaling. The NSN solution uses the features of MSC features and/or a network
element known as the SRRi.
The NSN DX200 i-series SRRi is a high-capacity network element that meets
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) specifications. ETSI
specifications are now being formulated for the MNP as well. All subscribers are
registered in the SRRi with the address of their HLR. As a result, the MSC only
needs to check from the SRRi.
Figure 10 shows the MNP Architecture:
Fig. 10 MNP Architecture
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When a request from the MSC is received, the single number database is
checked. If the number is not found from the single number DB, then the number
range database is checked. This ensures that numbers can be inserted in a
flexible manner; for example, single number can be part of some number range.
The NSN SRRi supports 700,000 number ranges, and the single number
database has 56 millions entries out of which 7 million entries are in minimum
configuration. Expansion of the database is also possible. The SRRi can be
equipped to support 1824 SS7 links and 192 PCM interfaces. In addition, it can
manage 120,000 DB queries. The number of queries managed will increase in
future.
The SRRi also has different options for interfaces. The options are Mobile
Application Part (MAP), Core Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) and
Simple Spectral Access Protocol (SSAP). In the future, it will have interfaces for
other Intelligent Network (IN) protocols and IP-based protocols.
Figure 11 shows the SRRi Architecture:
Fig. 11 SRRi Architecture
The main units of the SRRi are as follows:
Central Memory and Marker (CMM) units
Exchange Terminal(ET)
CCS7 Signaling Units (CCSU )
Statistical Units (STU)
Database Distributor Units (DBDU) sends subscriber related data to the
correct SRRU pair.
Clock System Unit (CLSU)
Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU)
Group Switches (GSW)
Service Routing Register Units (SRRU) is responsible for updating, removing
and retrieval of subscriber data.
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1.2.2 Packet Switched - PS Domain
Many of today's networks include architecture to support packet data transfer
between the network and the subscribers. This type of bearer service is ideal for
burst applications, such as Internet access or the WAP, messaging, and a range
of content. The radio component of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is
clearly defined and can be implemented on almost any network. The Iu and
Gb-interfaces support the carrying of packet information between the GPRS core
and the RNC and BSC, respectively.
Figure 12 shows the architecture of the packet network:
Fig. 12 Architecture of the Packet Network
1.2.3 GPRS Evolution For 3G
GPRS was built to be added to a GSM network. In UMTS, packet data is inherent
within the specifications and many of the mobility functions that the 2G-SGSN
performs in GSM are not needed for UMTS. Therefore, in the NSN solution, we
need to use 3G SGSN which is based on different platform compared to 2G
SGSN. All the other GPRS and backbone components can support UMTS with a
software upgrade.
1.2.3.1 3G-SGSN
The basic functions of the 3G-SGSN are as follows:
Authentication and mobility management.
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Routing of data to the relevant GGSN when a connection to an external
network or intra-network mobile to mobile connections are required.
Generation of charging data and traffic statistics.
In the NSN solution, the 2G-SGSN is built on the DX200 platform, while the
3G-SGSN is built on the IP platform.
Figure 13 shows the NSN 3G-SGSN:
Fig. 13 NSN 3G-SGSN
There are two main differences between the Gb and Iu interfaces.
1. In UMTS, the role of RNC for the mobility management is more important
than the role of BSC in GSM.
2. The protocol used between the SGSN and BSC is based upon Frame Relay
(FR), but the connection between the SGSN and RNC is based upon ATM.
For a customer with a current GPRS network, support for UMTS is received by
adding the 3G-SGSN into the network and defining the interfaces to other
elements such as the GGSN and HLR.
The NSN 3G-SGSN has mainly two roles as follows:
The control part of the 3G-SGSN consists of the mobility management layer,
which handles the mobility and security, and the session management layer,
which handles the Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context activation and QoS
reservation.
The 3G-SGSN also performs packet processing and routing.
The NSN 3G-SGSN is a compact modular device based on a scalable NSN
routing platform, which enables flexible configurations. The NSN 3G-SGSN
consists of the hardware blocks managing the functions as follows:
Tunneling
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IP forwarding
SS7 interface
Operation and Maintenance
Mobility and session management
Figure 14 shows an overview system structure of the 3G-SGSN:
Fig. 14 System Structure of NSN 3G-SGSN
The architecture of the NSN 3G-SGSN is based on a modular multiprocessor
architecture. The SGSN has a maximum of 16 high-performance computer units
with local memory. The backplane switch and the system together provide
redundancy and linear scalability for the NSN SGSN. The SGSN capacity may be
optimized for maximum data throughput or for maximum number of simultaneous
subscribers.
The maximum capacity when optimized for maximum throughput is as follows:
300,000 subscribers
200,000 PDP contexts
900 Mbps throughput
In order to reach the throughput of 900 Mbps, the number of PDP contexts
should not be more than 200,000. The throughput decreases slightly as the
number of PDP contexts grows. The maximum capacity when optimized for the
maximum number of PDP contexts is:
300,000 subscribers
600,000 PDP contexts
600 Mbps throughput
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The maximum number of PDP contexts 600,000 is the absolute maximum
number of PDP contexts with which thefor achieving throughput of 600 Mbps is
600,000.
Figure 15 shows the interfaces of NSN 3G-SGSN:
Fig. 15 Interfaces of NSN 3G-SGSN
The NSN 3G-SGSN has the following interfaces in the 3G network:
The interface between a 3G-SGSN and a GGSN is the Gn. It uses the GPRS
Tunneling Protocol (GTP) according to the ETSI0960 specification with QoS
enhancement as according to the UMTS2307 specification.
The Iu-interface connects the 3G-SGSN to the serving RNC. The Iu-interface
is based on ATM technology and has separate user and signaling planes.
The user plane uses IP over ATM technology, while the signaling plane uses
broadband SS7.
The Gr and the Gf are the interfaces to the HLR including the EIR and the
AuC. Mobility management procedures use MAP interfaces between the
3G-SGSN and the HLR.
The 3G-SGSN and the Charging Gateway (CG) use the Ga-interface and the
standard charging protocol GTP, [GSM1215], while the interface to the NMS
is used to send alarms to the network management.
1.2.3.2 GGSN
The NSN GGSN acts as an interface between the GPRS network and external
networks. For the external network, the GGSN is simply a router to a subnetwork.
When the GGSN receives data addressed to a specific user, it checks if the
address is active.
If the address is active, the GGSN forwards the data to the SGSN that serves the
mobile or else the data is discarded. In addition, the GGSN routes
mobile-originated packets to the correct external network. The same GGSN can
serve GPRS and 3G subscribers simultaneously.
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Figure 16 shows an NSN GGSN:
Fig. 16 The NSN GGSN
The GGSN Release 2 software will run on the IP650 and IP740 hardware
platform. The capacity of the GGSN with Release 2 software as installed on the
IP650 is as follows:
150,000 PDP contexts
100 Mbps throughput with 1400 byte packets
The new IP740 platform supplies the following:
1000,000 PDP contexts
400 Mbps with 1400 byte packets.
Border Gateway (BG)
The NSN BG is a router that can provide a direct GPRS tunnel between different
operators’ GPRS networks through an inter-Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)
data network and does not transfer data between operators through the public
Internet.
1.2.3.3 Domain Name System
Domain Name System (DNS) is a server containing a directory of Internet names
against the IP address of the server. The CN DNS is used to find the right GGSN
corresponding to an Access Point Name (APN) provided during PDP context
activation.
1.2.3.4 Charging Gateway (CG)
In the CS domain, charging is managed by the MSC and is based on the time of
the connection. In the PS domain, it is not feasible to charge on time because a
subscriber may have an active connection for an extended period, but without
actually transferring data. Therefore, in the packet domain an independent server
is used to identify the packets of data being transferred. By tracking each
subscriber's usage a charging ticket is created and sent to the billing system of
the operator.
1.2.3.5 Legal Interception Gateway (LIG)
A new network element is necessary to meet the requirements of regulators and
governments concerning the legal interception of packet traffic. The NSN LIG acts
as an interface between the CN and the network of the authorized security
organization.
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1.2.3.6 FlexiFamily
The first members of the FlexiFamily to be introduced are the open, carrier-grade
NSN FlexiServer (TM) and NSN Flexi Gateway (TM) platforms.
The NSN FlexiServer is a high-availability carrier-grade server platform, which
uses the Linux® operating system. The use of mainstream hardware technologies
and open-interface software components facilitate fast product creation. NSN IP
Multimedia Core servers implementing 3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP) IP Multimedia Subsystem will be based on NSN FlexiServer. These
network servers will eventually supersede current mobile switches, enabling
mobile networks to provide rich-call capabilities far beyond present voice and
messaging-centric services. For radio access, the NSN FlexiServer is used for
products that manage the control plane for mobility and connection functions,
including common radio resource management.
The NSN FlexiGateway is a carrier-grade gateway platform and the future basis
for network user-plane functions, such as packet routing and processing. Based
on the modular design of the embedded NSN FlexiServer and tightly integrated
with a highly efficient fault-tolerant routing platform, the NSN FlexiGateway
enables the independent scalability of packet routing and processing functions.
NSN FlexiGateway, with specially designed content-aware provisioning
extensions will be used to gradually complete the implementation of the All-IP
architecture.
1.2.4 IP Multimedia Subsystem
GPRS will continue to evolve. In addition, UMTS will also add capabilities to
GSM/GPRS because the CN is shared with UMTS improvements. The IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) or IP Multimedia Core Network (IM-CN) will be a
major change in future.
The IP Multimedia CN subsystem contains a set of signaling and bearer related
network elements for provisioning of multimedia services. IP multimedia services
are based on an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defined session control
capability which, along with multimedia bearers, utilizes the IP-Connectivity
Access Network
The IP Multimedia CN subsystem enables PLMN operators to offer multimedia
services based on and built upon Internet applications, services and protocols to
their subscribers. The intention is that the multimedia services will be developed
by PLMN operators and other third party suppliers including those in the Internet
space using the mechanisms provided by the Internet and the IM CN subsystem.
The IM CN subsystem will enable the convergence and access to voice, video,
messaging, data, and web-based technologies for the wireless user and combine
the growth of the Internet with the growth in mobile communications.
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Figure 17 shows an example of IMS:
Fig. 17 Example of IMS
The complete solution for the support of IP multimedia applications consists of
terminals, IP-Connectivity Access Networks, and the specific functional elements
of the IM CN subsystem. An example of IP-Connectivity Access Network is the
GPRS CN with GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) and/or UTRAN
radio access networks. The actual IMS consist of a large number of functions
enabling session control for IP connections.
New elements in IMS CN are as follows:
Connection Processing Server (CPS) for controlling multimedia sessions
using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and for centralized registration and
charging
IP Multimedia Registers for storing subscriber and service information
Further information on the IMS is available in:
3GPP TS 23.228
3GPP TS 22.228
www.NSN.com
1.2.5 Push-To-Talk Over Cellular (PoC) System
Architecture
Push to talk one-to-one and group calls are enabled over GPRS and Enhanced
General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) networks. A User logon to the network
means logon to the PoC service, which is a SIP registration. Group sessions are
created with SIP messages between the PoC CN and terminals. To join a group
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call the user creates a SIP session. The SIP is only a signaling protocol. The
actual voice is relayed by the user plane of the PoC Call Processor as Real-time
Transport Protocol (RTP) packets. If group connections are required, they are
created by multiplying voice packets to all members of a group session.
Therefore, the PoC creates a radio group based on the end user choice of
members.
Figure 18 shows a PoC Architecture:
Fig. 18 PoC Architecture
In order to create a sufficient QoS in loaded networks, GPRS transmits the PoC
voice using 3GPP release 99 streaming and header compression features and
release 4 feature package 1. This is necessary to counter the unpredictable
nature of the GRPS PS interface
Two PDP contexts per PoC service logon must be created. One of the PDP
contexts is a streaming context and is used for mainly the speech packets and
some control packets, for example, for starting a one-to-one call session and
talking party identification for group talkbursts. The other PSP context is a best
effort context and is used for the SIP signaling and text chat within a talkgroup.
The SIP signaling is used for service logon or logoff including authentication,
joining or detaching a group session, and information request.
1.2.6 Intelligent Content Delivery
The NSN Intelligent Content Delivery (ICD) solution offers mobile terminal users
with an easy access to all their services from a single access point. With the NSN
ICD solution, operators can offer easily accessible content services with pricing
that reflects the value of the services popular with subscribers. The ICD solution
provides a rich set of service control functions that enhance the user experience
and fulfill the ethical and regulatory requirements of mobile content delivery.
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Figure 19 shows the ICD components:
Fig. 19 The ICD Components
The ISN consist of GGSN and two data analyzers as follows:
Traffic Analyzer (TA) - The TA handles HTTP traffic with high granularity. For
example, decisions can be based on URL. All layers of the IP stack are
visible to the TA.
Content Analyzer (CA) - The CA operates only at layer 7. Therefore, it can
recognize detailed information in the traffic flow, content type, and headers.
One of the major functions of the NSN ICD is to bring intelligence to the packet
CN. The ICD system is service aware. It classifies traffic by IP address, protocol,
and destination URL, allowing traffic to be priced according to benefit from
specific type of data to the user.
The benefits of the ICD solution are as follows:
Integrates subscription, customer care, and billing solutions into a seamless
functionality
Includes online charging data and online subscriber and services
management throughout the network
Provides simple and standard interfaces to operators' existing billing and
customer care systems
Minimizes the required integration work for new services due to the
well-defined interfaces with external systems
Provides a rich set of service control functions that improve the user
experience and meet the ethical and regulatory requirements of mobile
content delivery
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Allows user access to multiple services through one single access point,
making the use of data services considerably easier and attractive for the
end users
Charging options in ICD are more flexible than earlier charging because of the
reasons as follows:
Volume-based charging depending on:
Transferred data volume
Per service, not limited to PDP Context
Bytes of transferred data
Event-based charging depending on:
Event, which means transaction or hit to a specific WAP/ Hypertext
Transfer Protocol Uniform Resource Locator (HTTP URL)
A request or response pair
Number of events
Time-based charging depending on:
Distinguished active or inactive usage time
Subscription or free access during subscription period
Seconds of data transfer
Subscription-based charging depending on:
Free access during content service subscription period
Whether Combined or not with event-based charging
1.2.7 NSN Intelligent Enhanced Data Rates for GSM
Evolution
Intelligent Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is the new CN for IP
services. It is based on the NSN end-to-end solution approach and is
implemented using the existing packet core of the operator as foundation. The
technology is called EDGE because most of the functions are implemented at the
boundary of the access network where all IP traffic passes from different access
networks, both wireless, and fixed. From EDGE, operators are able to control
many operations, for example, the RAN resources, which account for 60-80% of
costs. In addition, EDGE is where operators can enable multimedia
communication convergence. The Intelligent EDGE is based on an open
architecture that supports multi-vendor implementations and enables operators to
exploit the widest possible mixture of different business models while building
coherent, holistic networks.
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Figure 20 shows the NSN Intelligent EDGE:
Fig. 20 NSN Intelligent EDGE
The Intelligent EDGE implementation is based primarily on NSN ICD, Messaging
of NSN, Presence and PoC solutions, and the NSN IMS.
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1.3 NSN UTRAN Solution
1.3.1 Radio Network Controller
The NSN RNC is based on the IPA2800 platform, where ATM is used for both
switching and internal communication functions.
The IPA2800 product family of NSN is based on a fault-tolerant computing
platform and ATM switching platform. The main function of the RNC is to control
and manage the RAN radio channels.
Figure 21 shows an RNC cabinet:
Fig. 21 RNC Cabinet
The RNC can be flexibly located in the GSM CN. It can be installed as a
stand-alone network element, for example, on the same site with one of the base
stations it controls. Alternatively, it can be co-located with the MSC.
The RNC is connected to the Node B using the Iub-interface. In the initial
release, this is a propriety interface; however the later releases it will follow the
open standard. The NSN RNC supports the standardized Iu and Iur-interfaces.
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1.3.1.1 RNC Architecture
Figure 22 shows the general functional architecture of RNC:
Fig. 22 Block Diagram of the RNC
At the high level, the network element consists of three parts as follows:
Network interface functions
Switching and multiplexing functions
Control functions
The main functional units of the RNC are as follows:
OMU performs the basic system maintenance functions. The peripheral
devices are also connected to OMU.
Interface Control and Signaling Unit (ICSU) performs those RNC functions,
which are highly dependent on the signaling to other network elements. In
addition, it handles distributed radio resource management related tasks of
the RNC.
Radio Resource Management Unit (RRMU) performs central radio resource
management and call management related tasks of the RNC. The unit is 2N
redundant to provide high availability.
Resource and Switch Management Unit (RSMU) performs the central
resource management tasks of RNC, such as connection control, ATM circuit
hunting, and DSP related tasks. In addition, it performs the functions related
to call connection according to request received from signaling computer
units or ICSU.
GPRS Tunneling Protocol Unit (GTPU) performs RNC related Iu user plane
functions towards the SGSN.
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Data and Macro Diversity Unit (DMDU) provides support for diversity
handovers and packet data processing.
NEMU is responsible for the element management tasks of RNC. It provides
interface to the higher-level network management functions and to local user
interface functions.
Network Interface Units (NIU) for connecting the network element to
transmission systems, for example, JT1, E1, or Synchronous Transport
Module 1 (STM-1).
ATM SFU handles a part of the ATM cell switching function. It supports
point-to-point and point connection topologies, multipoint connection
topologies, and differentiated handling of various ATM service categories.
MXU multiplexes traffic from tributary or branch units to the ATM SFU.
Therefore, it allows the efficient use of switching resources for low-bit-rate
network interface units and computer units with small to moderate bandwidth
requirements.
The MXU and the SFU are used for switching circuit and packet switched
data channels, for connecting signaling channels, and for system's internal
communications.
A2SU perform mini-PS between external interfaces and Signal Processing
Units (SPU).
The ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) is used to guarantee bandwidth efficient
transport of information with limited transfer delay.
Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit (TBU) works for timing,
synchronization and system maintenance purposes.
1.3.1.2 RNC Capacity
The capacities of the RNC can be increased in five steps. Table 1 shows the
different capacities of the RNC in release 1:
If RNC capacity is used only for voice traffic, the largest configuration of RNC,
which has two cabinets of CDMA RNC, can handle approximately 6800 Erl.
Please note that the final RNC reference capacity figures will be available but can
only be committed after an extensive performance testing. The 3GPP
standardization progress may change the actual figures.
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1.3.2 NSN Base Station Solutions
To support the high penetration levels of subscribers and the new services and
applications, a range of base stations with different sizes and capacity are
required to support the varied environments that are used in GERAN or UTRAN.
When building and developing a network, one key aspect to take into account is
the complexity of the transmission network. In an operating UMTS network, there
are different transmission solutions between different elements for carrying
signaling and user traffic.
Figure 23 shows the NSN WCDMA base station solution:
Fig. 23 NSN WCDMA Base Station Solution
The NSN solution consists of different Node B models that are used in different
geographical locations to meet the local needs. These models are called the NSN
UltraSite and MetroSite BTS. The models were supporting GSM and EDGE
Transceivers (TRXs) and now they support WCDMA carriers. In addition, both
solutions allow existing transmission networks to be used for UMTS traffic.
As part of the planning process, the best suitable base station should be used,
depending on the estimated capacity required in an area, the type of
environment, which means the outdoors or indoors, location of environment, for
example, road side, cost because it is cheaper to co-locate UMTS and GSM
together, and many other factors.
You will first learn some basic concepts and then about the different NSN UMTS
base stations.
1.3.2.1 How to Read n+n+n Notation
In this chapter, you will see the notation of a 1+1+1 or a 2+2+2 site. This means
that the transceivers or carriers in a site are divided into different cell directions.
In addition, different antennas are used in different directions and the RNCs
handle each cell independently.
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The actual number, for example, 2, represents the amount of carriers or TRXs
covering certain specific cell areas. There is a big difference between the
WCDMA and the GSM. In the Frequency Division Multiple Access - Time Division
Multiple Access (FDMA-TDMA) system GSM, TRXs in specific areas are on a
different frequency to avoid interference between the carriers. In WCDMA, the
frequency is the same for carriers or TRXs in different cells. Therefore, in a
2+2+2 site, there are only two carrier frequencies used because a WCDMA
carrier has more capacity and bandwidth than an equivalent GSM TRX. In
addition, the number of frequencies per operator is limited. Usually, 2 or 3
WCDMA carriers are licensed to one particular operator.
Figure 24 shows the cell and TRX and carrier relationship:
Fig. 24 Cell and TRX and Carrier Relationship
Finally, there are different types of antennas used with different sizes and
shapes. The choice of an antenna depends on the desired characteristic needed
in a cell. For example, for coverage along a main road in a scarcely populated
area, a directional antenna with well-defined beams can be used to focus the
energy onto the road.
1.3.2.2 Legacy Base Stations
Currently, an existing GSM operator normally has a substantial countrywide
coverage because GSM base stations have now been available since 1991. At
NSN, different types of base stations have been introduced in the past 10 years.
These base stations have gradually become smaller, offering more capacity and
better quality. NSN has supplied GSM networks with a range of base stations, for
example, the Talk Family BTSs. With the implementation of UMTS networks, the
base stations will still be used for GSM traffic. Therefore, the aim of the network
planning is to use these existing sites and re-use equipment where possible. The
new NSN base stations are designed with the intention that they can be
co-located with the older models.
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Figure 25 shows an UltraSite base station co-located with GSM Talk-Family:
Fig. 25 UltraSite Base Station Co-Located with GSM Talk-Family
When co-locating a site, (GSM and UMTS), another problem for a network
planner is the antenna arrays. The sight of a mobile antenna array is socially
unacceptable, therefore, clever solutions are used to reduce the ugly and
excessive look of the antenna. In Figure 25, the co-located, Talk-Family and
UltraSite, BTS is situated on a roof and connected to the BSC through another
BTS or other equipment through the use of a radio relay.
1.3.2.3 NSN GSM/EDGE/WCDMA UltraSite BTS
NSN UltraSite BTS Indoor and Outdoor for GSM are offered as 1 to 12 TRX
cabinets. Alternatively, they can be configured to hold up to 6 TRXs and an
optional integrated battery back-up system. Up to 40 Ah capacity can be
provided, which means 45 minutes of back up time for those 6 TRXs.
NSN UltraSite BTS Midi Indoor, a 1 to 6 TRX BTS for indoor installations, is also
available.
The NSN UltraSite BTS can support GSM EDGE TRX with minimum hardware
changes. Only the is changed while the other units remain the same. GSM and
EDGE TRX can co-exist in the same cabinet with EDGE TRXs occupying the
lower half of the UltraSite cabinet.
WCDMA carriers can also be added into NSN UltraSite BTSs. They can operate
simultaneously with the basic GSM and EDGE TRXs. The use of WCDMA
equipment reduces the maximum number of basic GSM and EDGE TRXs to six
in one cabinet. The UMTS configuration can be either three WCDMA carriers
each with output power of 5W or 6 WCDMA carriers each providing 2 W output
power.
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Figure 26 shows the NSN UltraSite Cabinet:
Fig. 26 NSN UltraSite Cabinet
This makes the NSN UltraSite BTS an efficient solution for building capacity in
mobile networks in the places that require heavy telecommunication traffic. With
the BTS high output power and receiver sensitivity of the BTS, large coverage
can be achieved in rural areas when building the network. The output power can
be further increased with an optional booster.
Chaining the NSN UltraSite BTSs can increase the capacity. In most
configurations, only the synchronization cabling is required between the cabinets.
Up to 9 NSN UltraSite BTSs can be chained together. With Radio Frequency
(RF) hopping, sectors split between different cabinets can use common hopping
frequencies. BaseBand frequency hopping is not possible between the chained
cabinets. The cabinets must have separate hopping groups. However, BaseBand
hopping with TRXs in a single-cabinet sector is supported.
1.3.2.4 NSN WCDMA UltraSite Solution
The GSM EDGE UltraSite BTS has the capability to support WCDMA carriers. In
addition, NSN provides a family of dedicated WCDMA base stations. There are
basically three versions available in both indoor and outdoor configurations.
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Figure 27 shows the NSN dedicated WCDMA UltraSite BTS solution:
Fig. 27 NSN Dedicated WCDMA UltraSite BTS Solution
The UltraSite Supreme has the capability to support 12 WCDMA carriers evenly
in a maximum of 6 sectors. The UltraSite Optima has a maximum of 6 WCDMA
carriers and is ideally suited when the space available is minimum.The final
member is an extension to the Optima called the UltraSite Optima Compact,
which has the same configuration as the Optima, but is integrated with a site
support unit in the same cabinet.
At a site, there may be different base station types and configurations to support
the surrounding environment. When possible, the base station should share the
same transmission lines to reduce cost and the same antenna arrays should be
utilized to reduce the visual effect.
In addition, a site support cabinet can be co-located at a site. This may include
3rd party transmission equipment, and battery back-ups. The Figure 25 shows a
site with the site support.
The NSN UltraSite uses a graphical tool to manage the site that can be operated
either locally or remotely.
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Figure 28 shows the Site Support:
Fig. 28 Site Support
1.3.2.5 NSN MetroSite BTS
There are two different types of NSN MetroSite, a version that is used today in
GSM and another version that will be introduced for UMTS. The MetroSite is a
base station of an unobtrusive design, which is easy to install and is ideal for fast
network rollout in diverse environments, such as roof, tunnel, small space, pole or
wall. It supports complete triple-mode site solutions for high-capacity mobile
multimedia for GSM, EDGE, and UMTS.
MetroSite is Ideal for micro-cellular networks, in-fill applications and roadside
coverage. It offers a good solution for quick and easy indoor coverage and is part
of a wider integrated transmission solution. The MetroSite BTS can be attached
onto a pole or wall, and is connected through to the BSC or RNC, through an
integrated transmission solution of intelligent HUBs and Hoppers or Radios.
In Figure 29, the WCDMA MetroSite is co-located on the same wall as a GSM
MetroSite. However, both base stations use the same transmission equipment.
Fig. 29 MetroSite Co-Located on the same wall as a GSM MetroSite
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The coverage and capacity depends on the environment and parameters that
have been defined by the network planning. The MetroSite solution is a set of
products that are designed to work together as follows:
The MetroSite BTS, which include GSM 900/1800, EDGE, and WCDMA. The
BTS contains the TRX/Carriers that are used in the air interface.
The MetroHub is a point in the transmission link, to which several sites will
be physically connected through cable, microwave, or other connections with
a link to the BSC or RNC. The Hub handles rerouting traffic in case of
transmission link problems.
The MetroSite Battery Back-up unit is a separate unit that is co-located with
the BTS, which supplies temporary power to the BTS, in the case the main
power supply fails.
The MetroHopper radio is used for short microwave radio links between the
BTS and BTS and/or HUB. The radios require a frequency of 58 GHz to
work, which makes it ideal for transmission solutions in high-density areas,
such as cities.
The FlexiHopper radio is used when transmission is required for longer
distances compared to when MetroHopper is used and can carry several
links. It is ideal for connection to remote locations.
Figure 30 shows the elements of the NSN MetroSite solution:
Fig. 30 The Elements of the NSN MetroSite Solution
In UMTS, capacity and coverage are closely related. The higher the capacity
needed, the smaller the coverage area. Therefore, cheaper, smaller, easy to
rollout, and maintainable sites are required.
In the MetroSite solution, operators can use their existing transmission
investments. Easy to use tools and features, such as auto-configuration of
transmission equipment, can reduce rollout time.
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1.3.3 NSN Site Solutions and Transmission
As mobile networks develop and expand, and additional capacity is required,
more complex transmission solutions are needed to ensure reliability, efficiency,
and reduced costs.
For a GSM operator, the existing transmission network can be used in UMTS. A
base station, such as UltraSite, supports both GSM and WCDMA. In other cases,
Node B can be co-located with GSM and the same transmission lines can be
used.
Figure 31 shows transmission when both the RNC and BSC can be connected
into HUB:
Fig. 31 Transmission methods
The actual transmission lines can be optical, for example, between RNC and
MSC. In the radio network, the transmission lines can be cable or microwave
links.
The selection of transmission line depends on the capacity of the site, the cost of
the link, the environment, and the planning permission.
There is no single site solution that will suits all. Instead, the selection of site
solution is dependent on the environment. Some examples for environment that
can influence the site solution are as follows:
Rural or countryside
Sub-rural or town
Urban or city
Road or highway
Fill-in, city centre, or indoor
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A site may comprise a base station, external antennas, depending on
transmission external radios, and possibly a site support unit. The additional unit
may contain batteries that are used to keep the site alive during power loss.
A rural site can serve a large area and is notable for tall masts with antennas on
the top. In many cases, rural sites are connected in chains or loops to other sites.
An urban site may be located on top of a building. These sites usually have large
capacity and serve a limit area.
Figure 32 shows an urban rooftop site:
Fig. 32 Urban Rooftop Site with Directional Antennas
In urban areas, a base station may be concealed within a building with only the
external antennas visible.
As more capacity is needed in urban areas, smaller flexible sites are needed to
fill in the gaps and offer better coverage. The site may be part of a more complex
transmission network, such as a network with loop or star configuration. The
coverage of the cell is likely to be more specific than a larger rooftop site. Due to
the size and flexibility of urban sites, they can be used for indoor solutions.
When discussing sites, it is important to remember that it is not the size or type of
base station that dictates the cell, but the parameters used. The limit in the base
station is power; sensitivity and coverage, the behavior and characteristics of a
site are dependent on parameters.
When building coverage, the emphasis is first on the city and then the country,
following the road or rail infrastructure. To support coverage through long
stretches, sites are positioned along the route. Directional antennas may be used
to focus the radiating beam in a certain direction.
In many cases, road sites are in loop or chain configurations.
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1.3.3.1 ATM and Physical Interfaces
ATM is selected as the transmission technology for the lower layers of the
interfaces in UMTS. The principles behind ATM is to divide the information into
small fixed sized cells and reduce the overhead as much as possible, for
example, error detection of data. Due to the small fixed sized cells, the ATM can
be efficiently implemented in hardware to increase the transmission speed and be
efficiently used for variable bit rates.
Network interfaces provide external interfaces and the means to execute physical
layer and ATM layer functions, such as statistics, O&M, buffer management, and
scheduling. Network interfaces map the ATM cells to the transmission frame
structure of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) or Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy (PDH).
A network interface unit may include one or more physical interfaces depending
on the type of interface. Any interface can be configured as an Iu, Iub, or Iur
interface for use.
In addition to the network interfaces, synchronization interfaces and LAN
interfaces are provided as follows:
STM-1 - This ATM network interface unit contains four SDH STM-1 optical
interfaces providing an aggregate interface capacity of 622 Mbps.
E1 - This ATM network interface unit contains 16 PDH E1 interfaces with
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function, which allows flexible grouping of
physical links to logical IMA groups.
T1 - This ATM network interface unit contains 16 PDH T1 interfaces with IMA
function, which allows flexible grouping of physical links to logical IMA
groups.
JT1 - This ATM network interface unit contains 16 PDH JT1 interfaces with
IMA function, which allows flexible grouping of physical links to logical IMA
groups.
JT2 - This ATM network interface unit contains 8 PDH JT2 interfaces with
IMA function, which allows flexible grouping of physical links to logical IMA
groups.
Ethernet - Local Area Network interface or Ethernet) is provided in selected
Control Computer Units, for example, in OMU or through specialized Ethernet
Hub (EHB).
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1.4 UMTS Network Management Solutions
To reduce operational costs and to ensure quality in a growing, complex mobile
network, an Operational Support System (OSS) is required.
Figure 33 shows how the number of network elements has increased in the past
10 years:
Fig. 33 Explosion of Network Elements
Unlike in GSM, 3GPP has specified the behavior of the OSS system and the
standards, which include the process on how to manage a network. This is
known as Telecommunication Operations Map (TOM).
The network management can be described as a system with different
management levels involved in managing any system. The lowest layer is called
the network element management handles the actual management of the network
element, such as checking a unit, for example, Man Machine Language (MML).
The next level is called network management, which handles the network-wide
issues, for example, alarm monitoring or network integration.
On top of network management, Service Management layer, which handles the
functions that control the services offered by the network, such as coverage and
capacity.
Then, the Business Management layer on top, which consists of the systems that
actually run the business, such as billing and administration systems.
Unlike in GSM, the 3GPP specifications have focused on the higher layers to
ensure better communication between vendors.
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Figure 34 shows the Telecommunication Management Network (TMN):
Fig. 34 The TMN
The NSN solution for supporting the functions of each of the layers is known as
the NSN NetAct Framework.
1.4.1 NSN NetAct Solution
The NSN solution to support the operation of a network is known as the NSN
NetAct. The structure of the solution is not built round the technology but the
functions and processes that an operator must perform to ensure the operation of
the business.
NSN has launched NSN NetAct Framework in order to support the transition from
2G to 3G. It also extends the multivendor integration capability of the NMS.
NetAct provides a full-scale management capability for both packet data and
traditional voice traffic, independent of technology. As a result, it is possible to
deploy new technologies with the same system that manages the current
infrastructure.
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Figure 35 shows the different functions that the NetAct supports. All the functions
are brought together in a common framework and are connected to the physical
network elements through a Unified Mediation and Adaptation (UMA) object,
which allows NetAct to talk to NSN elements and 3rd party systems.
Fig. 35 NSN NetAct Framework
The NSN network elements, for example, RNC, Add Cross-Connect Card (AXC),
BTS, provide the necessary functions on commissioning, setting up, or
troubleshooting the individual equipment. NSN NMS, located on top of the
managed network elements, provides tools for making large-scale modifications
at the network level.
Figure 36 shows how the TMN is visualized in the NSN 3G/UMTS solution:
Fig. 36 TMN is Visualized in the NSN 3G/UMTS Solution
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1.4.2 NSN Element Management Tools
Element level management is handled by individual element managers, which
can be operated remotely from the NMS or by local terminals.
All NSN RAN elements handle the management function of monitoring and
managing the element in question. The operator can access these management
functions through a graphical user interface.
The element management tools used are as follows:
The NSN DX and IPA2800 based elements use the NEMU, which provides
the operator with an easy access to the most recently used operations and
maintenance activities. In addition, traditional MML access is provided for
less frequently used functions.
The NSN base stations include Web Access Management (WAM) units,
which handle the BTS related O&M functions and carrier control. These
management functions are available to the operator both centrally via the
NSN NMS or RNC and locally through the WCDMA BTS manager or the
BTS Local Management Tool.
The NSN AXC or the ATM Cross Connect unit, which is integrated into the
BTS, also has an element manager to enable the operator to monitor and
configure the ATM transmission, cross-connections, and settings.
Usually, the element managers are used locally for commissioning or setting up
the equipment at the site. However, they are also centrally available in the NSN
NMS for remote operations, for example, when configuring and troubleshooting a
single network element.
Figure 37 shows the NSN element tools that can be operated remotely:
Fig. 37 NSN Element Tools Operated Remotely
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The element managers are accessible through web. Therefore, the BTS and AXC
element managers are remotely accessible.
1.4.3 NSN Network Management Functions
In this section, you will look at some examples of basic network management.
Note that there many other processes outside the scope of this material.
1.4.3.1 NSN Network Monitoring Solution
The Network Monitor collects and stores real-time information from the network to
detect faults in network elements and to monitor the quality of service provided by
the network. It provides visibility to the network status in real-time – anytime,
anywhere. The network monitoring functionality is generic across all network
technologies. The alarms and performance data are handled in the same way
regardless of where they originate from.
Figure 38 shows the monitoring cycle of alarm, The alarms are detected,
identified, handled, solved, verified, and then closed. The information for
monitoring comes from different sources.
Fig. 38 Simplified Alarm Monitoring Process
Fault Management
All NSN RAN elements have an integrated management function that has the
responsibility of monitoring the element in question. If any problems occur in the
equipment, the element management function will automatically send an alarm
notification to the NSN OSS. Therefore, the NSN OSS presents the active alarm
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situation in the network in real time.
Performance Management
The performance measurement collection from the RAN equipment can be
initiated locally with the element management tools or centrally from the NSN
OSS. The radio network statistics and measurements are stored temporarily in
the RNC. Specified raw counters are processed into Performance Indicators (PI)
and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and transferred to the NMS. Based on the
data provided, the NSN NMS has a set of tools and applications to monitor,
analyze, and post-process the data further.
1.4.3.2 RAN Configuration Management
The NMS solution supports the capability to plan the RAN with radio access
network planning tools, transfer the plan to the NMS electronically, and download
the planned parameters, settings and software to the actual network equipment.
The solution minimizes the need for manual handling of the many different
network parameters and other data. As a result, it reduces the risk for errors.
The main benefits of the NSN tools for RAN network development are as follows:
Fast planning and implementation of network
Less manual work and site visits required to input parameters into network
elements
Optimized investments and improved network quality achieved by analyzing
the network behavior, performance, and usage
Figure 39 shows the Radio network plan management in the NSN NetAct
solution:
Fig. 39 Radio Network Plan Management in the NSN NetAct Solution
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From the network management perspective, network development always begins
with the planning phase. The radio network plans, prepared by the NSN radio
network planning tool, NSN Totem Vantage, or a 3rd party planning tool, are then
transferred to the NMS and stored for later use.
1.4.3.3 IP Configuration Management
In the NSN NMS solution, the technology differences between IP and other
subnetworks have been scaled down. As a result, shared management methods
can be used; which in turn results in savings, both in terms of time and O&M
resources. IP CN planning can be integrated into the general network planning
process of the operator. The tasks include capacity planning and IP routing
set-up in order to ensure proper functionality of this transport network. In the
element management layer, access to the actual element can be supported by
web-based applications. Therefore, the configurations required by the IP
elements are always visible to O&M personnel from any O&M screen. As evident,
special emphasis has been placed on security management applications.
Figure 40 shows the Management of the IP backbone in the NSN NetAct:
Fig. 40 Management of the IP backbone in the NSN NetAct
1.4.3.4 Development of CS CN
The Switching Data Warehouse (SDW) forms NSN's solution for all switching
network configuration management. The central database and applications can
be accessed through the LAN or web. Therefore, the NSN solution also supports
the decentralization of planning and other tasks in the operator organization.
Traffic Flow Management
Traffic Flow Management (TFM) provides a tool for viewing and modifying the
number analysis and routing data centrally throughout the network. The tool
offers the ability to plan and implement changes in route analysis in the entire
network. In addition, it saves a considerable amount of time and effort compared
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to the manual parameter modification of one parameter at a time and for each
switch separately. With the TFM application, it is easy to route traffic to certain
destinations over specified carriers, and then to monitor the volume and quality of
the traffic with a real-time traffic monitoring system. Based on the data from the
monitoring system and price quotes from carriers, it is easy to select traffic routes
that provide optimum quality and cost efficient distribution of traffic.
Figure 41 shows the TFM:
Fig. 41 The TFM
Signalling Configuration Reporting
Signaling Configuration Reporting feature allows operators to collect information
on the switching network signaling configuration to a centralized location, which
makes it easier to control changes and modifications in the network. The feature
provides the ability to view and upload the signaling configuration from the
network, store it in the SDW database and prepare predefined reports of the
stored information.
NSS Routing Configuration Reporting
The Routing Configuration Reporting feature provides network operators with a
good overall picture of the routing configuration of the whole network. The feature
makes it possible to view and upload the switching network topology from the
network, store it in the SDW database and prepare predefined reports of the
stored information.
2 Exercises
Exercise 1
Which platform / product is NOT an NSN proprietary?
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DX200
NSN IP
IPA2800
UNIX/HP
Exercise 2
Which network element will not work on DX200 platform?
MSC
BSC
Combi-SGSN
GGSN
Exercise 3
Which network element supports echo canceling towards the Public
Switched Telephone Network?
ECET
ET
VANG
CMU
Exercise 4
Which is NOT a signaling unit for MSC in DX 200 platform?
CASU
PAU
BSU
CLS
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Exercise 5
What is the function of DBDU?
The main responsibility is to distribute subscriber related data to the
correct SRRU pair.
It is a just a database in HLR.
Used for terminating E1.
Is responsible for the number translations and subscriber information.
Exercise 6
Which statement is FALSE about SGSN?
Performs authentication and mobility management for Data Subscribers.
Routing of data to the relevant GGSN.
Generation of charging data and traffic statistics.
Performs Transcoding.
Exercise 7
Which element defines the capacity limit in 2G SGSN and in 3G SGSN resp?
ET and PAPU
PAPU and Forwarding Unit
PAPU and Tunneling Unit
CHU and Tunneling Unit.
Exercise 8
Which network element is NOT a part of Core Network?
SGSN
GGSN
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MSC
BSC
Exercise 9
Which statement is TRUE of notation 2+2+2 with regard to BTS?
3 sectors with 2 carrier in each
2 sectors with 3 carriers each.
3 sectors with 1 carrier each
2 sector each with 2 carriers.
Exercise 10
How many TRX can a NSN UltraSite BTS offer?
12
10
6
4
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Exercise 11
How many TRX can a NSN Ultrasite BTS offer clubbed with optional
integrated battery back-up system?
6
8
12
10
Exercise 12
Which of them regarding NMS is false in NSN?
NSN DX and IPA2800 based elements use the NEMU.
NSN base stations uses Web Access Management (WAM).
GGSN uses Net Voyager.
NSN DX and BTS uses NEMU.
2.1 Solutions
Exercise 1 (Solution)
Which platform / product is NOT an NSN proprietary?
DX200
NSN IP
IPA2800
UNIX/HP
Exercise 2 (Solution)
Which network element will not work on DX200 platform?
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MSC
BSC
Combi-SGSN
GGSN
Exercise 3 (Solution)
Which network element supports echo canceling towards the Public
Switched Telephone Network?
ECET
ET
VANG
CMU
Exercise 4 (Solution)
Which is NOT a signaling unit for MSC in DX 200 platform?
CASU
PAU
BSU
CLS
Exercise 5 (Solution)
What is the function of DBDU?
The main responsibility is to distribute subscriber related data to the
correct SRRU pair.
It is a just a database in HLR.
Used for terminating E1.
Is responsible for the number translations and subscriber information.
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Exercise 6 (Solution)
Which statement is FALSE about SGSN?
Performs authentication and mobility management for Data Subscribers.
Routing of data to the relevant GGSN.
Generation of charging data and traffic statistics.
Performs Transcoding.
Exercise 7 (Solution)
Which element defines the capacity limit in 2G SGSN and in 3G SGSN resp?
ET and PAPU
PAPU and Forwarding Unit
PAPU and Tunneling Unit
CHU and Tunneling Unit.
Exercise 8 (Solution)
Which network element is NOT a part of Core Network?
SGSN
GGSN
MSC
BSC
Exercise 9 (Solution)
Which statement is TRUE of notation 2+2+2 with regard to BTS?
3 sectors with 2 carrier in each
2 sectors with 3 carriers each.
3 sectors with 1 carrier each
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2 sector each with 2 carriers.
Exercise 10 (Solution)
How many TRX can a NSN UltraSite BTS offer?
12
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6
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Exercise 11 (Solution)
How many TRX can a NSN Ultrasite BTS offer clubbed with optional
integrated battery back-up system?
6
8
12
10
Exercise 12 (Solution)
Which of them regarding NMS is false in NSN?
NSN DX and IPA2800 based elements use the NEMU.
NSN base stations uses Web Access Management (WAM).
GGSN uses Net Voyager.
NSN DX and BTS uses NEMU.