Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10

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Composites: Part A
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Review

Experimental and computational composite textile reinforcement forming: A review
Thomas Gereke ⇑, Oliver Döbrich, Matthias Hübner, Chokri Cherif
Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Preforming is an important step in the manufacturing of textile-reinforced composites with resin infusion processes. It is important to control the fiber orientation to avoid fiber misalignments and wrinkles, which would reduce the mechanical properties of the composite part. The objective of the present paper is to give an overview of the literature dedicated to the textile reinforcement forming process. Therefore, experimental tests for the determination of the basic fabric properties, the experimental characterization of the forming and the numerical approaches for the modeling of the textile forming are reviewed. A great part of the literature has been devoted to the characterization of the shear behavior since it is the most important property for textile reinforcement forming processes. The bending behavior was initially neglected in mechanical models but was found to be important for the simulation of wrinkles. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 24 July 2012 Received in revised form 5 October 2012 Accepted 22 October 2012 Available online 1 November 2012 Keywords: A. Fabrics/textiles B. Mechanical properties C. Numerical analysis E. Forming

Contents 1. 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical characterization of textile structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Determination of in-plane shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Determination of in-plane tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. Determination of the out-of plane bending behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4. Tool/fabric and fabric/fabric friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experimental investigations of the textile forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. Full-field strain measurements with DIC technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2. In situ strain sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3. Other measurement methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling approaches for the simulation of the textile forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1. Continuous approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Semi-discrete approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. Meso-FE models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influencing the drapability of textile reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 7 7 8 8 8 8

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1. Introduction The manufacturing of thermoset based textile-reinforced composites typically requires the preforming of the dry textile structure and the subsequent matrix infusion with resin transfer molding (RTM) or vacuum processes. During the forming of complex shapes the textile reinforcement is subjected to large local and global deformations, which influence the fiber orientation,

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 351 463 42244; fax: +49 351 463 34026.
E-mail addresses: thomas.gereke@tu-dresden.de (T. Gereke), oliver.doebrich@tudresden.de (O. Döbrich), matthias.huebner1@tu-dresden.de (M. Hübner), chokri. cherif@tu-dresden.de (C. Cherif). 1359-835X/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2012.10.004

since no forces are calculated. 3. whereas textile reinforcements are more efficient in the case of double-curved geometries. The present paper gives an overview of the experimental characterization and the modeling strategies of the forming process.C.X. an overview of attempts for forming process improvements is given. is more than twice its width. Then different modeling strategies are reviewed: continuous models. Research groups that made considerable progress on the topic are: Belgium – Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (S. the normalization brings the shear curves closer together. This locking angle is one of the sources for wrinkling. These factors along with the occurrence of wrinkles or gaps between the yarns determine the product quality of the final composite product. Typical shear force versus shear angle curves are presented in Fig. Shear curves obtained from the same textile material with different picture frames were inconsistent though they were normalized by the frame size. Verpoest et al. 1. The sample size has an effect on the measured shear curve. Another major drawback of this method is that it is not obvious whether the theoretically found solution is practically achievable or not [1]. Two modeling approaches are known to predict the fiber orientation: kinematic and mechanical approaches.A. the cantilever bending test. Determination of in-plane shear In-plane shear is the most dominant mechanism in the forming of textile reinforcements from a two-dimensional fabric into a three-dimensional preform. Cao et al. Potluri et al. Yarn slippage can occur in fabrics having yarns with a high bending rigidity. investigations of the material parameter characterization are reviewed. 1 for the case of plain. The following conditions ensure that no axial strain is induced in the yarns and that the loading can be considered as pure shear [10]: 2. Netherlands – University of Twente (R. it is impossible to analyze the effects of blank holders and wrinkling.2 T. there is theoretically. the biaxial tension test and tests of friction. Traditionally. With an increased fabric area the number of yarns and crossovers increases and a larger force is required to shear the sample [9]. In the first part Fig. Shearing of the fabric is a result of a rigid yarn rotation and not of a shearing of the yarn itself [2–4]. but it cannot be solely related to the occurrence of wrinkles. Deformation at the scale of the structural part (macroscopic scale) corresponds to local deformation of the fiber structure (mesoscopic scale).) Northwestern University (J. Zhu et al. The tension and the out-of plane bending behavior also play an important role. The textile sample is clamped into the frame. Complex shapes such as double-curved geometries are difficult to obtain with unidirectional reinforcements. When all the yarns are in contact and compressed the force increases rapidly and a critical locking angle is reached.6–10]. . France – INSA Lyon (P.). twill and satin weaves determined with the picture frame test. Hong Kong – Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (T. assuming no yarn slippage. of the curve the magnitude of the shear force is very small compared to known in-plane tension values (not shown in the figure). whereas yarn slippage is insignificant in uniform shear conditions and in fabrics having a low bending rigidity [11]. mechanical simulations were performed with an implicit solution scheme. w0. The shear force increases due to contact of neighboring yarns and laterally compression of the yarns. the fabric size or a combination of both [9]. Boisse et al. This section includes the picture frame test. When the length of the sample.). Experimental methods and modeling strategies were developed. a pure shear zone in the center (zone III in Fig. Gereke et al. Hivet et al. such as carbon fabrics. Depending on the textile reinforcement meso-structure those structures can reach very large in-plane shear strain. The picture frame is made with a deformable frame that (ideally) prescribes a uniform shear strain field. In classical biaxial woven fabrics the angle between the warp and weft yarns is initially 90° and decreases when the fabric is draped over a double curved surface. Consequently. the bias extension test. Harrison et al.V. 2). Several papers reported results for bias extension tests [3. semi-discrete models and meso finite element (FE) models. This dimensional change affects the permeability of the reinforcement and the mechanical properties of the composite part. It is thus important to control the fiber placement to obtain an optimized load-bearing product. Increasing complexity of forming simulations has led to the application of explicit solution methods. In the bias extension test a rectangular sample is clamped at two ends and the warp and weft yarns are oriented at 45° to the direction of the applied tensile load (Fig. It does not take into account exterior loads on the reinforcement.). The shear force is due to friction between crossing yarns. I. Université d’Orléans (G. However. 2). L0. USA – University of Massachusetts Lowell (J. Mechanical characterization of textile structures 2. The principle is shown in Fig. Lomov. Differences may be attributed to the different picture frames and the preparation of the textiles (yarns near the grips taken out or not) and the application of pretensions. Akkerman et al.1. University of Glasgow (P. Chen. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 the fiber volume fraction and the component thickness.). twill and satin weaves. The kinematic modeling approach is a simply applied method with small CPU times needed for the simulation.). UK – University of Nottingham (A.). Finally. Sherwood et al.). Experimental shear curves of plain.). Yu. First. The alternative is a mechanical model that represents the non-linear material behavior of textile structures accurately and reproduces the boundary conditions realistically. Wrinkling in picture frame shear tests is less likely to occur the smaller the ratio of the fabric length to the frame length is and the larger the in-plane tensile forces are [5]. Long et al. Two principal methods are used to determine the shear properties of textile reinforcements: the tensile test at 45° (bias extension test) and the picture frame test. University of Manchester (P. B. In the subsequent section three-dimensional (3D) forming experiments are presented with the emphasis on measurement techniques of the fiber orientation. Kinematic models calculate the geometry of the textile but do not require the knowledge of the constitutive behavior. J. In recent years a large effort has been undertaken to understand the textile behavior during forming.). while zone I remains undeformed.

13]. because of the smaller clamped area.14]. This allows the yarns to rotate freely at the frame edges and induces a pure shear deformation in the fabric. Principle of the picture frame test. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 3 Fig. A higher shear force is measured when a tensile force is induced into the yarns. A 30–40 times increase in the shear force. Fig.13] reported differences of less than 2° between the frame shear and the local shear angles averaged over the area of the fabric.13]. – the fixing allows the free rotation of the yarns with respect to the frame. since the friction between the yarns increases. A proper positioning of the fabric into the frame is crucial to avoid tensile strains. The induced loading into the picture frame is not a pure shear loading when the yarns are stretched. Repeatability of results is difficult to obtain since small misalignments lead to a large variability [10. [3. It can be influenced by the clamping [10]. A tensile strain in the yarns affects the shear curve the locking angle. . It was found that clamping force has a significant influence on the measurements of shear behavior in a picture frame [14]. Due to the waviness of the yarns in a woven fabric an in-plane tensile force always affects the shear behavior. [9] recommended to use optical measurement methods above this angle instead. The disadvantage is that extracting the fabric’s exact relationship between the shear force. A fixed clamping leads to local yarn bending at the frame edges [10.14].12]. shows a clear and pronounced shear-tension coupling. 2.10. The advantages of this biaxial bias extension test are the simple experimental equipment and the much lesser sensitivity to sample misalignments compared to picture frame tests. Cao et al.T. The differences between results of a picture frame test and bias extension test are attributed to this behavior [10. shear angle and fiber tension is not trivial. The determination of the shear angle mathematically from the global displacement is reasonable up to a certain shear angle. Optical full-field strain measurements showed that the homogeneity of the strain field is ensured as long as no severe wrinkling occurs [5].12. when comparing data measured using a small (5 N) and a high (100 N) transverse load (at a shear angle of 20°). – the yarns are parallel to the frame. Harrison [18] proposed a method of extracting the material data from the measured signal. 3. Direct measurements of the shear angle using optical methods instead of calculating the shear angle from the global displacement are very common recently [3. Orawattanasrikul [16] proposed a picture frame where needles fix the fabric to the frame. Principle of the bias extension test. Gereke et al. the measured shear forces decrease dramatically to levels more comparable with uniaxial bias extension test data. The shear-tension coupling was recently investigated with a modified bias extension test with a constant transverse loading [17]. With the assumption of a uniform strain field. Large misalignments are less likely to dominate the global response in the modified picture frame test of [15]. Influences from clamping can also be reduced or avoided when the fabric is pinned to the frame. The influence of the tensile strain on the shear response can be measured with a special picture frame that is able to determine the tensile forces in the warp and weft directions [10. Lomov et al. When the tensile forces are relaxed to zero during a picture frame test. This technique is used at the Institute for Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology of the Technische Universität Dresden. the in-plane shear behavior can be determined from the global displacement of the frame.

since it may differ from the displacements measured at the testing apparatus. 4. since it is important for the formation of out of plane defects. Homogeneity of the sample deformation should be checked with full-field strain measurements. Inter-ply friction is a dominant parameter in forming double curved components with multilayered textile reinforcements [40]. The shear angles reach higher values than in a hemispherical form (up to 60°). the measurement of the pure shear behavior of woven fabrics is tricky. The test parameters slip velocity. Consequently the relation given by the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory or by plate theories between the tensile and the bending rigidities are no longer valid. where a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) laminate was clamped between two heated pressure platens and was then pulled out. It is not very well adapted to measure textile reinforcements for composites which are often thicker and stiffer. Tool/fabric and fabric/fabric friction During the forming of textile reinforcements. [47] and Hivet et al.4. The fabric is cantilevered under gravity and the overhang length. 2. and their contact behavior. . with a finite element model. the correct measurement of the fiber Fig. Recently.65].2. Thus.g. g. Recently. They found that the bending rigidity decreases while the bending length increases. because undulations of the yarns lead to strong non-linearities at low loads [20–23].38]. Surface strains were measured with digital image correlation (DIC) technique and inner strains were measured with mounted and embedded fiber optical sensors. Experimental investigations of the textile forming The forming of a fabric into a three-dimensional shape was often studied with hemispherical forming devices [6. for the validation of numerical simulation models. Determination of the out-of plane bending behavior Investigations on the bending behavior of textile reinforcements were reported in [24–32]. The measured shear curve is sensitive to in-plane tensions that may be induced by the boundary conditions given by the equipment. Determination of in-plane tension The stiffness magnitude of the tensile rigidities of textile reinforcements is much higher compared to the other deformation stiffnesses. The tensile behavior becomes more non-linear the larger the crimp [21]. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile testing of fabrics are state-of-the-art and especially the non-standardized biaxial tests are subject of current research. This shape is strongly double-curved and is more difficult to form than a hemispherical shape. Principle of the standard cantilever bending test.5% indicating that the ‘‘shadowing’’ effect is negligible on the local longitudinal strain behavior. tension is a biaxial phenomenon. DIC could also be used to determine the displacements of the sample adequately. the bending behavior of textile reinforcements is non-linear. Due to the interactions of the warp and weft yarns. In an unbalanced woven fabric the more rigid direction may have a behavior little influenced by the yarns in the other direction whereas the strain in the other direction depends strongly on the rigid yarns [21].34]. The bending rigidity of fabrics is very weak compared to its in-plane tensile rigidities due to relative motions of fibers. However. Different authors investigated the tool/fabric contact and to a lower extent the yarn/yarn contact with glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics or dry fabrics [41–46].5° [37. double-curved and leads to large shear angles (up to 50°). The hemispherical shape is simple.1. their mechanical properties.4 T.32. Allaoui et al. It depends on the yarns. e. Gereke et al. 2. It is based on linear elastic behavior. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 Daggumati et al. In summary.21.49–60] or various extended hemispherical geometries [61–64]. A model based on the Reynolds equation for thin film lubrication was validated for the tested fabric type and may be used as a part of a finite element simulation tool for textile forming. such as wrinkles [33. The principal of the cantilever bending test is shown in Fig. The bending rigidity was recently included into material forming models. Other bending tests such as the test according to Schlenker [39] are more related to apparel textiles. The evolution of the relative orientation of the yarns of each ply and thus the variation of the friction should be addressed in an accurate model. The friction was found to be very sensitive to the relative positioning and orientation of the samples. In a mechanical analyses of a multiply forming. e. 3. is usually determined when aB = 41.35–38] and the Kawabata bending test [25. frictions occur between the forming mold and the fabric. [44] investigated the tool-ply friction with a pull-out experimental setup.3. lo. The tensile behavior of woven reinforcements is specific. a tetrahedral forming device was developed [33. Full-field strain measurements with DIC technique The knowledge of the fiber orientation after a draping experiment is of great importance. The comparison showed no differences between surface and inner strains at an applied uniaxial tensile strain of 0. namely their geometrical configuration. temperature. [31] developed a flexometer for the determination of bending properties under gravity and mass loads using optical measurements. 4. Two standard tests are known to measure the bending rigidity of fabrics: a cantilever bending test developed from the work of Peirce [31.29]. To date it is not possible to predict the bending behavior of textile reinforcements with more complex structures from the yarn behavior accurately. [48] presented an experimental device to measure the tool/fabric. the application of an average friction coefficient will lead to some uncertainties. The Kawabata test was designed to tests clothing textiles and enables to show nonlinear behavior. [19] compared the strains on the surface with the strains in the inner part of a satin weave composite. 3. 2. Repeatability of the results should be investigated. Ten Thije et al. fabric/fabric and yarn/yarn frictions. and normal pressure have significant effects on the tool-ply friction. The bending behavior of textile reinforcements is a structural multiscale problem which cannot be directly deduced from the in-plane material properties as in continuous materials [24]. De Bilbao et al.

Optical measurement techniques are limited to the detection of deformations on the surface of an object. the full-field strain measurements with DIC technique were employed successfully for the determination of the fiber orientation. This was attributed to a possible relative slip of the sensors and the fact that sensors only measured the overall tensile strain along their length. The forming device described in [65] uses a mechanical module with six blank holders and an optical module with two cameras. A 10% difference in the shear angles was found compared to data measured on the surface [71]. Continuous approaches A textile reinforcement structure can be seen as a continuous material.e. With a law of cosines they were able to calculate the shear angles and thus the orientation of the fibers. In situ strain sensors An alternative to optical camera systems is the integration of in situ strain sensors into the textile structure [70–72]. the tracking of the fiber positions and orientations with optical methods provides some challenges. The difference was in the order of 2° over the length of the mold.69]. [61] applied a parallel reference pattern on a woven fabric.67]. Vanclooster et al. In the case of pre-impregnated textile reinforcement structures. A textile structure exhibits anisotropic properties and large shear and bending deformations. Through in situ sensors it becomes possible to follow the history of the shear angle development during the forming process. The cameras capture the position of markers. Analyzes were performed mainly on dry fabrics (i. Layers that are below the surface layer may have a ‘‘shadowing’’ effect on the measured surface strain [69].g. such as inter-yarn gaps and delamination. 4. Furthermore. it can deal with the ‘‘shear locking’’ effect yielding wrinkling. Optical techniques such as DIC only measure surface strains. The change in the angle between the warp and weft yarns – the shear angle – can be determined from DIC measurements of the textile reinforcement forming [57.g. Also the DIC algorithms failed in some areas due to light reflections on the double-curved surface. A macroscopic modeling approach with standard finite elements is most commonly used. 3. wrinkles in fabrics) occur one camera is adequate to measure the in-plane deformations. The global non-orthogonal constitutive relations are derived from stress and strain transformation relations between a global orthogonal and the local non-orthogonal coordinate system. Simulation results of . From the tensile strain along the sensor the shear angle can be calculated [71]. When no out-of plane deformation (e. Recently. Gereke et al.84. With a macroscopic forming simulation it is possible to calculate the fiber orientation of the formed textile reinforcement as represented by the shear angle distribution in Fig. They used a Kevlar/glass weave. Other measurement methods The previously mentioned measurement techniques have some drawbacks. The measurement with an eddy current sensor system as presented in [74] allows the detection of the fiber orientation and of defects. it becomes possible to derive an optimized cut for the specific structural part to be formed. The numerical approaches developed include rate dependent constitutive models [62. Those recent advances in textile forming simulation are reviewed in this section. Similarly. Electrical resistance strain gauges do not have adequate spatial resolution for full-field measurement. 5. Another problem was observed most notably in high shear zones. Also some sensors stopped during the test due to exceeding their measuring range. Recently. [73] used Raman spectroscopy for in situ strain measurements. The results are generally good and may be used for further investigations such as damage initiation and propagation. Thus.60–62. For textiles with uneven surface it may also be difficult to apply a good grid [3]. Furthermore. Therefore. they do not describe the forming behavior on the basis of the occurring mechanisms and real forces. so that yarn directions can be followed. It was found to be more accurate in predicting the shape of a draped hemisphere than a non-updated material law.85]. in [66. without resin). The major simplifications are the decoupling between the shearing and tensile responses and the decoupling of the tensile response between the weft and warp directions. Although the in situ strain measurement with sensors is challenging this method has a promising potential for the detection of the inner mechanisms of a textile forming process. [50] incorporated the large shear deformations during the textile draping with an updated material behavior law on the basis of changing fiber directions. Different continuum material formulations have been used for the description of the textile reinforcement behavior. since Raman spectroscopy is not particularly sensitive to commercial grade carbon fibers. A variable pressure could be applied to the blank holders individually. Though optical measurements provide qualitative information. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 5 orientation is a challenge. It was developed in the 1980s as a contact-free optical measurement technique. Forming experiments for the evaluation of the textile drapability require a three-dimensional system with two cameras. The method allows the comparison to meso models. The challenge is to ascertain the proper thread position.1.65. However. This approach provides data on the inner part of multilayered carbon reinforcements. This method provides quantitative and qualitative information of the heterogeneous deformation of an object. They used two cameras to capture the painted grid and determined the z-coordinate after the deformation. the conclusions may be different.T. By comparing the images to a reference picture (usually taken of the undeformed object) deformations and strains on the surface can be backcalculated with a cross-correlation procedure. since the resin affects the relative displacement of the yarns. However. The updated material law generated hypoelastic shear deformation behavior.68.75–79] and non-orthogonal rate independent models [80–83]. hyperelastic models were proposed for the textile reinforcement simulation [58. The basic principles are described e. Low blank holder forces lead to wrinkles in the useful part of the preform whereas large blank holder forces avoid wrinkles even though the shear angle is high in some areas (up to 60°). Peng and Cao [81] developed a continuum mechanics-based nonorthogonal constitutive model to characterize the anisotropic material behavior of woven fabrics under large deformations. A coordinate system is embedded in the shell elements where the in-plane axes are coincident with the weft and warp yarns of the woven fabric. Thus. the assumption that the sprayed gridlines are parallel to the yarns is questionable since the yarns in woven fabrics are not always straight. The sensors can be placed with a known off-angle to the orthogonal warp/weft direction. Potluri et al. The reference pattern was destroyed due to friction between the tool and the fabric. Modeling approaches for the simulation of the textile forming 4. large membrane stresses can avoid wrinkling. Dong et al. The advantage of this method lies in the contactless measurement of the surface. 3. Images are taken of the deformed object using one or two CCD cameras (charge-coupled device). A consequent and careful application of the DIC technique provides valuable data for the characterization of the forming process of textile reinforcements and enables the validation of numerical calculation models both at the level of the yarn and the fabric. in a multi-layered textile laminate for example they can only measure the deformations of the outer layer.3.2.

the yarn rr . n is the number of fibers in a yarn. Biaxial effects in tension between the warp and weft yarns were neglected. who used the same model. which could not be represented satisfactorily by the continuum mechanics model. However. Three-node finite element proposed by [33. (b) optimized cut [64]. The tension and shear mechanical behavior were decoupled and no influence of the tension on the shear properties and vice versa was taken into account. many works have adopted rate constitutive laws [2. A qualitative comparison of the experimental results and the simulation showed a good agreement. The constitutive matrix is thus written in the frame of the fiber. They used a strain energy density function built by six strain energy functions related to six deformation modes (transverse compression. It is generally not constant for textile reinforcements. [87] proposed a hyperelastic model for the simulation of a 3D woven interlock fabric. respectively. since these parameters change when the fabric is strained. Though the FE model is strongly simplified it provides better results of the fiber orientation than a kinematic approach. I is the polar moment of inertia of a yarn. Charmetant et al. c is the inter-yarn shear where E is the Young angle. showed a good agreement compared to the experimental output of double dome stamping experiments of [62] based on a number of parameters selected for comparison. These models can easily be integrated in standard FE membrane or shell elements.6 T. D is the diameter of fiber cross-section. Material parameters could be identified by simple mechanical tests. transverse shear in the warp and weft directions). A first family of models homogenizes the mechanical behavior of the underlying meso-structure and considers the fabric as an anisotropic continuum. The assumptions that effects of weaving are negligible (no coupling between the tensions in the warp and weft yarns) and that shear and tension are uncoupled are questionable. tension in the warp and weft directions. relates a Cauchy stress objective derivative. Gereke et al. since the transverse behavior of the yarns and the shear stiffness are strongly strain dependent. Sze and Liu [86] used bilinear stress-resultant solid–shell elements to simulate the draping of textiles with a long free-hanging length. a constitutive tensor. e1 and e2 are the longitudinal strains along the warp and weft yarn directions.55. and P is the lateral compressive force between yarns.56]. 5. An experimental validation of the simulated draped forms as given by other papers is missing.) [63].001 was used for the bending rigidity. Zhu et al. the determination of material parameters is challenging.76–79]. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. Similarly. Hypoelastic models do not allow a complete recovery after a closed loop loading path whereas hyperelastic models avoid this drawback. Aimène et al. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 Fig. In such a hypoelastic model. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend. An FE draping model for the simulation of the thermoforming of a woven fabric was presented in [61]. where the two first terms are the energies from tension in the yarns and the third term is the energy from shearing. The internal yarn structure plays an important role in the mechanical behavior of thick fabrics. to the strain rate.) . The number of elements had a significant effect on the shape of the draped textile. However. w0 is the initial yarn width. Model parameters can be identified with three experimental tests: two tensile tests in the warp and weft directions and one pure shear test. Fabric forming simulations using the hypoelastic constitutive law were Fig. It uses shell elements to simulate a thermo-viscoelastic matrix and elastic fibers. [71] derived a wrinkling criterion for woven fabrics and introduced a virtual wrinkling energy Wv: presented in a later paper [78]. satisfactory results for the simulation of a hemispherical punch of an unbalanced woven fabric were achieved. A factor of 0. Some simplifications were made. Simulated draping of a textile reinforcement using a shell-based finite element model: (a) rectangular fabric. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. A strain energy function was associated to each deformation mode (tension and shear). D as follows: ð 2Þ rr ¼ C : D The objective derivatives correspond to a rotation tensor characterizing the rotation of the material.62. For example. 6. [58] presented a macroscopic membrane approach for textile structures using such an anisotropic hyperelastic model. Among continuous mechanical models at large strains. C. the coordinates of the nodes are given in brackets in the n1–n2 element coordinate system. in-plane shear. The strain energy potential is given by: W ¼ W 1 ðI1 Þ þ W 2 ðI2 ÞW 12 ðI12 Þ ð3Þ " # 4I npD2 W 0 ðe1 þ e2 Þ À 2w0 sin c Á PðcÞ þ W v ¼ E Á cos c Á D 16 8 > < W v > 0 wrinkling does not happen Wv ¼ 0 critical state > : Wv < 0 wrinkling happens ð 1Þ ´ s modulus of the yarn. since it would otherwise be too stiff from the Euler– Lagrangian beam theory.

whereas some continuous models for textiles failed in this requirement. Furthermore. The twisting part of the curvature was neglected in the bending formulation due to a lack of experimental data. r1 and r2. are: responsible for wrinkling [4]. the yarn directions and. shear. distortion and longitudinal shear. and the coordinates in the reference element. The interactions between the warp and weft yarns and between shear and tension are also important but often neglected in material modeling. in case of a mesoscopic model it was challenging. Semi-discrete approaches In the semi-discrete approach the components of the meso. [77] presented yarn geometries obtained by X-ray tomography for biaxial tension and in-plane shear deformation. Another assumption is that the in-plane shear and bending are independent on the tension.75.62. uniaxial and biaxial tension of the fabric). g2. [58] for the simulation of an RUC of a woven fabric. Satisfactory results were reported when comparing the simulation results to biaxial tension and picture frame tests. neither a qualitative nor a quantitative comparison to experiments validates the approach. The relations between the material coordinates along the fibers. In mesoscopic computations the yarn is considered as a continuum and its constitutive law has to take its fibrous nature into account. W int ðgÞ. instead of performing tests on yarns extracted from the fabric the authors identified some model parameters from tests at the scale of the whole textile reinforcement (uniaxial tension of the yarn. whereas the former membrane formulation neglected the bending part [55. De Luycker et al. damage prediction and as virtual mechanical tests. The authors proved that there is no tension in the fibers in case of pure shear. 7.77–79. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 7 undulation changes in case of tension and the yarns are transversely compressed during shearing (locking). whose position were known from the weaving.2. [78]. The transverse rigidities of the yarns were taken into account within a hypoelastic model. and bending. It was shown that bending stiffness is important for the simulation of wrinkles. consequently. 7a) only a fraction of the boundary (dashed line) corresponds to material points whereas in the case of RUC of type 2 (Fig. Two different unit cells representing the same plain woven fabric. k2 and g1. r1 r2 #  " # 1 b n1 1 ¼ 1 À ab a 1 n2 ð 4Þ The corresponding material vectors are k1.T. were crossing the 3D finite element. These phenomena should be addressed adequately in a realistic material model. 4. In mesoscopic analyses a representative unit cell (RUC) that substitutes the periodic textile meso-structure is modeled. The boundary conditions have to reproduce the periodicity of the meso-structure at large deformations and the evolution of contacts between neighboring yarns during the motion. The triangular element is shown in Fig. A later paper incorporated the bending rigidity in addition to the tensile and shear rigidities into the finite element formulation [33]. e. W t int ðgÞ. Satisfactory results were achieved with the simulation of the forming of a hemisphere and a twisted plate using this semi-discrete approach. 6. [60] used a combination of truss and membrane elements for the simulation of the textile forming. The application of the above three node finite shell element to the textile reinforcement forming of a tetrahedral shape using an interlock fabric showed a good agreement to experimental output [65]. Such mesoscopic analyses can be used for permeability calculations. [84] used the anisotropic hyperelastic model of Aimène et al.88. Badel et al. 7b) the complete initial boundary complies with material points of the fibers. Some mesoscopic analyses were based on a hypoelastic constitutive law concerning continuous fibers (see Section 4. The geometric and material boundaries must be distinguished [76]. The three node shell finite element is based on a simplified form of the principle of virtual works. 7. Yarn segments. [79] used specific hexahedral finite elements for the simulation of the forming of 3D woven reinforcements. especially for the warp yarns as was also shown by microscopic analyses [90]. Lin et al. hyperelastic models were used.or microscale are part of finite elements. Isotropic elastic properties were assigned to the truss elements representing the high tensile stiffness of the fibers.56]. The comparison of the yarn cross sections obtained by tomography and by the mesoscopic model revealed a . compaction. It was later extended to a three node shell element [33]. For example the yarn– yarn interactions and the transverse deformations of the yarn cannot be described with a macroscopic model. especially for the wrinkle shape [34]. While the parameter identification for the macroscopic model was simple [58]. Hamila and Boisse [55. whereas it was shown earlier that the shear locking angle is Fig. Gereke et al.76–79]. A periodic structure can be constructed by translations of the RUC. They observed a wide variety of cross-sectional shapes on a single yarn. Unfortunately. They used a strain energy function for the deformation modes identified in the yarn: elongation. Similarly. exterior and acceleration virtual works in the displacement field g are related by: s b W ext ðgÞ À W acc ðgÞ ¼ W t int ðgÞ þ W int ðgÞ þ W int ðgÞ ð 5Þ The components considered for the internal virtual work are s b due to tension. Recently.g. Two such unit cells (schemes) of the same plain woven fabric are shown in Fig. In the case of RUC of type 1 (Fig. The virtual axial strains in the warp and weft directions. n1 and n2.84. These virtual tests avoid performing costly experiments and allow for an evaluation of the fabric without manufacturing it. mesoscopic models were developed [2. One advantage of the proposed finite element is that the directions of the warp and weft are arbitrary with regards to the sides of the element.3.89]. W int ðgÞ. the anisotropy change during forming processes. Thus. Meso-FE models " n1 n2 # ¼  1 Àa Àb 1 " r1 r2 # " .1 ‘‘Continuous approaches’’) [2. The previously presented macroscopic models are limited in the description of the textile meso-structure. Mesoscopic analyses involve some specific aspects. The curvature of the elements is computed from the positions and displacements of the neighboring elements. The internal. Charmetant et al.56] developed a three-node finite membrane element within a semidiscrete approach. Therefore. the virtual angle variation between the warp and weft directions and the virtual curvatures in the warp and weft directions are incorporated into the formulation. 4.62. This approach was further investigated and discussed [34]. A user-defined non-orthogonal constitutive model was assigned to the membrane elements that modeled the shear properties of the textile structure.

Hagege B. A woven reinforcement forming simulation method.37(3):413–22. [7] Sharma SB. Few approaches for drape improvements. yarn misalignments. this is related to a poor drapability due to a possible occurrence of wrinkles. plain weave fabrics have a much higher resistance against yarn movement and are thus much better manageable during forming processes.34(11):1167–75. Drapability of dry textile fabrics for stampable thermoplastic preforms. Boisse P. satin weave fabrics with their straight yarn segments have better tensile properties than plain weave fabrics. Composites A 2006. Composites A 2000. Comput Struct 2006. the use of more complex forming devices (such as the tetrahedral forming device). 6. which lead to undefined forming and reduce the mechanical properties of the final product. Bending stiffness plays an important role in the wrinkle shape. The application of real multiscale models in terms of a mesoscopic and a macroscopic model with an intermediate homogenization step could lead to adaptive models. 5 was done in the framework of the DFG-AiF Cluster ‘‘Leichtbau und Textilien’’ (‘‘Lightweight Construction and Textiles’’) supported financially by the German Research Foundation (DFG. Sutcliffe MPF.8 T. Morestin F. [95] presented an algorithm for the generation of the 3D textile meso-structure using statistical micro-tomography data. / Composites: Part A 46 (2013) 1–10 good agreement [77]. This was shown with full-field strain measurements of the fabric at the mesoscale using digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. However. Bourban PE. On the contrary. Billoet JL.68(3– 4):807–19.g. The numerical work presented in Fig. [3] Lomov SV. since it is an impor- tant step in the manufacturing of textile composites using resin transfer molding processes. The simulation approach gave fairly good results when compared to forming experiments. yarn sliding and yarn compression. [2] Boisse P. A larger influence of the stitching on the drapability and the shear angle was found for dry preforms than for thermoformed laminates. Lomov SV. and the inclusion of the bending rigidity into numerical models. However. It was found that the handling could be improved and shear angles could be reduced. Composites A 2003. for both the handling of the fabric and the resultant fiber orientations. Duhovic et al. Stitching elements interacted with the shell elements (fabric) through contact conditions between the nodes at the end of the stitching elements and segments on the shell elements. Mesoscale and macroscale numerical approaches that model the deformability of textile reinforcements have been developed. Potter KD. were reported recently. Boisse P. [4] Zouari B. Such an algorithm should be able to remove yarn interpenetrations that occur in the geometrical model. Verpoest I. the yarn–yarn interactions that are important for the macroscopic behavior can only be modeled accurately on the mesoscale. Software modules were developed to deal with the problem [91–94]. Recent advances include the application of full-field strain measurements of the forming for the validation of numerical models. Those are good beginnings but leave room for improvements. Modeling approaches accounted for the non-orthogonal anisotropic nature of textile structures.39(8):1232–44. [53] influenced the fiber movement at the warpweft interlacements in the sheared zones with local stitching. By incorporating different fabric weaves within a single fabric the mechanical properties and the drape behavior of a woven fabric could be influenced significantly [98]. Vandepitte D.g. Meso-FE modeling is time consuming and the correct representation of the yarn geometry is challenging. Conclusions An important research effort has been devoted to the understanding of the textile reinforcement forming. DIC measurements can help to analyze and to avoid such difficulties. Future directions for forming simulations may be the analyses of the coupling effects of the in-plane tension and shear behaviors and of the shear and bending behaviors. grant CH 174/16-1) and the Allianz Industrie Forschung (AiF. 5. Optical strain fields in shear and tensile testing of textile reinforcements. grant 16427 BR). Daniel JL. Characterisation of material properties for draping of dry woven composite material. Chang SH. The combination of different fabric weaves is possible on a weaving machine with Jacquard technique [98]. et al. Acknowledgements The work on this paper received no specific funding. Composites A 2008.and macroscale in terms of an adaptive model. The different number of crossing points of the yarns and the associated fiber undulation govern the mechanical properties and the drapability of dry woven fabrics. The measurement of the pure shear behavior is problematic since tensions. Influencing the drapability of textile reinforcements Some studies were conducted on influencing the drape behavior of textile reinforcements. [6] Rozant O. in-plane shear and bending strains into account. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of woven fibrous material using virtual tests at the unit cell level. Influence of the shear stiffness. Due to the fibrous nature of the textile reinforcements the shear rigidity is low at the beginning of the loading (yarn rotation) but increases when yarns get in contact with neighboring yarns (locking).40(22):5955–62. A challenge of meso FE modeling is the description of this meso-structure of textile reinforcements. Rinaldi et al. yarn movements are most likely to occur during draping.g. Full-field strain measurements in textile deformability studies. The use of kinematic drape modelling to inform the hand lay-up of complex composite components using woven reinforcements. infrared light radiation. they are especially suited for high tension areas. Manson JAE. Gasser A. The aims were to improve the forming behavior by means of local fiber fixation or weaves with gradient draping behavior. Deluycker E. Especially tensions can avoid wrinkling even for very large shear angles. An improved experimental detection of the material behavior in the inner part of thick reinforcements (multiple reinforcement layers) and comparison to simulation results allows for the improvement of such simulation models. J Mater Sci 2005. [96] used a combination of truss and shell elements that represented the behavior of the stitched woven fabric material.84(5–6):351–63. Therefore. The stitches locked deformation sensitive areas. It would be desirable to have a back and forth mechanism between meso. An effective simulation of wrinkling needs to take tensions. [5] Willems A. The most important mechanical property for the forming behavior of textile reinforcements is shear. and inhomogenity in strain distribution may cause a strain state not associated to pure shear. Gereke et al. The truss elements model the properties of the yarns and the shell elements represent a virtual medium that takes into account yarn rotation. which minimizes the risk of wrinkling [97]. However. with eddy current measurements. Such a local matrix consolidation can be achieved by melting the matrix within the hybrid yarn using e. References [1] Hancock SG. In the future the measurement of the yarn orientation in the inner part of a draped multilayer textile reinforcement is of great interest and could be analyzed e. Compos Sci Technol 2008. . A fabric weave with a good drapability could be used in high shear zones to avoid wrinkling whereas a fabric weave with poor drapability could be used for low shear zones to improve the handling and to increase the mechanical properties of the final composite product. The combination of a thermoplastic matrix and the reinforcing fiber in a hybrid yarn (e. For example. glass/PP) is suitable for a local structure fixation by consolidation of the matrix. Molnar et al.31(11):1167–77.

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