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- cours2

H. Khajehsaeid

a

, J. Arghavani

a

, R. Naghdabadi

a, b,

*

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

b

Institute for Nano-Science and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 March 2012

Accepted 23 September 2012

Available online 17 October 2012

Keywords:

Hyperelasticity

Rubber-like materials

Strain energy function

a b s t r a c t

Hyperelastic behavior of isotropic incompressible rubbers is studied to develop a strain energy function

which satisﬁes all the necessary characteristic properties of an efﬁcient hyperelastic model. The proposed

strain energy function includes only three material parameters which are somehowrelated to the physical

quantities of the material molecular network. Moreover, the model beneﬁts frommathematical simplicity,

well suitting in all ranges of stretch and possessing the property of deformation-mode-independency.

This reduces the required number of experimental tests for parameter calibration of the model. Results

of the proposed model are compared with results of some available models as well as experimental data.

Moreover, complete analysis of the Mooney plot over a wide range of stretch in extensionecompression is

carried out. It is found that the proposed model gives reasonable predictions in comparison with those of

experiments.

Ó 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Rubber-like materials consist of randomly oriented long

molecular chains with cross-linking at junctions called points in

a network conﬁguration (Fig. 1). The term elastomer (combination

of elastic and polymer) is also used instead of rubber (Smith et al.,

1993). The most outstanding property of elastomers is their ability

to undergo large deformations under relatively small stresses and

to retain initial conﬁguration without considerable permanent

deformation after stress removal. This behavior is mostly governed

by changes of network entropy as the orientation of chains alters

with deformation. These materials have been used in numerous

applications such as structural bearings, tires, medical devices and

vibration isolators due to their peculiar properties (Brinson and

Brinson, 2008).

Elastomers exhibit a complicated nonlinear behavior including

hysteresis, viscoelasticity and stress softening phenomenon. The

latter case called Mullins effect, occurs in ﬁrst cycles of loading and

have been studied extensively (Bueche, 1960; Marckmann et al.,

2002; Chagnon et al., 2006; Diani et al., 2006). Hysteresis and

viscoelastic behavior take place due to deviation from static

deformation, in which the effects of time and deformation rate

must be taken into account (Bergstrom and Boyce, 1998; Reese,

2003; Amin et al., 2006; Li and Lua, 2009). In the case of static

deformations, rubbers exhibit hyperelastic behavior; Thus, a strain

energy density function, W, can be attributed. We highlight that,

the present work focuses on the hyperelastic behavior, knowing

that, other phenomena can be considered in the proposed model by

means of appropriate modiﬁcations.

For isotropic materials (e.g., rubbers), strain energy function

(SEF) can be represented in terms of right (or left) CauchyeGreen

tensor C (or B) invariants (I

1

, I

2

, I

3

) or eigen values of deformation

gradient tensor F, called principal stretches (l

1

, l

2

, l

3

). i.e.,

W ¼ WðI

1

; I

2

; I

3

Þ or W ¼ Wðl

1

; l

2

; l

3

Þ (1)

where

I

1

¼ trðCÞ

I

2

¼

1

2

_

I

2

1

Àtr

_

C

2

__

I

3

¼ detðCÞ

(2)

tr and det demonstrate trace and determinant of a tensor. The form

of strain energy density function depends on symmetry, thermo-

dynamic, energetic and entropic considerations. For example, in the

case of rubber-like materials, due to the negligible compressibility

under conventional pressures, incompressibility assumption is

often used (I

3

¼ 1). Therefore, we conclude that:

W ¼ WðI

1

; I

2

Þ (3)

* Corresponding author. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif Univer-

sity of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Tel.: þ98 21 6616 5546; fax: þ98 21 6600 0021.

E-mail address: naghdabd@sharif.edu (R. Naghdabadi).

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ ej msol

0997-7538/$ e see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechsol.2012.09.010

European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151

The choice of appropriate SEF depends on its application, cor-

responding variables and available data for material parameters

identiﬁcation. An efﬁcient hyperelastic model can be deﬁned by

four main qualities (Chagnon et al., 2004):

It should have the ability to exactly reproduce the whole

S shaped response of rubbers.

The change of deformation modes should not be problematic,

i.e., if the model operates satisfactorily in uniaxial tension, it

must also be satisfactory in equibiaxial extension.

The number of material parameters should be as small as

possible, in order to decrease the number of experimental tests

needed for their determination.

The mathematical formulation should be quite simple to

render possible the numerical implementation of the model.

A considerable amount of work has been done on modeling the

rubbery behavior. Agreat category of proposed models are empirical

and are based on continuum mechanics (Varga, 1966; Hoger, 1999;

Lambert-Diani and Rey, 1999; Kakavas, 2000; Sussman and Bathe,

2009). In the empirical models, an increasing number of material

parameters are associated and often more than one test is needed

for material parameters identiﬁcation. Furthermore, the physical

context of parameters is often unclear (see e.g., Yeoh and Fleming,

1997; Boyce and Arruda, 2000; Beda, 2007). Also, there are a few

models based on kinetic theory and statistics of molecular chains

network (Arruda and Boyce, 1993; Lion, 1997). These models make

idealized assumptions and the material parameters often have

physical meaning (e.g., material chain density, chain length and

chain stretch). Another scheme has been proposed which utilizes

linear relationshipbetweenstrainenergydensityfunctionandstrain

invariants. In this case, the nonlinearity of model is reﬂected in the

deﬁnition of strain measure (Bechir et al., 2006; Darijani et al., 2010).

In this paper, we propose a strain energy density function for

isotropic rubber-like materials as a great category of hyperelastic

materials. It uses exponential and logarithmic functions, where

it can be interpreted as a particular form of Rivlin’s expansion

(if expanded to polynomial form). Furthermore, we attempt to

relate the parameters of the model to physical quantities as much

as possible.

In addition, the constitutive relation is used to predict the

material behavior after model calibration. Two sets of experimental

data are analyzed and material parameters are determined from

uniaxial extension data for each set. The results of the proposed

model in several modes of deformation are compared with some

available models such as ArrudaeBoyce eight-chain (Arruda and

Boyce, 1993), Gent (Gent, 1996), MooneyeRivlin (Mooney, 1940),

PuccieSaccomandi (Pucci and Saccomandi, 2002) and Gao (Gao,

1997) models as well as experiments.

2. Constitutive model development

2.1. Preliminaries

For an invariant-based strain energy density function, the true

stress tensor s is interpreted by the differentiation of W with

respect to B or equivalently with respect to its invariants (Rivlin and

Saunders, 1951):

s ¼ 2I

À

1

2

3

B

vW

vB

¼ 2I

À

1

2

3

B

_

vW

vI

1

vI

1

vB

þ

vW

vI

2

vI

2

vB

þ

vW

vI

3

vI

3

vB

_

(4)

The derivatives of invariants are:

vI

1

vB

¼ I (5)

vI

2

vB

¼ I

1

I ÀB (6)

vI

3

vB

¼ I

2

I À I

1

B þB

2

(7)

So, considering the conventional assumption of incompressi-

bility for rubber-like materials (I

3

¼ 1) and replacing (5)e(7) into

(4), we obtain:

s ¼ ÀpI þ2

_

vW

vI

1

þ I

1

vW

vI

2

_

B À2

vW

vI

2

B

2

(8)

where I is the identity tensor and p is the hydrostatic pressure

which is determined fromboundary conditions. The true stress can

then be converted to the ﬁrst PiolaeKirchhoff stress tensor f as:

f ¼ sF

ÀT

(9)

2.2. The proposed strain energy function

Exponential SEFs possess interesting properties in predicting

rubber-like behavior (Hart-Smith, 1966). They can reproduce the ‘S’

shaped behavior of these materials. The proposed strain energy

function W (also the resulted stressestrain relation) consists of two

separate terms; a positive exponential term W

1

and a negative

logarithmic one W

2

as shown in Fig. 2. These parts can manifest two

different and even competitive physical phenomena. We call the

proposed SEF “Exp-Ln” and introduce it in the following form:

W ¼ A½W

1

þ W

2

¼ A

_

1

a

expðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ þ bðI

1

À2Þ

Â ð1 ÀlnðI

1

À2ÞÞ À

1

a

À b

_ (10)

This function satisﬁes the necessary conditions (Darijani and

Naghdabadi, 2010), say:

i) Vanishes in the undeformed conﬁguration.

W

ðI1 ¼3Þ

¼ 0 (11)

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of rubber molecular network.

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 145

ii) Both W and resulted stress approach inﬁnity for very large

deformations.

lim

l

i

/0

W ¼ þN; lim

l

i

/þN

W ¼ þN

lim

l

i

/0

vW

vl

i

¼ ÀN; lim

l

i

/þN

vW

vl

i

¼ þN

(12)

iii) Gives no stress in the undeformed conﬁguration and is

minimum in this state.

vW

vl

i

¸

¸

¸

¸

l

1¼l

2¼l

3¼1

¼ 0;

v

2

W

vl

2

i

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

l

1¼l

2¼l

3¼1

> 0

det

_

H

ij

¸

> 0; H

ij

¼

v

2

W

vl

i

vl

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

l

1¼l

2¼l

3¼1

; i; j ¼ 1; 2; 3

(13)

where H

ij

are components of the Hessian matrix of the SEF at the

undeformed state. Expanding W to polynomial form, it is seen that,

this SEF uses higher orders of I

1

to predict the mechanical behavior

of material (similar to ArrudaeBoyce, Hart-smith and Gent models).

W ¼ A

_

ðI

1

À3Þ þ

_

a À b

2

_

ðI

1

À3Þ

2

þ

a

2

þ b

6

ðI

1

À3Þ

3

þ

a

3

À2b

24

ðI

1

À3Þ

4

þ.

_

(14)

Equation (14) can be simpliﬁed as:

W ¼ AðI

1

À3Þ þ A

i ¼2

a

iÀ1

þ ðÀ1Þ

iÀ1

ði À2Þ!b

i!

ðI

1

À3Þ

i

(15)

which is a particular case of the general Rivlin’s expansion (Rivlin

and Saunders, 1951):

W ¼

i ¼0

j ¼0

C

ij

ðI

1

À3Þ

i

ðI

2

À3Þ

j

(16)

As discussed in Section 1, an appropriate model is the one whose

parameters denote physical quantities. Hence, we consider the

proposed model under small deformations. Considering (14), we

will have:

W

small strain

¼ AðI

1

À3Þ (17)

Equation (17) is in the form of the neo-Hookean expression.

Comparison of (17) with the neo-Hookean model, results in:

A ¼

1

2

G ¼

1

2

nkT (18)

In Equation (18) G (or m), n, k and T are the shear modulus,

material chain density, boltzman’s constant and absolute temper-

ature, respectively. As a consequence, ‘A’ is related to physical

quantities, i.e., it resembles the half of material chain density

multiplied by kT and it should be determined from small strain

region data. Consequently, we will have:

W ¼

nkT

2

_

1

a

expðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ þbðI

1

À2Þð1ÀlnðI

1

À2ÞÞ À

1

a

Àb

_

(19)

The behavior of the proposed model at large deformations (as l

approaches more and more to the limiting chain extensibility l

max

)

is dominantly guided by the parameter ‘a’. So, this parameter is

related to limiting chain extensibility

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N

p

where N is the average

number of monomers in polymeric chains. This relation can not be

interpreted in explicit form because it is deformation dependent

(for more details see Chagnon (2004)).

On the other hand, the logarithmic term in the strain energy

function has a signiﬁcant effect in the middle section of the stresse

strain curve, while its effect in the small deformations is negligible.

By increasing the coefﬁcient of this negative term i.e., ‘b’, the

resulted curve approaches more and more to the behavior of

porous rubbers (foams). By rather increasing this coefﬁcient one

can observe a thermoplastic-like behavior where the competition

between the orientational hardening and strain softening occurs

(Fig. 3). The resistance to plastic ﬂow due to the molecular align-

ment (i.e., the third part of the lower curve in Fig. 3) has already

been described using the 8-chain ArrudaeBoyce model (Richeton

et al., 2007). While the proposed model is capable to describe the

entire parts of the curve. Thus, it is interestingly observed that the

proposed model is applicable for a wide range of polymeric mate-

rials by appropriate adjustment of the parameters.

The logarithmic term may represent the effect of material

porosity, microvoids, molecular chains breakage, strength of

intermolecular forces or such a phenomenon. Investigation on this

aspect which may lead to a better realization of the behavior of

rubber-like and even other polymeric materials is a subject of the

authors’ future works.

Therefore, parameters ‘A’, ‘b’ and ‘a’ adjust small, moderate and

large stretch regimes in a rubber-like material, respectively.

It is noted that, disappearing I

2

in the strain energy function can

lead to some limitations such as not reﬂecting poynting-type effect

in simple shear and underestimating the axial force in pure torsion

(Horgan and Saccomandi, 2006; Horgan and Smayda, 2012).

By some modiﬁcations one can add I

2

to the proposed model

and forestall these shortcomings, like that Vito (Vito, 1973) did on

the FungeDemiray model (Demiray, 1972).

2.3. Standard tests

Standard tests are used for parameter calibration purposes as

well as to evaluate if the model is deformation mode independent.

Fig. 2. Different parts of the proposed strain energy function.

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 146

In these tests, it is convenient to consider a framework whose

directions are in principal stretch space while deformation occurs.

Consequently, the right (or left) CauchyeGreen tensor C (or B) is

a diagonal tensor.

2.3.1. Uniaxial extension

In this test, the material is stretched in one direction (s

11

¼ s)

while is stress-free in other directions (s

22

¼ s

33

¼ 0). Exertion of

incompressibility condition leads to:

½F ¼

_

¸

¸

_

l 0 0

0 l

À

1

2

0

0 0 l

À

1

2

_

¸

¸

_

(20)

I

1

¼ l

2

þ2l

À1

; I

2

¼ 2l þ l

À2

; I

3

¼ 1 (21)

Consequently, the nominal stress can be obtained from (8) and

(9) as:

f

11

¼

1

l

s

11

¼ 2AðexpðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ À b lnðI

1

À2ÞÞ

_

l À

1

l

2

_

(22)

2.3.2. Pure shear test

In this case, the material is stretched in one direction (s

11

> 0)

while it is constrained in another direction (s

22

> 0, l

2

¼ 1). The

third direction is stress-free (s

33

¼ 0).

½F ¼

_

_

l 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 l

À1

_

_

(23)

I

1

¼ l

2

þ1 þ l

À2

; I

2

¼ l

2

þl

À2

þ1; I

3

¼ 1 (24)

The nominal stress can be then obtained as:

f

11

¼

1

l

s

11

¼ 2AðexpðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ À b lnðI

1

À2ÞÞ

_

l À

1

l

3

_

(25)

2.3.3. Equibiaxial extension

In this test, the material is stretched equally in two directions

(s

11

¼ s

22

¼ s) while is stress-free in the third direction (s

33

¼ 0).

Again, imposing the incompressibility condition, we obtain:

½F ¼

_

_

l 0 0

0 l 0

0 0 l

À2

_

_

(26)

I

1

¼ 2l

2

þl

À4

; I

2

¼ l

4

þ2l

À2

; I

3

¼ 1 (27)

So, the nominal stress is obtained as:

f

11

¼

1

l

s

11

¼ 2AðexpðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ À b lnðI

1

À2ÞÞ

_

l À

1

l

5

_

(28)

3. Material parameters identiﬁcation and results

In this section, results of the proposed constitutive model are

compared with the experimental data as well as some available

models to evaluate how it works in material behavior prediction.

3.1. Experimental data reported by Treloar

Treloar’s data (Treloar, 1975) on natural rubber are the most

known and reliable data which have been done in different modes

of deformation in broad range of stretches. It is a common practice

to verify the results of models with these data to examine howthey

work in different regions of stressestrain curve and if they are well

deﬁned in different modes of deformation (Beda, 2007). We ﬁrst

attempt to determine the parameters of the proposed model. The

results will be then compared with the results of ArrudaeBoyce

eight-chain model (AB) as a molecular model which uses the

following strain energy function (Arruda and Boyce, 1993):

W

8Àchain

¼ nkT

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N

p

_

bl

chain

þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N

p

ln

_

b

sinhb

__

(29)

In (29), l

chain

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

I

1

=3

_

and b ¼ L

À1

ðl

chain

=

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N

p

Þ where LðbÞ ¼

coth b À1=b. Moreover, the comparison will be done with

MooneyeRivlin (Mooney, 1940) and PuccieSaccomandi models

(Pucci and Saccomandi, 2002). The MooneyeRivlin model is widely

used for industrial purposes due to its mathematical simplicity and

relatively good predictions in small and moderate stretches.

W

MooneyeRivlin

¼ C

10

ðI

1

À3Þ þ C

01

ðI

2

À3Þ (30)

where C

10

and C

01

are material parameters. Also, the Puccie

Saccomandi model (GenteGent or GG model) is in the form of:

W

GG

¼ À

m

2

J

m

log

_

1 À

I

1

À3

J

m

_

þ C

2

log

_

I

2

3

_

(31)

where J

m

is a material constant identifying the upper limit of I

1

while C

2

is another material constant.

Fig. 4 presents a comparison among Treloar’s experimental data

in uniaxial extension and above mentioned constitutive models.

Material parameters of all models are reported in Table 1. There are

some problems in ﬁtting such models to experimental data (Ogden

et al., 2004). Therefore, the ﬁtting has been performed by using

several algorithms; start points and different levels of accuracy to

investigate whether there are other optimal sets or not. Doing this

investigation, no other optimal set was found. It is to be noted that,

the proposed model includes only three material parameters,

which reduces the possibility of the existence of several optimal

Fig. 3. Effect of the logarithmic term in the stressestrain curve.

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 147

sets. On the other hand, the roles of parameters are completely

separate from each other, i.e., parameter ‘A’ mainly governs the

small stretch region (1 < l < 2) and it resembles m/2. So, it is an

intrinsic property of the problem and can be set out of the ﬁtting

procedure. Parameter ‘b’ adjusts the moderate stretch region, and

parameter ‘a’ governs the upturn of the curve in large stretches.

The proposed model as well as the AB and GG models well

predict the Treloar’s data in uniaxial extension, but it is not so for

MooneyeRivlin model which fails to predict the material behavior

in large extensions. As shown in Fig. 5, in small strain region, Exp-

Ln model gives more reliable results than AB and GG models

which underestimate the data. In fact, for AB and GG models, in

order to have a good prediction in all regions of the curve, we

should underestimate the shear modulus. This shows a limitation

of these models in reproducing the rubber-like behavior at small

strains (Marckmann et al., 2002). Furthermore, the large strain

behavior of Exp-Ln model is governed by exponential function

which makes it possible to always obtain the tangent stiffness,

despite of AB, Gent and GG models which behave asymptotically

as the stretch approaches the chain extensibility limit.

We nowuse the same parameters to examine the models inpure

shear and equibiaxial extension. Fig. 6 presents the behavior of the

models in shear and equibiaxial tests. As shown, in pure shear test

theresults of Exp-Ln, ABandGGmodels are againingoodagreement

withtheexperiment. Like uniaxial extension, MooneyeRivlinmodel

fails in large extensions and is not capable to predict the upturn of

the curve in large strain region. For equibiaxial test, predictions of

Exp-Ln, AB and GG models are qualitatively acceptable demon-

strating that, these models are deformation mode independent. it is

noted that, similar to uniaxial extension, the Exp-Ln model shows

better performance than others in small strain region.

As shown by Han et al. (1999), the plot of reduced stress versus

reciprocal stretch in extensionecompression, which is called the

Mooney plot, is of great importance in assessing the validity of SEF.

The reduced stress is deﬁned as:

f ¼

f

l Àl

À2

(32)

The Mooney plots of the discussed models are shown in Fig. 7

and compared with Treloar’s data. It is to be noted that, the plots

are sketched using the material parameters obtained from uniaxial

extension test.

1

The compression data is extracted from equibiaxial

extension data considering the incompressibility condition (Treloar,

1975). As shown in Fig. 7 the Exp-Ln, AB and GGmodels exhibit good

descriptions of extension in moderate to large deformations where

it is not the case for MooneyeRivlin model. In small extensions,

the proposed model is more accurate than the others and well

predicts the characteristic behavior of the material in transition

from extension to compression.

3.2. Experimental data reported by Meunier et al.

To further verify the proposed model, we use experimental data

reported by Meunier et al. (2008) for unﬁlled silicone rubber

including uniaxial extension and compression, biaxial extension

and plane compression tests. These data are ﬁtted by Exp-Ln model

and Gent model (Gent, 1996) which is an equivalent form of AB

model (Boyce, 1996).

W

Gent

¼ À

m

2

J

m

log

_

1 À

I

1

À3

J

m

_

(33)

Furthermore, the comparison will be done to Gao model (Gao,

1997) which uses negative powers of stretches in addition to

positive ones.

W

Gao

¼ a

0

_

I

n

1

þ I

n

À1

_

(34)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

AB Model

Mooney−Rivlin Model

Pucci−Saccomandi Model

Fig. 4. Comparison of the proposed model with AB, MooneyeRivlin, PuccieSacco-

mandi models and Treloar’s uniaxial extension data.

Table 1

Material parameters of Exp-Ln, AB, MooneyeRivlin and PuccieSaccomandi models

for Treloar’s data.

Constitutive model Material parameters

Exp-Ln model A ¼ 0.195, a ¼ 0.018, b ¼ 0.22

AB model nkT ¼ 0.27, N ¼ 26.7

MooneyeRivlin model C

10

¼ 0.142, C

01

¼ 0.011

PuccieSaccomandi model m ¼ 0.2373, J

m

¼ 77.931, C

2

¼ 0.10038

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

AB Model

Pucci−Saccomandi Model

Fig. 5. Comparison of the proposed model with AB model, PuccieSaccomandi model

and Treloar’s uniaxial extension data in small strains.

1

Fig. 7 exhibits the experimental data of Treloar except the undeformed state

ðl ¼ 1; f ¼ f =l À l

À2

¼ 0=0Þ. To investigate whether singularity occurs in this

point, more data is required in the neighborhood of l ¼ 1. Mathematically speaking,

we have: f ¼ f =l À l

À2

j

l¼1

¼ 0=0 ðindeterminateÞ Utilizing the L’Hopital’s rule,

we have: f ¼ f =l À l

À2

j

l¼1

H

¼vf =vl=1 þ2l

À3

j

l¼1

¼ vf =vlj

l¼1

=3 which is equal to

one-third of the slope of f at l ¼ 1. Obviously, it should be a ﬁnite value. Most of the

proposed models do not show any singularity. For example, the Exp-Ln model

gives: f ¼ f =l À l

À2

j

l¼1

H

¼vf =vl=1 þ2l

À3

j

l¼1

¼ 2AðexpðaðI

1

À3ÞÞ À b lnðI

1

À2ÞÞ

j

l¼1

¼ 2A.

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 148

In (34), I

À1

is deﬁned as:

I

À1

¼ l

À2

1

þ l

À2

2

þ l

À2

3

(35)

It is to be noted that, in the presence of incompressibility

condition, I

À1

is equal to I

2

. Fig. 8 presents the comparison of the

models with Meunier et al.’s data in uniaxial extension. As shown,

the proposed model as well as Gent model shows good correlation

with the data. But for the Gao model, the results at large strain

region are not so reliable. Material parameters of these models are

indicated in Table 2.

The results of the foregoing models are compared with

remaining data in Fig. 9 (using the parameters obtained from

uniaxial extension test). Fig. 9a shows the results of the models in

predicting pure shear data. It is seen that, the Exp-Ln and Gent

models are quite accurate where Gao model has deviation in

moderate and large stretches. The results of the models for equi-

biaxial data are plotted in Fig. 9b which exhibits again good

performance of Exp-Ln and Gent models while Gao model is shown

to be accurate only in small stretch region and fails with increasing

the stretch. Fig. 9c gives a comparison among the discussed models

and experimental data in uniaxial compression test. It is shown

that, the Exp-Ln and Gent models are in good agreement with the

experiment in whole range of compression while Gao model is not

reliable in large compressions. Finally, in Fig. 9d, the results of the

models are shown in comparison with plane compression data. In

this case, all models show good correlation with experiment.

Fig. 10 presents the Mooney plots of the discussed models in

comparison with the experimental data in uniaxial extensione

compression. As shown, the proposed model is in good agree-

ment with the data in whole ranges of extension and its prediction

in compression is qualitatively compatible with characteristic

1 2 3 4 5 6

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

AB Model

Mooney−Rivlin Model

Pucci−Saccomandi Model

a

1 2 3 4 5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

AB Model

Mooney−Rivlin Model

Pucci−Saccomandi Model

b

Fig. 6. Comparison of the proposed model with AB, MooneyeRivlin, PuccieSaccomandi models and Treloar’s data (a) pure shear, (b) Equibiaxial extension (The material parameters

are those determined from uniaxial extension).

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Reciprocal Stretch

R

e

d

u

c

e

d

s

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

AB Model

Mooney−Rivlin Model

Pucci−Saccomandi Model

Fig. 7. Mooney plot of the proposed model in comparison with AB, MooneyeRivlin,

PuccieSaccomandi models and Treloar’s data (The material parameters are those

determined from uniaxial extension).

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

Fig. 8. Comparison of the proposed model with Gent model, Gao model and Meunier

et al.’s uniaxial extension data.

Table 2

Material parameters of Exp-Ln, Gent and Gao models for Meunier et al.’s data.

Constitutive model Material parameters

Exp-Ln model A ¼ 0.166, a ¼ 0.202, b ¼ 0.386

Gent model m ¼ 0.273, J

m

¼ 8.4

Gao model a

0

¼ 0.0116, n ¼ 2.04

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 149

behavior of the material. The Gent model is only good in large

deformations while the Gao model gives acceptable correlation

with the experiment only in moderate extensions and fails in other

regions of the plot.

4. Summary and conclusions

In the present paper, we introduce a constitutive model for large

stretch deformation of isotropic incompressible rubber-like mate-

rials. The presented model possesses the capability of gradual

evolution and improvement. Thus, it can open a new door in the

future because it comprises the entire prerequisite conditions which

a general and efﬁcient model must have. The proposed model inte-

grates the advantages of the existing models as much as possible:

The model presents good agreement with experimental data

by using relatively small number of material parameters.

The introduced parameters have physical descriptions and only

one simple test (uniaxial tension) is sufﬁcient to determine

them.

The parameters can be determined independently. So, there

always exists only one optimal set of the parameters.

The model has a simple mathematical formulation.

Numerical implementation of the model would be straight

forward without any particular difﬁculty.

No restriction is needed on the parameters to reach numerical

stability.

The model can be improved to include viscoelasticity and

Mullins effects due to its well-deﬁciency.

It well predicts the characteristic behavior of the material in

transition fromextension to compression (i.e., the Mooney plot).

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

a

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

b

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

−3

−2.5

−2

−1.5

−1

−0.5

0

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

c

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

−1.5

−1

−0.5

0

Stretch

N

o

m

i

n

a

l

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

d

Fig. 9. Comparison of the proposed model with Gent model, Gao model and Meunier et al.’s data (a) pure shear, (b) Equibiaxial extension, (c) Uniaxial compression and (d) plane

compression (The material parameters are those determined from uniaxial extension).

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

Reciprocal Stretch

R

e

d

u

c

e

d

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Experiment

This Work

Gent Model

Gao Model

Fig. 10. Mooney plot of the proposed model in comparison with Gent model, Gao

model and Meunier et al.’s data (The material parameters are those determined from

uniaxial extension).

H. Khajehsaeid et al. / European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 38 (2013) 144e151 150

Consequently, it is interestingly observed that, the proposed

model enjoys all the main qualities of an efﬁcient hyperelastic

model and integrates the advantages of the previous works.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Professor R. W. Odgen for providing

the Treloar’s data in tabulated form.

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