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Na-Thinamalar Magiswary Nadarajan AGF100015 Dr. Luiz Fernando Ferreira Da osa i!eiro " #anuary $01$

%ues&ion' (erala)s *hay+h ,ainuddin Ma+hdum)s Tuhfat al-Mujahidin and Munshi A!dullah)s Hikayat Abddulah are di--eren& &e.&s !y /ndian 01ean Muslim au&hors. 2o&h arose ou& o- 1olonial 1ondi&ions. 3om4are &hem !rie-ly wi&h ea1h o&her5 s&ressing &heir di--eren1es.

The /ndian 01ean Muslim &e.&s6 Tuhfat al-Mujahidin and Hikayat Abdullah are im4or&an& &e.&s o- &heir &ime. 2o&h &he &e.&s o--er &he readers in7alua!le in-orma&ion and &ell o- &he grea& and 1hallenging &ime underwen& !y !o&h &he au&hors. The &e.& Tuhfat al-Mujahidin !y *hay+h ,ainuddin Ma+hdum and Hikayat Abdullah !y Munsyi A!dullah ha7e many similari&ies and dis&in1&i7e di--eren1es. To !egin wi&h5 &here is a shared se& o- !iogra4hi1al -ea&ures. 2o&h &e.&s were wri&&en !y Muslims. 2o&h &he wri&ers) -amilies origina&e -rom 8emen. Ma+hdum)s -amily rea1hed &o /ndia +nown as Tamil Nadu. They rea1hed 4la1es li+e (eela++ara and (ayal 9a&anam. *imilarly5 A!dullah)s -amily le-& 8emen and se&&led in Mala11a5 #a7a and Am!oyna. 2o&h &he au&hors 1ome -rom s1holarly -amilies. 8oung Ma+hdum)s edu1a&ed 4aren&s e.4osed and &augh& him &o read &he %uran. :e was also under &he &u&elage o- his un1les. The same goes &o A!dullah. ;7en &hough he s&ar&ed a1<uiring edu1a&ion sligh&ly la&er5 his -a&her made sure &ha& A!dullah did no& miss ou& on any&hing in !asi1 edu1a&ion. =nder his -a&her)s au&hori&y and guidan1e and his ma&ernal

2y 1on&ras&5 &he Hikayat Abdullah !y Munsyi A!dullah was wri&&en in &he mid o.&he Du&1h. The 1on&en& o.& is no& 7ery long5 jus& "> 4ages.& Tuhfat al-Mujahidin was wri&&en around &he 1>&h 1en&ury.s&range 1us&oms 4ra1&i1ed !y :indu Mala!ar in (erala.& narra&es a!ou& his li-e while growing u4 in Mala11a and la&er his s&ay a& *inga4ore.&s where !o&h &he men hum!ly surrender &hemsel7es &o &he grea&ness o. :e was a -riend &o e7eryone. The &e.&he &e. Ma+hdum used Ara!i1 &o wri&e his &e. Des4i&e &he similari&ies !e&ween Ma+hdum and A!dullah5 &here are e7en more di--eren1es !e&ween &hem in &heir wor+ here under analysis. 2o&h &he men were e. .& &o deal wi&h &he his&ory o. De&ails on how &he Muslims and :indus -ough& &oge&her under &he . A4ar& -rom &ha&5 !o&h Ma+hdum and A!dullah were s&rong !elie7ers in /slam.& also in1ludes an a11oun& o.&.& is a!ou& 9or&uguese 1olonialism a& &he &ime.a @es&ern -amily !a1+ground5 lo1als and &he indigenous 4eo4le &oo. /& is &he 7ery -irs& &e.2 grandmo&her)s guidan1e as well5 A!dullah !e1ame a re-ined s1holar. :e !e-riended 4ersons o.(erala.amorins and (unhalis &o de-ea& &he 9or&uguese are also des1ri!ed. /& is a -irs&-4erson narra&i7e. To !egin wi&h5 &he &e.& shares de&ails a!ou& his -riendshi4 wi&h &he 2ri&ish and &he ugly rule o. /& was wri&&en in #awi.4eo4le whom he me& &hroughou& his li-e. /& is <ui&e a long &e.1ellen& s1holars and &oo+ u4 sui&a!le 4ro-essions li+e &ea1hers5 in&er4re&ers5 s1ri!es and 1ommissioners o. The e7iden1e is 4re&&y 1lear in !o&h &he &e.& mainly des1ri!es &he 9or&uguese a&&em4& &o 1olonize (erala.&5 some ?1> 4ages. The &e. The &e. A!dullah)s !oo+ also des1ri!es all +inds o. :is &e. A!dullah)s &e.1" &h 3en&ury.Allah.oa&h. To my mind5 A!dullah)s narra&i7e sounds more 4ersonal and &here is a sense o.Ma+hdum.emo&ional a&&a1hmen& &o e7ery&hing he says5 1om4ared wi&h &he more remo7ed s&an1e o.

i!le ser7an& o. :owe7er5 Mr. /s i& no& righ& &ha& we should ado4& good 1us&oms and renoun1e !ad onesA /. .you.&o his -a&her. These 4eo4le 1ri&i1ized A!dullah &o his -a&her5 and &his 1rea&ed a serious 4ro!lem -or A!dullah. :e &hough& &ha& A!dullah did no& res4e1& him anymore. :e was a 7ery o4en-minded indi7idual.-ools -or &hey !ear me a grudge !e1ause / ha7e urged &heir 1hildren &o s&udy. Thomsen 1ome and e. Milne and Mr.&ongue and / 1anno& argue wi&h you. These days you are gli! o.nglish. They assure &he old man &ha& no&hing whi1h &he lo1als 1laim will ha44en will a1&ually !e-all A!dullah. :e a11e4&ed o&her 1ul&ures and 4ra1&i1es in an a&&i&ude o.Allah5 wi&h a s4e1ial +ind o.o4enness &o &he 0&her. The 4eo4le in-luen1ed A!dullah)s -a&her in&o &hin+ing &ha& A!dullah had a11e4&ed . :e sees A!dullah as an ungra&e-ul son. @hen you were small i& was / who &augh& you5 now i& is you who wish &o &ea1h me.&oleran1e5 wi&hou& !eing in-luen1ed !y &hem. :e was a 7ery unders&anding and a -le.7en &hough !o&h Ma+hdum and A!dullah were de7o&ed Muslims5 &here was some&hing 7ery dis&in1&i7e a!ou& A!dullah. B1$CD The a!o7e <uo&a&ion is -rom A!dullah where he &ries &o e. B1$CD =4on hearing A!dullah)s words5 his -a&her !e1ame angry wi&h his son.4lain himsel.3 . :e urged &he Muslims &o go &o missionary s1hools &o learn . 8ou &hin+ &ha& / am a-raid o. *ome Malays were &o&ally agains& A!dullah)s idea. :e a11e4&ed &he re<ues& &o &ransla&e &he Gos4el in&o Malay.a man 4asses -rom ignoran1e &o enligh&enmen&5 is his re4u&a&ion damagedA Do no& lis&en &o &he &ales o.4lain &hings &o A!dullah)s -a&her.nglish ways and would e7en&ually -orge& /slam and !ring em!arrassmen& &o his -amily.

& Tuhfat al-mujahidin s4ea+s a!ou& &he 1olla!ora&ion !e&ween :indu rulers and Muslim su!je1&s agains& &he 9or&uguese. =4on lis&ening &o &his5 some lo1als5 and e7en &he rulers5 de1ided &o 4ra1&i1e /slam. As &he &e.4 Ma+hdum is a s&rong -ollower o. :is wri&ing s&yle &ells us &ha& his religion is his num!er one 4riori&y.&he grea& war !e&ween &he . This is 1lear -rom his &e. This is how &he Muslims rea1hed (erala. /& was also a ma&riar1hal 1ommuni&y &ha& 4riori&ized &he mo&her)s side. The :indus &here5 mainly &he Nairs or &he Malayalis as &hey are 1alled &oday5 were &he majori&y in (erala a& &ha& &ime. :is wri&ings en1ourage Muslims &o &a+e u4 jihad as an answer &o 7arious 4ro!lems.& s&a&es' .&.how &he :indu rulers and &he 4eo4le under &hem li7ed harmoniously wi&h &he Muslim immigran&s. :e &ells us how &he 9or&uguese gained en&ry in&o (erala &hrough sea and land. Ma+hdum 4ain&s &he 4i1&ure o. The &e.jihad or holy war. The au&hor shares some de&ails a!ou& &he 1on-li1&s wi&h &he readers. *lowly /slam gained a -oo&hold in (erala. A4ar& -rom &ha&5 Ma+hdum also shared &he s&range 1us&om 4ra1&i1ed !y &he :indu Mala!ar in (erala.(erala. :e also has a s&rong 4re-eren1e &o su44or& &he 1on1e4& o.amorins and &he 9or&uguese are 4resen&ed. Then 1ame &he 9or&uguese see+ing 4e44er and dried ginger.(erala. 0n1e in (erala &hese grou4s &al+ed a!ou& &he grea&ness o. The 9or&uguese wan&ed &o mono4olize &he &rade in (erala. The Muslims were no& &he original 4o4ula&ion o. Also5 &he de&ails o. Today in our own &ime Muslims are mainly in &he -ar nor&h o./slam. Ma+hdum 4ro7ides readers wi&h 7ery in&eres&ing de&ails 4er&aining &o &his issue. They a1&ually migra&ed &here -rom 7arious Muslim lands li+e 8emen5 Ara! and e& 1e&era. :e 4raises &he Almigh&y as mu1h as 4ossi!le./slam and &heir hum!le 4ro4he& Muhammad &o &he lo1als.

nglish gen&lemen. This 1us&om slowly made i&s way in&o Muslim 1ommuni&ies &oo. :e 1om4osed a 4oem -or &his !elo7ed 1ou4le. 3raw-ord.uro4e. Mr and Mrs a--les were es4e1ially his -a7ori&es. A!dullah &rea&ed &hem li+e his own 4aren&s. Thomsen5 Mr.nglish 4eo4le. To name a -ew' Mr and Mrs a--les5 3olonel Far<uhar5 Mr.5 /n &he ma&riar1hal 1ommuni&ies li+e &he Nairs5 &he de1eased will !e inheri&ed !y hisEher !ro&hers on &he mo&her side5 sis&ers) 1hildren5 aun&s and o&her rela&i7es ohis or her mo&her. 0n &he o&her hand5 A!dullah)s &e.& &al+s a!ou& his -riendshi4 wi&h &he 2ri&ish.men he +nows. A4ar& -rom &his5 &here are many 1us&oms men&ioned !y Ma+hdum in his wri&ing. As a Muslim5 A!dullah ne7er disli+ed &he 2ri&ish. The 4lo7er see+s &he wayside &ree5 The ram!ai in green 4as&ures grows5 Mr. B1-FD Deli1ious -rui&s &ha& &as&e !eguile Li+e !ram!le wi&h i&s 4ri1+ly hairs5 :ow na&ural his 1harm and smile5 The gra1e his wi-e no!ly shares. :e shared some 1lose -riendshi4 wi&h se7eral . /nheri&an1e righ&5 whe&her i& is righ& &o 4ro4er&y or &o &he 4oli&i1al 4ower o. BF0D The <uo&a&ion a!o7e 1learly indi1a&es &ha& &he male rela&i7es -rom &he -a&her)s side will no& inheri& any&hing. B"-1$D . :e e7en 1ried when &hey le-& -or . /n -a1&5 he was 7ery a--e1&iona&e wi&h &he . a--les G wise is he5 :ow well &he hear&s o.+ingshi45 does no& go &o one)s 1hildren5 !u& &o one)s nie1es and ne4hews.

To my mind5 Ma+hdum)s narra&i7e was &he 4ro!lem.& is -ar more 4ersonal. For e. Ma+hdum &oo did no& share any 4ersonal a11oun& a!ou& himsel. This is mos& li+ely !e1ause &he +ind o.a&&a1hmen& &o &he Mala!ar or i&s 4eo4le.a &hird-4erson de&a1hed dis1ourse 1om4ared &o A!dullah. A!dullah is sin1ere in men&ioning how mu1h he adores &his 1ou4le.&. Ano&her @es&erner5 -or e. No& only &ha&5 he sounds more radi1al and aggressi7e &hroughou& his &e. No& only &hem5 !u& o&hers as well' he had a meaning-ul -riendshi4 wi&h many 2ri&ish o--i1ers who 1ame &o Mala11a and *inga4ore. / would say &ha& A!dullah)s narra&ion sounds more 4ersonal and sin1ere.anger in his wri&ing. :owe7er5 / -el& &he reading o. / -eel more 1onne1&ed &o A!dullah !e1ause / +now some im4or&an& de&ails a!ou& his -amily and his own li-e.wi&h &he readers.4erien1es and !iogra4hy.&rea&men& and hardshi4 &ha& &he Mala!ar 4eo4le5 mos& es4e1ially &he Muslims su--ered5 !rough& Ma+hdum &o a 4oin& where he -el& i& ne1essary &o say &erri!le nega&i7e &hings &o Band a!ou&D &he 9or&uguese.am4le5 was Mr.&. A!dullah)s wi-e also &rea&ed Mr. Ma+hdum5 on &he o&her hand5 e.Tuhfat al-Mujahidin was no& as in&eres&ing as Hikayat Abdullah. Milne5 &he German who ga7e mu1h money as 4resen& -or A!dullah &o ge& married. :is narra&ion was more o.4resses his disli+e and ha&red in his &e.&. :e swears re4ea&edly in &he &e. Milne li+e her own -a&her. There-ore5 / -el& &here is no au&hor)s sense o. Al&hough he only s4ea+s a!ou& issues re7ol7ing around his own li-e5 &he reader has 4leasure in learning a!ou& his e. . There is also a &one o. The &e.6 2o&h s&anzas 1 and ? &al+ a!ou& Mr and Mrs a--les) 1harm5 em4hasising wha& a good- hear&ed 1ou4le &hey are. Tha& also !uilds a narra&i7e dis&an1e &o his readers.am4le5 HMay Allah ruin &hose de7ilish &ransgressorsIJ BC?D.

nglish5 i& was ne7er men&ioned in his !oo+ &ha& he 1ould 1on7erse . :e 4u!lished under &he 2ri&ish regime.& Tuhfat al-Mujahidin and Hikayat Abdullah are in&eres&ing !oo+s.7 2esides &ha&5 &he geogra4hi1al des1ri4&ions in !o&h &he &e.&he 2ri&ish o--i1ers5 !u& he ne7er mas&ered .7en &hough / 4re-erred Hikayat Abdullah 4ersonally5 !o&h &e. 0ne &ends &o a11e4& 1olonialism and i&s !ene-i&s5 &he o&her s&ruggles agains& i&. :e is a 1osmo4oli&an ra&her &han a religious indi7idual. /n -a1&5 he wro&e 7ery 1are-ully so as no& &o o--end &he 2ri&ish in any way.nglish -lag and under &he rule o.nglish un&il &he end. 0ne au&hor shared good memories and &he o&her !i&&er en1oun&ers under &he ruling 1olonizers. .nglish in e. /n 1on1lusion5 !o&h &he &e.& des1ri!es Mala11a in Malaya and *inga4ore. 0ne &e.a Go7ernor who is so wise.&s o. :e was &he Malay &ea1her -or &he majori&y o. :e was always 4ro2ri&ish. /n addi&ion5 A!dullah)s Malayness may !e somewha& in <ues&ion. A!dullah)s &e. / gi7e a &housand &han+s &o Allah -or &he 4ea1e and ha44iness o. B?00D The <uo&a&ion a!o7e 1learly 4ro7es how mu1h A!dullah lo7ed and res4e1&ed &he 2ri&ish.& de4i1&s (erala5 Tamil Nadu i&sel-.&s also di--er.li-e under &he .&s men&ion &he sea as &he main &rans4or&a&ion medium -or 4eo4le a& &ha& &ime.-1hange.a 1olonized 7oi1e &elling us wha& is were li+e &o li7e in &he 1>&h 1en&ury and 1"&h 1en&ury under 1olonizers -rom . . May Allah 4reser7e %ueen Ki1&oria on her &hrone.&s o--er readers in7alua!le insigh&s and in-orma&ion.uro4e. They are in e--e1& &e.&s 4ro7ide 7i7id des1ri4&ions. /& is also in&eres&ing how he did no& learn .nglish. :owe7er5 !o&h &he &e. :owe7er5 !o&h &he &e. .7en &hough he 1ould unders&and .