Drug War Uq***

JZ] Nevertheless. 7/19/13. Trevino Morales' capture was seen as a victory for the administration of President Enrique Peña Nieto. http://worldnews." the statement released Monday read. who came into office in December 2012 promising to reduce the violence in Mexico. The Status Quo is solving now.S. Bratu. 7/16/13." "This is yet another advance by the people of Mexico in the dismantling of organized crime.Drug War Success Trevino Morales’s death the Los Zetos leader signals a change in Drug War. . But his approach has been based more on intelligence information and has been less aggressive than that of former President Felipe Calderon. whom they characterized as "one of the most wanted criminal suspects in Mexico. NBC World News. Embassy in Mexico City even congratulated the government and law enforcement officials for getting Trevino Morales. NBC Staff Writer. ―Capture of Zetas leader may increase violence in Mexico‖. The U.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/07/17/19507395-capture-of-zetas-leader-may-increaseviolence-in-mexico. 7/16 [Becky.

The whole process is gotten to the point where the DEA and the drug lords need each other. They need each other. The drug war generates unbelievably great opportunities for public officials. and judges to make generous amounts of money on the side through bribery.Drug War Fail The drug war is not declining and will not end unless there is cooperation. 7/18 [Jacob. So. which is why both sides want the drug war to keep going and going and going. 7/19/13. anyone who thinks that the Trevino arrest means the end of the 40-year-old drug war is obviously suffering from an extreme case of naiveté. That would obviously mean layoffs for DEA agents and DEA officials. 7/18/13. no doubt for the purpose of making payoffs when necessary. raise their families. Two big drug busts involved such famous drug cartels as the Medellin Cartel (headed by Pablo Escobar. JZ] Young people have no idea that people who have grown up with the drug war have heard all the Trevino-type buzz before. and the war just keeps on going. It has never made any difference insofar as the drug war is concerned. If the drug lords were put out of business with drug legalization. But it‘s also not what the DEA wants. prosecutors. the drug lords would go out of business immediately. the DEA would be put out of business too. If drugs were legalized. There are quickly replaced by new suppliers. both on the drug-dealer side and on the law-enforcement side.‖ http://mwcnews. There is too much money involved. That‘s a powerful disincentive to ending the drug war on the part of public officials. The busts are made and people go to prison. when Trevino was captured. who was the Trevino of his day) and the Cali Cartel. ―Is the Drug War now Over?. people who depend on their generous drug-war salaries and pensions to pay their mortgages. Drug lords can compete only in an illegal market. In fact. Hornberger. including cops. So drug legalization is not what the drug lords want. not a legal one.net/focus/politics/28714drug-war-over. those opportunities to make money from drug-war bribery would disappear instantaneously. he was carrying $2 million in cash with him. founder and president of The Future of Freedom Foundation.html. . Everyone knows that if the drug war were ended with drug legalization. There is also the matter of corruption to consider. and fund their retirement. just as the booze lords did after Prohibition was ended. MWC News.

Warming Uq*** .

United Press International.‖ Meeting in Washington. .S. Canada. and now this large solar project will support our energy infrastructure and economic development efforts in the very near future.S. energy developer Synergy Technologies LLC to work on a landmark solar power plant in Baja California.S. ―Enhanced electricity interconnection in the Americas would advance the goals of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas to reduce energy poverty and increase the use of renewable sources of energy. They will cooperate in expanding cooperation ―to create clean energy jobs and combat climate change. associate with the Mexico Institute at the Woodrow Wilson Center.upi.‖ http://ens-newswire. ¶ "The countries share a common goal of achieving strong economic growth and energy security while addressing climate change and increasing the reliability of energy infrastructure. 2010 . and Canada today pledged to develop ―continental energy.¶ The plant will use the SolFocus Concentrator Photovoltaic equipment. 2012 (March 29. businesses.com/2012/04/03/u-s-canada-mexico-vow-continental-energy-grid/. Mexico Vow ‗Continental‘ Energy Grid.‖ the leaders said in a joint statement. de C. governments and researchers worldwide. aims for solar project. Construction on the first phase will begin this year and that part of the plant will be operational next year." Munoz said. accessed 7/6/13. director general of the Baja California State Commission of Energy. company data indicated.S.¶ Californian solar systems provider SolFocus.¶ "The project is in direct alignment with the Mexico and U. a new Grupo Musa and Synergy Technologies company focused on solar energy in Mexico.S. ―Mexico buoyed by renewable energy boost. accessed 7/6/13. firm's role in its primary development.¶ "Mexico has been successful with wind energy.‖ the three leaders said. CBC) MEXICO CITY.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/03/29/Mexico-buoyed-byrenewable-energy-boost-aims-for-solar-project/UPI-59891333048596/. energy planners. ―U. U. but will be owned and operated by SolMex Energy S. DC. Mexico. said Thursday it joined with Mexican land and real estate developer Grupo Musa and U.¶ Mexico will aim to circumvent the challenge of punishing oil prices by installing high-capacity solar power generation systems. near Tecate. April 2.¶ The US and Mexico joined a joint agreement to facilitate an interconnected grid with clean energy technologies ENS.A. Mexico.‖ http://www. including electricity generation and interconnection‖ across national borders and welcomed ―increasing North American energy trade. Inc." he said. buoyed by success in wind energy expansion." said David Munoz. Canada‘s President Stephen Harper and Mexico‘s President Felipe Calderon committed their governments to enhance their collective energy security.Mexico. Cooperation on renewable energy is high Donnelly. CBC) WASHINGTON. to facilitate ―seamless energy flows on the interconnected grid‖ and to promote trade and investment in clean energy technologies.. 2012 (ENS) – The leaders of the United States. bilateral clean energy agenda.¶ Soaring crude oil prices have skewed national budgets throughout Central and Latin America and the ongoing row between Argentina and Spain's YPF Repsol is an indication of tension over rising energy costs. is launching a giant solar energy project that sees a U.S. Environmental News Service. President Barack Obama.. 2012 (April 3. a leading provider of critical information to media outlets.Warming Coop High The US and Mexico have been cooperating on clean energy projects for years UPI.¶ Officials said Mexico's solar energy aims met with the objectives of both Mexican and U. March 29 (UPI) -.V.¶ The plant is planned to have a 450-megawatt capacity but will be built in 50-megawatt phases.

-Mexico taskforce on renewables was recently formed—an announcement timed to coincide with President Felipe Calderon‘s April 2010 state visit to Washington—and there has been high-level engagement on the issue by both administrations.newsecuritybeat.S.S.‖ http://www. government agencies through the Mexico Renewable Energy Program has enabled richer development of Mexico‘s renewable resources while promoting the electrification and economic development of parts of rural Mexico.org/2010/06/u-s-mexico-cooperation-on-renewableenergy-building-a-green-agenda/#. CBC) A U.(Robert. New Security Beat.UdnKbjs3u8B. Collaboration between Mexico and U.S. ―U. . June 28.-Mexico Cooperation on Renewable Energy: Building a Green Agenda. accessed 7/7/13.

google) China argues that developed countries are the primary cause of climate change and therefore places primary responsibility for re ducing emissions on those countries rather than on China and other developing countries.com/11winter/docs/11winter_Hale. The projections take into account 80 percent emission cuts from the U. The solution also is unachievable unless the United States—as currently the world‘s second largest emitter and the largest historical emitter of greenhouse gases— makes a substantial contribution. Accepting international commitments that stand even a small chance of reducing the country’s GDP growth rate below a crucial threshold poses an unacceptable risk to the stability of the regime. London School of Economics (Thomas.pdf Intergovernmental efforts to limit the gases that cause climate change have all but failed. After the unsuccessful 2010 Copenhagen summit. Studies prove AP 9 (Associated Press. Carbon dioxide. Therefore. in the past two years China has overtaken the United States in total production of greenhouse gas emissions.S. trapping the sun's energy in the atmosphere. which are not sure things.destroys all solvency Wortzel ‘8 (Former Director of Asian Studies at the Heritage Foundation (Larry et al. and Europe by 2050. It is not hard to see why. as some experts propose. a concept identified as ‗‗common but differentiated responsibilities. Six Degree Temperature Rise by 2100 is Inevitable: UNEP. the international community should not expect to negotiate a worthwhile successor to the Kyoto Protocol.S. Winter. Report to Congress of the U.‖ Washington Quarterly. The world's average temperature has already risen 1. September 24. Any efforts to address this problem will require global participation by developed and developing nations. scientists said at a United Nations press conference Thursday.N. Although the G-2 present the largest and most obvious barrier to a global treaty. head of the U. according to a United Nations update. it is hard to see how major emitters will agree any time soon on mutual emissions reductions that are sufficiently ambitious to prevent a substantial (greater than two degree Celsius) increase in average global temperatures.co. figure is based on a bill that passed the House of Representatives but is running into resistance in the Senate. "We are headed toward very serious changes in our planet. Corell said the most likely agreement out of the international climate negotiations in Copenhagen in December still translates into a nearly 5-degree increase in world temperature by the end of the century. The review looked at some 400 peer-reviewed papers on climate over the last three years. is the main cause of global warming. the Obama administration has basically given up on national cap-and-trade legislation. ―A Climate Coalition of the Willing.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=168) Earth's temperature is likely to jump six degrees between now and the end of the century even if every country cuts greenhouse gas emissions as proposed. The Chinese government. mostly from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. is worth the paper it is written on. the world is still facing a 3-degree increase by the end of the century.speedyfit. Nov. No deal excluding the United States and China. where debate has been delayed by health care reform efforts. Although the nation has adopted important energy efficiency goals. Much of projected rise in temperature is because of developing nations. said Robert Corell.PhD Candidate in the Department of Politics at Princeton University and a Visiting Fellow at LSE Global Governance. climate scientist who helped oversee the update. the Chinese Communist Party has staked its legitimacy and political survival on raising the living standard of average Chinese. p. both China‘s aggregate emissions and its share of global emissions will continue to increase dramatically for the foreseeable future. Even the relatively modest Kerry-LiebermanGraham energy bill remains dead in the Senate. But domestic politics in both countries effectively block ‗‗G-2‘‘ leadership on climate. In the United States. which together emit more than 40 percent of the world‘s greenhouse gases (GHGs). http://www. Scientists looked at emission plans from 192 nations and calculated what would happen to global warming.'s .uk/index2. which issued the update on Thursday. they also provide a convenient excuse for other governments to avoid aggressive action .S. http://www. Even if the developed world cuts its emissions by 80 percent and the developing world cuts theirs in half by 2050.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.N.'s environment program. faces an even harsher constraint. at least not in the near future. All projections indicate that. which aren't talking much about cutting their emissions. and with little progress at the 2010 Cancun meeting. The U.S. The consequent reality is that it will be impossible for the international community to resolve the climate change problem by sufficiently reducing emissions unless China contributes to the effort.twq.4 degrees since the 19th century. in turn.‘‘ 190 The United States is the largest historical greenhouse gas emitter and far exceeds China in emissions per capita. European leaders and the Obama White House have set a goal to limit warming to just a couple degrees. China is a greater cause of warming.Warming Coop Low no country on board Hale ‘11 .191 However." said Achim Steiner. a prominent U. China alone adds nearly 2 degrees to the projections. in the absence of major energy consumption changes in China. The U.

" Because Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets are melting far faster than thought. especially in the Arctic. Global warming is speeding up. Steiner said. He said seas should rise about a foot every 20 to 25 years.environment program unveiled the update on peer-reviewed climate change science to tell diplomats how hot the planet is getting. Corell said. it looks like the seas will rise twice as fast as projected just three years ago. The last big report from the Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change came out more than two years ago and is based on science that is at least three to four years old. and that means that some top-level science projections from 2007 are already out of date and overly optimistic. who headed an assessment of warming in the Arctic. . Corell. said global warming "is accelerating in ways that we are not anticipating.

Heg Uq*** .

S. Hezbollah operatives have already been smuggled. Second.html. The discovery of huge new oil reserves in Brazil and Argentina. Washington supported massive International Monetary Fund bailouts that encouraged irresponsible behavior by investors and policymakers and surely increased the severity of economic crises in the region. Foreign Policy Research Institute. corporate headquarters.Hegemony Declining Now US hegemony is decreasing in Latin America. 12/2011. The United States needs to develop a smart policy to deal with these challenges. weapons. US leadership declining now in Latin America – poor leadership in negotiating free trade agreements Boaz. inaction. as economist Sebastian Edwards points out. weapons and cash. ―The New Nexus of Narcoterrorism: Hezbollah and Venezuela. Latin American countries that were eager to enter into a free trade agreement gradually became disillusioned with years of U.or Jewish-sponsored community centers and American citizens have already been targeted by terrorist groups all over Latin America for decades : FARC in Colombia. border. IC) Yet for all this massive spending on fighting terrorists and insurgents in the Middle East. This makes American military engagement far more costly by any metric: loss of life and financial cost. Embassies. while the United States is losing influence over Latin America. . Senior Fellow of the Foreign Policy Research Institute. these same groups are being supported and strengthened increasingly by Latin America. Moreover. an expectation that went unfulfilled. however. as well as a growing portion of the electorate. where they receive training. leaving it vulnerable to domestic terrorism – Hezbollah has already been able to smuggle drugs. Washington promised to create a hemispheric free trade zone. from the Mexican peso crisis of 1994–95 to the Brazilian currency crisis of 2002. page 637-638. particularly as the future political landscape of the Middle East becomes ever more uncertain . American assets in Latin America are under threat. 2009. along with drugs and weapons. Instead. CATO Handbook for Policymakers. where I specifically warned of a possibility of this resulting in a terrorist attack carried out inside the US with the complicity of South American drug traffickers. and the 2012 presidential elections in Venezuela. accessed 7/9/13. the United States showed no such leadership. 9 (David. as seen in the last presidential elections. The result was unfortunate. Washington‘s promise of promoting the Free Trade Area of the Americas had the perverse effect of actually halting unilateral trade barrier reductions in Latin America as those countries waited to negotiate reductions as a group with the United States. It is a region with which the United States has a growing asymmetry of power: it has more importance to the United States. consulates. drugs and immigrants. Cato Institute Executive Vice President. Sendero Luminoso and Tupac Amaru in Peru and Hezbollah in Argentina. and a window of opportunity was lost. Worse.S. Only a week after my October 5th interview by KT McFarland on Fox. the United States is under territorial threat through its Mexican border. both documented and not.. on a number of fronts. and operatives across the US-Mexican border Neumann. in the wake of the Arab Spring and the political rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in previously secular Arab governments. law enforcement. as violence and murder cross the U. First and foremost. we are leaving ourselves vulnerable to them here.S.fpri. which remains the largest source of oil.org/enotes/2011/201112. in tunnels dug under the border with the US by Mexican drug cartels. The growth of transnational gangs and the resurgence of previously waning terrorist organizations pose complicated new challenges.neumann.S. but made little effort to promote the idea. make Latin America of increasing strategic importance to the U. Third. while American soldiers give their lives trying to defeat terrorists and violent insurgents in the Middle East. CATO Institute. costing American lives and taking a huge toll on U.narcoterrorism. and some turned decidedly against the idea of free trade. RH) During most of the time since the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico and Canada in 1993. the global press revealed a plot by the elite Iranian Quds Force to utilize the Mexican gang Los Zetas to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to Washington in a bombing that would have murdered many Americans on their lunch hour. Latin America is a region spiraling ever more out of American control. known as the Free Trade Area of the Americas. Indeed over the last decade. 11 (Vanessa. Latinos now account for 15 percent of the US population and nearly 50 percent of recent US population growth. Al Qaeda is also rumored to have a strong presence in Brazil . energy pipelines and American. that might even challenge Saudi Arabia.‖ http://www.


Latin American countries have been moving toward the concepts of multidimensional security and security of the individual and society. as evidenced by the international coalition that is operating under Operation Martillo--the antinarcotics effort in the Caribbean and Central America..S.S. the more Latin America resisted. demand for illegal drugs and the fact that it is a supplier of arms to Latin America.S.S. combined with undergoverned space and the weak state syndrome. (1) That would be the last collective security action under the InterAmerican Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance of 1947. AL) The United States is the great power that has come closest to being a global ―hegemon. the proliferation of guns. terrorism. which defines Latin America and the Caribbean as its Area of Responsibility (AOR). On 21 September 2001. based on the fear that this power could be used against them. Moreover.S. also known as the Rio Treaty. and bolster alliances among free-market democracies around the globe.‖ One might expect that U. Unlike NATO. military. But U.S. Southern Command (Southcom). IC) Since the end of the Cold War. This studied ambivalence did not prevent the emergence of a strategic consensus for common action against the communist-inspired insurgencies of the 1960s.Hegemony Low Now – Latin America Shifting Latin America is moving away from a US dominated. hegemony would be strongest in Latin America and the Caribbean. hegemony is not benevolent but rather malevolent.com/The+transformation+of+security+in+Latin+America%3a+a+cause+for+com mon. At the same time.‖ Like most hegemons. ―The transformation of security in Latin America: a cause for common action.-a0330143508. combat anti-U. generated an extraordinary crime wave. Journal of International Affairs. the Rio Treaty never developed a robust defense alliance that integrated a political decision-making process for using military force. The more the U nited States pushed for collective defense. This insecurity crosses international borders.info/article9472. 7/15/5. U.htm. 3/22/13. there is a growing consensus in support of common action. control is disintegrating in its own hemisphere at the very time when the Bush administration has embarked on global crusades to crush anti-U. Army War College Americas Studies director. leveraging the instruments of inter-American security to promote their own security and to balance American power . grassroots movements. The privatization of security is a symptom of the problem and a potential source of abuse. crime imposes a heavy cost on economic growth and democratic governance. in part because Latin American countries were relative bystanders in the EastWest struggle. With a more extensive presence in the region than any other part of the . and away from the classical understanding of the security dilemma posed by an external threat to the state. accessed 7/9/13.S. Pax Americana in the Americas—a declared foreign policy objective since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823—is no longer a sure bet. the enormous asymmetry in military power between the United States and Latin American countries created reluctant partners. a number of Latin American countries contribute to international peace operations. Illegal narcotics. the United States of America began building its hegemonic reach in its ―backyard‖ or what. is known as the ―near abroad. and the institutions of public security--police. Moreover. Policy director of the International Relations Center. There‘s an emerging consensus that U. The United States shares responsibility for the violence due to U. and governments themselves are rejecting U. that threat was international communism.S.S. and 1980s. there has been a transformation of security in Latin America. and other transnational threats. and judicial systems--are hard pressed to meet the challenge. 1970s. 7/9/13. unipolar world – the US’ hegemony caused balancing Marcella. For the next four decades. the new strategic consensus among Latin American countries should be a cause for common action. The U. regimes.thefreelibrary. the Organization of American States (OAS) passed resolution that condemned the terrorist attacks of 9/11 in support of the United States. Accordingly. is clearly worried. which gives the region the highest murder rate in the world. Latin America is rejecting US hegemony Berry. The assumption in 1947 was that threats would come from outside the Hemisphere.informationclearinghouse.‖ http://www. Moreover. 5 (Tom. http://www. leadership. 13 (Gabriel. opposition leaders. in the more elevated parlance of foreign policy journals. Throughout the region.. ―Mission creep in Latin America – US Southern Command‘s New Security Strategy‖.

influence has diminished. Latin American leaders are eager to advertise their recent gains. the Pentagon and Southcom have resurrected traditional strategies and launched new initiatives.S. reformism.S. and Soviet proxies . arrogantly issuing ultimatums that made it even harder to get what it wanted in Latin America. and self-determination in Latin America and the Caribbean.6 percent. May/June 2011. attracting foreign investment with an economy that grew 7. forming their own regional organizations that exclude the United States and seeking friends and opportunities outside of Washington's orbit. Leading strategists and ideologues of the Bush administration believe openly that U. and the region's diplomats are more visible and confident in global forums than ever before. There is a new spirit of resistance. government. Latin America's own capabilities have grown. the United States has seen its influence decline. military has been the first to identify in any integrated way the rising threats to U.) Regular free elections and vibrant civil societies are now commonplace in Latin America. Latin American countries are increasingly looking for solutions among themselves.S. allies are even reconsidering their belief in the primacy of relations with the United States. foreign and military policy.S.S. After decades on the receiving end of lectures from Washington and Brussels. political. Brazil has emerged as an economic powerhouse. U. t he United States is on a collision course with Latin America and the Caribbean.5 percent last year. average GDP growth last year was 5. Washington has also made a series of mistakes in the years since then. government ―stays the course‖ with its current foreign and military policy. Accessed 7-6-13. Most visibly. At the same time as U. national security policy has evolved in recent years through a combination of ―mission creep‖ that encompasses expanding definitions of national security. However. Davidson University Political Science Associate Professor.S. 11 (Russell. a conflict that turned Latin America into a battleground between U. US influence in Latin America is declining – Latin America is becoming independent of Washington. The region has entered into an era of unprecedented economic. these responses serve only to fuel counter-hegemonic forces.S. the U. Rather than questioning the wisdom of current U. But at the same time this expanding scope of national security and hegemony confronts a counter-hegemonic backlash.S. RH) Across the region in recent years. Some U. and more overt hegemonic aspirations. Volume: 90 Issue: 3. Much of this has to do with the end of the Cold War. global domination is the best and in any case inevitable form of world governance. (Regionwide. Washington is losing control of its backyard. and diplomatic success . because these responses run counter to the real security needs and national interests of both the United States and the nations within its AOR. hegemony. Crandall.S. The Post-American Hemisphere.S. Foreign Affairs.U. Academic Search Complete. as President Bush has repeatedly asserted is what‘s needed to keep the country strong." . Santos has been known to tell visiting foreign counterparts that this will be "Latin America's century. If the U.

influence in the region. among others. and Peruvian officials. headquartered in Washington. as critics saw it as a guise for U.Hegemony Low Now – Regional Powers Regional powers are rising in Latin America as US influence declines – Brazil. Drug Enforcement Administration was kicked out of Bolivia. Overwhelmed by this fight until recently. has gained the upper hand. Colombia. and the more confident among them are flexing their muscles. 11 (Russell. But it has been only in the past several years that the Colombian state. . the United States and Brazil are eager to work together on counternarcotics. For the past 60 years. As Latin America comes into its own. Fortunately. even spark new rivalries. For almost half a century. As one diplomat recently put it. Relations with its neighbor Bolivia are a case in point. and multilateral organizations prove. In recent years. or Europe--represented a serious challenge and so stepped up its counternarcotics cooperation with Bolivia. Countries are reassessing their interests and alliances. Latin American countries are increasingly working among themselves to conduct diplomacy. Argentina. at times." Yet Brazil is learning that leadership means responsibility. assistance. it has codified the primacy of democracy in its guiding principles--an important development suggesting that OAS members now consider democracy a shared goal as opposed to a foreign imposition. the Colombian government has waged a bloody war against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. The Post-American Hemisphere. talk privately about their dislike of Brazil's arrogant diplomacy. Although Santos has no desire to do away with his country's long-standing closeness to the United States. Foreign Affairs. it is beginning to rely more on its own multilateral bodies. the country has begun to act more assertively.S. or FARC. has struggled to gain credibility in the region. however. "The new imperialists have arrived. Brasilia belatedly realized that Bolivia's cocaine exports-most of which are destined for Brazil. In some quarters.S. and. Colombia's security forces now use their hangars and equipment to train pilots from Mexico and Peru and counternarcotics operatives from Afghanistan. whose charisma and presence overshadowed the efforts of other Latin American leaders. Mexican. President Barack Obama and then Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva over the Iranian nuclear deal brokered by Brazil and Turkey. backed by billions of dollars in U. Colombian leaders are also aware of the shifting balance of power within Latin America . Sensing an opportunity to gain the regional stature that has long eluded it. domination. May/June 2011. Brazil's. and 1980s. Bolivia will be a key test of this cooperation--made all the more important by the bitter diplomatic flap that erupted in May 2010 between U. and they speak Portuguese. Colombian. Brazil's responses to developments such as Chavez's ongoing assault on Venezuela's democracy and even the 2009 coup in Honduras have undermined its credibility as a serious leader. 1970s. Instead of looking to Washington for guidance.S.S. he understands that Colombia's credibility is now more dependent on its ability to cooperate with other regional governments. Davidson University Political Science Associate Professor. Volume: 90 Issue: 3. RH) LATIN AMERICA'S economic growth and political stability are driving an unprecedented power shift within the region. (Brasilia's reluctance to speak out for hemispheric democracy is particularly inexcusable for a government that includes many officials who suffered under the successive military regimes of the 1960s.S. Accessed 7-6-13. After the U. Further evidence of Colombia's diplomatic and strategic maturity can be found in the way it has begun exporting its counterinsurgency and counternarcotics expertise to places as far away as Afghanistan. pursue shared objectives. one less dependent on Washington. Crandall. Santos now believes his government can assume the mantle of regional leadership by adopting a more balanced foreign policy. Brazil's emergence as a serious power is a direct result of the increasing absence of U.) Many Latin American officials quietly reveal that they are not eager to see Brazil replace the United States as the hemisphere's hegemon. Academic Search Complete. most important of all. But complicating Brazil's power play is the reaction from its fellow Latin American nations. the Organization of American States. With the recent departure of the inimitable Lula.

‖ And while Washington is preoccupied with its wars in the Middle East and South Asia. accessed 7/5/13. Its trade with Latin America as a whole increased eighteen-fold in the first decade of this century. its grip on Latin America has weakened as an emerging China enters this market in search of raw materials to supply its booming economy.S. China is now the largest trading partner of Brazil and Chile. 3/11/13. http://climateandcapitalism.Hegemony Low Now – China Hegemony low in Latin America – focus on Middle East detracts Burbach Center for the Studies of The Americas Director et al 13 [Roger. ―Latin America‘s Turbulent Transitions‖. Federico Fuentes Bolivian Socialist Alliance director.com/2013/03/11/latin-americas-turbulent-transitions/. . Michael Fox freelancer. while U. exports dropped from 55 percent of the region‘s total to 32 percent. ―The old order is breaking down with the decline of the United States as the planet‘s hegemonic power. ALT] An opening chapter outlines the international context.

Crandall.S.Hegemony Unsustainable US heg decline inevitable in Latin America – countries are becoming more independent – Bolivia proves. This has occurred in part because more important issues. The United States' relationship with Bolivia provides one example of Washington's declining power in the region. May/June 2011. given the end of external and local communist challenges and the shift to an increasingly multilateral world that had room for new powers. The Post-American Hemisphere. A decade or so ago. RH) Yet over the past decade or so.-funded democracy programs the following year. Bush administration responded to Morales' repeated diplomatic insults largely with silence. Drug Enforcement Administration in 2008 and suspended U. Latin America's greater autonomy is both a cause and a result of decreased U. Academic Search Complete. Yet even the ostensibly hard-line George W.S. have forced Latin America down the policymaking food chain. 11 (Russell. when Bolivia was a faithful client of the United States. Bolivian President Evo Morales expelled the U. Foreign Affairs. Davidson University Political Science Associate Professor. Morales had gone eyeball to eyeball with Washington and lived to tell about it.S. the United States' willingness and ability to exert control in the region have diminished. given the diplomatic and financial consequences of provoking Washington's ire. influence. Volume: 90 Issue: 3. it would have been unimaginable for a Bolivian government to even consider such acts. . ambassador and the U. Accessed 7-6-13.S. For the most part. But there is also the indisputable reality that the region itself is now more confident acting on its own. this was inevitable. Believing that it was time to pay back the Americans for their years of backing his political opponents. including the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

In fact. including many thousands of Chávez loyalists. As Moises Naim notes in his recent book. even if more diffused.S. relations with the region. An area of immense importance to regional economies that we often overlook is the exponential growth in travel. ALT] Is U. ―Latin America: Is U. The Miami Herald. In Latin America. From 2006-2011 U. and Mora. influence in ways that are difficult to measure and impossible to quantify. Example: Despite 14 years of strident anti-American rhetoric during the Chávez government. The power of national reputation. http://www. While it is true that other countries are important to the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean. it may be that we need to change the way we think and talk about the countries Trade and investment remain the most enduring and measurable dimensions of U. Particularly for the smaller economies of Central America and the Caribbean these flows can sometimes constitute more than 10 percent of gross domestic product. Forty-two percent of all U. many of the most substantive and dynamic forms of engagement are occurring in a web of cross-national relationships involving small and large companies. it‘s likely the pundits will once again underscore what some perceive to be the eroding influence of the United States in the Western Hemisphere.S. A more-nuanced assessment inevitably will highlight the complex. relations with the hemisphere to the second or third tier of our international concerns? Certainly not. nonimmigrant visas every year. In many ways.S. U. We have real and proliferating interests in the region. Latin America was the second most popular destination for U. Some will point to the decline in foreign aid or the absence of an overarching policy with an inspiring moniker like ―Alliance for Progress‖ or ―Enterprise Area of the Americas‖ as evidence that the United States is failing to embrace the opportunities of a region that is more important to this country than ever. attention to the region. it is important to recognize the importance of our ties to the region. Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean from the United States totaled $64 billion in 2012.miamiherald. As President Obama travels to Mexico and Costa Rica.S. one should not underestimate the resiliency of U. accessed 7/9/13.html#storylink=cpy. former Venezuelan Ambassador. Hundreds of thousands of U. university students . it is also still true that the United States is by far the largest and most important economic partner of the region and trade is growing even with those countries with which we do not have free trade agreements. multidimensional ties between the United States and the rest of the hemisphere. people-to-people contact through student exchanges and social media.Hegemony Increasing Now US influence in Latin America is high— economic and soft power outweigh lack of overarching policies. tourists travel every year to Latin America and the Caribbean helping to support thousands of jobs. engagement in the Americas is more pervasive than ever. influence in Latin America on the wane? It depends how you look at it . according to the Institute of International Education.S. . 5/1/13. We also need to resist the temptation to embrace overly reductive yardsticks for judging our standing in the hemisphere.com/2013/05/01/3375160/latin-america-is-us-influence.S. but continued interest is key. such as churches. after Europe. influence waning?‖. Florida University Latin America Center Director. tens of thousand of Venezuelans apply for U. travel and migration. of Latin America and the Caribbean. there has been an important change in power distribution in the world away from states toward an expanding and increasingly mobile set of actors that are dramatically shaping the nature and scope of global relationships. Many observers who worry about declining U.S. The End of Power. The reality is a lot more complicated.S. popular culture.S. influence in this area point to the rise of trade with China and the presence of European companies and investors. It is certainly the case that our economic interests alone would justify more U. As the president and his team head to Mexico and Costa Rica. Finally.S. 13 [Patrick and Frank. tourism and migration. exports flow to the Western Hemisphere. Does this mean we can feel comfortable relegating U. soft power in the region.S. non-government organizations.S. Duddy.S. think tanks and universities increased the number of partnerships with their regional cohorts by a factor of four.values and institutions continues to contribute to U. It is commonplace to note the enormous presence of foreign students in the United States but in 2011.S. That is in part because the peoples of the Western Hemisphere are not waiting for governments to choreograph their interactions.

com/2013/05/01/3375160/latin-america-is-us-influence. Obama's approach to the region can be seen as a more concerted continuation of the one Bush adopted in his second term. think tanks and universities increased the number of partnerships with their regional cohorts by a factor of four. This may not be so bad: a little breathing room is appropriate. Academic Search Complete. In April 2009. partners such as Chile and Mexico. if our only interaction is military. At the 2009 Summit of the Americas. it is also still true that the United States is by far the largest and most important economic partner of the region and trade is growing even with those countries with which we do not have free trade agreements. non-government organizations. Obama tried to put his imprimatur on Washington's Latin America policy. But it was too little. refused. It is commonplace to note the enormous presence of foreign students in the United States but in 2011. the image of US leadership in Latin America had a 34% approval rating (Gallup). The United States' enhanced image should not be dismissed as a mere public relations victory. Other than focusing on Mexico's drug violence. emphasizing mutual respect and outlining a vision of equal partnerships and joint responsibility. rather.S. 7/6/13 . and Ortega. such as Chavez. the Obama administration has not made Latin America a priority. 5/1/13. then we may not be developing the connections that can. 11 (Russell. university students.miamiherald. The Post-American Hemisphere.php/component/content/article/37-2013-pressreleases/966-latin-america-on-the-rise-briefing-series-us-engagement-in-latin-america. This strategy backfired. cultivating a personal relationship with the leftist Lula. soldiers' exemption from the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.S. too late. 5/22/13.-bashing strategy. During a 2013 trip to Latin America in early May. May/June 2011. including traditional U. ALT] In 2009.S. U. Davidson University Political Science Associate Professor. unilateral approach to Latin America. according to the Institute of International Education.S.farr. Bush adopted a heavy-handed. Hundreds of thousands of U. Chavez and other radicals still played up Bush's reputation as a bully.S.US soft power rising – surveys prove Rep.S. increase our influence. ambassador to Venezuela. U. it is indispensable to restoring Washington's influence in Latin America. however. and many governments. invasion of Iraq and ensure U.S. after Europe. http://www. critics. http://www. over time. An area of immense importance to regional economies that we often overlook is the exponential growth in travel. for instance.html.S.gov/index. Representative from California. it became much harder to use the U. Foreign Affairs.AL) While it is true that other countries are important to the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean. ―Latin America on the Rise Briefing Series: US Engagement in Latin America‖. influence waning?‖. After Obama took office. His deferential yet serious style quickly put the most conspiratorial anti-U. So in his second term. President Obama stated: ―If our only interaction with many of these [Latin American] countries is drug interdiction. the image of US leadership in Latin America had a 40% approval rating (Gallup). but by the prosperity and the opportunity that we can create together. Farr.S. tourists travel every year to Latin America and the Caribbean helping to support thousands of jobs.‖ In 2012. Latin America was the second most popular destination for U. on the defensive--where they have remained ever since. at the Summit of the Americas in Trinidad. given the region's current stability. California Democrat. such as churches. Frank Mora Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Center and Professor in the Department of Politics & International Relations in the School of Public and International Affairs at Florida International University. President Obama stated in Mexico: ―The relationship between our nations must be defined not by the threats that we face. President George W. US influence is strong in Latin America Duddy.house. 13 [Sam. attempting to force governments there to approve the U. Accessed 7-6-13. ―Latin America: Is U.‖ US soft power is on the rise in Latin America even if the region is not a priority Crandall. RH) IN HIS first term. From 2006-2011 U. Volume: 90 Issue: 3. Bush attempted a more conciliatory approach. 13 (Patrick. emphasizing responsibility as a prerequisite for cooperation and leadership--an implicit call for Latin America to solve its own problems.S. tourism and migration.S. Morales. Remittances to Latin America and . since it makes it easier for willing governments to cooperate with Washington on shared priorities without appearing to be subservient to the old hegemon . accessed 7/9/13.

Particularly for the smaller economies of Central America and the Caribbean these flows can sometimes constitute more than 10 percent of gross domestic product.the Caribbean from the United States totaled $64 billion in 2012.S. including many thousands of Chávez loyalists.values and institutions continues to contribute to U.S. it is important to recognize the importance of our ties to the region. The power of national reputation . Example: Despite 14 years of strident anti-American rhetoric during the Chávez government. tens of thousand of Venezuelans apply for U. one should not underestimate the resiliency of U.S. Does this mean we can feel comfortable relegating U. As the president and his team head to Mexico and Costa Rica. nonimmigrant visas every year. influence in ways that are difficult to measure and impossible to quantify. . soft power in the region. We have real and proliferating interests in the region. relations with the hemisphere to the second or third tier of our international concerns? Certainly not. Finally. popular culture.S.

He is the author of No One's World: The West. Kupchan is Professor of International Affairs at Georgetown University and Whitney Shepardson Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. India.cfr. But its distance will also limit its influence in this geopolitical heartland. accessed 7-3-12.AT – Brazil Rise No Brazil dominance – lack of economic strength and isolation Kupchan. Its relative isolation will enable Brasilia to remain aloof from the fray set to ensue in Eurasia and the western Pacific as China. and natural resources. At least for now. its economy is expected to be five times smaller than that of China in 2050. 4-14-12 (Charles A. land. "Why Nobody Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century. not global ambition. And Brazil's benign location in South America cuts both ways. 4-14-12. and the Coming Global Turn. labor. . CNM) Brazil is in important respects best set to emerge as a global trendsetter. It is a stable democracy. Brasilia has found a developmental path that combines economic openness with redistribution programs aimed at alleviating inequality. But Brazil is not headed for the top ranks." http://www. and Indonesia ascend. Brazil is destined for regional hegemony. blessed with ample. the Rising Rest. And Brazil faces no geopolitical rivals and resides in a region that has been remarkably free of inter-state war.org/foreign-policy-history/why-nobody-dominate-twenty-firstcentury/p27958. Russia. Council on Foreign Relations Senior Fellow. Council on Foreign Relations.

Brazil has always sought friendly relations with the West. a role that Brazil is carefully cultivating. the south. not even of its own Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) network of trading partners. 13 [Thomas. Relations with China.com/New+directions+for+a+more+prosperous+Brazil. Brazil will become more intertwined with the African continent and will play an important role in development assistance. 7/9/13. Finally. and government policies well crafted. cultural similarities. India. Brazil's overall relationship with the West--the United States. also creates important differences with the Spanishspeaking nations of Latin America.Brazil Hegemony Benign Brazilian influence benign Trebat. but it has also been willing to take individual initiative rather than line up behind the United States and its main allies. The India-BrazilSouth Africa initiative (IBSA) has contributed little in terms of incremental trade and investment. biofuels. Brazil will continue to seek new institutional mechanisms to extend its global influence. and food security. and Europe--will also continue to evolve as Brazil's confidence and resources increase in the next decade. and renewables in general to fuel the economy's growth are well known and lend credibility to the nation on green economy issues and low-carbon growth patterns. Given the intensity of the commodity trade and the growth of Brazilian businesses in China. will grow to be an ever-larger priority for Brazil. Brazil is not a natural leader of Latin America. A major unknown in the energy picture is the extent and practical importance of the hydrocarbon reserves found in deep waters off the coast. If the technology is available. while long-standing divergences. Its reliance on hydropower. the new Brazil will also seek to redefine relations with its regional neighbors to reflect new realities and differential patterns of political and economic growth which are simultaneously taking place in Latin America. A newly prosperous Brazil can greatly contribute to the leadership of the global south . Apart from these global themes. Yet. as well as allies in the UN and other international forays on themes of common interest. such as over Cuba. Columbia Global Center Director.thefreelibrary. and China) is not much more than a photo opportunity for Brazil's leaders. will inevitably remain the predominant Latin American power. agriculture. ―New directions for a more prosperous Brazil‖. African nations are an increasingly important outlet for exports. fade into the past. For Brazil. and to offer leadership to. Its use of the Portuguese language alone sets it apart more than is often realized. Brazil already has one of the most extensive diplomatic networks in Africa with nearly forty embassies in African capitals. most recently in the case of Iran's uranium enrichment program. one can also see Brazil's future relationship with the United States and the rest of the West improving as common interests in trade and the environment.-a0330143512. 3/22/13. The Free Library. Brazil clashed multiple times with the United States over trade policy. yet it will exercise this power with great caution and without hegemonic impulses . and core democratic values play a role in encouraging convergence. its largest trading partner. Brazil. For all its size and influence. Sao Paulo and Shanghai are connected through a web of commercial and financial relationships. http://www. While much of the institutional interaction with the other BRIC nations (Russia. which are likely to intensify. AL] Energy is another major theme that will engage Brazil with the world in the decades ahead. Brazil and China are the two members of this group with broader ambitions to expand trade with. Brazil could also emerge over the next ten to fifteen years as a major exporter of fossil fuel to a world still dependent on such resources which could reposition Brazil geostrategically. (40) The relationship with the United States and the West has not always been a smooth one. . including construction and mining services. but it points to future directions in foreign policy and trade for Brazil. Its different culture. Japan. including important African and other non-Iberian heritages. along with Mexico.