© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 1 Release 14.

5
14. 5 Release
Introduction to
ANSYS CFX
Lecture 09
Heat Transfer
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 2 Release 14.5
Lecture Theme:
Heat transfer has broad applications across all industries. All modes of
heat transfer (conduction, convection – forced and natural, radiation,
phase change) can be modeled.
Learning Aims:
You will learn:
•How to treat conduction, convection (forced and natural) and radiation
in CFX
•How to set wall thermal boundary conditions
•How to perform conjugate heat transfer calculations

Learning Objectives:
You will be familiar with CFX’s heat transfer modeling capabilities and be
able to set up and solve problems involving all modes of heat transfer
Introduction
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 3 Release 14.5
Mechanisms: Convection

• Convection is the transfer of heat due to the bulk movement of a fluid
– It is often the dominant mechanism of heat transfer
– Thus, heat transfer can be tightly coupled to the fluid flow solution
– Fluid properties may vary significantly with temperature and this will affect the flow

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• There are three types of convection
– Forced: flow is induced by some external means
– Natural or Free: fluid moves due to buoyancy effects (discussed further on next slide)
– Boiling: phase change (not covered in this course)
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 4 Release 14.5
Mechanisms: Natural Convection

• The significance of natural convection can be assessed through the Richardson
number , Ri:





• In buoyancy-driven flows, the Rayleigh number, Ra, indicates the relative
importance of convection and conduction:


– The size of Ra is a measure of whether a natural convection boundary layer is laminar or
turbulent. For a vertical surface the critical value is around 10
9
but the transition zone
ranges from 10
6
to 10
9
.


Ri = 1 ¬ Free and Forced convection effects must be considered
Ri << 1 ¬ Free convection effects may be neglected
Ri >> 1 ¬ Forced convection effects may be neglected
Forced
Natural
U
TL g
Ri =
A
=
2
0
|
diffusion thermal losses viscous
force buoyancy Tx g
Ra
x
&
3
=
A
=
vo
|
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 5 Release 14.5
Mechanisms: Conduction
• Conduction is the transfer of heat in a fluid or solid due to differences in
temperature.

• Conduction is described by Fourier’s law, which states that the heat transfer
rate is directly proportional to the gradient of temperature



• The constant of proportionality is the thermal conductivity (k)
– k may be a function of temperature, space, etc.
– for isotropic materials k is a constant value
– for anisotropic materials k is a matrix



Thermal conductivity
T k q V ÷ =
conduction
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 6 Release 14.5
Mechanisms: Viscous Dissipation
• Energy source due to viscous dissipation:

– Also called viscous heating
• Often negligible, especially in incompressible flow

– Important when viscous shear in fluid is large (e.g., lubrication) and/or in
high-velocity, compressible flows

– Important when Brinkman number approaches or exceeds unity:



T k
U
Br
e
A
=
2
µ
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 7 Release 14.5
Mechanisms: Radiation




• Radiation intensity is directionally and spatially dependent
• Transport mechanisms for radiation intensity along one given direction:










– Scattering occurs when particles are present within the fluid. It is often neglected.
In-scattering (scattering from other rays into the path)
Gas Emission

Local Absorption

Resulting radiation
Incident radiation
Outscattering (scattering away from the direction)

Visible
Ultraviolet
X rays
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
¸ rays
Thermal Radiation
Infrared
Microwaves
log
10
(Wavelength), µm
• Transfer of thermal energy by
electromagnetic waves from 0.1 µm
(ultraviolet) to 100 µm (mid-infrared).

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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 8 Release 14.5
Governing Equation : Fluid domain
Sources Viscous work
Advection
Transient
Conduction
E tot
tot
S U T h U
t
p
t
h
+ · · V + V · V = · V +
c
c
÷
c
c
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
t ì µ
µ
external
energy
source
additional
models
radiation chemical
reactions
interphase
energy transfer
2
2
1
U h h
tot
+ =
Radiation is solved with a separate radiative transport equation
h
tot
, total enthalpy, is related to static
enthalpy, h, as follows:
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 9 Release 14.5
• Models
– None: Energy Transport Equation not solved
– Isothermal: Energy Transport Equation not solved but a temperature is specified for the
evaluation of fluid properties (e.g. when using an Ideal Gas)
– Thermal Energy: An Energy Transport Equation is solved which neglects kinetic energy effects.
It is suitable for low speed flow. Viscous dissipation term can be included if viscous heating is
significant.
– Total Energy: This models the transport of enthalpy and includes kinetic energy effects. It
should be used for gas flows where the Mach number exceeds 0.2 or where compressibility
effects, such as acoustic waves, are important. Should be used for low speed liquid flow when
the specific heat is not constant . Viscous work term can be included.

Heat Transfer Models: Fluid Domains
• To model heat transfer in a fluid the Heat
Transfer option on the Domain > Fluid
Models panel must be set to Thermal Energy
or Total Energy
– Both convection & conduction modelled
– Option to include viscous heating



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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 10 Release 14.5
Heat Transfer Models: Fluid Domains
• If natural convection is important, then
switch on the Buoyancy Model on Domain
> Basic Settings
• The source term S
M,buoy
= (ρ – ρ
ref
)g is then
added to the momentum equations
– If density varies the full buoyancy model is
used and a Buoyancy Reference Density is
required
– If density is constant the Boussinesq model is
used and a Buoyancy Reference Temperature
is required

Buoyancy was covered in the lecture on
Domains




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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 11 Release 14.5
Heat Transfer Models: Fluid Domains
• Thermal Radiation model selected on the
Domain > Fluid Models panel
— Should be accounted for when



• Several radiation models are available which
provide approximate solutions to the RTE





( ) ( )
free wall conv rad
T T h Q T T Q ÷ = ÷ = > . .
4
min
4
max
o

1) Rosseland Model (Diffusion Approximation Model)
2) P-1 Model (Gibb’s Model/Spherical Harmonics Model)
3) Discrete Transfer Model (DTM) (Shah Model)
4) Monte Carlo Model [additional license required]
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 12 Release 14.5
Heat Transfer Models: Fluid Domains

• The optical thickness should be estimated before choosing a radiation model

– The optical thickness τ = a.L
• a is the absorption coefficient (m
-1
) (Note: ≠ absorptivity of a surface)
• L is the mean beam path length (m)

• a = 0.25 to 0.3 m
-1
for combustion product gases, = 0.01 m
-1
for air and is proportional
to absolute pressure
• L is a typical distance between opposing walls

• Optically thin (τ < 1) means that the fluid is partially transparent to thermal radiation

• Optically thick (τ > 1) means that the fluid absorbs or scatters the radiation many times
before it can interact with the surfaces

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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 13 Release 14.5
Heat Transfer Models: Fluid Domains
• For optically thick media (τ > 1) the P1 model is a good choice
– Assumes radiative intensity is independent of direction
– The P1 model gives reasonable accuracy without too much computational effort
• The Monte Carlo and Discrete Transfer models are suitable for any optical
thickness
– Both are ray tracing models
– Discrete Transfer is much quicker as it pre-calculates rays in fixed directions but can
be less accurate in models with long/thin geometries due to ray effects
– Monte Carlo more expensive to run but recommended for complex geometries and
multiband spectral modelling
• Surface to Surface Model
– Available for Monte Carlo and Discrete Transfer models
– Neglects the influence of the fluid on the radiation field (so only boundaries
participate)
– Can significantly reduce the solution time



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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 14 Release 14.5
Governing Equation : Solid domain

• Heat transfer in a solid domain is modeled using the following
conduction equation:





– h is the sensible enthalpy :

Source
Transient Conduction
E s
S T h U
t
h
+ V · V = · V +
c
c
) ( ) (
) (
ì µ
µ
Solid motion
}
=
T
T
p
ref
dT c h
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 15 Release 14.5
Heat Transfer Models: Solid Domains
• To model conduction in a solid the Heat
Transfer option on the Domain > Solid
Models panel must be set to Thermal Energy


• Thermal radiation in solids
– In transparent or semi-transparent solid domains
(e.g. glass) only the Monte Carlo model is
available
– There is no radiation in opaque solid domains


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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 16 Release 14.5
Thermal Wall Boundary Condition
• Thermal boundary conditions generally come in three types, all of which are
available in ANSYS CFX:
– Neumann
– Robin/Fourier
– Dirichlet
• Boundary conditions generally represent heat transfer phenomena for the region outside
the computational domain

Neumann Condition
(Specified Flux)
q (W.m
-2
)
Robin/Fourier Condition
(Specified HTC)
h
conv
(W.m
-2
.K
-1
)
q = h
conv
.(T
amb
-T
body
)

Dirichlet Condition
(Specified Temperature)
T (K)
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 17 Release 14.5
Domain Interfaces

• GGI connections are used for Fluid-Solid and Solid-Solid
interfaces

– At a GGI interface, there is no discontinuity in values of temperature across
the interface
• the CFX Solver calculates a "surface temperature" based on a flux-conservation
equation for the 'control surfaces' that lie between the fluid side and the solid side

– At a solid-fluid 1:1 interface may result in a temperature discontinuity at the
interface
• this is because values are interpolated from the interface into the bulk of the solid
domain using the value for the solid-side node at the interface, while values are
interpolated from the interface into the bulk of the fluid domain using the value for
the fluid-side node at the interface


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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 18 Release 14.5
Domain Interfaces & Radiation

• If radiation is modelled in one domain
and not the other, set Emissivity and
Diffuse Fraction values on the side
which includes radiation
– Set these on the boundary condition
associated with the domain interface

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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 19 Release 14.5
Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT)

• Two ways to model Conjugate Heat Transfer:

Option #1 : Wall thickness is meshed
Fourier’s Law Solved in 3D
Option #2 : Wall thickness is NOT meshed
1-D Fourier’s Law Introduced through Wall
Thermal Resistance (Assumed Normal Flux)
Only)
Thickness
cond
q
Cells Meshed
Fluid Zone
Wall Zone
Thickness
cond
q
No Cells
Fluid Zone
Wall Zone

• Energy equation is solved in the Solid zone



• This is the most accurate approach but
requires more meshing effort

• Artificially models the conduction on the Wall
thickness (thickness is specified on the Wall Boundary
Condition panel)

• Limitation: Conduction is assumed to be normal
to the wall
x x x x
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 20 Release 14.5
Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT)
• Option#2 - Thin Wall Modeling
• Domain interfaces can be used to model a
thin material
– Wall Thickness is not meshed
– Normal conduction only; neglects any in-plane
conduction
• Set-up
– Create a Fluid-Fluid Domain Interface
– On the Additional Interface Models tab set
Mass and Momentum to No Slip Wall
– Enable the Heat Transfer toggle and pick:
– Thin Material and specify a Material &
Thickness, or
– Thermal Contact Resistance

• Note : Other domain interface types (Fluid-Solid etc.)
can use these options to represent coatings etc.

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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 21 Release 14.5
Post-Processing Heat Transfer

• The results file contains several variables related to heat transfer
– Variables starting with “Wall” are only defined on walls
) (
ref wall c w
T T h q ÷ =
Where T
ref
is the Wall Adjacent
Temperature or the tbulk for htc
temperature if specified
T
wall
q
w
Mesh
Control Volumes


• Temperature
– This is the local fluid temperature
– When plotted on a wall it is the temperature on the wall,
T
wall


• Wall Adjacent Temperature
– This is the average temperature in the control volume next
to the wall
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 22 Release 14.5
Post-Processing Heat Transfer
) (
ref wall c w
T T h q ÷ =
Where T
ref
is the Wall Adjacent
Temperature or the tbulk for htc
temperature if specified
T
wall
q
w
Mesh
Control Volumes
• Wall Heat Transfer Coefficient, h
c
– By default this is based on T
wall
and the Wall Adjacent
Temperature, not the far-field fluid temperature
– Set the expert parameter “tbulk for htc” to define a far-
field fluid temperature to use instead of the Wall Adjacent
Temperature

– Wall Heat Flux, q
w
– This is the total heat flux into the domain by all modes
– convective and radiative (when modeled)
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 23 Release 14.5
Post-Processing Heat Transfer
• Heat Flux
– This is the total convective and radiative heat flux into the domain
– It can be plotted on all boundaries (inlets, outlets, walls etc)
• At an inlet it would represent the energy carried with the incoming fluid relative to the fluid
Reference Temperature (which is a material property, usually 25 C)

• Wall Radiative Heat Flux
– The net radiative energy leaving the boundary (emission minus incoming)
– Wall Convective Heat Flux + Wall Radiative Heat Flux = Wall Heat Flux
– Only applicable when radiation is modeled

• Wall Irradiation Flux
– The incoming radiative flux
– Only applicable when radiation is modeled
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 24 Release 14.5
Solution Convergence


• Make sure that you have allowed sufficient
solution time for heat imbalances in all domains
to become very small, particularly when Solid
domains are included

• Sometimes residuals reach the convergence
criteria before global imbalances tend towards
zero
– Create Solver Monitors showing IMBALANCE levels for fluid
and solid domains
– View the imbalance information printed at the end of the
solver output file
– Use a Conservation Target when defining Solver Control in
CFX-Pre
1e
-04
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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 25 Release 14.5
Summary
• After activating heat transfer, you must provide :
– Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries
– Fluid properties for energy equation

• Available heat transfer modeling options include :
– Species diffusion heat source
– Combustion heat source
– Conjugate heat transfer
– Natural convection
– Radiation
– Periodic heat transfer

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© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 26 Release 14.5
Workshop 08 Electronics Cooling
Dissipation of heat from a hot electronics component
• Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT)
• Multiple Configurations
– First run includes convection and conduction
– Second run adds thermal radiation


Mechanisms Energy Equation Models Wall BCs CHT Post Tips/Summary
The entire calculation takes a long time
to run. So results are provided for post-
processing.