© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 1 Release 14.

5
14.5 Release
Lecture 10
Turbulence
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 2 Release 14.5
Introduction
• Lecture Theme:
÷ The majority of engineering flows are turbulent.
÷ Successfully simulating such flows requires understanding a few basic
concepts of turbulence theory and modeling.
÷ This allows one to make the best choice from the available turbulence
models and near-wall options for any given problem.
• Learning Aims – you will learn:
÷ Basic turbulent flow and turbulence modeling theory
÷ Turbulence models and near wall options
÷ How to choose an appropriate turbulence model for a given problem
÷ How to specify turbulence boundary conditions at inlets
• Learning Objectives:
÷ You will understand the challenges inherent in turbulent flow
simulation and be able to identify the most suitable model and near-
wall treatment for a given problem.
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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Observation by O. Reynolds
• Flows can be classified as either :
÷ Laminar:
• Low Reynolds number


÷ Transition:
• Increasing Reynolds number


÷ Turbulent:
• Higher Reynolds number
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Observation by O. Reynolds
• The Reynolds number is the criterion used to determine
whether the flow is laminar or turbulent


• The Reynolds number is based on the characteristic length scale L, the
flow velocity u and the fluid properties µ and µ
• Transition to Turbulence varies depending on the type of flow:
• External flow
÷ along a surface : Re
X
> 5·10
5

÷ around on obstacle : Re
L
> 2·10
4

• Internal flow : Re
D
> 2.300




µ
µ · ·
=
L u
Re
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Turbulent Flow Structures
• A Turbulent Flow contains a wide range of turbulent eddy
sizes Characteristics
÷ Unsteady, tridimensional, irregular, stochastic
÷ Transported quantities fluctuate in time and space
÷ Unpredictability in detail
÷ Large-scale coherent structures are different in each flow, whereas
small eddies are more universal





Small
structures
Large
structures
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Turbulent Flow Structures
• Energy is transferred from larger eddies to smaller eddies
(Kolmogorov Cascade)
÷ Large scale contains most of the energy
÷ In the smallest eddies, turbulent energy is converted to internal energy
by viscous dissipation

Energy Cascade Richardson
(1922), Kolmogorov (1941)
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Turbulent Flow Structures (1)
• Characteristics of the Turbulent Structures:
÷ Length Scale:
• Describing size of large energy-containing eddies in a turbulent flow
• In many cases defined by a relation

÷ Turbulent kinetic energy:


÷ Velocity Scale:


÷ Time Scale:


| | s m k /
| | m l
| | s
k
l
( ) | | ² / ²
2
1
2 2 2
s m w v u k ' + ' + ' =
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
c
2 / 3
~
k
l
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Turbulent Flow Structures (2)
• Characteristics of the Turbulent Structures:
÷ Turbulent dissipation:


÷ Turbulent frequency:


÷ Turbulent Reynolds number:


÷ Turbulent Intensity:




| | ³ / ² / ~
2 / 3
s m l k c
| | ÷ =
vc v
²
~ Re
k l k
t
| | ÷ ~ =
3
2 1 ' k
u u
u
I
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
| | s
k
/ 1
1
t
c
e · ~
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 9 Release 14.5
Overview of Computational Approaches
• Different approaches to simulate
turbulence
÷ DNS: direct numerical simulation
• Full resolution
• No modeling required
 Too expensive for practical flows

÷ LES: large eddy simulation
• Large eddies directly resolved,
smaller ones modeled
 Less expensive than DNS, but very
often still too expensive for
practical applications

÷ RANS: Reynolds averaged Navier-
Stokes simulation
• Solution of time-averaged
equations
 Most widely used approach for
industrial flows


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RANS Modeling : Justification
• For most engineering applications it is unnecessary to resolve
the details of the turbulent fluctuations
• We only need to know how turbulence affects the mean flow
• A useful turbulence model has to be:
– applicable in wide ranges,
– accurate,
– simple,
– and economical to run.

URANS LES
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RANS Modeling : Averaging
• Fluid properties and velocity
exhibit random variations
÷ Statistical averaging results in
accountable, turbulence
related transport mechanisms.
• Ensemble (time) averaging
may be used to extract the
mean flow properties from
the instantaneous ones
÷ The instantaneous velocity, u
i
,
is split into average and
fluctuating components


( )
( )
( )
¿
=
· ÷
=
N
n
n
i
N
i
t u
N
t u
1
,
1
lim , x x
Example: Fully-Developed Turbulent PipeFlow
Velocity Profile
( ) t u
i
, x
( ) t u
i
, x '
( ) t u
i
, x
( ) ( ) ( ) t u t u t u
i i i
, , , x x x
'
+ =
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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RANS Modeling : Averaging
• Applying the averaging procedure to the Navier-Stokes
momentum we get:



÷ The Reynolds stresses R
ij
are additional unknowns introduced by the
averaging procedure,
÷ they must be modeled in order to close the system of governing
equations,
÷ R
ij
represents a symmetric tensor, so there are 6 additional unknowns.




j i ij
u u R ' ' µ ÷ =
j
ij
j
i
j i k
i
k
i
x
R
x
u
x x
p
x
u
u
t
u
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
µ
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
µ
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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RANS Modeling : The Closure Problem
• The components of the Reynolds-stress tensor, R
ij
, have to
be determined
• the RANS models can be closed in two ways:
÷ Reynolds-Stress Models (RSM)
• The components of R
ij
are directly solved via transport equations
• Advantageous in complex 3D flows with streamline curvature / swirl
• Models are complex, computational intensive
÷ Eddy Viscosity Models
• The components of R
ij
are modeled using an eddy (turbulent)
viscosity µ
t
• Reasonable approach for simple turbulent shear flows: boundary
layers, round jets, mixing layers, channel flows, etc.




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RANS Modeling : The Closure Problem
• The key concept of the Eddy Viscosity models is the
Boussinesq hypothesis
• This hypothesis assumes that the Reynolds Stresses can be
expressed analogously to the normal stresses, but applying
a turbulent viscosity µ
t




• In turbulent flows usually µ
t
>> µ
• The effective viscosity in the flow is given by µ
eff
= µ
t


ij ij
k
k
i
j
j
i
j i ij
k
x
u
x
u
x
u
u u R o µ o µ µ µ
3
2
3
2
t t
÷
c
c
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
' '
÷ =
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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Turbulence Models in CFX
• A large number of turbulence models are available, some for
very specific applications, others can be applied to a wider
class of flows with a reasonable degree of confidence

RANS
Eddy-viscosity Models
RANS
Reynolds-Stress Models
Eddy Simulation Models
(Scale Resolving Models SRS)
Zero Equation model SSG model Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
Standard k-ԑ, k-ω model LRR model Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)
SST model BSL EARSM model Scale Adaptive Simulation SST (SAS)
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k-c Models
• Good compromise between numerical effort and
computational accuracy
÷ Two transport equations for the solution of TKI and dissipation
÷ Turbulent viscosity is modeled as product of turbulent velocity and
turbulent length scale
• Good predictions for many flows of engineering interest
• k-c models not suitable for modeling
÷ flows with boundary layer separation,
÷ flows with sudden changes in the mean strain rate,
÷ flows in rotating fluids,
÷ flows over curved surfaces.


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k-e Models
• Good compromise between numerical effort and
computational accuracy
÷ Two transport equations for the solution of TKI and frequency
÷ Turbulent viscosity is modeled as product of turbulent velocity and
turbulent length scale
• Good predictions for many flows of engineering interest
• k-e models better than k-c models for boundary layer flows
÷ separation,
÷ transition,
÷ low Re effects,
÷ impingement.


Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 18 Release 14.5
Shear Stress Transport (SST) Model (1)
• SST model was developed to overcome shortcomings in the k-ԑ
and k-ω models
• The relative performances of the k-ԑ and k-ω models depend on
the region of flow:
÷ k-ω model performs much better for boundary layer flows
÷ original k- ω model is sensitive to the free-stream conditions but k-ԑ is not
• To take advantage of the strengths of each we blend between the
two models according to the distance from the wall




 This blending gives us the Baseline (BSL) k-e model, which is
developed further to produce the SST model



k-c
k-e
Wall
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
÷ + ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
j
t
j j j
k
j
j
i
x x x x
k
F P
k x
U
t
e
o
µ
µ
e
o
µ µe |
e
o
e µ
µe
e e
)
~
(
2
) 1 (
~
~
) (
) (
1
2
SST Model: Blending k-e and k-c Models (2)
• Two transport equations
÷ turbulent kinetic energy



÷ turbulent frequency


• Blending function F1 switches
from k-ԑ to k-w
÷ 1 near the wall
÷ 0 towards edge of boundary layer


(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
-
j
t
j
k
j
j
x
k
x
k P
x
k U
t
k
)
~
(
) (
) (
k
o
µ
µ e µ |
µ
µ
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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SST Model: Turbulent shear stress (3)
• k-ω model
÷ does not predict properly the onset and degree of separation from
smooth surfaces
÷ main reason is that it does not account for the transport of turbulent
shear stress and so over-predicts eddy viscosity
• SST model
÷ accounts for this transport by means of a limiter in the formulation of
eddy viscosity.


• Where shear stress, S, dominates
 BSL k-ω + limiter = SST










Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary

















y
u
u u
t j i
c
c
= ' ' ÷ v
( ) e
v
1 2
1
, max a SF
k a
t
=
k a u u
j i 1
=
' '
÷
and
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SST Model: Validation Example (4)
SST result and experiment
Standard k-c fails to predict separation
Experiment Gersten et al.
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
The SST model predicts well the onset and the amount of flow
separation
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Turbulence Near the Wall
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Turbulence Near the Wall
• Walls are main source of vorticity
and turbulence
• The velocity profile near the wall is
important:
÷ Pressure drop
÷ Separation
÷ Shear effects
÷ Recirculation
÷ Heat transfer

• Accurate near-wall modeling is
important for most engineering
applications
Turbulence models are generally suited
to model the flow outside the
boundary layer but
need special treatments near the walls


The above graph shows non-dimensional velocity
versus non-dimensional distance from the wall.
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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Turbulence Near the Wall
• The graph shows
• non-dimensional velocity


• versus non-dimensional
distance from the wall



• Log scale axes are used
• Near to a wall, the velocity
changes rapidly



µ t /
Wall
u
u =
+
v
µ t /
Wall
y
y =
+
Linear
Logarithmic
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Turbulence Near the Wall
• Since near-wall conditions are often predictable, wall functions can be
used to determine the near-wall profiles rather than using a fine mesh
to actually resolve the profile








• In ANSYS CFX the variable Yplus reports the location of the first vertex
adjacent to the wall

Boundary layer
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Location of The First Vertex
• Logarithmic-based wall functions
÷ each wall-adjacent vertex should be located within the log-law layer:
y
+
≈ 20-200
• Resolved wall treatment
÷ each wall-adjacent vertex should be within the viscous sublayer :
y
+
≈ 1 with a minimum of 10 nodes in boundary layer
÷ Possible only with the automatic wall treatment available with e-
based turbulence models, e.g. SST, which switches between wall
function and low-Re wall treatment as the mesh is refined
• Scalable wall functions (k-c models)
÷ the mesh is shifted virtually to y
+
= 11.067, the point of transition from
linear to logarithmic behavior
÷ Further refinement of the mesh near the wall has no effect


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Limitations of Wall Function
• In some situations, such as boundary layer separation,
logarithmic-based wall functions do not correctly predict the
boundary layer profile



logarithmic-based wall functions should not be used
resolving the boundary layer can provide accurate results

Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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Wall Function and Heat Transfer
• Heat flux at the wall, q
w
, is given by:


• T
w
is the wall temperature and T
f
is the near-wall
temperature in the fluid
• The equations for u
*
and the non-dimensional
temperature,T
+
, depend on the type of wall function
÷ For scalable wall functions T
+
follows a log-law relationship
÷ For automatic wall functions the correlation between T
+
and wall
distance blends between the viscous sublayer and the log law



Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
( ) ( )
f w c f w
p
w
T T h T T
T
u c
q ÷ = ÷ =
+
*
µ
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 29 Release 14.5
Inlet Turbulence Conditions
• When turbulent flow enters a domain, turbulent boundary
conditions must be specified, depending on which
turbulence model has been selected
• Several options exist for the specification of turbulence
quantities
÷ Explicitly input k and either ε or ω
÷ Turbulence intensity and length scale
÷ Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio

÷ Turbulent Intensity:

÷ Turbulent viscosity ratio:

3
2 1 k
u u
u
I ~
'
=
µ µ /
t
Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 30 Release 14.5
Inlet Turbulence Conditions
• If you have absolutely no idea of the turbulence levels in your
simulation, you could use following values of turbulence intensities and
length scales:
÷ Usual turbulence intensities range from 1% to 5%
÷ The default turbulence intensity value of 0.037 (that is, 3.7%) is
sufficient for normal turbulence through a circular inlet, and is a good
estimate in the absence of experimental data





÷ Some more details for the specification of the inlet turbulence
conditions can be found in the appendix


Low Medium High
I 1% 5% 10%
μ/μ
t
1 10 100
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Summary - Turbulence Modeling
Guidelines
• Calculate Re to determine whether the flow is turbulent
• Estimate y
+
before generating the mesh
• The SST model is good choice for most flows
• Use the RSM or the SST model with Curvature Correction
for highly-swirling flows
• Consider using SRS models, such as LES, DES and SAS, if
you need to resolve the turbulence structure, e.g. for
acoustics/vibration applications
• Use the default model parameters unless you are
confident that you have better values!

Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary
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14. 5 Release
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
Appendices

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14. 5 Release
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
Appendix: Pipe Expansion with
Heat Transfer

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Example: Pipe Expansion with Heat Transfer
• Reynolds Number Re
D
= 40750
• Fully Developed Turbulent Flow at Inlet
• Experiments by Baughn et al. (1984)

q=const
Outlet
axis
H
H 40 x H
Inlet
q=0
.
d
D
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Example: Pipe Expansion with Heat
Transfer
• Plot shows dimensionless
distance versus Nusselt
Number
• Best agreement is with SST
and k-e models
• Better in capturing flow
recirculation zones
accurately

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Pipe Expansion With Heat Transfer
• Heat transfer predictions
÷ Wall function approach (k-c Model)
Standard Scalable
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Pipe Expansion With Heat Transfer
• Heat transfer predictions
÷ Automatic Wall treatment (SST-Model)
Low Re Automatic
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14. 5 Release
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
Appendix: Summary of RANS
Models

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Appendix: RANS Turbulence Model
Model Description
Standard k–ε
The baseline two-transport-equation model solving for k and ε. This is the default k–ε model. Coefficients
are empirically derived; valid for fully turbulent flows only. Options to account for viscous heating,
buoyancy, and compressibility are shared with other k–ε models.
RNG k–ε
A variant of the standard k–ε model. Equations and coefficients are analytically derived. Significant changes
in the ε equation improves the ability to model highly strained flows. Additional options aid in predicting
swirling and low Reynolds number flows.
Standard k–ω
A two-transport-equation model solving for k and ω, the specific dissipation rate (ε / k) based on Wilcox
(1998). This is the default k–ω model. Demonstrates superior performance for wall-bounded and low
Reynolds number flows. Shows potential for predicting transition. Options account for transitional, free
shear, and compressible flows.
SST k–ω
A variant of the standard k–ω model. Combines the original Wilcox model for use near walls and the
standard k–ε model away from walls using a blending function. Also limits turbulent viscosity to guarantee
that τ
T
~ k. The transition and shearing options are borrowed from standard k–ω. No option to include
compressibility.
RSM
Reynolds stresses are solved directly using transport equations, avoiding isotropic viscosity assumption of
other models. Use for highly swirling flows. Quadratic pressure-strain option improves performance for
many basic shear flows.
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 40 Release 14.5
14. 5 Release
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
Appendix: Prediction of First
Cell Height

© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 41 Release 14.5
Example in predicting near-wall cell size
• During the pre-processing stage, you will need to know a suitable size for
the first layer of grid cells (inflation layer) so that y+ is in the desired range.
• The actual flow-field will not be known until you have computed the
solution (and indeed it is sometimes unavoidable to have to go back and
remesh your model on account of the computed y+ values).
• To reduce the risk of needing to remesh, you may want to try and predict
the cell size by performing a hand calculation at the start. For example:







• For a flat plate, Reynolds number gives Re = 1.4x10
6

• (Recall from earlier slide, flow over a surface is turbulent when Re > 5x10
5
)

Flat plate, 1m long
Air at 20 m/s
µ = 1.225 kg/m
3
µ = 1.8x10
-5
kg/ms
y
The question is what height
(y) should the first row of
grid cells be. We will use
SWF, and are aiming for Y
+
~
50
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 42 Release 14.5
Example in predicting near-wall cell size [2]
• A literature search suggests a formula for
the skin friction on a plate:

• Use this value to predict the wall shear
stress t
w:


• From tw compute the velocity u
t
:

• Rearranging the equation shown
previously for y
+
gives a formula for the
first cell height, y, in terms of u
t


• In this example we are aiming for y+ of
50, hence our first cell height y should be
approximately 1 mm.
2 . 0
Re 058 . 0
÷
=
l
f
C
2
2
1
·
= U C
f w
µ t
µ
t
t
w
U =
© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 43 Release 14.5
Example in predicting near-wall cell size [3]
• For Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulations one would need a
y+ value of 1. Let‘s estimate the first grid node for y+= 1:

V= 20 m/s , ρ = 1.225 kg/m3 , μ = 1.8x10-5 kg/ms


 C
f
=0.0034
 t
w
= 0.83 kg/ms
2

 U
τ
= 0.82 m/s


 y = 0.02 mm




µ
µVL
l
= Re
 Re
l
= 1.4x10
6
2 . 0
Re 058 . 0
÷
=
l
f
C
µ
t
t
w
U =
m
U
y
y
5
5
10 8 . 1
10 469 . 1
÷
+
÷
× = =
× = =
t
u
µ
µ
u
aiming for y+ of 1:
our first cell height y
should be ≈ 0.02 mm
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14. 5 Release
Introduction to ANSYS CFX
Appendix: Inlet Turbulence
Conditions

© 2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 45 Release 14.5
Inlet Turbulence Conditions
• Default Intensity and Autocompute Length Scale
÷ The default turbulence intensity of 0.037 (3.7%) is used together with a
computed length scale to approximate inlet values of k and c. The length
scale is calculated to take into account varying levels of turbulence.
÷ In general, the autocomputed length scale is not suitable for external flows
• Intensity and Autocompute Length Scale
÷ This option allows you to specify a value of turbulence intensity but the
length scale is still automatically computed. The allowable range of
turbulence intensities is restricted to 0.1%-10.0% to correspond to very
low and very high levels of turbulence accordingly.
÷ In general, the autocomputed length scale is not suitable for external flows
• Intensity and Length Scale
÷ You can specify the turbulence intensity and length scale directly, from
which values of k and ε are calculated




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Inlet Turbulence Conditions [2]
• Low Intensity = 1%
÷ This defines a 1% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 1
• Medium Intensity = 5%
÷ This defines a 5% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 10
÷ This is the recommended option if you do not have any information
about the inlet turbulence
• High Intensity = 10%
÷ This defines a 10% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 100
• Specified Intensity and Eddy Viscosity Ratio
÷ This defines a 10% intensity and a viscosity ratio equal to 100
÷ Use this feature if you wish to enter your own values for intensity and
viscosity ratio
• k and c
÷ Specify the values of k and ε directly
• Zero Gradient
÷ Use this setting for fully developed turbulence conditions

Introduction Theory Models Near-Wall Treatments Inlet BCs Summary